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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v. 12, n.1, 38p.: ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 1999
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Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
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Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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SOCIEDAD DE LA ORNITOLOGIA CARIBEITA


EL PITIRRE


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Spring 1999 Vol. 12, No. 1




CONTENTS


NOTES ON THE STYGIAN OWL (ASIO STYGIUS SIGUAPA) IN CUBA. Arturo Kirkconnell, Doug Wechsler, and Christine Bush
1
LISTADO DE LA AVIFAUNA DE CEJA DE FRANCISCO, SIERRA DE LOS ORGANOS, PINAR DEL Rio. Dayami Hernandez
Sudrez, XochitlAy6n Guemes y Rafael Tadeo Perez G6mez ................................... ......................................... 4
NUEVOS REPORTED SOBRE LA EPOCA REPODUCTIVA DE AVES ACUATICAS COLONIALES EN CUBA. Dennis Denis,
Lourdes M ugica, M martin Acosta y Leandro Torrella ............................................. ................................................. 7
GALLINUELA DE MANGLAR (RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS CREPITANS) (AVES: RALLIDAE) INVERNANDO EN CUBA.
A rturo K irkconnell y O rlando H G arrido ................................................................................................................. 10
FIRST REPORT OF SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER, TYRANNUS FORFICATUS GMELIN (PASSERIFORMES: TYRANNIDAE) IN
EASTERN CUBA. Carlos A. M ancina y Raimundo L6pez .............................................................. ...... ............. .... 11
Dos REGISTROS NUEVOS DE AVES ENDEMICAS EN DEPOSITS FOSILIFEROS DE CUBA. Stephen Diaz Franco ............. 12
REGIMEN ALIMENTARIO DEL CERNICALO CUBANO EN UNA LOCALIDAD DE LA REGION CENTRAL DE CUBA.
A bel H ernandez M uhoz .................................................................................................................................... . . 14
ORNITOFAUNA DE LA PORCION ESPIRITAUNA DEL ECOSISTEMA SABANA-CAMAGIEY, CUBA. Abel Hernandez Muhoz,
Jorge E. De La Torre Rodriguez y Frank M orera Hernandez ............................................................................... ... 14
SELECTED RESUMENES DE TRABAJOS: TERCER TALLER DE BIODIVERSIDAD, CENTRO ORIENTAL DE ECOSISTEMAS Y
BIODIVERSIDAD, SANTIAGO DE CUBA, 11 AL 13 DE NOVIEMBRE 1998.
COMPOSICION Y ABUNDANCIA DE LA AVIFAUNA DE LA RESERVE DE LA BIOSFERA SIERRA DEL ROSARIO EN UN
GRADIENTE DE AFECTACION ANTROPICA. Xochitl Ayon, Barbara Sanchez y Eneider Perez ......................... 15
CARACTERIZACION PRELIMINARY DE LA ORNITOFAUNA DE LA RESERVE DE SIBONEY. Raima Cantillo Ardevol y
F reddy R odriguez Santana ........................................ .... ..................... ....... ........................................ 15
GREMIOS PARA LA REPRODUCCION DE LAS AVES EN LA Ri i[' DE LA BIOSFERA BACONAO." Nidia Garcia
S a rm ien to s .......................................................................................................................................................... 1 5
VEGETACION, FLORA Y FAUNA DE LA RESERVE NATURAL "LOMA LOS CABALLEROS," MUNICIPIO SIBANICU,
CAM AGIEY, CUBA. D aimy G odinez Caraballo ............................................................................................... 15
EVALUACION ECOLOGICA Y DE DETERMINATION DE GREMIOS ESTRUCTURALES DE LA COMUNIDAD ORNITICA DEL
JARDIN BOTANICO "JUAN TOMAS ROIG," PROVINCIA SANTIAGO DE CUBA. Gerardo G. Hechevarria Garcia y
A lex an d er P erez R u iz ....................................................................... .............. .................................................. 16
BIBLIOGRAFIA ORNITOLOGICA PUBLICADA EN CUBA O SOBRE LA AVIFAUNA CUBANA. Gerardo G. Hechevarria
Garcia ....... ...... ................. .. ......................... ..................................................... 16
CARACTERIZACION DE LA ORNITOFAUNA DE LA ALTIPLANICIE DEL TOLDO. LUIS O. Melian Hernandezy Freddy
R odrig u ez S an tan a .................................................................................... ...... ...... ......... ................................ 16
ORNITOFAUNA DE LAS CUENCAS DE LOS Rios GUAMA Y SEVILLA, Y SU RELACION CON LOS TIPOS DE VEGETACION.
Luis 0. M elidn H ernandezy Alberto Beyris M azar ........................................................................................... 16
CONSIDERACIONES GENERALS DE LA FAMILIAR PICIDAE EN EL ORIENTED CUBANO. Luis O. Melian Hernandez ....... 17
CARACTERIZACION ORNITOFAUNISTICA DE LA ZONA BOSCOSA DEL AREA PROTEGIDA LA ISLETA.
Richar Olano Labrada y Ldzaro Perez Fombellida ........................................................................... ........... 17


Continued on back cover


Yrvuw~ :;











EL PITIRRE

THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
EL BOLETIN INFORMATIVE DE LA SOCIEDAD DE LA ORNITOLOGIA CARIBENA



Editor: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, U.S.A. Telephone: (318) 274-2499 or
274-2399; Fax: (318) 274-3870; e-mail: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu
Assistant Editor: Barbara Keesee, Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, P. O. Box 841, Grambling State
University, Grambling, Louisiana 71245, U.S. A.

News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al editor para inclusion en el boletin.



THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Maurice Anseleme
SECRETARY: Dr. Marcia Mundle
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific
study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and
those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
econservation groups in the Caribbean.

La Sociedad de la Ornitologia Caribefia es una organizaci6n sin fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el
studio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologia
caribefia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas y proveer ayuda t6cnica o
datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.



MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
All members receive the Society's bulletin, El Pitirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year.
Institutional subscriptions are US$120 per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay
regular dues may be subsidized by the Society. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name
and address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, 13 East Rosemont Ave., Alexandria, Virginia 22301, U. S. A.



























NOTES ON THE STYGIAN OWL. 1 ,13 STYGIUSSIGUAPA) IN CUBA

ARTURO KIRKCONNELL1, DOUG WECHSLER2 AND CHRISTINE BUSH2
Mluseo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, La Habana, Cuba; and
2Academy of Natural Sciences ofPhiladelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

Abstract.-The Stygian Owl (Asio stygius) is a vulnerable species which is widespread but localized in
Cuba and on the Isle of Pines. This owl is typically found in forested areas, including semideciduous
woods and pine forest. It breeds from January to April. The female is more aggressive than the male.
Wing clapping, a threat display, was more commonly produced by the female. Of the 34 pellets exam-
ined, bats represented 61.3% and birds 38.7% of identified remains.


INTRODUCTION

THE STYGIAN OWL (Asio stygius) is distributed
exclusively in the New World, where it is one of the
least frequently observed owls. Six subspecies have
been described, including A. s. lambi ( northwestern
Mexico), A. s. robustus (eastern Mexico, Guatemala
and Nicaragua), A. s. barberoi (Paraguay and north-
ern Argentina), and A. s. stygius (central and south-
ern Brazil). Two populations occur in the West In-
dies: one in Cuba and the Isle of Pines (A. s.
siguapa), and another in Hispaniola and Gonive Is-
land (A. s. noctipetens) (Howard and Moore 1991).
The habitat of this owl is montane evergreen forest,
pine-oak forest, pine forest, tropical lowland ever-
green forest, and tropical deciduous forest (0-3100
m; tropical to temperate zones) (American Orni-
thologists' Union 1998).
The objective of this paper is to report our gen-
eral observations made over the course of several
years (1988-1998) in the Cidnaga de Zapata and, for
five days in March 1994, at La Giiira. Observations
in Cidnaga de Zapata were made mainly in Playa
Larga, in an open area with scattered trees at sea
level. We made more detailed observations at La
Giiira. The vegetation at La Giiira is semideciduous


woodland, with patches of pine (Pinus caribaeus)
forest at approximately 400 m elevation.

STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION

In Cuba the Stygian Owl is vulnerable and widely
distributed, but is rare and localized. The small popu-
lation sizes are the result of a lack of habitat and the
continued destruction to remaining habitat frag-
ments. Gundlach (1876) considered this species rare,
even in the last century, and specified that habitat
destruction and hunting were the main reasons for
the decreasing number of individuals. Also, Garrido
and Garcia Montafia (1975) described it as a very
rare species. Furthermore, its strictly nocturnal hab-
its, soft voice, and short vocalizations also make this
bird particularly difficult to find. The only area
where this species is known to be fairly common is
the Cidnaga de Zapata, 160 km southeast of La Ha-
bana City.
Stygian Owls have been collected or observed in
the following sites in Cuba: San Cristobal, La Giiira,
and Nortey (Sierra del Rosario, Pinar del Rio Prov-
ince); Habana Zoo (probably a straggler from a
nearby wooded area); Sierra de Anafe (Habana Prov-


SOCIEDAD DE LA ORNITOLOGIA CARIBENA



EL PITIRRE

K *SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Spring 1999 Vol. 12,No.1









Stygian Owl in Cuba KIRKCONNELL ET AL.

ince); Nueva Gerona, Pasadita, Los Indios, and La
Vega (Isle of Pines); Santo Tomis, Playa Larga, El
Roble, Molina, Los Canales, Playa Gir6n, Bermeja,
and Guami (Cidnaga de Zapata, Matanzas Province);
Aguada de Pasajeros, Soledad Garden (Cienfuegos
Province); Topes de Collantes (Sierra del Escam-
bray, Cienfuegos and Sancti Spiritus Provinces);
Vertientes (Camagiiey Province); Bayates, Nuevo
Mundo (Moa, Holguin Province); and near Pico
Turquino (Santiago de Cuba Province) (Garrido and
Kirkconnell, in press). In addition, Wotzkow (1994)
reported the Stygian Owl in the Cuchillas del Toa,
Guantanamo Province,
In Cuba, this owl is found in well-preserved
semidecidous woods and adjacent pine in both
mountain and lowland regions. While foraging, it
can be observed in open areas surrounded by scat-
tered trees and also near the coast.

BEHAVIOR AND DIET

Stygian Owls are highly territorial and are usually
found in pairs, with the male and female roosting
close to one another at a distance of about 30 m
(Kirkconnell, pers. observ). During a typical obser-
vation at La Giira, the female started to call at about
18:30 hr, and became more active about 19:00 hr.
During this time, the pair autopreened for about 15
minutes, mainly on the back and chest, spreading the
wings and tail. The male was silent at first, and be-
gan to call several minutes after his mate. He then
left his roosting site to join the female. The pair then
flew off in a gliding flight. The gliding flight of both
birds immediately after leaving the perch was typi-
cal. The pair flew off, presumably to forage, just be-
fore dark, both leaving in the same direction each
evening. They returned to the roosting area early in
the morning, arriving within a few minutes of one
another. They generally roosted high in the densest
foliage of the same pine trees. They sometimes
landed with an audible wing clapping.
Upon playing a recording of a male's call (ooh,
ooh, ooh; Garrido and Kirkconnell, in press) one
evening, the male answered five to six times, and
after several minutes, left his perch. Meanwhile, the
female stayed on her perch, emitting calls (screaming
sound quick, quick; Garrido and Kirkconnell, in
press) at intervals. After we played the female's call,
she repeated her call over 56 minutes (an average of
one call per 3.7 minutes), and flew from one perch to
another, each time producing two or three wing claps
just above our heads or before landing on a branch.
The wing clapping display has been observed in
other members of the genus Asio (e.g., Clark et al.
1978) as part of the courtship, but in the context we


observed, we considered it to be a threat display. In
this pair, the female displayed more persistently and
was more aggressive than the male.
During many years of observations at Playa Larga,
Cidnaga de Zapata, Kirkconnell observed a male for-
aging in the same area and perching in the same trees.
Only twice was a female spotted flying nearby (both
sexes identified by call). At Gir6n (32 kms southeast
of Playa Larga), a pair has been observed sharing the
same foraging area.
At Playa Larga during full moon, the owl tended to
be quiet and difficult to find. It called only late at
night, between 03:30 and 04:30 hr. On dark nights the
owls were active, starting to call on the feeding ground
at about 21:00 hr. A common behavior was to scan the
sky, then fly straight up and high, probably to hunt for
bats or large nocturnal insects (George Wallace, pers.
comm.). Once a Stygian Owl was observed chasing an
animal, presumably a rodent, on the ground
(Kirkconnell, pers. obser.). Gundlach (1876) found
mice and birds remains in a collected bird. F. C. Leh-
mann claimed to have seen A. s robustus hunt doves
(Zenaida sp.) in their roosting trees in Cali, Colombia
(in litt., Borrero 1967). Borrero (1967), who also
worked in Colombia, reported Stygian Owl prey re-
mains included a Purple Gallinule (Porphyrula mar-
tinica), Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), and
Vermillion Flycatcher (Pyrocephalus rubinus). Other
items he found in pellets included: bats (Artibeus litu-
ratus), birds, and large beetles (Scarabeidae). Motta
and Taddei (1992), in an analysis of 422 pellets from
southern Brazil, found that birds represented 90.2% of
prey remains, bats 6.1%, insects 3.6%, and anurans
0.1%. Mark (1991) mentioned that pellets in Belize
were composed mainly of bats remains.
Pellets (N=34) we collected beneath roost trees in
La Giiira contained remains only of bats (61.3%) and
birds (38.7%). We detected 13 individuals of 9 bird
species: 1 Cuban Trogon (Priotelus temnurus), 3 Cu-
ban Pewees (Contopus caribaeus), 3 Black-cowled
Orioles (Icterus dominicensis), 1 Cuban Blackbird
(Dives atroviolacea), 1 warbler (Dendroica sp.), 1
White-crowned Pigeon (Columba leucocephala), 2
Mourning Doves (Zenaida macroura), and 1 Ruddy
Quail-Dove (Geotrygon montana). We found skulls
and bones of 21 individual bats in the pellets: 13 Phyl-
lonycteris poeyi, 6 Phyllops falcatus, and 2 Artibeus
jamaicensis. All three species are vegetarian bats,
perch while eating, and fly slowly through trees and
shrubs (Silva 1979).
In Cuba, two other bird species have been observed
hunting bats: American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) and
Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus). The Barn Owl
(Tyto alba) also has been reported to hunt bats in Cuba
(Silva 1979), Poland (Ruprecht 1979), and Jamaica


El Pitirre 12(1)


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(MacFarlane and Garret 1989). MacFarlane and Gar-
ret (1989) noted that the predictable occurrence of
bats at fruiting trees left them more vulnerable to
aerial depredation. They also concluded that selec-
tion of bats as prey was not related to the size of the
bats.

NESTING

The breeding season of the Stygian Owl in Cuba
is from January to April (Garrido and Kirkconnell, in
press). Stockton de Dod (1983) reported that the
breeding season in the Dominican Republic is from
November to April. Local guides in the Zapata
Swamp claimed that this species nests in tree holes,
usually high above the ground, but this has not been
confirmed. The well-known guide, Rogelio Garcia
("Pelao") reported three observations of this owl us-
ing bulky platform nests made of small twigs. There
are other observations of nesting in platforms (C.
Wotzkow and G. Alay6n, pers. comm.). Bond (1985)
reported that Stygian Owls nest on the ground, but
we have not found this to be the case in Cuba. The
only two owls documented breeding on the ground in
Cuba are the Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus) and
the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia).
The Stygian Owl lays two white eggs (Bond
1985). Juveniles have barred bellies, a black facial
disk and lack conspicuous ear tufts. In contrast,
adults are streaked below, and have rather long ear
tufts. The eyes of fledglings are yellow, whereas
those of adults are yellow to yellowish-orange.
Variation in eye color may be related to age.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We appreciate the assistance of Osvaldo Jiminez,
Gilberto Silva Taboada, and William Suarez in the
identification of the pellets remains. George Wallace,
James Wiley, and Carlos Wotzkow made helpful
suggestions on this manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED

AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds. 7th ed. American
Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
BOND, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. Fifth edi-
tion. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston.
BORRERO, J. I. 1967. Notas sobre habitos alimen-
tarios de Asio stygius robustus. El Homero 10
(4):445-447.
CLARK, R. J., D. G. SMITH, AND L. H. KELSO. 1978.
Working bibliography of owls of the world: with


Stygian Owl in Cuba KIRKCONNELL ET AL.


summaries of current taxonomy. Raptor Informa-
tion Center, National Wildlife Federation.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975.
Catdlogo de las aves de Cuba. Academia de Cien-
cias de Cuba, La Habana.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. In press. A
field guide to the birds of Cuba. Comell Univer-
sity Press, Ithaca, NY.
GUNDLACH, J. 1876. Contribuci6n a la omitologia
cubana. Imprenta "La Antilla," La Habana.
HOWARD, R., AND A. MOORE. 1991. A complete
checklist of the birds of the world. Second Edi-
tion. Academic Press, London.
MCFARLANE, D. A., AND K. GARRET. 1989. The
prey of Common Barn Owls (Tyto alba) in dry
limestones scrub forest of southern Jamaica. Car-
ibb. J. Sci. 25(2):21-23.
MARK, F. 1991. Field observations on the Stygian
Owl Asio stygius in Belize, Central America. J.
Raptor Res. 25(2):163.
MOTTA, JR, J. C., AND V. A. TADDEI. 1992. Bats as
prey of Stygian Owls in southern Brazil. J. Rap-
tor Res. 26(4):259-260.
RUPRECHT, A. L. 1979. Bats (Chiroptera) as con-
stituents of the food of Barn Owls Tyto alba in
Poland. Ibis 121:489-494.
SILVA TABOADA, G. 1979. Los murcialagos de
Cuba. Editorial Academia, La Habana.
STOCKTON DE DOD, A. 1983. The Stygian Owl (Asio
stygius noctipetens) in the Dominican Republic.
Am. Birds 37(3):266-267.
WOTZKOW, C. 1994. Status distribution, current re-
search and conservation of forest birds of prey in
Cuba. Pp. 291-299 in Raptor conservation today.
Proceedings of the IV World Conference on
Birds of Prey and Owls, Berlin 10-17 May 1992
(Meyburg, B.-U., and R. D. Chancellor, eds.)
Pica Press, World Working Group on Birds of
Prey.


