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Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00034
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo, Calif.
Publication Date: 1998
Frequency: bimonthly
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100143
Volume ID: VID00034
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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Succeeded by: Journal of Caribbean Ornithology


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Spring 1998 Vol. 11, No.


M marshall Iliff ................ ......................... .............. ............... ....... .......... ..................... 1
NOTEWORxY BItRD RECORDS FOR TRINIDAD & TOBAGO. 1995-1996. Floyd E. Hayes ......................................... 5
W illiam S drez ...................................................................... ..... ......................... .................... ..................... 11
Pedro Reguldo Ru ......................... ......... ............... ........... ......................................... .... 14
Pedro Regalado Rui............. ................................ ...................................... ....14
Kent P. M cFarland ..... ......................................... ............ .. ............................................. 15
Christopher Brown ........ ..................... ..................... ........................ ...................... 17
Steven C. Lana and Christopher Brown ............................... ............................................ 18
WORKSHOP HELD IN NASSAU, BAHAMAS, 13-15 Nov mBER 1997. Lisa G. Sorenson and Eric Carey ...................... 19
REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE. .... .. ...... .................... ......... ....... ...... .......................................... 22
DE CUBA RtlAIJ.ADOS POR RAAFAWl. PARD Jame W. W ey ............................................... ................................ 23
MunEFING ANNOUNCEMEr: ISISA -International Small Islands Studies Association Islands V ......................... 24
NEWS rrEM: THwFn OF ENDANGERED AifAZONA LEUCOCFJ'AL LEUCOCEPHAA ....................................... ......................... 26
MammIN s OF INTEREST ........................... ............ ......... ...... ............. ............ 27
1998 MEETIN OF THE SOCrrEY OF CARIBBEAN ORNI'IAOtl.(X ...................... ... .........-............ .................. 27
1998 ANNUAL SCO MEETING IN GUADELOUPE .......................................................... 30
BOOK ANNOUNCEIMENT GUIDE TO THE BIRDs nFTF WR.Fr IN'I Is ............................ ............................ 31



EDTrOR: James W. Wiley, 2201 AshlandSt., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, U.S.A. Telephone: (318) 274-2499; Fax: (318)
274-3870; e-mail: wiieyjw@aipha0.gram.edu
AssISrANr EDITOR: Barbara Keesee, Grambling Cooperative Wildlife Project, P . Box 841. Grambling State
University, Grambling, Louisiana 71245, U.S.A.

News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben scr enviadas al editor para inclusion en el boletfn.


PKR IDENT: Mr. Roeland E. de Kort
VtCE PREslIKNTr: Mr. Eric Carey
SECRETARY: Dr. Marcia Mundle
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam

The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization whose goals are to promote the scientific study and
conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island ornithologists and those elsewhere, to
provide a written forum for researchers in the region and to provide data or technical aid to conservation groups in the

LaSociedadde laOrnitologfaCaribefaesunaorganizaci6n sin finesdelucro cuyas metasson promoverel studio cientifico
y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefa, auspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologfa caribefia, ser una fuente de
comunicaci6n entire ornit6logos caribehos y en otras areas y proveer ayuda tdcnica o datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el


Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, All members
receive the Society's bulletin, El Pirirre. Regular membership rates are US$20 per year. Institutional subscriptions are
USS 120per year. Memberships of interested persons who are not able to pay regular dues may be subsidized by the Society.
Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name and address to: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, 13 East Rosemnont.
Alexandria, Virginia 22301, USA.


Volume 11 Spring 1998 Number 1

28 DECEMBER 1995 TO 4 JANUARY 1996

901 Crystal Spring Farm Road, Annapolis, Maryland 21403, USA

Abstract.-I summarize observations of birds made on Anguilla from 28 December 1995 to 4 January 1996. 1 observed a
total of 44 species and present these in the context of their significance to the island's avifauna and to the Lesser Antilles in
general. Several species I observed are rare or accidenul for the region, and short descriptions are provided for these species.