El Pitirre 12(1)


Page 3











LISTADO DE LA AVIFAUNA DE CEJA DE FRANCISCO,
SIERRA DE LOS ORGANOS, PINAR DEL RIO, CUBA

DAYAMI HERNANDEZ SUAREZ1, XOCHITL AYON GUEMES2 Y RAFAEL TADEO PEREZ GOMEZ3
'Instituto de Geografia Tropical, Calle 11 No. 514 e/D yE Vedado, C.P. 10400, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba; 2Centro de
Gesti6n e Inspecci6n Ambiental, Agencia de Medio Ambiente, Calle 18A esq. 20, entire 42 y 47, Playa, Ciudad de La Ha-
bana, Cuba; y 3Universidad de La Habana, Facultad de Biologia, Calle 25 entire y J Vedado, C. P. 10400, Ciudad de La
Habana, Cuba


INTRODUCTION

RESULTA SORPRENDENTE la poca informaci6n que
se tiene sobre la biodiversidad de regions refore-
stadas con species de interns econ6mico (Wauer y
Wunderle 1992, Wiley y Wunderle 1993, Wunderle y
Waide 1993). Estos ecosistemas pueden mantener
poblaciones y comunidades en equilibrio con otros
ecosistemas naturales vecinos. En este sentido es in-
terestante conocer como contribuyen las plantaciones
forestales a la estructura de las comunidades faunisti-
cas presents en una region. El objetivo de este tra-
bajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la avifauna de
Ceja de Francisco.

AREA DE ESTUDIA Y METODOS

Esta localidad se encuentra situada al oeste de la
Sierra de Gramales, justamente hacia las alturas pi-
zarrosas del norte de Ceja de Francisco, a 22008' lati-
tud norte y 84001' longitud oeste y en la Sierra de
Los Organos, provincia de Pinar del Rio. Es un area
irregular, con pizarras (rocas de grano finamente es-
camoso con esquistosidad perfect segin Soto
(1981) por el norte sobre las que se desarrolla un pi-
nar y calizas por el sur con su tipica vegetaci6n de
mogotes. El pinar es resultado de un trabajo de refor-
estaci6n donde predominan individuous de la especie
Pinus tropicalis y constitute el area central de
nuestro studio. En esta localidad los espacios de
bosque semideciduo mes6filo han quedado muy re-
ducidos, los cuales estin siendo reemplazados por
diversos cultivos.
Se recorri6 un camino forestal en las plantaciones
y areas aledafias, por un period de 150 min (de
06:30 a 09:00 hr) en dos estaciones. La primera del
16-19 de agosto de 1997 (verano, temporada
himeda), y la segunda del 11-14 de febrero de 1998
(inviemo, temporada seca).
RESULTS Y DISCUSSION


En total se registraron 57 species de aves corre-
spondientes a 11 6rdenes y 23 families (Tabla 1). De
ellas son end6micas 9 taxa (3 gendricos, 6 especifi-
cos) para un 15.8% de endemismo. Passeriformes
result ser el orden mejor representado con 27 espe-
cies distribuidas en 9 families.
Aunque no fue objetivo de este studio profundi-
zar en los temas ecol6gicos, se apreci6 que la abun-
dancia y distribuci6n de algunos individuos variaba
segun la temporada y el tipo de vegetaci6n. En el
pinar tanto en agosto como en febrero, observaron
diariamente de 25-30 individuos de Bijirita del Pinar
(Dendroica pityophila). Sin embargo, cantidades
similares de Tomeguin de la Tierra (Tiaris olivacea)
fueron detectadas solamente en la temporada
hhimeda, en areas abiertas del pinar donde la vege-
taci6n no alcanza los 2 m de altura y hay un mayor
desarrollo del estrato herbiceo. La Chillina
(Terestistris fernandinae), por el contrario, se ob-
serv6 con mayor frecuencia durante la temporada
seca.
En cuanto a la preferencia del habitat el Tome-
guin de la Tierra fue mis frecuente en las areas
abiertas del pinar mientras que el Tomeguin del Pi-
nar (Tiaris canora) fue escuchado y visto tambidn en
zonas abiertas pero circundando los remanentes de
bosque semideciduo. Dentro de la vegetaci6n tupida
de bosque semideciduo fueron observadas la Chil-
lina, Juan Chivi (Vireo gundlachii) y la Cartacuba
(Todus multicolor). El Tocororo (Priotelus temnu-
rus) fue observado en el pinar, los mogotes y el
bosque semideciduo, siempre solitario. El Negrito
(Melopyrrha nigra), el Judio (Crotophaga ani), el
Chichinguaco (Quiscalus niger) y el Cemicalo
(Falco sparverius) fueron mis comunes en la saba-
nas abiertas, mientras que el Ruisefior (Myadestes
elisabeth) fue visto solamente en mogotes.
Las species de aves acuiticas observadas
familiess Ardeidae y Alcedinidae) se localizaron en


El Pitirre 12(1)


Page 4











Tabla 1. Especies observadas en Ceja de Francisco, Sierra de los Organos, Pinar del Rio, Cuba. Se destacan las categories taxon6micas superiores (orden y fa-
milia), nombre cientifico, denominaci6n vernacula en Espafol y en Ingl6s de cada especie. Tambi6n se menciona el endemismo y el status residente o de
paso) de cada especie, segun Garrido y Kirkconnell (1993).


Nombre


Espafiol


Ingles


Estatus y
Endemismo abundancia1


Strigiformes Tytonidae
Strigidae
Caprimulgiformes Caprimulgidae
Apodiformes Apodidae
Trochilidae
Trogoniformes Trogonidae
Coraciiformes Todidae
Alcedinidae
Piciformes Picidae


Passeriformes


Passeriformes


Ardea herodias
Egretta thula
Egretta caerulea
Bubulcus ibis
Butorides virescens
Cathartes aura
Buteo platypterus
Falco sparverius
Columba squamosa


Crotophaga ani
Tyto alba
Glaucidium siju
Chordeiles gundlachii
Tachomis phoenicobia
Chlorostilbon ricordii
Priotelus temnurus
Todus multicolor
Ceryle alcyon
Melanerpes superciliaris


Sphyrapicus various
Xiphidiopicus percussus
Colaptes auratus
Tyrannidae Contopus caribaeus
Myiarchus sagrae
Tyrannus dominicensis
Tyrannus caudifasciatus
Turdidae Myadestes elisabeth


Mimidae


Turdus plumbeus
Dumetella carolinensis


Ciconiiformes




Falconiformes


Columbiformes


Ardeidae




Cathartidae
Accipitridae
Falconidae
Columbidae


Orden


Familia


Cientifico


Garcilote
Garza Real
Garza Azul
Garcita Bueyera
Aguaitacaiman
Aura Tifiosa
Gavilan Bobo
Cericalo
Torcaza Cuellimorada
Torcaza Cabeciblanca
Paloma Aliblanca
Paloma Rabiche
Tojosa
Barbiquejo
Camao
Boyero
Arriero
Judio
Lechuza
Siju Platanero
Querequet6
Vencejito
Zunzun
Tocororo
Cartacuba
Martin Pescador
Carpintero Jabado
Carpintero de Paso
Carpintero Verde
Carpintero Escapulario
Bobito Chico
Bobito Grande
Pitirre Abejero
Pitirre Guatibere
Ruisefior
Zorzal Real
Zorzal Gato


Great Blue Heron
Snowy Egret
Little Blue Heron
Cattle Egret
Green Heron
Turkey Vulture
Broad-winged Hawk
American Kestrel
Scaly-naped Pigeon
White-crowned Pigeon
White-winged Dove
Mourning Dove
Common Ground-Dove
Key West Quail-Dove
Gray-headed Quail-Dove
Ruddy Quail-Dove
Great Lizard-Cuckoo
Smooth-billed Ani
Barn Owl
Cuban Pygmy-Owl
Antillean Nighthawk
Antillean Palm Swift
Cuban Emerald
Cuban Trogon
Cuban Tody
Belted Kingfisher
West Indian Woodpecker
Yellow-bellied Sapsucker
Cuban Green Woodpecker
Northern Flicker
Crescent-eyed Pewee
La Sagra's Flycatcher
Gray Kingbird
Loggerhead Kingbird
Cuban Solitaire
Red-legged Thrush
Gray Catbird


Columba leucocephala
Zenaida asiatica
Zenaida macroura
Columbina passerina
Geotrygon chrysia
Geotrygon caniceps
Geotrygon montana
Cuculiformes Cuculidae Saurothera merlini


BPR-C
BPR-C
BRC-C
BPR-C
BPR-C
BPR-C
BPR-C
BPR-C
PR-C
PR-C
PR-C
BPR-C
PR-C
PR-C
PR-R
PR-C
PR-C
PR-C
PR-C
EN-C
SR-C
PR-C
PR-C
EN-C
EN-C
WR-C
PR-C
WR-C
EN-C
PR-R
PR-C
PR-C
SR-C
PR-C
EN-C
PR-C
WR-C


Especie



Genero
Especie



Genero





Especie









Tabla 1 (Continued)


Mlimus polyglottos
Vireonidae Vireo gundlachii
Vireo altiloquus
Emberizidae Dendroica dominica
Dendroica caerulescens
Dendroica virens
Dendroica pityophila
Mlniotilta varia
Seirus motacilla
Setophaga ruticilla
Teretistris fernandinae
Cyanerpes cyaneus
Spindalis zena
Melopyrrha nigra
Tiaris canora
Tiaris olivacea
Dives atroviolacea
Quiscalus niger
Icterus dominicensis
Passeridae Passer domesticus


Sinsonte
Juan Chivi
Bien-te-veo
Bijirita de Garganta Amarilla
Bijirita Azul de Garganta Negra
Bijirita de Garganta Negra
Bijirita del Pinar
Bijirita Trepadora
Senorita de Rio
Candelita
Chillina
Aparecido de San Diego
Cabrero
Negrito
Tomeguin del Pinar
Tomeguin de la Tierra
Toti
Chichinguaco
Solibio
Gorri6n


Northern Mockingbird
Cuban Vireo
Black-whiskered Vireo
Yellow-throated Warbler
Black-throated Blue Warbler
Black-throated Green Warbler
Olive-capped Warbler
Black-and-white Warbler
Louisiana Waterthrush
American Redstart
Yellow-headed Warbler
Red-legged Honeycreeper
Western Stripe-headed Tanager
Cuban Bullfinch
Cuban Grassquit
Yellow-faced Grassquit
Cuban Blackbird
Greater Antillean Grackle
Black-cowled Oriole
House Sparrow


'Estatus: BPR = resident perenne bimodal, PR = resident permanent, EN = endemico, SR = resident en el verano, WR = resident en otofio, inviemo y
primavera. Abundancia: C = comun, R = raro.


Especie









Genero



Especie

Especie


PR-C
EN-C
SR-C
WR-C
WR-C
WR-C
PR-C
WR-C
WR-C
WR-C
EN-C
PR-C
PR-C
PR-C
EN-C
PR-C
EN-C
PR-C
PR-C
PR-C










ATTACHMENT 3


SOME INFORMATION ABOUT HUNTING REGULATIONS IN THE WEST INDIES


ERIC HANSEN


Country

Cayman Puerto St. Republica Antigua St. Kitts Trinidad & Virgin
Martinique Guadeloupe Islands Rico Dominica Lucia Dominicana Jamaica Cuba Barbuda & Nevis Montserrat Bahamas Tobago Belize Islands


Regulation?
License permit?
Examination?
Hunting period?
How long?


Ducks

Shorebirds
Pigeons & doves


Thrushes

Others

Enforcement agency?

Rangers?
How many?


Illegal hunting?


Bag limit?
Illegal export?
Tourism hunting?
Fundings?


r Official number of hunters? 1500

Other islands placing pressure No
On one's wildlife resource


Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
6 months
dependent
of species
Yes

Yes
Dependent
of species


Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
Yes No Yes No No No No No No
Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
6 months 12 3 weeks 6 months Closed Totally 6 weeks 5 months 2-3
dependent August to September forbidden months
of species 1 February to February
Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Ys Yes
(one)


Yes No
Dependent Yes
ofspecies (two)


Dependent Dependent No
of species of species
No No No

Yes Yes Yes

Yes Yes No
ONC: 3 ONC: 6
ONF: ONF:
PNR: PNR:
Generally Few Yes
no

No No Yes
Rare Rare No
No No No
Yes Yes No


2300


Snipe No No
Yes Yes No


No Yes No


Galhnula
chloropus
Yes Yes

Yes Yes
Many


Not Yes, mainly


much for illegal
trade
Yes No No
Yes Yes No
Few No No
Federal Governmt. No
money budget
5000


No No Snipe Yes
No Yes Yes Yes


Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
No No No (soon) Yes Yes Yes
No No No (soon) No No No
Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
? ? 5-6 4-5 ? 30 days
months months in
September
Yes No Yes Yes No No
3 for each
? No Snipe Yes No No
Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
(Zenaida


dove)
No No No No ? No No No No No


No Introduced No Coot Introduced
species species
Yes Few Few Yes Yes

Yes No Yes Yes Yes
37 ? 63 4


No No Yes Yes No


Yes Yes Yes
? No No
No Yes No
Little Yes No


Small but -50


unknown
No Yes Yes No? No No Guadeloupe No
Martinique


? Yes


Yes Yes Yes Yes Little No
yes
No Yes No Yes No No
3 Volunteer 11 + 200 No
wardens game
wardens
? No Yes Not No
much


50/day Yes Yes 12/day
? No No Yes
No No No No
No Out No Education
budget yes
6000? 4


No No No


'- Correspondant


Eric Eric
Hansen Hansen


Eric
Carey


Donald Kate Ann
Anthony Wallace Haynes-
Sutton


Subject


Kevel
Lindsay


All many
"down
islander"
Judy
Pierce









Avifauna de Ceia de Francisco, Cuba HERNANDEZ SUAREZ ET AL.


pequefias charcas, arroyos y sembrados de arroz ubi-
cados dentro del area de studio.
Este trabajo constitute el primer report de la
avifauna de Ceja de Francisco en la Sierra de Los
Organos, y aunque preliminary, pensamos que el
mismo result de gran interns para studios bio-
geogrificos y como punto de partida en la profundi-
zaci6n de los conocimientos acerca del fun-
cionamiento de estos ecosistemas, donde la interac-
ci6n hombre-naturaleza se hace inevitable y se
proyecta hacia la conformaci6n de una estructura del
paisaje cada vez mis compleja, al aumentar la het-
erogeneidad y diversidad de habitat y por ende,
merecedora de especial atenci6n.


SOTO, S. R. 1981. Introducci6n a la petrografia. Edi-
torial Pueblo y Educaci6n, La Habana.
WAUER, R. H. Y J. M. WUNDERLE, JR. 1992. The
effect of Hurricane Hugo and bird populations on
St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Wilson Bull. 104
(4):656-673.
WILEY, J. W. Y J. M. WUNDERLE, JR. 1993. The ef-
fects of hurricanes on birds, with special refer-
ence to Caribbean islands. Bird Conserv. Internat.
3(4):319-349.
WUNDERLE, J. M., JR. Y R. WAIDE. 1993. Distribu-
tion of overwintering nearctic migrants in the Ba-
hamas and the Greater Antilles. Condor 95
(4):904-933.


LITERATURE CITADA

GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 1993. Check-
list of Cuban birds.