I MADE OBSERVATIONS ON THE attDS of Anguilla, northwest-
ern-most of the Leeward Island Group in the LesserAntilles,
from 28 December 1995 to 4 January 1996. Anguilla is a
small elongate island about 19 km long by 6.5 km wide, Its
surface is comprised almost entirely of aeolian limestone,
with occasional pockets of red soil which locals use for
agriculture (Peters 1927). Vegetation on the inland areas of
die island is dominated by Acacia, Croon, and Fourcroya,
along with several cacti, including Opunia, Cereus, and
Melocactus. The northeastern end of the island, and salt
ponds along the southern shore are surrounded by man groves
(Avicennia germinans), and beach situations are dominated
by seagrape (Coccoloba uvifera.).
I observed birds primarily at several salt-and fresh-water
ponds around the island, as follows:
28 December 1995.-Late afternoon ferry crossing from
St. Martin to Blowing Point Harbor, Anguilla, and bus
ride to Island Harbor.
29 December.-Island Harbor and Shoat Bay beach,
30 December.-Long Salt Pond and nearby scrub habi-
tats, 09:00-1 1:00 hr; Junk's Hole Beach, 14:00-15:30
31 December.-Mangrove scrub around West End Salt
Pond and other salt ponds on the western end of the
island, including Gulf Pond, Cove Pond. and Mead's
Bay Pond; 08:45-12:00 hr.
1 January 1996.- Junk's Hole beach to Grey Pond, on
foot; 14:00-17:00 hr.
2 Januaty.-Salt pond east of ferry dock at Blowing
Point (hereafterBlowing Point Pond), 11:25-11:40 hr,
3 iJanuar.-Boat trip from Island Harbor to Scrub
Island (off the northeastern corner of Anguilla), 09:00-
13:30 hr; drive around island: Little Bay, 16:00-16:30
hr; ShoalBay, 15:00-15:20 hr Road Salt Pond, 15:30-
15:45 hr; and East End Pond (the only fresh pond 1
visited). 17:20-17:30 hr.

El Pitirre 11(1)

4 January,-Blowing Point Pond and surrounding scrub,
10:00-i 1:00 hr.


1 observed a total of 44 species on Anguilla. Below, all
observations are listed for most species. For the most com-
mon species, only a summary of their abundance and pre-
ferred habitat is presented. Location names correspond to
those listed in the topographical map of Anguilla (Depart-
me nt of Overseas Surveys 1997), with the exceptions of East
End Pond (which is the freshwater pond on the west side of
East End Village) and Blowing Point Pond (which is just east
of the Blowing Point docks). I also include a few compara-
tive observations from St. Martin.

Abbreviations,-BPP = Blowing Point Pond, EEP = East End
Pond, GP= Gulf Pond, LSP= Long Salt Pond, MBP= Mead's Bay
Pond, RSP = Road Salt Pond, photo = photographed (duplicate
photognrphs are available to interested persons) Dates of observa-
tions are enclosed in brackets; e.g., [1/3] = 3 January.

PEnD-U-r.ED GREBE (Podilymbus podiceps).-One sighting:
one adult GP [12/311.
BRowN BooFY (Sula leucogaster).-Common in small num-
bers (1-5) in marine habitats around island, especially
on the northern sidc. I igh count ws of 25 resting on tlh
west end of Scrub Island (off northeastern Anguilla) [I
3] (photo),
BRowN PELICAN (Pelecanusoccidentalis).-Common in small
numbers (1-10) in marine habitats around the island.
MAGNIFICENT FRIGATEBIRD (Fregata magnificens).-Com-
mon in small numbers in marine habitats around island.
High count of 25 over western end of island 112/31]
GREAT BLUE HE.RON (Ardea herodias).-One sighting: one