NUEVOS REPORTS SOBRE LA EPOCA REPODUCTIVA DE AVES
ACUATICAS COLONIALES EN CUBA

DENNIS DENIS, LOURDES MUGICA, MARTIN ACOSTA Y LEANDRO TORRELLA
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, Cuba


LA REPRODUCCION DE LAS AVES coloniales ha
sido intensamente estudiada, sin embargo, continue
siendo un campo muy extenso de investigaci6n. Las
lines fundamentals dentro de este grupo, segiun
fuera sefialado en el resume del encuentro de 1997
de la Colonial Waterbirds Society, son las particulari-
dades de la reproducci6n y la alimentaci6n, conjunta-
mente con el uso del habitat de forrajeo, tanto du-
rante la 6poca reproductive como no reproductive
(Hafner 1997). A pesar de la cercania que tiene
nuestro pais con uno de los lugares mejor estudiados
en relaci6n a las aves acuaticas (los Everglades en la
Florida), no se ha realizado ningun studio en este
sentido en los humedales de Cuba. Tampoco pueden
ser utilizados los mismos datos obtenidos en
Norteamdrica ya que se sabe que las 6pocas repro-
ductivas o las medidas del 6xito reproductive en este
grupo varian ampliamente dependiendo de las condi-
ciones ambientales, la presi6n de depredaci6n y el
ritmo hidrol6gico del ecosistema. Sin embargo tam-
bidn sabemos que las species vadeadoras coloniales
son species de larga vida con grades variables de
filopatria, que realizan grandes movimientos, confor-
mando metapoblaciones regionales, cuya dinimica


es una herramienta clave para la conservaci6n. Por
esto, los studios en nuestro pais son importantes no
solo local sino tambidn regionalmente ya que
tenemos un intercambio al parecer muy grande de
individuos entire nuestras poblaciones residents y las
migratorias.
La bibliografia relacionada con aspects repro-
ductivos de este grupo en Cuba son solo notas
breves, reports, observaciones puntuales o citas en
trabajos generalizadores, pero en general los datos se
encuentran muy dispersos. Dada la importancia del
conocimiento de estas fechas redactamos la present
comunicaci6n para actualizar la informaci6n sobre
estas species.
Aunque en muchos lugares las 6pocas reproducti-
vas de estas species pueden distribuirse a lo largo
de casi todo el afio, los reports de la literature y
nuestras observaciones reflejan que en Cuba se con-
centran de abril a septiembre (Tabla 1). Estas adi-
ciones surgeon a partir de tres viajes de 15 dias de
duraci6n cada uno en mayo, junio-julio y agosto de
1998 a las Areas Protegidas Monte Cabaniguin y
Delta del Cauto, que abarcan el amplio sistema de
humedales de la Cidnaga de Viramas, provincias Las


El Pitirre 12(1)


Page 7








Epoca Reproductiva de Aves acuiticas en Cuba DENIS ET AL.


Tabla 1: Epocas de reproducci6n de algunas aves acuiticas coloniales en los humedales costeros de la Cid-
naga de Biramas y Delta del Cauto, Cuba, en 1998.


Mes'


Ene Feb Mar Abr May Jun Jul Ago


Sep Oct Nov Dic


Corua de Agua Dulce
Phalacrocorax brasilianus
Marbella Anhinga anhinga
Garz6n Egretta alba
Garza Vientre Blanco
Egretta tricolor
Garza Ganadera Bubulcus ibis
Aguaitacaiman Butorides virescens
Guanaba de la Florida
Nycticorax nycticorax
Coco Prieto Plegadisfalcinellus
Sevilla Ajaia ajaja


RB RB


R R RB RB A
B B RB RB RB A E
R RB RB RB A

R R R RB A
G RBG RB RB RB R
R R RG RBG RBG RBG A


R R
A E


R = Raffaele et al. (1998); B = Balat y Gonzalez (1982); G = Gundlach (1893); A:
clones; E = Extensiones a otros meses indicadas por nuestras observaciones.


Tunas y Granma, en el oriented de Cuba.
Nuestro aporte se refiere a una extension de las
etapas reproductivas existentes para ocho species: la
Corna de Agua Dulce (Phalacrocorax brasilianus),
la Marbella (Anhinga anhinga), la Garza Ganadera
(Bubulcus ibis), la Garza de Vientre Blanco (Egretta
tricolor), el Garz6n (Egretta alba), el Guanabi de la
Florida (Nycticorax i' ,i,,.... o el Coco Prieto
(Plegadis falcinellus) y la Sevilla (Ajaia ajaja). En
las restantes species de garzas no se observaron
modificaciones en las fechas reportadas.

Phalacrocorax brasilianus: la etapa reproductive de
esta especie, ubicada en los meses de mayo y junior,
posiblemente pueda extenderse hasta agosto, ya que
en esta fecha encontramos en los alrededores de la
gran colonia de garzas de Cayo Norte, Laguna Las
Playas, area Delta del Cauto, un nido active con
huevos y aunque es una observaci6n aislada, los
compafieros locales (Empresa Nacional para la Con-
servaci6n de la Flora y la Fauna) refieren actividad
reproductive durante ese tiempo en lugares mis ale-
jados en la ci6naga.
Anhinga anhinga: segin Raffaele et al. (1998) en el
area caribefia la especie cria de abril a julio, aunque
Balat y Gonzalez (1982) y Vald6s Mir6 (1979) solo
mencionan junior y julio para Cuba. Various nidos de
esta especie fueron detectados en una colonia de
Guanabaes y Cocos en los esteros entire La Garnacha


Adiciones segin nuestras observa-


y Juan Viejo al norte de la Laguna Las Playas en
agosto. El finico nido que se logr6 revisar contenia
un pich6n bidn desarrollado pero sin plumar, de al-
rededor de una semana de edad.
Bubulcus ibis y Egretta tricolor: la colonia de gar-
zas de cayo Norte, durante el mes de agosto aun
mantenia una fuerte actividad y aunque con signos
evidentes de estar en fase terminal, se encontraron
pichones de ambas species reci6n eclosionados y
nidos con nuevas puestas, (posiblemente segundas
puestas de la temporada). Ambas species, segun la
bibliografia tenian la etapa de reproducci6n de abril a
julio.
Butorides virescens: aunque el mes de agosto esti
reportado por Raffaele et al. (1998) dentro de la
etapa reproductive en el Caribe, encontramos nuevas
puestas a mediados de mes en la Laguna Las Playas,
lo cual indica que la eclosi6n y cuidado de los
pichones debe extenderse ain hasta principios de
septiembre.
Egretta alba: la etapa reproductive de esta especie
esti un poco desplazada de forma general hacia me-
ses mis tempranos que la mayoria de las garzas
(exceptuando la Garza Rojiza Egretta rufescens),
ubicindose de febrero a junior. Nuevamente en julio
y agosto encontramos signos de actividad reproduc-
tiva en la colonia de Cayo Norte, Delta del Cauto:
huevos incubando y eclosiones en el primer mes, y
pichones de tamafios medianos y grandes en el se-


El Pitirre 12(1)


Especie


R R R


Page 8









Epoca Reproductiva de Aves acuaticas en Cuba DENIS ET AL.


gundo.
Nycticorax nycticorax: segfn Raffaele et al. (1998)
su etapa de reproducci6n en el area caribefia coincide
con la del Garz6n, aunque en nuestro pais los re-
portes la centran en los meses de mayo yjulio. Igual-
mente encontramos en agosto numerosos nidos con
huevos incubandose y afin terminando la puesta, lo
que indica que el period de cria de los pichones
debe extenderse hasta septiembre.
Plegadisfalcinellus: en el area Delta del Cauto exis-
ten grandes poblaciones nidificantes de esta especie,
encontrindose en agosto numerosos nidos recientes y
con pichones pequefios, por lo que es de suponer el
period de cria se extienda hasta inicios de septiem-
bre.
Ajaia ajaja: esta especie segfin los reports de la lit-
eratura en nuestra region nidifica entire agosto y
diciembre, sin embargo en el area visitada en junio
encontramos un nido con pichones desarrollados
colindante a una colonia de Cocos en manglares ale-
dafios a la laguna Las Playas. Debido a la dificultad
de la zona el area no se rastre6 por mis nidos, aun-
que los guias aseguraron que la especie estaba repro-
duci6ndose en ese moment.

El grupo de las aves acuiticas coloniales es un
grupo ecol6gicamente muy dinimico, al encontrarse
adaptado a las condiciones cambiantes de los siste-
mas de humedales. En general sus periods repro-
ductivos, aunque mantienen cierto rango, son vari-
ables localmente y de afio en afio, ya que responded
a complejos factors ambientales relacionados con el
clima, las precipitaciones, la abundancia de fuentes
de alimentaci6n estacionales o efimeras. Es por ello
que sus parimetros reproductivos son frecuente-
mente utilizados como indicadores de la salud de
estos ecosistemas, del impact human y de la con-
taminaci6n, y el studio de sus tendencies a trav6s de
los afios podrian ser indicadores tambidn de cambios


globales o regionales. Por esta misma raz6n las
fechas aqui ofrecidas no deben tomarse como pa-
trones fijos establecidos sino deben constituir tan
solo un punto de orientaci6n o comparaci6n que
sirva de apoyo a otras investigaciones locales.

AGRADECIMIENTOS

Queremos agradecer a los compafieros de las areas
protegidas Monte Cabaniguin y Delta del Cauto que
nos apoyaron en el trabajo de campo, y especial-
mente a Manolito, Omar, CUsar y al viejo Andr6s.
Tambidn a los estudiantes de la Facultad de Biologia
Patricia Rodriguez, Antonio Rodriguez y Rigel
Fernndez que son tan autores de este report como
todos nosotros.

LITERATURE CITADA

BALAT, F. Y H. J. GONZALEZ ALONSO. 1982. Con-
crete data on the breeding of cuban birds. Acta
Sci. Nat. Acad. Sci. Bohemoslov 16(8):1-46.
GUNDLACH, J. C. 1893. Omitologia Cubana 6
cathlogo descriptive de todas las species de aves
tanto indigenas como de paso annual o accidental
observadas en 53 afios. Imp. La Moderna, La Ha-
bana.
HAFNER, H. 1997. Ecology of wading birds. Colonial
Waterbirds 20(1): 115-120
RAFFAELE H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y J.
RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the West
Indies. Princeton Univ. Press, New Jersey.
VALDES MIRO, V. 1979. Distribuci6n y nidificaci6n
de las aves que crian en Cuba. Tesis, Universidad
de La Habana.


El Pitirre 12(1)


Page 9











LA GALLINUELA DE MANGLAR (RALLUS LONGIROSTRIS CREPITANS) (AVES: RALLIDAE)
INVERNA EN CUBA

ARTURO KIRKCONNELL Y ORLANDO H. GARRIDO
Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, La Habana, Cuba

Resumen.- Se relacionan todas las species de gallinuelas y gallaretas de la familiar Rallidae reportadas
para Cuba. Se report por primera vez como record para Cuba, la subspecie norteamericana de Gal-
linuela de Manglar (Rallus longirostris crepitans).
Key words: Clapper Rail, Rallidae, winter resident, taxa


INTRODUCTION

EN CUBA SE HAN REPORTADO trece taxones de gal-
linuelas y gallaretas de la familiar Rallidae: Rallus ele-
gans elegans, R. e. ramsdeni, R. longirostris cari-
baeus, R. limicola limicola, Pardirallus maculatus
inoptatus, Cyanolimnas cerverai, Porzana carolina, P.
flaviventer gossii, Laterallus jamaicensis jamaicensis,
Porphyrula martinica, Gallinula chloropus cerceris,
Fulica americana americana y F. caribaea (Bond
1956, Garrido y Garcia Montafia 1975, Garrido 1988).
Todo estos tixones estin representados por residents
que nidifican en Cuba, con excepci6n de Porzana
carolina, Rallus e. elegans y R. 1. limicola, que son
visitantes invernales. Si bien es possible que tanto Lat-
erallus j. jamaicensis como Fulica caribaea crien tam-
bidn en Cuba, no se ha confirmado su nidificaci6n.
En el territorio de las Antillas, la raza continental de
la Gallinuela de Manglar (Rallus longirostris crepitans
Gmelin, 1789) habia sido reportada como visitante in-
vernal en las Bahamas (Bond 1956). Al menos cinco
ejemplares atribuibles a esta raza han sido colectados
en Cuba a partir de las filtimas cuatro d6cadas. Dos de


ellos colectadas por Garrido en Punta de Hicacos,
Provincia de Matanzas en Marzo de 1960, y deposi-
tados en el Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemitica con
los nfimeros 444 y 511. Otra hembra numero 368 sin
fecha, fue colectada en el litoral del Vedado, Provin-
cia Ciudad de La Habana. Las dos mis recientes ad-
quisiciones, se hallan depositadas en el Museo Na-
cional de Historia Natural con el numero 1357
colectada en San Antonio de los Bafios, Provincia La
Habana, el 1 de Agosto de 1991 por Rafael Quifiones
y numero 1559, obtenida por el propio collector en
Playa del Chivo, La Habana, el 15 de Septiembre
1993. La medidas en milimetros son presentan en
Tabla 1.
Un ejemplar (MNHN 1559) fue llevado al Smith-
sonian Institution para corroborar su identificaci6n.
El mismo, fue identificado por el Dr. Richard Banks
como Rallus longirostris crepitans, constityendo el
primer record official para la subespecie en Cuba. Por
lo que agradecemos al Dr. Banks la colaboraci6n
brindada.

LITERATURE CITADA


Tabla 1. Medidas (mm) de tres ejemplares de Rallus longirostris crepi-
tans colectados en Cuba.


Medida (mm)


Institute y numero


UH
MNHN 1357
MNHN 1559


Ala Cola


Culmen Tarsus


153.0
137.0
140.0


El Pitirre 12(1)


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Rallus longirostris crepitans in Cuba KIRKCONNELL AND GARRIDO


BOND, J. 1956. Check-list of birds of the West In-
dies. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
GARRIDO, O. H. 1988. La Gallinuela Norteamericana
de Agua Dulce, Rallus elegans elegans (Aves:
Rallidae) en Cuba. Garciana, Mus. Carlos de la
Torre, Holguin 14:1-4.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975.
Cathlogo de las aves de Cuba. Academia de Cien-


cias de Cuba, La Habana.


FIRST REPORT OF SCISSOR-TAILED FLYCATCHER, TYRANNUS FORFICATUS GMELIN
(PASSERIFORMES: TYRANNIDAE), IN EASTERN CUBA

CARLOS A. MANCINA Y RAIMUNDO LOPEZ
Institute de Ecologia y Sistematica, CITMA4, A.P. 8029, La Habana, Cuba


WE OBSERVED A Scissor-tailed Flycatcher
(Tyrannusforficatus) on 20 January 1999, during an
expedition to Guarda la Vaca (lat. N 210 17', long.
W 750 50'), on the northern coast of Holguin, eastern
Cuba. The bird showed the characteristics of a juve-
nile, lacking long outer tail feathers, as well as pink
sides and flanks. We photographed the flycatcher
while it was perched in a shrub in a xeromorphic
scrubby site 100 m from the coast.
The Scissor-tailed Flycatcher breeds in the cen-
tral and southern United States, and winters in Cen-
tral America, although a small population remains in
the Florida Keys. It is considered accidental in the
West Indies, where it has been observed in the Ba-
hama Islands, western Cuba, Hispaniola, and Puerto
Rico (Raffaele et al. 1998).
In Cuba, the Scissor-tailed Flycatcher is consid-
ered an accidental migrant (Garrido and Garcia
1975). Three previous sightings of the flycatcher
have been reported for Cuba: La F6, Pinar del Rio
province (21 November 1952, Garrido and Garcia


1975), San Antonio de los Bafios, La Habana prov-
ince (15 November 1984, Alay6n 1985) and, re-
cently, in the Isla de la Juventud (15 November
1998; Pedro Blanco, pers. comm.). All previous ob-
servations were from western Cuba. Our sighting
constitutes the first of Tyrannusforficatus in eastern
Cuba and the latest date for the species in the West
Indies.

LITERATURE CITED

ALAYON, G. 1985. Nuevo record de Tyrannusforfi-
catus (Aves: Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) para
Cuba. Misc. Zool. 27:1-4.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975.
Cathlogo de las aves de Cuba. Acad. Cienc. Cuba,
La Habana.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton Univ. Press, New Jer-
sey.