Page 1

Anguiila Birds

immature EEP 1/3, seen earlier in week by island resi-
dent Another at Phillipsburg, St. Martin [1/2],
GREAT EGRrE (Ardea albls).-Two sightings: two at BPP [I /
21 and one there [1/4].
SNowY EGRET (Egretta thula).-Two sightings: five at BPP
[1/2] and seven there [1/4] (photo).
LrtLE BLUE HERoN (Egretta caerulea).-One sighting: one
calico immature at BPP [114] (photo).
TRCOLORED HERON (Egretta tricolor).-One sighting: an
immature at BPP [1/4] (photo). I was unable to find ear-
lier records ofTricolored Heron for Anguilla.
CATTLE EGRET (Bubulcus ibis).-Fairly common throughout
Anguilla. especially as fly-overs or feeding along grassy
roadsides, or at the Wall Blake Airport. High count 10
at Wall Blake Airport 11/31.
WHnP--c IEEnrD PE'TA-L (Anasbahamensis),-Foursighi ngs:
13 at MBP [12/31] (photo), eight at Grey Pond [/11
(photo), three at RSP, and four at EEP [1/31. Call, heard
several times at Grey Pond, was like that of Northern
Pintail (Anas acura), but higher pitched. Most other
observers (e.g., Peters 1927; AnguillaNationalTrust, in
press) have noted the pintail in Anguilla, although Keith
and Loftin (1992) considered this species accidental on
the Leeward Islands. Wauer(1988) reported the pintail
nesting in the island.
BLUE-WINGED TEAL (Anas discors).-One sighting: two fe-
male-plumaged birds seen resting at the far edge of East
End Pond with fourWhite-cheeked Pintail. The bill was
dark and broader and more spatulate than in Green-
wingedTeal (Anas crecca), but not so spatulateas thatof
a Cinnamon Teal (Anas cyanoptera), The pale face was
lightly streaked with a dark cap and a dark cyeline. Two
pale oral spots were evident. General coloration was
gray with dark spotting on the flanks, and dark on the
back with paler edging, not the brighter tones expected
on a Cinnamon Teal. I feel confident that Cinnamon
Teal was eliminated by virtue of size, color, and bill
shape, but the two species can be difficult to separate
without ideal views. Keith and Loftin (1992) considered
this species as accidental in the Leeward Island Group.
Blue-winged Teal have been reported for Badcox Pond,
Caul's Pond, and East End Pond (Anguilla National
Trust, in press).
AMERICAN KESTREL (Falco sparerius).-Three sightings:
one female at LSP [12/30], and single females on tele-
phone wires near Bud Cox Pond and just west of Lower
South Hill [I2/31 The first sighting was ofa brightly
colored individual, probably of the race caribaearum,
though the others were not seen as well. Another was
photographed some months earlier by Peter Schnabel at
his Captain's Ridge residence just west of Island Harbor.
MERLIN (Falco columbarius).-One sighting: one male lit
briefly on a branch at GP [12/31]; probably of the race
columbarius, by virtue of the medium blue-gray back
(photo). Peters (1927) reported the only other record for

COMMON MOORHI( (Gallinula chloropus)---One sighting:
five adults and 25 immatures feeding in vegetation
around EEP [1/3].
BLACK-DELLIED PLOVER (Pluvialls squararola).-Three
sightings: 35 at LSP [12/301,1 atRSP 11/31, and 7 atBPP
SEMII'PAUATED PLOVER (Charadrius semipaImatus).-One
sighting: 45 at LSP [12/30].
KILLDEER (Charadrius vocifers).-Four records: one heard
at night over Island Harbor [12/30], three heard at
eastern end ofGrey Pond [11l], one at RSP 11/3], and 15
at EEP [1/31.
AMERICAN OYSTERCATCHER (Haematopus palliatus).--One
sighting: one on limestone beach of Long Pond Bay, at
east end of LSP, [12/30]. 1 observed it through binocu-
lars for 2 min at 40 m. About the size of a Whimbrel
(Nurmenius phaeopus), the thick, long, red bill, yellow
eye, white breast and belly, black hood, dark brown
mantle, and white patch visible in the folded wing made
for an easy identification. It did not fly or call. Ashcroft
(1965) found three oystercatchers on Anguilla, whereas
Waucr (1988) reported one along the Rocky Hills Bay.
The Anguilla National Trust(in press) notes rare reports
from West Cove Bay Pond. Keith and Loftin (1992)
considered the oystercatcher an accidental in the Lee-
ward Islands.
BLACK-NECKED STILT (Himantopus mexicanus).-Three
sightings: four at GP [12/31] (photo), 40 at BPP 11/2].
and 65 there [1/41 (photo).
GREAnTE YELLOWLEGS (Tringan elanoleuca).-Six sightings:
two at LSP [12/30], five at GP [12/31], three at BPP I/
2], live at RSP [113], two at EEP [1/3], and I0 at BPP [/
4]. Peters (1927) also recorded this species in Anguilla.
LESSER YELOWLEGS (Tringaflavipes).-Eight sightings: 10
at LSP [12/20], three at small pond at Junk's Hole Beach
[12/30], 45 at GP [12/31], one heard at Grey Pond [1/1],
25 at BPP [1/2], 25 at RSP (1/31, 15 at EEP [ /3], and 100
at BPP [1/41.
WILLET (Cataptrophorus semipalmatus).-Two sightings of
what was probably the same individual: one at BPP [II
21 and [1/4] (photo). I believe this individual to be of the
eastern race semipabiamats. because of the wing pattern
and bill length.
S POrED SANDPIPER(Actitis macularia).-Four sightings: three
at LSP [12/30], one at BPP [1/2 and 1/4), and one at EEP
WHaMRxm -Two sightings: one at BPP [1/2]; joined by a
second there [1/4] (photo).
RunDD TukNS'miNE. (Arenaria interpres).-Seven sightings;
20atLSP[12/30), 15 at GP[12/31] (photo), fiveatMBP
[12/31 ], five on beach at Island Harbor [ 1/3, 10 at RSP
[1/31, 20 at BPP [1/2 and 1/41.
SANDERLINO (Ca/idris a/ba).-Two sightings: 10 at LSP [ 12/
30] and two at RSP [1/3).
SENIIPALMATIL SAlawipER (Calidrispusifla).-Three sighti ngs:
three at LSP [ 12/301, 20 at RSP [1/3], and one at BPP [ 1