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DOS REGISTROS NUEVOS DE AVES ENDEMICAS EN DEPOSITS FOSILIFEROS DE CUBA

STEPHEN DIAZ FRANCO
Mluseo Nacional de Historia Natural, Obispo 61, Plaza de Annas, La Habana CP 10100, Cuba;
e-mail: geoptallimullni inf u


DE CUBA SE HAN descrito 21 tixones de aves
end6micas vivientes (American Omithogists' Union
1998) y de las mismas s6lo se han registrado en
dep6sitos fosiliferos ocho (Fisher y Stephan 1971,
Acevedo y Arredondo 1982, Arredondo 1984,
Suarez y Arredondo 1997, Jim6nez 1998). Segfin
Suarez y Arredondo (1997) las aves del Cuaternario
(Pleisto-Holoceno temprano) conocidas y recogidas
en la literature, sumaban solo 41; con este trabajo y
el de Jim6nez (1998) suman 60 taxones.
Los hallazgos de nuestras species end6micas en
dep6sitos fosiliferos revisten particular importancia
ya que constituyen un element reafirmador de la
antigiiedad de las species, que procedentes de
nuestro territorio se han estado considerando como
propias. Se supone sobre esa base, que dichas espe-
cies han evolucionado desde tiempos "ancestrales"
bajo condiciones insulares. Al mismo tiempo con
esos hallazgos, realmente se aporta informaci6n
valiosa sobre la historic biogeogrifica y evolutiva de
las mismas.
La familiar Psittacidae esta representada por solo
tres species: Amazona leucocephala (Cotorra),
1 i, ,,1,,1 euops (Catey) y Ara tricolor (Guacamayo),
esta fultima extinta desde fines del siglo pasado. Gar-
cia Montafia (1987) expresaba que nuestra cotorra
nunca habia sido introducida como muchos han su-
puesto, y que su origen en Cuba se remontaba a
miles y miles de afios.
Con el objetivo de ampliar el conocimiento que
se tenia sobre la fauna extinguida de vertebrados ter-
restres de la llanura carsica Habana-Matanzas, se
realize en el afio 1996 una expedici6n paleontol6gica
a una region cercana al poblado de Carbonera en la
provincia de Matanzas.
Un tibiotarso de A. leucocephala hallado en una
de las localidades, Cueva del Campamento, aporta en
general elements interesantes en cuanto a la an-
tigiiedad de la especie en nuestro territorio. Esta es-
pecie no habia sido reconocida en los dep6sitos
fosiliferos hasta el moment y el finico psiticido hal-
lado resultaba ser siempre Ara tricolor. Esta filtima
ha sido reportado de los Bafios de Ciego Montero,


Cienfuegos (Wetmore 1928, Brodkorb 1971) y de
Cueva Paredones, San Antonio de los Bafios, La Ha-
bana (Arredondo 1984).
La subspecie A. 1. leucocephala siempre fue con-
siderada end6mica respect a las restantes subspecies
distribuidas en las islas Caiman Grande, Caiman
Brac y las Islas de Bahamas. La otra subespecie,
Amazona leucocephala palmarum, descrita por Todd
(1916) para la Isla de la Juventud, no es admitida por
algunos ornit6logos; segun sus opinions no puede
diferenciarse de los ejemplares de Cuba (Garcia
Montafia 1987).
De la especie i i, ia,, euops se han encontrado
algunos restos pero en un context poco confiable,
los mismos se han hallado mezclados en una misma
capa superficial con species introducidas, species
de quir6pteros actuales, insectivoros extintos rede-
positados provenientes de capas mis antigiias, etc.;
ademis del aspect algo fresco que poseen.
Al mismo tiempo, el hallazgo en el mismo
dep6sito fosilifero de la Cueva del Campamento del
unico trog6nido de Cuba, Priotelus temnurus
(Tocororo), tambidn constitute un nuevo registro de
aves end6micas y que aun no habia sido reconocido
para los dep6sitos fosiliferos. Segun Garcia Montafia
(1987), esta especie era conocida por nuestros abori-
genes llamandola "guatini."
Es important sefialar que los elements 6seos de
interns aparecieron en la capa mis antigiia del
dep6sito fosiliferos donde la estratigrafia estaba con-
stituida por tres capas bidn definidas: una inferior de
mayor antigiiedad compuesta de sedimentos ter-
rigenos carbonatados con restos de vertebrados
f6siles (Rodentia, Quiroptera, Insectivora y Edentata
ademis de otras classes de vertebrados como Reptilia,
Amphibia y otras aves) y moluscos; una intermedia
se sedimentos carbonatados recristalizados (sinter) y
una superior mis reciente de sedimentos terrigenos
carbonatados con species de vertebrados actuales y
f6siles, y moluscos (Diaz-Franco y Suardias 1996,
Diaz-Franco y Rojas 1997).

MATERIALS


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Aves Endemicas en Depositos Fosiliferos en Cuba DIAZ FRANCO


Orden Psittaciformes
Familia Psittacidae
Amazona leucocephala ssp.: Diafisis de tibio-
tarso izquierdo (MNHNH-P 492). Cueva del
Campamento, Carbonera, Matanzas. Edad:
Cuaternario
Orden Trogoniformes
Familia Trogonidae
Priotelus temnurus ssp.: Hfimero derecho in-
completo (MNHNH-P 488). Cueva del Cam-
pamento, Carbonera, Matanzas. Edad: Cua-
ternario.

Otras species de aves asociadas en el dep6sito:
Otus lawrencii: Tibiotarso derecho incomplete
(MNHNH-P 486); didfisis de tibiotarso
izquierdo (MNHNH-P 487); diffisis frag-
mentada de tibioarso izquierdo con region
proximal (MNHNH-P) 478); mitad proximal
de coracoides (MNHNH-P 663).
Saurothera merlini ssp.: Tibiotarso derecho
(MNHNH-P 488).
Torreornis inexpectata ssp.: Tibiotarso derecho
(MNHNH-P 493).

El material aqui mencionado se halla depositado
en la Colecci6n Paleontol6gica del Museo Nacional
de Historia Natural de Cuba, La Habana.
Particularmente agradezco a William Suarez Du-
que por la identificaci6n del material y especial-
mente a Arturo Kirkconnell y a Hiram Gonzalez por
las informaciones brindadas y la revision previa del
trabajo.

LITERATURE CITADA

ACEVEDO GONZALEZ, M. Y O. ARREDONDO. 1982.
Paleozoogeografia y geologia del Cuaternario de
Cuba: caracteristicas y distribuci6n geogrifica de
los dep6sitos con restos de vertebrados. IX Jor-
nada Cientifica del Instituto de Geologia y Paleon-
tologia, ACC. Pp. 59-70.
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 1998. Check-
list of North American birds 7th edition. American
Ornithologists' Union, Washington, DC.


ARREDONDO, 0. 1984. Sin6psis de las aves halladas
en dep6sitos fosiliferos Pleisto-holoc6nicos de
Cuba. Report de Investigaci6n. Institute de Zo-
ologia 17:1-35.
BRODKORB. P. 1971. Catalogue of fossil birds: Part 4
(Columbiformes through Piciformes). Bull. Flor-
ida St. Mus. 15(4):163-266.
DIAZ FRANCO, S. Y J. H. SUARDIAS. 1996. Report
de nuevo dep6sito fosilifero con fauna de vertebra-
dos extinguidos. Cueva "El Campamento," Matan-
zas, Cuba. VI Jomada Cientifica Arqueologia,
Espeleologia y Medio Ambiente 96. Taller Inter-
nacional. Program y Resumenes. P. 36.
DIAZ FRANCO, S. Y R. ROJAS CONSUEGRA. 1997.
Resultados del analisis taxon6mico en el studio
paleontol6gico de la Cueva del Campamento Ma-
tanzas. IV Simposio de Zoologia. Programa-
Resuimenes. Pp. 62-63.
FISHER, K. Y B. STEPHAN. 1971. Weitere Vogelreste
aus dem pleistozin der Pio-Domingo-HOhle in
Kuba. Wiss. Z. Humboldt-Univ. Berl., matj-
naturwiss. Rehie 20(4-5):593-607.
GARCIA MONTANA, F. 1987. Las aves de Cuba sube-
species end6micas. Tomo II. Edit. Gente Nueva.
La Habana.
JIMENEZ VAZQUEZ, 0. 1998. Seis nuevos registros
de aves f6siles en Cuba. El Pitirre 10(2):49.
SUAREZ, W. Y O. ARREDONDO. 1997. Nuevas adi-
ciones a la paleornitologia cubana. Pitirre 10
(3):100-102.
TODD, W. C. E. 1916. The birds of the Isle of Pines.
Annals of Carnegie Mus. 10:146-296.
WETMORE, A. 1928. Bones of birds from the Ciego
Montero deposit of Cuba. Am. Mus. Novitaes.
301:1-5.


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REGIMEN ALIMENTARIO DEL CERNICALO CUBANO
EN UNA LOCALIDAD DE LA REGION CENTRAL DE CUBA

ABEL HERNANDEZ MUNOZ
Mluseo Provincial Polivalente de Sancti Spiritus, Cuba


ENTRE LAS AVES, las Falconiformes resultan
id6neas para investigar el regimen alimentario, por lo
relativamente facil que result estudiario a partir del
andlisis de sus egagr6pilas. La regurgitaci6n de los
perdigones orales es la finica via de expulsion de
desechos s6lidos de 6stas aves y tiene lugar, general-
mente, durante las primeras horas de la mafiana.
Nuestro objetivo fue indagar sobre la dieta del
Cernicalo cubano (Falco sparverius sparverioides).
Se colectaron un total de 15 egagr6pilas que con-
tenian 21 press el dia 13 de mayo de 1995, por lo
que todes los bolos de regurgitaci6n colectados cor-
responden al period seco. Las colectas se hicieron
en un nido abandonado donde una pareja crio tres
pichones, en el hueco de un seto vivo que se encuen-
tra en la finca del campesino Adriano Valle, ubicada
en la localidad de Neiva, municipio de Cabaiguin y
provincia de Sancti Spiritus, en la region central de
Cuba. Cada egagr6pila colectada fue media y des-


menuzada individualmente, determinandose el tipo
de alimento ingerido y el tipo de presa.
El tamafio promedio de los ovillos regurgitados
fue de 20 mm de largo y 8 mm de ancho. Los reptiles
constituyeron las press basicas de la rapaz y dentro
de ellos los pertenecientes a la especie Anolis alli-
soni.
El regimen alimentario del Cernicalo cubano sufre
evidentes variaciones estacionales; durante el verano
es esencialmente entom6fago, consumlendo entonces
grandes insects, sobre todo ort6pteros. Con el in-
vemo cambia sus hibitos, alimentindose principal-
mente de lagartos y pdjaros, lo cual explica las difer-
encias observadas entire los resultados del present
trabajo y los obtenidos por otros autores para la
misma especie considerando todo el afio.


ORNITOFAUNA DE LA PORCION ESPIRITAUNA DEL ECOSISTEMA SABANA-CAMAGUEY, CUBA

ABEL HERNANDEZ MUNOZ1, JORGE E. DE LA TORRE RODRIGUEZ2, Y FRANK MORERA HERNANDEZ3
1Museo Provincial Polivalente de Sancti Spiritus, 2Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Ciencias del Instituto Superior
Pedag6gico de Sancti Spiritus, 3Area Protegida "Jobo Rosado, Cuba


EL ECOSISTEMA SABANA-CAMAGIEY (ESC) es
una region que alcanza un total de 75,000 km2 ter-
restres y marines, localizados en la porci6n norte y
central de Cuba, abarcando desde la Peninsula de
Hicacos hasta la Bania de Nuevitas y de los cuales
1,446.8 pertenecen a la provincia de Sancti Spiritus.
A partir del gran desarrollo que han alcanzado los
studios onitol6gicos en Cuba, la avifauna de la por-
ci6n espirituana del ESC ha sido relativamente poco
prospectada hasta hoy dia. En el present trabajo se
ofrece informaci6n sobre la composici6n, status y
dstribuci6n de la ornitofauna observada en el territo-
rio del Ecosistema Sabana-Camagiiey correspondi-
ente a la provincia, como resultado de la revision
bibliogrffica realizada y el trabajo de campo efec-
tuado durante 9 afios de investigaci6n en dicha
region.
En el area de studio se detectaron 163 species


pertenecientes a 19 6rdenes, 47 families y 107 g6-
neros. Del total de species, 101 crian en Cuba. Los
6rdenes mejor representados fueron: Passeriformes,
Charadriiformes, Anseriformes, Ciconiiformes,
Columbiformes y Falconiformes. La mayoria de las
species (49) son residents permanentes comunes,
40 son residents invernales comunes y 25 residents
permanentes bimodales. Se detectaron 19 species
amenazadas de extinci6n (2 de ellas en peligro y 17
vulnerables. La region fisiogrifica mis rica en espe-
cies fue la de humedales costeros y dentro de eila la
formaci6n vegetal de manglar, con 103. La porci6n
espirituana del ESC es de gran importancia para la
conservaci6n de la biodiversidad de aves en el cen-
tronorte de Cuba.


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Selected Resumenes de Trabajos


TERCER TALLER DE BIODIVERSIDAD, CENTRO ORIENTAL DE ECOSISTEMAS Y BIODIVERSIDAD,
SANTIAGO DE CUBA
11 AL 13 DE NOVIEMBRE 1998


COMPOSICION Y ABUNDANCIA DE LA
AVIFAUNA DE LA RESERVE DE LA
BIOSFERA SIERRA DEL ROSARIO EN UN
GRADIENTE DE AFECTACION ANTROPICA

XOCHITL AYON, BARBARA SANCHEZ'
Y ENEIDER PEREZ2
1Centro de Gesti6n e Inspecci6n Ambiental, CITM4A,
Cuba; y 2Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA,
Cuba

Se studio la composici6n y abundancia de un
bosque siempreverde con un gradiente de afectaci6n
antr6pica en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra del
Rosario. Se utiliz6 el m6todo de la parcela circular
para detectar la abundancia relative de las aves en
tres localidades (El Sal6n, El Taburete y Las
Delicias). Se evaluaron diferentes parimetros de
vegetaci6n para relacionarlos con los resultados de la
composici6n y abundancia de las comunidades de
aves. Se plantean dos hip6tesis para explicar las
similitudes encontradas en los diferentes parimetros
ecol6gicos, los de abundancia y por gremio entire las
localidades. Se reportan ademis site nuevas espe-
cies para la Reserva.


CARACTERIZACION PRELIMINARY DE LA
ORNITOFAUNA DE LA RESERVE DE SIBONEY

RAIMA CANTILLO ARDEVOL
Y FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-
ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se studio la ornitofauna de la Reserva de Siboney
durante seis meses en 1997 y 1998 mediante el
m6todo de parcela circular, con lo cual se obtuvo el
listado de las species presents en el area, en la cual
estin presents 16 grupos tr6ficos. Se calcularon,
ademis, los indices ecol6gicos de diversidad y equi-
tatividad, alcanzando ambas variables su valor
maximo en el mes de julio de 1997. Tambidn se pre-
sentan los indices de abundancia mis apropiados


para quince de las species presents en la Reserva.


GREMIOS PARA LA REPRODUCTION DE LAS
AVES EN LA RESERVEA DE LA BIOSFERA
BACONAO"

NIDIA GARCIA SARMIENTOS
ISP "Frank Pais Garcia, "Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se presentan los gremios donde se agrupan las
aves para el process de reproducci6n atendiendo al
sustrato y estrato de nidificaci6n. Se presentan la di-
versidad de plants utilizadas por las aves, asi como
el indice de importancia en la utilizaci6n de las mis-
mas.


VEGETACION, FLORA Y FAUNA DE LA
RESERVE NATURAL "LOMA LOS
CABALLEROS," MUNICIPIO SIBANICU,
CAMAGUEY, CUBA

DAIMY GODINEZ CARABALLO
Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, CITMA,
Camagiiey, Cuba

Se realize la caracterizaci6n de la vegetaci6n, flora
y fauna de las elevaciones que conforman la zona
conocida como "Loma Los Caballeros" del mu-
nicipio Sibanicfi, la que recientemente se incluy6 en
el Sistema de Areas Protegidas de la Provincia de
Camagiiey. Se seleccionaron site estaciones en las
cuales se analiz6 la estructura y composici6n floris-
tica de la vegetaci6n. La fauna asociada se evalu6 a
trav6s de transectos de ancho variable, se anotaron
las species vistas u oidas pertenecientes a tres classes
(Reptilia, Aves y Mamalia), siendo las aves las
mayor diversidad seguidas de los reptiles. Se anexan
los listados de la flora y la fauna, enfatizando en el
primer caso las potencialidades econ6micas que
brinda este recurso.
EVALUACION ECOLOGICA Y DE
DETERMINATION DE GREMIOS


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Resumenes de Trabajos Tercer Taller de Biodiversidad


ESTRUCTURALES DE LA COMUNIDAD
ORNITICA DEL JARDIN
BOTANICO "JUAN TOMAS ROIG," PROVINCIA
SANTIAGO DE CUBA

GERARDO G. HECHEVARRIA GARCIA
Y ALEXANDER PEREZ RUIZ
Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se realize una evaluaci6n ecol6gica de la ornito-
cenosis del Jardin Bothnico "Juan Tomds Roig" de
Santiago de Cuba mediante los indices de abundan-
cia relative (AR), riqueza de species (S), diversidad
(H) y equitatividad (J). Se evalu6 asimismo el status
y nivel de endemismo de las species presents en el
area siendo las predominantes las residents peren-
nes. El m6todo utilizado fue el de linea de transecto
(Eberhardt 1978) realizadose un total de 41
muestreos durante los meses de febrero a mayo de
1996 en los horarios de las 07:00 a 12:00 y de las
13:00 a las 17:00 horas. Se confeccion6 un listado de
las species presents en el area resultado el orden
Passeriformes el mejor representado con un total de
27 species de las 40 detactadas en la zona.



BIBLIOGRAFIA ORNITOLOGICA PUBLICADA
EN CUBA O SOBRE LA AVIFAUNA CUBANA

GERARDO G. HECHEVARRIA GARCIA
Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

La informaci6n que se ofrece en este trabajo repre-
senta una base de datos automatizada que recopila un
total de 516 de publicaciones referentes a la avifauna
cubana publicadas hasta la fecha. Los campos princi-
pales de este fichero son: autor, fecha, revista o edi-
torial, titulo y material. Esta uiltima comprende un
total de 16 tematicas utilizadas para clasificar dichas
publicaciones. En la distribuci6n cuantitativa porcen-
tual se observa que los mayores porcientos pertene-
cen a las tematicas de "composici6n de comuni-
dades," "sistemitica," "metodologia y aspects te6ri-
cos," "ecologia general" y "relaciones con la vege-
taci6n y selecci6n del habitat," siendo estas dos iilti-
mas las de mayor incremento porcentual en la uiltima
d6cada, lo que da una media del incremento cualita-
tivo que han tenidos los studios ecol6gicos de nues-


tra avifauna.



CARACTERIZACION DE LA ORNITOFAUNA
DE LA ALTIPLANICIE DEL TOLDO

LuIs O. MELIAN HERNANDEZ
Y FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-
ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se expone el resultado del trabajo de campo en la
altiplanicie del Toldo, que permiti6 la caracteri-
zaci6n de la ornitofauna del area. En el period de
tiempo que abarca este trabajo se detectaron un total
de 43 species pertenecientes a 13 6rdenes y 22 fa-
milias. El endemismo esta representado por ocho
species, por su parte las nidificantes en el area
fueron 27. Se determine la presencia de 25 grupos
tr6ficos, 22 terrestres y 3 acuiticos.



ORNITOFAUNA DE LAS CUENCAS DE LOS
RIOS GUAMA Y SEVILLA, Y SU RELACION
CON LOS TIPOS DE VEGETACION

LUIs O. MELIAN HERNANDEZ
Y ALBERTO BEYRIS MAZAR
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-
ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se exponen los resultados del trabajo de campo
que se viene desarrollando en las cuencas de los rios
Guami y Sevilla desde 1995, y su relaci6n con los
tipos de vegetaci6n presents en lo que respect a
biodiversidad y endemismo. Se plantean criterios de
biodiversidad y endemismo para cada tipo determi-
nado. Se detect la presencia de 107 species, 40 de
las cuales son residents permanentes que junto con
las residents permantentes bimodales constituyen el
element ornitico fundamental en este extenso terri-
torio.


CONSIDERACIONES GENERALS DE LA
FAMILIAR PICIDAE EN EL ORIENTED CUBANO

LuIs O. MELIAN HERNANDEZ
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-


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Page 16











ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se exponen los resultados obtenidos en la revision
bibliogrffia y trabajos de campo y revisiones bibli-
grificas qe desde 1985 se vienen desarrollando en el
seguimiento de las species de la familiar Picidae en
el Oriente cubano. Se plantea que cuatro de las seis
species reportadas para el area requieren de
tratamiento especial de conservaci6n por la presi6n
antr6pica a que se ven sometidas.



CARACTERIZACION ORNITOFAUNISTICA DE
LA ZONA BOSCOSA DEL AREA PROTEGIDA
LA ISLETA

RICHAR OLANO LABRADA
Y LAZARO PEREZ FOMBELLIDA
Delegaci6n del CITMA, Las Tunas, Cuba

Los trabajos de campo se realizaron en la zona
correspondiente al bosque semideciduo sobre ultra-
basitas del area protegida La Isleta, situada en la
costa norte de la Provincia Las Tunas, Cuba. Para la
obtenci6n de la informaci6n primaria se utiliz6 el
m6todo de linea de transecto o taxiado (Eberhardt
1978). Hasta la fecha se han inventariado 62 species
de aves terrestres de la cuales s6lo 37 aparecieron en
conteos resultando el orden Passeriformes el mejor
representado con 30, destacindose dentro de este la
familiar Parulidae con 12 species. El endemismo es
elevado tanto a nivel de g6nero con cuatro como a
nivel especifico con 12. Resultados que unidos a
otros elements permiten proponer al area la cate-
goria de manejo de reserve ecol6gica.


EVALUACION DE TRES COMUNIDADES DE
AVES TERRESTRES EN EL PARQUE NATURAL
ALEJANDRO DE HUMBOLDT DURANTE LA
RESIDENCIA INVERNAL 1996-1997
Y 1997-1998
ENEIDER PEREZ, ALEJANDRO LLANES1, PEDRO


Resumenes de Trabajos Tercer Taller de Biodiversidad


BLANCO1, LUIS MELIAN2, FREDDY RODRIGUEZ2,
GERARDO BEGE3 Y DAVID MACEIRA2
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdctica, CITMA4, La Habana,
Cuba; 2 Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad
BIOECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba; y 3Delegaci6n de
Guantanamo, CITM4A, Guantdnamo, Cuba

Se exponen los resultados obtenidos durante una
evaluaci6n a las comunidades de aves terrestrias ex-
istentes en tres formaciones vegetables: pinar, siem-
preverde y pluviisilva, en el Parque Nacional Alejan-
dro de Humboldt, durante el period de residencia
internal 1996-1997 y 1997-1998. Se abordan aspec-
tos relacionados con la composici6n y abundancia de
la ornitofauna present en el area, obtenidos a partir
de la aplicaci6n del m6todo de corteo por parcelas
circulares y el de capture por redes ornitol6gicas. En
total se detectaron 41 species de aves, de ellas 15
son residents invernales y 26 residents perma-
nentes. Se realize un andlisis de las comunidades en
studio segin Magurran (1988). Se discute la dis-
tribuci6n por sexo y edad de algunas bijiritas migra-
torias, asi como su variaci6n annual.



EVALUACION DE LA DURACION DE LOS
PUNTOS DE CONTEO DE AVES PARA LA
RESERVE NATURAL DE SIBONEY

FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA Y RAIMA CANTILLO
ARDEVOL
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad
BIOECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se compare la efectividad de los conteos de cinco
minutes con los de 10 minutes de duraci6n en el ma-
torral xeromorfo costero de la Reserva Natural de
Siboney. Se concluye que los conteos de cinco
minutes son comparativamente mis eficaces en esta
formaci6n vegetal que los de 10 minutes, siempre
que el tiempo de traslaci6n entire las parcelas sea me-
nor de 15 minutes, lo cual permit una mayor obten-
ci6n de datos estadisticamente independientes pro-
ducto del incremento del nfimero de muestras que se


El Pitirre 12(1)


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Resumenes de Trabajos Tercer Taller de Biodiversidad

pueden tomar en una mafiana de conteo.



COMPOSICION Y ALGUNOS ASPECTS
ECOLOGICOS DE LOS BANDOS MIXTOS DE
AVES EN CUATRO LOCALIDADES DEL
ORIENTED CUBANO

FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-
ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se estudiaron los bandos mixtos cubanos en cuatro
localidades del Oriente cubano, formando parte de
los mismos 27 species de aves, de los cuales 12 son
migratorias y site son species end6micas. Se re-
porta a la Teretistris fornsi como la especie nicleo
por excelencia en las localidades estudiadas, aunque
se reportan otras cuatro species jugando tambidn la
funci6n de especie nicleo. El tamafio de los bandos
esta intimamente correlacionado con el nuimero de
species presents en los bandos, los cuales estu-
vieron compuestos mayormente por species insecti-
voras.



CARACTERISTICAS FUNDAMENTALS DE LA
ORNITOFAUNA DEL MACIZO MONTANOSO
NIPE-SAGUA-BARACOA

FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA
Y LUIS OMAR MELIAN HERNANDEZ
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-
ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se reportan un total de 142 species de aves para
el Macizo Montafioso de Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa, per-
tenecientes a 38 families y 17 6rdenes. De ellas 16
son species end6micas. Los mayores valores de ri-
queza de species y nfimero de end6micos se repor-
tan para formaciones vegetables naturales o con poco
grado de antopizaci6n, reportindose p6rdida de espe-
cies para aquellas formaciones vegetables con un alto
grado de antropizaci6n.
VERTEBRADOS DEL PARQUE NATURAL
BAHIA DE NARANJO

FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad
BIOECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se ofrece el listado de todos los vertebrados del
Parque Natural Bahia de Naranjo como paso previo


para posteriores studios de su fauna e imple-
mentaci6n de futures planes de manejo. Cinco de las
species reportadas para el Parque aparecen citadas
por el libro rojo de la UICN con diferentes categories
de amenaza.



REPORT DE UN CHOQUE DE UN BANDO DE
LONCHURA A4LACCA (AVES: ESTRILIDAE)
CONTRA UN EDIFICIO

FREDDY RODRIGUEZ SANTANA Y LUIS O. MELIAN
HERNANDEZ
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-
ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

Se report el choque de un bando de site indi-
viduos de la especie Lonchura malacca contra un
edificio, consituyendo un nuevo report de localidad
para esta especie en el Oriente cubano.



CARACTERIZACION FLORiSTICA Y
FAUNISTICAS DE CAYO JUDAS, BAHIA DE
LOS PERROS, CIEGO DE AVILA

ELIESER SOCARRAS TORRES', ODEY MARTINEZ
LLANES2 Y RAUDEL MARRERO HERNANDEZ3
1Centro de Investigaciones de Ecosistemas Costeros, Cayo
Coco, Cuba; 2Empresa Provincial para la Protecci6n de la
Flora y Fauna, Ciego de Avila, Cuba; y 3ISP "Manuel
Ascunce Domenech, Ciego de Avila, Cuba

Se caracterizan los valores de flora y fauna de ver-
tebrados terrestres presents en Cayo Judas al norte
de la provincia Ciego de Avila resultando sus poten-
cialidades cientificas, econ6micas y prioridades de
protecci6n y conservaci6no. Se determine la presen-
cia de 51 species de plants vasculares con 15.7%
de endemismo y una especie en peligro de extinci6n
(Cameraria microphylla). Se encontr6 que la mayor
afinidad de la flora de este cayo es con la subprovin-
cia Cuba Oriental (15.6%) y en la subregi6n antillana
con las provincias Sur de la Florida-Bermudas con
(76.4%) y Antillas Menores (33.3%). Los vertebra-
dos terrestres estin representados por 55 species (1
anfibio, 7 reptiles y 47 aves) con 23.3% de endem-
ismo.



STUDIO PRELIMINARY DE LA FAUNA
VERTEBRAL DEL MACIZO MONTANOSO


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NAJASA, CAMAGUEY Y CENSO PRELIMINARY
DE LAS AVES EN LA SIERRITA, PENINSULA
NUEVAS GRANDES, MACIZO MONTANOSO,
NUEVITAS, CAMAGUEY

RENE W. VILATO VIAMONTES
Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, CITM4A,
Camagiiey, Cuba

Se realize un studio de los vertebrados que se en-
cuentran en las areas protegidas del municipio Na-
jasa, Camagiiey, Cuba. Se anotaron todas las espe-
cies vistas u oidas a trav6s de transectos de ancho
variable. Se determinaron 90 species ubicadas en 70
g6neros, 72 families y 28 6rdines de ellos, 10 peces
dulceacuicola, 3 anfibios, 11 reptiles, 63 aves y 2
mamiferos. Se encontraron un reptil y cinco aves
amenazadas de extinction; protegidos por el CITES 2
reptiles y 10 aves. En cuanto a las aves se encontr6
que mis del 90% se encuentran dentro del subnicho
temporal diurno; a los insecivoros en el subnicho
tr6fico y en cuanto a su status a los residents perma-
nentes como grupo principal. En dependencia de la
abundancia se comportaron como comunes o muy
comunes a mis del 50%.



INDICADORES DE DIVERSIDAD BIOLOGICAL
DE ANFIBIOS, REPTILES Y AVES


Resumenes de Trabajos Tercer Taller de Biodiversidad

DEL MACIZO MONTANOSO
NIPE-SAGUA-BARACOA, CUBA

NICASIO VINA DAVILA, NICASIO VINA BAYS,
ANSEL FONG GRILLO, FREDDY RODRIGUEZ
SANTANA Y LUIS MELIAN HERNANDEZ
Centro Oriental de Ecosistemas y Biodiversidad BIO-
ECO, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba

A partir del empleo de Sistemas de Informaci6n
Geogrffica se model la distribuci6n de la herpeto-
fauna y ornitofauna de Nipe-Sagua-Baracoa. Se
muestran los valores de riqueza de species y riqueza
de end6micos y su ubicaci6n espacial, presentindose
ademis los andlisis por areas. En el trabajo se analiza
la similtud de los patrons de distribuci6n de cada
especie y de las combinaciones obtenidas, presentin-
dose en este caso su ubicaci6n espacial.


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HUNTING WORKSHOP SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

HERBERT A. RAFFAELE
Office ofInterational, !rn.. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, D.C., U. S. A.


A full-day workshop on hunting in the Caribbean
was conducted at the SCO meeting in Guadeloupe on
28 August 1998. The workshop objectives were to
identify: (1) the most important elements which
must be undertaken to establish an effective hunting
program; (2) mechanisms for achieving these ele-
ments; and (3) initiatives which have successfully
implemented one or more elements of a successful
hunting program.

The process used to address these objectives was
the following:
(1) In a single brainstorming session, all partici-
pants contributed to developing a comprehen-
sive master list of needs believed important
for establishing and managing an effective
hunting program. These items were sorted by
category (monitoring, laws and regulations,
etc.).
(2) We broke up into 4 working groups wherein
participants prioritized each of the items on
the master list as being of either high, me-
dium, or low importance.
(3) The priorities developed by the 4 working
groups were reported to a session of the entire
workshop and then used to reduce the master
list to only those items identified as being of
high priority by two or more working groups.
(4) New working groups were then formed based
upon theme. The first group addressed re-
search and monitoring; the second, laws, regu-
lations, permits, and law enforcement; and the
third, public outreach and hunter education.
Each group was asked to refine or clarify
broadly stated priorities, identify needs and
mechanisms necessary to successfully imple-
ment each priority item and any existing ex-
amples of successful implementation.
(5) Each of the three thematic working groups
reported the results of their discussions to the
entire body.

The highest priority actions identified by work-
shop participants as essential to any hunting program
are listed in Attachment 1. Perhaps the most impor-
tant value of creating this list was to demonstrate the
breadth of the hunting issue. As priorities were


listed, it became evident that conducting a hunting
program involves more than just setting a bag limit
and season for the species to be hunted and then try-
ing to enforce the law. Many other fundamental is-
sues must be addressed if there is to be any hope of a
hunting program being successful. Among these
items are development of an effective and compre-
hensive hunter education campaign so that hunters
are not only informed, but are actively involved in
conservation of game species and their habitats.
Also identified as important was the need to conduct
public outreach so as to establish general public ac-
ceptance of any hunting program to be put in place.
The need to monitor and evaluate all elements of the
program, establish processes for permits, fees, and
testing, create appropriate infrastructure and funding
for the program these and many other items were
determined to be essential elements of a sustainable
hunting program.
Another value of the priorities list is to serve as a
checklist for any entities faced with the issue of es-
tablishing hunting programs. This would include
several Caribbean islands which are presently grap-
pling with this possibility.
The second phase of the workshop addressed
by the thematic working groups focused on the
second and third objectives: identifying mechanisms
to achieve the priority actions and listing successful
initiatives. The three working groups each ap-
proached these objectives differently. The group on
research and monitoring clarified some of the key
criteria and other issues of importance to decision-
making concerning a hunting program. A summary
of this group's conclusions is presented in Attach-
ment 2. The working group on laws, regulations,
licensing, and law enforcement chose to develop a
table presenting hunting data by island (Attachment
3). A summary of the discussions of the working
group on public outreach and hunter education was
not prepared.
Overall, the workshop was successful at demon-
strating both the breadth and the complexity of estab-
lishing a hunting program. It highlighted various
priority actions necessary for establishing such a pro-
gram which many of us might off-handedly presume
to be unimportant. Among these were the need to
develop public acceptance of the program, establish-


El Pitirre 12(1)


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Ifini,,, Workshop


ing an environmental education program for children
so that they understand how hunting might fit into
their society, and even the need to promote an envi-
ronmental ethic within the community a necessity
if people are not to abuse hunting laws and regula-
tions.
The workshop provided the opportunity to ex-
change ideas and focus our thinking but, as with
many issues, it provided no easy answers. Neverthe-
less, some Caribbean islands have clearly been more
successful than others at implementing specific pri-
ority actions. Consequently, there were lessons to be
learned from the interchange.