Page 2


El Pitirre 11 (])

Aig uilla Birds

4]. Those on 30 December were identified by call and
bill shape, whereas those thereafter were identified only
by bill shape (though on 3 January Western Sandpipers
[Calidris ntauri] were available for direct comparison).
WESTERN SANDPIPER.-Two sightings: 10 at LSP [ 1 2/30] and
20at RSP [1/3]. Identified by both bill shape and call (in
direct comparison with Semipalmated Sandpipers on
both dates).
LEAST SANDPI'PE (Calidris minura).-Two sightings" five at
LSP [12/301 and 15 at RSP 11/31.
STILT SANDPIPER (Calidris hinman opus).-Six sightings: 25 at
LSP [ 12/30], one with three Lesser Yellowlegs at a small
pond near Junk's Hole Beach [12/30], 20 at GP 112/31 1
(photo), 20 at RSP [1/3], 50 at BPP [1/2], and 100 there
[114]. 1 was unable to find earlier records of Still Sand-
piper for Anguilla.
CoMMON SNIPa (Gallinago gallinago).-One sighting: One
bird flushed, calling as it flew, from sand dunes on the
ocean side of Grey Pond. Only one other record exists
for Anguilla (Anguilla National Trust, in press);
RoYAl. TERN (Sterna maxima).-Common in small numbers
(1-8) in marine habitats around the island. Despite much
searching, no other tern species were seen.
ROCK DovE (Columba livia).-Although common on St.
Martin, 1 made only two Anguilla sightings: two at
Island Harbor [113], with possibly one of the same
individuals there the next day. This introduced dove has
only recently been reported (Anguilla National Trust, in
ZENADA DOVE (Zenaida aurita),-Common throughout the
island in all habitats (photo).
CoMsioN GROUND-DovE (Columbinapasserina).-Common
in scrubby habitats around island, especially dune areas
with seagrape, Ten seen at Junk's Hole [1/1] (photo)
were a typical count for this habitat.
MANGROVE CUCKOO (Coccyzus minor).-Two records: one
seen in mangrove scrub at west end of island 112/31] and
a window-killed bird found just east of Island Harbor
BELTED KiNoriisitER (Ceryle alcyon).-Two sightings: one at
LSP [12/30) and one at Cove Pond, near Cap Jaluca [12/
31]. Sex was not determined on either bird.
CARIBBEAN ELAENJA (Eloenia nartinica).-Fairly common in
tall scrub habitats of island. More often heard than seen,
once I learned their vocalizations (photo).
GRAY KINGBIRD (Tyranus domninicensis).-One sighting:
group of five, possibly a fwiuily gruup, sen itnd heard
while perched in treetops just east of The Valley, on the
edge of an open cattle pasture [1/3].
BARN SwA-.W (Hirtuto ndstlca).--ne sighting: six perched
on telephone wire over grassy field between Lower
South Hill and West End Village [12/3 1,.
PEARLY-EYED THIASHrt (Margarvps fiascatus).-Common
throughout the island in all habitats. One very tami
individual foraged for table scraps in an open-air restau-
rant at Shoal Bay Beach (photo).