Finally, the workshop represented the most inten-
sive effort to date yet mounted in the Caribbean to
facilitate interchange among islands on what to many
of us is a difficult and thorny issue. Hopefully, this
workshop will be only the beginning of an on-going
dialogue that assists each island to more successfully
address this issue.


ATTACHMENT 1
PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR AN EFFECTIVE HUNTING PROGRAM


LAWS AND REGULATIONS
Determine the existence of adequate legislative
authorities
Authority over who can hunt
Authority over what is hunted
Authority to establish bans
Authority over when hunting takes place
Authority over where hunting can occur
Authority over hunting methods
Authority over penalties
Authority to regulate firearms, permits, and li-
censes
Authority to regulate resident vs. foreign hunters
Have a process for preparing regulations
Assure compliance with treaties and conventions
Establish mechanisms for public input

PERMITS AND LICENSING
Procedures
Infrastructure
Firearms Permit
Firearm Skills Testing
Fees

HUNTER EDUCATION AND INVOLVEMENT
Species identification manual
Rules and regulations information sheet
Comprehensive liens exam (bird identification,
habitat cons, exotics)
Outreach mechanism
Involve hunters (data collection, habitat manage-
ment)


Inform hunters of impacts
Study socio/economics of hunters

LAW ENFORCEMENT
Train Agents (Laws, Regulations, identification)
Patrols
Postings
Recovery of Fines and Penalties
Follow up of Prosecutions and Citations
Adequate authority and staffing

EVALUATION
Effectiveness of all programs (hunter education,
outreach, research, etc.)

COSTS, ORGANIZATION AND INFRASTRUCTURE
Coordination
Data management and interpretation
Tap existing efforts and resources (including Inter-
national)
Focal point (single contact for information)
Funding
Exchange of information and experiences
Training

RESEARCH
Species abundance
Species distribution
Breeding season
Population demographics (survivorship, mortality)
Impact on other species
Sensitive areas


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Iinin,,m Workshop


Trend analysis
Local movements
Migration
Assure continuity of research
Sustainable harvest/carrying capacity
Criteria to determine which species to hunt

MONITORING
Pre-hunting species survey
Hunt monitoring
Post-hunt species survey


Level of illegal hunting
Hunter success

HABITAT
Species/habitat conservation and improvement

PUBLIC OUTREACH
Public acceptance
Conservation ethic
Environmental education targeting kids; re: wise
resource use


ATTACHMENT 2

RESEARCH AND MONITORING SUBGROUP REPORT
HUNTING WORKSHOP (25 July 1998)
Held at Eleventh Annual Meeting of the SCO
Guadeloupe, French West Indies

JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE


To set research and monitoring priorities, the
group returned to the basic assumption underlying
sustainable harvest of game animals. We assumed
that sustainable harvest meant that populations could
be harvested without long-term damage to the target
population. Given this assumption, we proceeded to
identify the minimal biological and hunter informa-
tion necessary for a sustainable harvest of game ani-
mals. Below, listed in order of priority, are some of
the most important items which must be determined
before a species may be hunted:

1. The first stage is to establish a list of legally
hunted game animals for a country. It was recom-
mended that this list be re-evaluated regularly (i.e.,
yearly?) to determine if conditions related to list-
ing have changed. The following must be deter-
mined before a species is included on a hunting
list:

* The species must not be a single island endemic.
* The species must not be listed as globally threat-
ened.
* The species must not resemble a threatened spe-
cies in appearance.


* Will hunting detract from existing values of the
intended species? (e.g., a "tame" species may have
considerable ecotourism value, which would be
lost if hunted).

2. Distribution and abundance (animals and hunters):

* Is the game species widespread throughout the is-
land? (Widespread species may be more safely
hunted than those with limited geographic or habi-
tat distribution).
* Is the game species abundant? (Even measures of
relative abundance, obtained by presence absence
at a site may be helpful, although actual measures
of density or total population are ideal).
* How many people will hunt this species?
(Important to estimate potential hunting pressure
on the population).

3. When is the peak of breeding? (Hunting season
should be set so as not to overlap with the peak of
breeding).

The group ran out of time before the following
items were discussed and added to the three major


El Pitirre 12(1)


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Iini,,m, Workshop


points listed above. However, these items were listed
in sequence by one of the participants, and it is logi-
cal to assume that they would have been added to the
three major points above.

* Basic population biology yearly reproductive
output, yearly survival rate for adults versus ju-
veniles, age at first reproduction, sex ratios.
* Determine if sustainable harvest is theoretically
possible use the basic population biology data
in standard population computer models and see
if harvest is sustainable under different levels of
mortality resulting from hunting.


* Determine best monitoring methods if a popu-
lation theoretically can withstand some level of
harvest, then methods must be developed to
monitor the game species' populations (included
both wild and hunter harvested samples).

Assessment of knowledge available for game
species management on different islands of the is-
lands represented in the subgroup discussions, the
Bahamas, Cuba, Martinique, and Puerto Rico ap-
peared to have the best available knowledge for sus-
tainable wildlife harvest, but even these islands
lacked basic information needed to assure sustain-
able harvests.


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GOOD NEWS FROM JAMAICA: PROTECTION FOR HELLSHIRE HILLS


PETER A. ESPEUT1 AND ALLISON C. ALBERTS2
Executive Director, Caribbean Coastal Area Management (CCAA\) Foundation, 7 Lloyds Close, Kingston 8, Ja-
maica, W.L; and 2Head, Ecology Division, Center for Reproduction ofEndangered Species
Zoological Society of San Diego, P.O. Box 120551, San Diego, CA 92112 U.S.A.


Dear Friends,


Despite the demonstrations here in Jamaica,
last week the Hon. Easton Douglas, Minister of the
Environment and Housing, signed a declaration or-
der bringing into existence Jamaica's newest pro-
tected area. Already Jamaica has the Montego Bay
Marine Park, the Blue Mountain/John Crow Moun-
tain National Park, and the Negril Environmental
Protection Area. Last week on Earth Day, April 22,
parts of southern Clarendon and southern St. Cath-
erine (called Portland Bight) became a Protected
Area under Section Five of Jamaica's Natural Re-
sources Conservation Act.
In geographical terms, a bightt" is a body of wa-
ter between two headlands, and strictly speaking,
Portland Bight refers just to the body of water be-
tween the Hellshire Hills (to the west of Kingston)
and Portland Ridge (the part of Jamaica which sticks
out to the south). The area declared last week (called
the Portland Bight Protected Area [PBPA]) is much
larger, taking in 200 sq. miles (520 sq. km) of the
surrounding coastal land and all the marine area out
to the 200 metre depth contour (some 11 nautical
miles south of Portland Point) for a total area of 724
sq. miles (1876 sq. km). It is Jamaica's largest pro-
tected area so far 4.7% of Jamaica's land area and
47.6% of our island shelf.
The Portland Bight Protected Area is rich in wild-
life and natural areas; 41% of the land area is taken
up with the dry limestone forests of Hellshire, Port-
land Ridge, and Braziletto Mountain, rated as the
largest relatively intact forests of that type left in
Central America and the Caribbean (81 sq. miles,
210 sq. km). Of the 271 plant species identified in
the Hellshire Hills by Adams and DuQuesnay, 53
(19.6%) are found only in Jamaica (endemic), and
several are found only in the Hellshire Hills. The
Hellshire Hills is the last known habitat of the Jamai-
can iguana, an endemic species and Jamaica's largest
land animal. In addition, the Hellshire Hills is the
last remaining stronghold in Jamaica of the endemic
skink. Two endemic reptiles (a thunder snake and the


blue-tailed galliwasp), and an endemic frog are
found only on Portland Ridge. Jamaica's only en-
demic terrestrial mammal, the coney, is found in
Hellshire and Portland Ridge. Many endemic and
resident forest birds, as well as North American mi-
grant birds, add to the biodiversity.
Another 16% of the land area (32 sq. miles, 82
sq. km) is valuable wetlands, the largest almost con-
tinuous mangrove stands remaining in Jamaica
(about 48 km long). Within the wetlands are many
waterfowl, and healthy populations of our national
symbol, the crocodile.
These wetlands, together with extensive sea-grass
beds in the waters of the Bight, provide probably the
largest nursery area for fish, crustaceans, and mol-
lusks on the island and support 4,000 of Jamaica's
16,000 fishers and their families. Two of Jamaica's
largest fishing beaches Old Harbour Bay and
Rocky Point (each with over 1,000 fishers) fall
within the protected area, and there is a tremendous
opportunity to manage these fisheries to increase the
yields.
Parts of the mainland shoreline, as well as many
of the coral cays within the Bight, are major nesting
areas for sea birds and endangered sea turtles, in-
cluding hawksbill and green turtles. Manatees, which
were formerly numerous in the area, are now rare,
but we have a few.
The Portland Bight area will be a challenge to
environmental managers because of the many nega-
tive impacts from human activity. Fish habitat is
damaged daily by dynamite and drag nets (like beach
seines and trawlers), and unsustainable harvesting
equipment (such as small net and trap mesh) is com-
mon. Killing of turtles, manatees, and crocodiles is
common. Cutting of trees in the forests and man-
groves for charcoal, fuelwood, fence-posts and yam
sticks is causing serious and maybe irreparable dam-
age. Effluent from agriculture and industry is pollut-
ing both groundwater and aquifers.
Residents of the area are largely poor, and the
area desperately needs new economic opportunities
to uplift the standard and conditions of living. Pow-


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Protection for the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica ESPEUT AND ALBERTS


erful interests are eyeing the area for potentially de-
structive activities such as limestone mining, caustic
soda manufacturing, shrimp farming, solar salt pro-
duction, and coal-fired power generation. Hopefully,
the protection of the area will ensure that more envi-
ronmentally friendly options are pursued, including
those which allow more of the benefits of
"development" to remain with the residents of the
area. Sustainable nature and heritage community
tourism may well lead to more sustainable prosper-
ity, and Portland Bight may yet be the next big
growth area in Jamaica's tourism development.
Consistent with Jamaican government policy,
management of this new Protected Area will be dele-
gated to an NGO. Discussions are far advanced be-
tween the Jamaican government and the NGO I head
(the Caribbean Coastal Area Management Founda-
tion [CCAM]) toward this end.
CCAM has already prepared a management plan
which has been accepted by the government. It calls
for zoning of the PBPA into 28 special management


zones both marine and terrestrial including eight
"no fishing areas."
CCAM intends to implement its mandate along
co-management lines, and has already midwifed
three resource co-management councils (fisheries,
tourism, and communities) which have begun to take
up the reins of management. Resource-users includ-
ing recreational fishers and government officials
comprise these co-management institutions. The
regulations soon to be promulgated will reflect the
results of discussions in these Councils. Fifty Honor-
ary Game Wardens from among the fishers and ven-
dors are already empowered by the Governor-
General and trained.
Rejoice with us! It has taken six years to get here.
The real work, however, is yet to be done!


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The following message asks you to write to Colombian Government national authorities, seeking their support for efforts to
protect the marine and coastal biodiversity of the Archipelago of San Andres, Old Providence, and Santa Catalina which is
Colombia's only oceanic and West Indian Department (State).

CORALINA SEEKS SUPPORT FOR MARINE
BIODIVERSITY IN SAN ANDRES

BRUCE POTTER
Island Resources Foundation, bpotter@irf.org


The area is biologically very important, but de-
grading rapidly. The regional environmental protec-
tion agency, CORALINA, seeks Caribbean and
global pressure on the Colombian government to ac-
cede to protection proposals and assistance projects
which are currently being held up by the national
government. For example, the national government
is holding up routine approvals for GEF planning
(PDF) grant applications:

Reasons for this holdup by the national government
are complex and multifaceted, including:
the failure of continental authorities to re-
spond to small island needs (something we
all can understand);


the ethnic and cultural isolation of the indige-
nous (West Indian) culture from the main-
stream Hispanic culture of the national gov-
ernment;
the inability of national government officials
to adjust to the new autonomous stature of
the regional environmental corporations,
such as CORALINA.

We hope that firm but poite letters of sup-
port for the establishment of series of ma-
rine bodiversity protection schemes in the
Archipdeago of San Ancds, Old Provi-
dence, and Santa Catdina by CORALINA
will help to bredk loose some of these im-
ped ments.


A CALL FOR HELP FROM THE WESTERN CARIBBEAN


A little known and little studied area of the west-
ern Caribbean is rich in tropical marine biodiversity.
This area is the Archipelago of San Andr6s, Old
Providence, and Santa Catalina which is Colombia's
only oceanic and West Indian department.
The Archipelago has an insular area of 57 km2
including the 3 inhabited islands. The marine area
covers approximately 350,000 km2 with one of the
most extensive and productive reef systems in the
Atlantic, including 2 barrier reefs, 5 large atolls, and
several less well defined coral banks, extending for a
total length of over 500 km on the Lower Nicaraguan
rise. The reef formations are particularly complex as
a result of the open oceanic location and resulting
heavy wave action and turbulence to which they
have adapted. Many species of fire coral, lace coral,
black coral, organ pipe coral, and stony coral as well
as sea fans and soft corals are found throughout the
Archipelago.


The Southern Marine Area is made up of 2 atolls.
South-Southwest Cays are a nearly circular atoll with
a diameter of over 8 km and a windward peripheral
reef that extends for about 6 km. Courtown Cays
(also known as East-Southeast Cays) are a kidney-
shaped atoll a little more than 13 km in diameter
with reefs to the NE, E, and SE sides. Heavy wave
turbulence, swift currents, and an intricate system of
caves have created a unique and bizarre reef environ-
ment. The Northern Marine Area includes 3 atoll
areas. Quitasueqo Bank (locally known as Queena) is
the largest atoll structure in the region, as it is over
60 km long and from 10 to 20 km wide with a wind-
ward reef wall extending more than 40 km. Serrana
Bank is an extensive reef complex about 36 km long
and 15 km wide including the insular shelf. Ronca-
dor Bank is an elongated atoll, approximately 15 km
by 7 km. The peripheral reef is virtually continuous
on the windward side and extends for 12 km. These
cays and banks are some of the most beautiful places


El Pitirre 12(1)


Page 27









Marine Sanctuary for Isla San Andrds


in the world!
The well-developed reef systems enclose exten-
sive lagoons rich in seagrass beds. The coastal areas
of the 3 larger islands have the mangrove swamps
necessary to complete highly intact reef ecosystems.
167 species of fish belonging to 54 families typical
of ichthyofaunal tropical reef ecosystems have been
identified in the Archipelago. There are several en-
demic fish species, of which Gambusia aestiputeus
and Poecilia vetiprovidentiae are included in the
IUCN Red List. Commercially threatened species -
queen conch, spiny lobster, spotted spiny lobster, and
the giant grouper or jewfish are found throughout
the coastal waters and banks of the region.
Species of sea turtles that feed and nest through-
out the Archipelago include hawksbill, green, logger-
head, and leatherback. The species most commonly
found is the loggerhead, followed by the hawksbill.
However, in recent years, the number of all species
is declining dramatically. Beaches throughout the
region, most particularly in the outlying cays, offer
optimal sites for marine turtle reproduction and the
extensive seagrass beds are important feeding areas.
Migrant bird species such as falcons, ospreys, herons
and egrets frequent the marine region and colonies of
birds nest there. There is a sizable booby colony.
These areas are the traditional fishing grounds of
the artisinal fishermen of the Archipelago who have
been fishing this region since the colony of Provi-
dence Island was founded by England in 1623. The
native islander people of the Archipelago are of Eng-
lish-African descent and have a history, culture,
Protestant religious tradition, and Creole English lan-
guage consistent with that of the other West Indian
islands that were originally settled by the British.
Native islanders were granted the status of a legally-
recognized ethnic minority group within Colombia
by the National Constitution of 1991, at last giving
them the right to use English as an official language,
worship at Baptist and Adventist churches, present
petitions to the authorities, vote for their own gover-
nor and mayor, and all the other civil rights that were
accorded the Catholic/Latin majority. Prior to that
time, the discrimination against islanders culturally
and racially was severe.
However, their access to their traditional fisheries
has become WORSE in the recent past rather than
better. A Congressional law passed in 1993 called
for:
1) the establishment of a Departmental Fishing
Board that would issue fishing permits and
licenses within the Archipelago,
2) representation by native islanders on the De-
partmental Fishing Board, and


3) establishment of special marine and coastal
areas for the use of the artisinal fishermen.
This board has yet to function.
Fishing licenses are issued by the National Insti-
tute of Fishing and Aquaculture (INPA) in Bogota,
and the fees for all permits and licenses are collected
on the mainland. It would appear that there are NO
CONTROLS on the issuing of these permits, and
abuses are rampant. Nor are there any regulations
that protect habitat, limit size, restrict the amount of
catch or by-catch, or define closed seasons.
The commercial vessels which ply these banks
have almost no controls. They carry as many as a
hundred crew from places like Jamaica, Dominican
Republic, the mainland coast of Colombia, and Hon-
duras who fish without restriction. Many of these
boats are of foreign registry, and the majority fish for
weeks or months and land no product in the Archi-
pelago. Indeed, so little fish is available much of the
time in San Andr6s that it is difficult for the native
people to buy the fish, conch, and lobster that make
up their traditional diet. The use of fishing methods
such as drift nets, set nets, and drag nets is prohibited
throughout the region as well as the use of compres-
sors when diving, but these laws are only obeyed by
native fishermen. Nonetheless, local fishermen re-
port that they are frequently harassed by Colombian
military authorities while the commercial vessels are
left alone. The complexities of the situation are fur-
ther aggravated by the problem of drug trafficking
through the region.
When fishing the cays, banks, and outlying wa-
ters, native fishermen report that the multi-national
boats take anything they can catch or gather, includ-
ing using turtles as shark bait, harvesting booby
eggs, killing quantities of by-catch, and cleaning out
conch and lobster beds regardless of size or spawn.
Local people report that conch sold are frequently so
immature that 15 are required to make up one pound.
A few weeks ago divers from a single vessel took
more than 30,000 lbs. of queen conch in 2 days; a
not unusual occurrence according to local fishermen.
They also use long-lines and throw anchors without
consideration of destruction to the reef or sea bot-
tom. Given the shallowness of the banks in particu-
lar at Quitasueqo vessels frequently run aground,
causing extensive habitat damage. The fishermen
also report that fishing vessels that have caught their
limit (i.e., according to the amount their boat can
carry, since there are no legal limits) pass their per-
mits to vessels waiting outside the banks who then
fish using the same permit. In this way, a single per-
mit will be used by as many as 3 or 4 vessels.
The Colombian national environment system


El Pitirre 12(1)


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Marine Sanctuary for Isla San Andres


(SINA) has set up a system of decentralized Re-
gional Autonomous Corporations (CARs) to manage
renewable resources and the environment throughout
the nation. The CAR for the Archipelago The Cor-
poration for the Sustainable Development of the Ar-
chipelago of San Andr6s, Old Providence, and Santa
Catalina, CORALINA has developed a project
with the support of the artisinal fishing cooperatives
to set up a regional marine reserve system which in-
cludes 4 separate MPAs : San Andr6s barrier reef
and coastal waters, Old Providence and Santa Cata-
lina barrier reef and coastal waters, southern archi-
pelago off-shore cays and marine area, and northern
archipelago off-shore banks and marine area. The
project includes demarcation of management areas
such as no-entry and no-take zones (ecological re-
serves, research areas), limited use zones (dive and
snorkel sites, monitoring areas), and buffer zones.
An unusual component of the MPA project as de-
signed by CORALINA is the delimitation with ac-
tive participation of the native fishermen of sizable
traditional use zones to protect the rights of the ar-
tisanal fishermen and restore their fisheries. The
management plans for the MPAs would utilize a va-
riety of strategies to strive for restoration and maxi-
mum sustainable use of the region's fisheries.
CORALINA, in technical partnership with Island
Resources Foundation, has applied for a GEF grant
with the World Bank as implementing agency. Addi-
tionally, the Center for Marine Conservation has ex-
pressed their interest in working with CORALINA
on marine conservation projects for the region. COR-
ALINA is working hard to develop and implement
strategies of sustainable fisheries management and
marine conservation for the area of their jurisdiction.
However, in order to make further progress towards
this goal, they need the approval of the Colombian
national government. Colombia has ratified relevant
international instruments including the Convention
on Biodiversity (CBD), the UN Convention on the
Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), and the Cartagena Con-
vention. The action plan of the Jakarta Mandate in
which the program for implementing the Convention
on Biodiversity with respect to coastal and marine
biodiversity is outlined calls for the development of
protected areas, sustainable fisheries management,
and recognition and protection of traditional sea ten-
ure.


To implement the directives of the CBD and the
Jakarta Mandate, the IUCN Global Marine Initiative
promotes the establishment of a global system of
representative marine protected areas. The IUCN has
divided the world's oceanic area into 18 representa-
tive marine regions of which the wider Caribbean is
region #7. Although the Eastern Caribbean has a
number of MPAs, there is a serious lack of marine
protected areas in the Western Caribbean. With the
exception of a handful of coastal and estuarine re-
serve areas along the Atlantic coast of Central Amer-
ica, there are no MPAs in this section of the Carib-
bean.
Subscribers to this list can help CORALINA and
the native people of the Archipelago in their mission
to recover and protect the biodiversity of their terri-
torial waters by writing or sending a fax to both the
Ministry of the Environment and the National De-
partment of Planning urging them to support COR-
ALINA in the establishment of the marine reserve
system and demanding that they take immediate ac-
tion to stop the unregulated over-exploitation of the
fisheries of the outlying cays and banks in the north-
ern and southern regions of the Archipelago.
These letters should be sent to:
Dr. Juan Mayr
Minister of the Environment
Calle 37, No. 8-40
Bogota, Colombia
fax : your international access code + 57-1-
288-9892


Dr. Jaime Ruiz, Director
National Planning Department
Calle 26, No. 13-19
Bogota, Colombia
fax : your international access
281-3348


code + 57-1-


Please send e-mail copies ofyour messages to Island
Resources Foundation and COR-
ALINA Island
Resources Foundation is actively 'I 7 ...i ir,, COR-
ALINA 's i. i. ', i .--we are not disinterested in the out-
come please help.... Bruce Potter


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NORMAN ISLAND LEASED TO VINCI FOUNDATION


BRUCE POTTER
Island Resources Foundation


Norman Island deemed by many as Stevenson's
"Treasure Island" has been leased, in its entirety, to
the Virgin Islands Nature Conservation Institute
(VINCI), a foundation established for the conserva-
tion of native flora, fauna, and marine life, the resto-
ration of local ecology, and the promotion of educa-
tion and research furthering the conservation of na-
ture.
In 1750, a pirate by the name of Owen Lloyd al-
legedly buried some treasure on Norman Island. In
fact a large amount of gold and silver was found by
the Acting Lieutenant Governor of Tortola, Abraham
Chalwill on the island after the pirate and his retinue
had been killed by the Spaniards.
VINCI's immediate plans for the island include
removal of livestock (primarily goats) to accommo-
date reforestation with native trees and revegetation
of native ground cover and shrubs.
Further development plans include building a
small natural history museum, with both public ex-
hibits and a research facility, and planting a botanical
garden highlighting the rich and diverse native flora
of the Virgin Islands. All construction will be on the
"design with nature" principle utilizing up-to-date
environmentally sensitive materials and technolo-
gies.
In addition to the museum, new construction
clustered near the existing beach bar restaurant (Billy
Bones) will include amenities aimed at eco-tourism.
There will also be some historical restoration of is-
land ruins. Trails and signs designed to generate un-
derstanding of ecology, wildlife, and geology will be
developed. A dock will be constructed far south of
the current beach. Plans will be made to make the
Island and museum accessible to school children and


college students.
The Island Sun has learnt that in its initial stages,
the VINCI project on Norman Island will be directed
by Dr. James (Skip) Lazell of the Conservation
Agency. Dr. Lazell has worked on conservation in
the BVI continuously since 1980 and is known inter-
nationally for his direction of scientific activities at
Guana Island, to which he brought hundreds of sci-
entists over the past twenty years.
Norman Island has a rich history and an enor-
mous potential for environmental restoration. The
VINCI Foundation told this newspaper that the pro-
ject ensures a secure environmental future for the
island.
Asked what will happen to Billy Bones Restau-
rant and Beach Bar, a Vinci spokesperson said that
Billy Bones Restaurant and Beach Bar is an attrac-
tion that benefits eco-tourism. It is leased to its pre-
sent managers, Valerie and David Sims, who them-
selves have a substantial commitment to the island's
environmental future. It is anticipated that the restau-
rant and bar will continue to prosper.
This newspaper also asked, how will the goats be
removed? VINCI will ask the goats' owners to re-
move them in a reasonable period of time. If they are
not removed, VINCI will encourage others to come
and remove them.
According to the Foundation, the museum will be
located on the knoll south of the beach and Billy
Bones Restaurant and Beach Bar. Normal Island is
owned by Audubon Holdings, Ltd., which is directed
by a group of BVI residents and Belongers, includ-
ing the Jarecki family of Guana Island.

Submit reply directly by mailing other-
newswire@sidsnet.org.


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CALL FOR PAPERS


NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL
CONGRESS

SHOREBIRD SYMPOSIUM
8 October 1999
Monterrey, Mexico


We are pleased to invite you to participate in the
Shorebird Symposium to be conducted on 8 October
1999 at the 6th Neotropical Ornithological Congress
(4-10 October 1999) in Monterrey, Mexico. The
special symposium will be organized by the Western
Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network (WHSRN)
in cooperation with the Instituto Tecnologico de
Estudios Superiores de Monterrey (ITESM) and the
Consejo Internacional para la Conservacion de las
Aves. Seccion Mexico (CIPA-MEX), organizers of
the congress.
WHSRN invites abstracts for oral and poster pres-
entations on shorebird biology, ecology, and conser-
vation relevant to the Western Hemisphere. Special
preference will be given to presentations that address
the following topics: a) Identification of shorebird
population limiting factors, b) Habitat use, quality,
and dynamics, c) Life-history research with conser-
vation implications, d) Evaluation of habitat manage-
ment practices, e) Global climate change and shore-
birds, and f) Research on monitoring techniques.

SUBMISSION GUIDELINES

Abstracts should be no longer than 300 words and
must include 1) title, 2) author(s)/presenter & affilia-
tion, 3) statement of objectives, 4) methods, 5) re-
sults, and 6) discussion/ conclusions. Abstracts may


be submitted by mail on paper, on a 3.5 inch com-
puter diskette formatted in DOS, or by e-mail as an
attached document. Electronically formatted ab-
stracts must be in either MS Word or ASCII/RTF
format. No MAC formatted disks can be accepted.
All submissions must include the authors full name,
title, postal address (including country and postal
codes), telephone, fax numbers, and e-mail address.
All authors will be notified of receipt of their ab-
stracts. Acceptance of presentations will be made
until the session is filled and authors will be notified
once their paper is accepted or declined. All ac-
cepted authors will be asked to submit a complete
printed version of their presentation no later than 1
September 1999 for distribution and inclusion in the
Proceedings. Guidelines will be provided. Papers
will be organized into associated themes for presen-
tation during the Symposium.
Please submit proposed abstracts (or letters stating
your intention to submit) to: Jim Corven, Manomet
Center for Conservation Sciences, P.O. Box 1770,
Manomet, MA 02345, U.S.A. E-mail:
jmcorven@manomet.org For further information on
the Congress visit the Website: http://www-cesctecl.
mty.itesm/vicon


REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE

INFORMATION ON SNOWY PLOVER SIGHTINGS REQUESTED


We are compiling data to describe the distribution
and abundance of Snowy Plovers in the eastern
United States, Caribbean, and the Bahama Islands.
Sightings can be recent or historic. They can include
nesting birds, wintering birds, migrants, vagrants, or
any other sighting records of Snowy Plovers. If pos-
sible, please send information by 1 July. Please con-


tact Leah Gorman, Department of Fisheries and
Wildlife, Oregon State University, FRESC-3200 SW
Jefferson Way
Corvallis, Oregon 97331, USA; e-mail: gor-
manl@fsl.orst.edu; telephone: (541) 750-7433; fax:
(541) 758-7761.


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MEETINGS OF INTEREST


NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CON-
GRESS//VI CONGRESS DE ORNITOLOGIA
NEOTROPICAL, 4-10 Oct 1999, Monterrey
and/y Saltillo, Mexico. Inquiries on arrangements
to hold symposia or other meetings that relate to
the study and conservation of Neotropical avi-
fauna in conjunction with the VI NOC are wel-
come// Personas interesadas en organizer simpo-
sios u otras reuniones relacionadas al studio y
conservation de avifauna neotropical en coordi-
nacion con el VI CON pueden contactar con:
Ernesto C. Enkerlin, Chair of Organizing Com-
mittee; Centro de Calidad Ambiental; Sucursal de
Correos J, Monterrey, N.L.64849, Mexico; Fax:
52-8-359-6280; Email: enkerlin@campus.mty.
itesm.mx, Web Site:
Ihulp \ \ \\-cestecl.mty.itesm.mx/vicon/

BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL XXII WORLD
CONFERENCE, 14-17 October 1999, Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia.

1999 INTERNATIONAL WATCHABLE WILD-
LIFE CONFERENCE, 18-22 October 1999, Ft.
Meyers, Florida, USA. Information can be ob-
tained from Julie Brashhears, Telephone: 850-
922-0664; e-mail: brashej@gfc.state.fl.us.

SCALE AND ACCURACY FOR WILDLIFE
HABITAT MODELING SYMPOSIUM, 18-22
October 1999, Snowbird, Utah, USA. For infor-


mation contact Kathy Merk, Idaho Cooperative
Fish and Wildlife Research Unit. Department of
Fish and Wildlife, University of Idaho, Moscow,
Idaho 83844-1141, USA. Telephone: 208-885-
2750; e-mail: kmerk@uidaho.edu.

RAPTOR RESEARCH FOUNDATION 1999
MEETING, 3-7 November 1999. Araiza Inn or
Los Arcos hotel, La Paz, Baja California, Mex-
ico. For information, contact Ricardo Rodriguez
Estrella, Local Chair, Centro de Investigaciones
Biologicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR), km 1 carr.
San Juan de la Costa, P. O. Box 128, La Paz,
Baja California Sur, 23000 Mexico. Telephone:
112-536-33; Fax: 112-553-43 or 536-25.

WATERBIRD SOCIETY formerlyy Colonial Water-
birds Society) annual meeting, 8-12 November
1999, Congress Center, Grado, Italy. Information
can be obtained from the Web Page hlp "\ \
mp2-pwrc.usgs.gov/cws/italmeet.htm.

23RD INTERNATIONAL ORNITHOLOGICAL
CONGRESS, 11-17 August 2002, Beijing,
China. Information can be obtained via e-mail:
infocenter@ioc.org.cn, via the internet at http://
www.ioc.org.cn, or via the home page of the
22nd congress at hItp \%\ % .ioc.org.za.


JEROME (JERRY) A. JACKSON has accepted an en-


NEWS OF MEMBERS


dowed Chair as Whitaker Eminent Scholar and Di-
rector of the Whitaker Center for Scienc, Mathemat-
ics, and Technology Education at Florida Gulf Coast
University, Ft. Meyers, Florida. His new address is:
Whitaker College, College of Arts & Sciences, Flor-
ida Gulf Coast University, 10501 FGCU Blvd.
South, Ft. Meyers, Florida 33965-6565, USA. Tele-
phone: 941-590-7157; Fax: 941, 590-7200; e-mail:
picus@fgcu.edu.

SUSAN KOENIG has completed her doctoral program


at Yale University. She is now in Jamaica as the Ex-
ecutive Director of the Windsor Research Station,
Sherwood Content P. O., Trelawny, Jamaica, West
Indies. Telephone: 876-997-3832; Fax: 876-954-
2564; e-mail: windsor@cwjamaica.com.


El Pitirre 12(1)


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ABC DECEMBER 1999 CONSERVATION GRANT AWARDS WILL EMPHASIZE BIRDS IN
AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND PARROT CONSERVATION PROJECTS


American Bird Conservancy announces that it will give special attention to proposals on the topic of Birds
in Agricultural Landscapes' during its December 1999 Small Grants round. Please note that these grants apply
only to projects in Latin America and the Caribbean and that the deadline for receipt of proposals is 15 Septem-
ber 1999. Notes on specific program priorities appear below along with full application guidelines which can
also be obtained, together with application forms from ABC's website at www.abcbirds.org or by regular mail
from American Bird Conservancy, P.O. Box 249, The Plains, VA 20198.
To follow up on last year's grant round, ABC working again in partnership with World Parrot Trust will also
consider parrot conservation projects both from current grantees and from new applicants. ABC has produced a
list of priority species for conservation action, and proposals addressing the needs of these species are particu-
larly encouraged. Please find below the list of species which is based on the needs identified in the forthcoming
IUCN Parrot Action Plan.
Although primary emphasis will be given to these themes, as usual ABC will also consider proposals for
other bird conservation programs. The aim of these grant awards is to stimulate in situ field conservation pro-
jects in Latin America and the Caribbean undertaken by or involving local conservation groups and individuals.
Most grants will be for amounts below the maximum of $5,000. ALL proposals should use the general applica-
tion form below.


BIRDS IN AGRICULTURAL LANDSCAPES

ABC seeks proposals the results of which will provide information on innovative approaches to farming
methods and techniques that improve land-use while increasing or improving habitat for birds. We are also in-
terested in projects aimed to test hypotheses to examine the importance of different land-use patterns for bird
populations and communities, as well as proposals for implementing training programs based on models of al-
ternative agriculture beneficial to birds and other elements of biodiversity.
Proposals are welcomed for projects which assess the benefits to birds of different land-use patterns or
farming techniques by using comparative surveys of bird diversity. We encourage researchers to concentrate on
evaluating remaining populations of species in agricultural landscapes which are native to the original primary
habitats in those areas, as well as to estimate overall species diversity and bird abundance. Ideally, surveys
should compare study sites with differing land-use techniques in nearby areas at similar altitudes and/or life-
zones and, hopefully, to examine gradients of disturbance from pristine habitats through fragmented and secon-
dary habitats to fully farmed agricultural and monocultural areas. We expect proposals which are carried out
alongside economic assessments of differential quality of living for farmers in the study areas, resulting in spe-
cific recommendations for land use and new techniques that can improve carrying capacity for birds, and either
reduce farmer's work, or increase crop yield or both. It is also desirable that the projects contain community
outreach components to ensure that results are communicated to those individuals who can benefit from acting
on the findings.
Some examples of the kind of projects we are willing to support on this round of the Small Grants are:
Bird community composition and structure in heterogeneous agricultural landscapes as opposed to
monocultures,
Evaluation of the importance for birds of pastures mixed with forest patches, living fences, and pro-
tected watersheds,
Estimates of bird diversity in different kinds of poly-cultural organic systems and,
Comparisons of bird populations in agricultural systems under different regimes of pesticide use.

Special consideration will be given to new ideas and innovations as alternatives to degrading production
systems.


LIST OF WEST INDIES PARROT SPECIES OF SPECIAL INTEREST


El Pitirre 12(1)


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ABC Conservation Grants


Cuban Parakeet i, ,l ,1 euops
Hispaniolan Parakeet i,.r,, i, chloroptera
Black-billed Parrot Amazona agilis
Puerto Rican Parrot Amazona vittata
St Lucia Parrot Amazona versicolor
Red-necked Parrot Amazona arausiaca
St Vincent Parrot Amazona guildingii
Imperial Parrot Amazona imperialism


GRANT APPLICATION AND GUIDELINES

American Bird Conservancy has a small endowment that allows it to make a few grants each year for pro-
jects related to avian conservation activity in Latin America and the Caribbean. Any project to be funded must
be located in the neotropics, involve active participation of local scientists, and have a strong, direct conserva-
tion component.
General priorities are:
*Conservation actions for threatened species
*Research on threatened species
*Conservation actions for threatened habitats containing significant numbers of threatened or endangered
species
*Research on threatened habitats containing significant numbers of threatened or endangered species
*Joint conservation or management efforts by Latin Americans/Caribbeans and those from outside the re-
gion on threatened habitats containing significant numbers of threatened or endangered species
*Training and environmental education

These are guidelines and are not inflexible. The Council will consider exceptions when justified on a con-
servation basis.


THE PROPOSAL

We receive many more proposals than we can fund. Proposals are more likely to be funded if they explain:
1. Why your project is important
2. Exactly what you are going to do
3. How you are going to do it
4. What effect it is going to have
5. Why your budget is the most efficient use of the funds

We will welcome a second proposal from someone who has done well before. Grants provided in recent
years have ranged from $100 to $5,000.
Proposals should be submitted using the guidelines outlined in this application form. Proposals are accepted
in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
The following criteria for project development and proposal submission should be observed:
The proposal must demonstrate a clear conservation objective
Killing of birds is not allowed
Transport for project personnel from outside Latin America and the Caribbean will not be funded
The project budget may include reasonable amounts for equipment purchase, salaries, assistance,
transportation, field expenses, etc.
Proposals should be accompanied by (or followed by) a letter of support or review from at least one
of the following: national scientific institute, university, or organization; national or international
conservation organization; governmental agency involved in research and/or conservation; well-


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ABC Conservation Grants


known national ornithologist or conservationist

Proposals should be sent to:
Luis Naranjo
Director of International Programs
American Bird Conservancy
P.O. Box 249
The Plains, VA 20198, USA

DEADLINE: 15 September 1999 for consideration in December 1999.

The award: If you are awarded a grant, you are expected to furnish us with an accounting of how the funds
were spent and, at the end of the grant period, to produce a report explaining what you did and how we can
evaluate your success in fulfilling your objectives. If you do not provide a report and accounting, you will not
be eligible for further funding from ABC.



GRANT APPLICATION COVER SHEET

Name of Applicant:
Date Submitted:
Address of Applicant:



Country:
Telephone: Fax: E-Mail:
Names and contact details for other project officers:
Title of Project:
Amount Requested:
Project Start Date: End Date:
Where did you hear about the Grants Program:
Have you applied for funding before?
Have you been funded by ICBP or ABC in the past?
Names of two referees from whom you have requested letters of support (these can be sent directly to ABC or
attached):
1. 2.
Please attach a resume or curriculum vitae to your proposal.

PROPOSAL GUIDELINES

Summary of Project: (Please limit your narrative to two pages.)
Describe the objectives of your project and its importance to bird conservation.
How will this work advance related work that has already been done?
Describe your methods and expected outcomes.
How best can the project be evaluated?
What institutional support (other than financial) do you have for this project?
Provide a map showing your project location.
BUDGET INFORMATION

Please provide us with information on not only the amount of funding you are requesting from ABC, but also


El Pitirre 12(1)


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ABC Conservation Grants


the overall budget for your project and program.
I. Amount requested from ABC. Detail by line-item the amount you are requesting (see below). Please foot-
note any line-item you feel needs explanation.
II. Cash from Other Sources. Detail by line-item the amount you are receiving from other funding sources.
Please indicate the names of the other funding sources and whether these funds have been received or
applied for (see below).
III. In-Kind. Detail by line-item any in-kind equipment or services you are receiving for this project. Please
indicate at the bottom of this form the sources of these in-kind contributions.
Is this project a part of a larger program? What percentage of funding does this request comprise
of the total?
Please provide a budget matrix showing amount requested from ABC, cash from other sources, and in-kind
contributions using the following categories:
Salary
Overhead/Benefits
Travel
Equipment
Supplies
Printing
Contractual
Services
Miscellaneous
Cash from Other Sources (state whether pledged or applied for):






In-Kind Contributions (state whether pledged or applied for):






Other remarks:





GRANT APPLICATION CHECK LIST
Names and addresses of all researchers listed on Cover Sheet
Telephone and fax and e-mail contact numbers listed on Cover Sheet
Amount requested listed on Cover Sheet and budget included
Project start and end dates listed on Cover Sheet
Letters of support attached or requested from referee to be sent to ABC Budget information form
completed
Resume or curriculum vitae attached


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RESEARCH AWARDS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGISTS


The Lincoln Park Zoo has two available sources of funding, the Scott Neotropic Fund and Africa/Asia Fund
awards, which have awarded over 126 grants in 19 countries since 1986. The announcement is as follows:
The Lincoln Park Zoo Scott Neotropic and Africa/Asia Funds support field research in conservation biology
around the world. The Scott Neotropic fund focuses on projects undertaken in Latin America and the Carib-
bean.
The fund emphasizes the support of graduate students and other young researchers, particularly those from
Latin America. Since 1986, the fund has awarded over 126 grants in 19 countries. Each fund supports projects
of young conservation biologists and between five and 15 projects for each fund are supported each year.
The fund awards are seldom greater than US$7500, and most awards fall in the range of $3000-$6000. Ini-
tial support is for up to 12 months from the date of award, and the maximum duration of support is two years.
The current deadline for receipt of Scott Neotropic proposals is 1 September, and Africa/Asia proposals have
no deadline for 1999.
For additional information and application procedures go to www.lpzoo.com, email steveed@ix.netcom.
com, or write to: LINCOLN PARK ZOO SNF/AA FUNDS, Steven D. Thompson, Director of Conservation
and Science, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL 60614.








ELECTION OF SOCIETY EXECUTIVE OFFICERS

The nominating committee presents the following individuals for nomination to executive office in the Soci-
ety of Caribbean Ornithology:

President Eric Carey
Vice President Maurice Anseleme
Secretary Ann Sutton
Treasurer Rosemarie Gnam

Ballots for elections of executive officers will be mailed out to all dues-paying members and are to be re-
turned to: Dr. Joseph M. Wunderle, P.O. Box 507, Palmer, Puerto Rico 00721, USA.


El Pitirre 12(1)


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SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS


SUBMITTAL OF MANUSCRIPTS, ANNOUNCEMENTS, AND OTHER MATERIALS TO EL PITIRRE,
THE BULLETIN OF THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

Form of submission
Hard Copy
One copy on 8.5" x 11" paper.
Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.

Faxes
Discouraged.
If this is your best option, please ensure that the type used is larger than 12 point.
Fax number: 318-274-3870.

Electronic mail
Encouraged
Submit as ASCII ("Text Only") files. Please do not translate to other software languages. Also, please
avoid transmittal of attachment files. A hard-copy back-up should be mailed to the editor.
E-mail address of editor: wileyjw@alpha0.gram.edu

Floppy disk
Preferred
Submit in PC or Macintosh environment, preferably using WordPerfect or MS Word software. A 3.5" disk
is preferred. Submit a hard copy with the computer disk.
Mail to Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.

All Regional Reports, reports on workshops, resolutions, and other Society matters must be submitted
through electronic mail (with hard-copy back-up sent through the mail) or as a file on a floppy disk

Language
Contributions can be in English, Spanish, or French. Translation of the entire text in an alternate language
is encouraged. At a minimum, the abstract of longer manuscripts should be provided in at least one of the
other two languages.

Format of submitted materials
All submitted materials must be typed, and hard copies must be clearly legible.
The manuscript should conform to usage in recent issues of El Pitirre.
Double spaced all written materials, including tables and figure legends.

For scientific papers and notes:
Number pages through the Literature Cited.
Do not hyphenate words at the ends of typewritten lines.
Type tables separate from the text.
Type figure legends consecutively on a separate page.
Title page (numbered) should contain full title, and authors' names and addresses at the time of
the research. The present address, if different, should be indicated as a footnote. The title page
also includes running heads (less than 36 characters), and the name and contact information for
the author who can be most easily contacted.
An Abstract (less than 5% of paper length) should precede each longer article. It should summarize
important premises, summarize findings, and give conclusions.
Text Citations should include the author and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith
et al. 1992). Multiple citations should be arranged chronologically.
Acknowledgments precede the Literature Cited.
Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU's Check-list


El Pitirre 12(1)


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SUGGESTIONS TO AUTHORS (CONTINUED)


* Scientific and common names are given at first mention and, for birds, follow the AOU's Check-list
of .. HM American Birds, 7th ed. (1998).
* Measurements should be in metric units.
* Use continental dating (e.g., 14 October 1992) and the 24-hour clock (e.g., 0800 and 2135).
* Tables and figures should not duplicate material in the text or in each other. Each table requires a
short heading, including descriptive information that would answer the reader's questions of what,
where, and when.
* Literature Cited: Follow the most recent issue of the bulletin for style. In general, format will follow
the following style:

Journal citation
Include full journal name, volume, and inclusive page numbers; e.g.,

Levy, C. 1997. Nesting of Euneornis campestris, the Orangequit. Pitirre 10(1):30-31.

Book or report
Include publisher and place of publication; e.g.,

Hochbaum, H. A. 1959. The Canvasback on a prairie marsh, 2nd ed. Stackpole Books, Harris-
burg, Pennsylvania.)

Chapter in book
Include editors) name(s), inclusive pages of chapter, book or report title, publisher, and place of
publication; e.g.,

Oring, L. W., and R. D. Sayler. 1992. The mating system of waterfowl. Pages 190-213 in Ecol-
ogy and management of breeding waterfowl (B. D. J. Batt, Ed.). Univ. Minnesota Press, Min-
neapolis.


El Pitirre 12(1)

























CONTENTS (Continued from front cover)

EVALUACION DE TRES COMUNIDADES DE AVES TERRESTRES EN EL PARQUE NATURAL ALEJANDRO
DE HUMBOLDT DURANTE LA RESIDENCIA INTERNAL 1996-1997 Y 1997-1998. Eneider Pdrez,
Alejandro Llanes, Pedro Blanco, Luis Melidn, Freddy Rodriguez, Gerardo Bege y David Maceira 17
EVALUACION DE LA DURACION DE LOS PUNTOS DE CONTEO DE AVES PARA LA RESERVE NATURAL DE
SIBONEY. Freddy Rodriguez Santana y Raima Cantillo Ardevol ............................................... 17
COMPOSICION Y ALGUNOS ASPECTS ECOLOGICOS DE LOS BANDOS MIXTOS DE AVES EN CUATRO
LOCALIDADES DEL ORIENTE CUBANO. Freddy Rodriguez Santana ........................ .................. 18
CARACTERISTICAS FUNDAMENTALS DE LA ORNITOFAUNA DEL MACIZO MONTANOSO
NIPE-SAGUA-BARACOA. Freddy Rodriguez Santana y Luis Omar Melian Herndndez ................. 18
VERTEBRADOS DEL PARQUE NATURAL BAHIA DE NARANJO. Freddy Rodriguez Santana ..................... 18
REPORT DE UN CHOQUE DE UN BANDO DE LONCHURA MALACCA (AVES: ESTRILIDAE) CONTRA UN
EDIFICIO. Freddy Rodriguez Santana y Luis 0. Melian Herndndez ............................................ 18
CARACTERIZACION FLORISTICA Y FAUNISTICAS DE CAYO JUDAS, BAHIA DE LOS PERROS, CIEGO
DE AVILA. Elieser Socarrds Torres, Odey Martinez Llanes y Raudel Marrero Herndndez ............... 18
STUDIO PRELIMINARY DE LA FAUNA VERTEBRAL DEL MACIZO MONTANOSO NAJASA, CAMAGIEY
Y CENSO PRELIMINARY DE LAS AVES EN LA SIERRITA, PENINSULA NUEVAS GRANDES, MACIZO
MONTANOSO, NUEVITAS, CAMAGIEY. Rend W Vilat6 Viamontes ............................................... 19
INDICADORES DE DIVERSIDAD BIOLOGICAL DE ANFIBIOS, REPTILES Y AVES DEL MACIZO MONTANOSO
NIPE-SAGUA-BARACOA, CUBA. Nicasio Vina Ddvila, Nicasio Vina Bayes, Ansel Fong Grillo,
Freddy Rodriguez Santana y Luis Melian Herndndez ..................................... .................... 19
HUNTING WORKSHOP SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY. HerbertA. Rutlce ............................... 20
ATTACHMENT 1: PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR AN EFFECTIVE HUNTING PROGRAM ..................................... 21
ATTACHMENT 2: RESEARCH AND MONITORING SUBGROUP REPORT HUNTING WORKSHOP (25 JULY
1998), HELD AT ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE SCO, GUADELOUPE, FRENCH WEST INDIES.
Josep h M W underle .......................................... .... ........................ ............................... . .. 22
ATTACHMENT 3: SOME INFORMATION ABOUT HUNTING REGULATIONS IN THE WEST INDIES.
Eric H ansen ......................... ...................................................... ................. 24
ANNOUNCEMENTS
GOOD NEWS FROM JAMAICA: PROTECTION FOR HELLSHIRE HILLS ..................................... ......... 25
CORALINA SEEKS SUPPORT FOR MARINE BIODIVERSITY IN SAN ANDRES .......................................... 27
NORMAN ISLAND LEASED TO VINCI FOUNDATION. Bruce Potter ...................................... ......... 30
CALL FOR PAPERS: NEOTROPICAL ORNITHOLOGICAL CONGRESS, SHOREBIRD SYMPOSIUM, 8 OCTOBER
1999, M ON TERREY M EX ICO .................................................................................. ......... .... .. 3 1
REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE: INFORMATION ON SNOWY PLOVER SIGHTINGS REQUESTED ............................. 31
M EE T IN G S O F IN T ER E ST ........................................................................................................ ..................... 32
N EW S OF M EM BERS .................................................................................................................... .............. 32
ABC DECEMBER 199 CONSERVATION GRANT AWARDS ............... .......................................................... 33
RESEARCH AWARDS FOR CONSERVATION BIOLOGISTS ............... ............................................................ 37
E LECTION O F SO CIETY O FFICERS ..................................................................................................................... 37
SU G G E STIO N S TO A U TH O R S ............................................................................................................................. 38


SOCIEDAD DE LA ORNITOLOGIA CARIBENA


SEL PITIRRE

1 SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
^, Spring 1999 Vol. 12, No. 1




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