YELLOW WARIL R (Dendroica petechia).-One sighting:
Adult male sang and then appeared with a female or
immature among mangroves at BPP 1/4J, Male was
quite brightly colored and likely of the race bartholenica.
BANANAQUrr (Coerebaflaveola).-Abundant in all scrubby
habitats of island (photo).


There are few published accounts dealing with the birds of
Anguilla and, consequently, it was difficult for me to ascer-
tain the significance of my sightings. Although Keith and
Loftin (1992) provide a comprehensive summary of the birds
of the Leeward Islands north of the Guadeloupe Passage. they
do not account for differences in distribution among islands.
Their list might be seen as a good general guide, but I turned
elsewhere to determine the importance of my sightings to
Anguilla. Probably the first records of Anguilla's birdlife
were made by Winch, who collected a total of 23 species from
April-July 1890 (Cory 189 la) and May 1891 (Cory 1891b).
Later, Peters (1927) reported o n collec tions and observations
of 44 species made from 1-22 February 1922.
Most authors (Peters 1927, Cory 1891a, Cory 1891b,
Ashcroft 1965, Wauer 1988) considered the Antillean Crested
Hummingbird (Omithorhynchus cristaus), Green-throated
Carib (Eulampis holosericeus), Lesser Antillcan Bullfinch
(Loxigilla noctis), and Black-faced Grassquit (Tiaris bi-
color) common to abundant, but I failed to find these four
species. Although my efforts were concentrated onwaterbirds,
I still expected to encounter these species given the abun-
dance with which they were found by earlier workers. I made
a special effort to find hummingbirds, and carefully exam-
ined every likely flower patch. Possibly some or all of these
native landbirds were adversely affected by Hurricane Luis,
which struck the island on 4 September 1995.
Peters (1927) visited Anguilla at about the same time of the
year (February) as my December-January observations.
Whereas I found no North American migrant landbirds, it is
notable that Peters found several species of wintering wood-
warblers, including American Redstart(Setophaga ruticilla),
Northern Waterthrush (Seiri s noveboracensis). Ovenbird
(S. aurocapillus), Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor), and
Northern Parula (Panda americana). Peters' list did not
include Great Blue Heron, Great Egret. Little Blue Heron,
Tricolored Heron, Cattle Egret (a recent colonizer), Blue-
winged Teal, American Oystercatcher, Sanderling, Western
Sandpiper, 5til Sandpiper. Common Snipe, Rock Dove
(another recent colonizer?), Mangrove Cuckoo, and Barn
Swallow, which I observed, nor such species as Brown
B oby, Royal Tern, Snowy Egret, and Stilt Sandpiper, which
I found to be common. Also, there are differences in species
abundance between Peters' and my observations, Whereas I
found Pearly-eyed Thrashers and Zenalda Doves common
throughout Anguilla. Peters (1927) listed them as "uncom-
mon" and "less common than the ubiquitous Ground Dove."
respectively. He found Gray Kingbird to be common, but I

El Pitirre 11(1)


Page 3

Anguilla Birds

observed only one small group. These differences may have
been due to surveying in different terrestrial habitats. Unfor-
tunately, Peters gave little description of where he visited on
the island, although he mentioned visiting Caul's Pond,
where he found most shorebirds. Idid not visit Caul's Pond.
1 would like to note that Long Salt Pond appears to have
been little birdied, and my observations there evidence that it
is an excellent location and not to be ignored by visiting
birders in the future.


I would like to thank Peter and Francine Schnabel for their
generous offer to let me visit, their warm welcome to the
island, and the help with logistics such as lodging and
transportation. I would also like to thank Jim Wiley for
prompting me to publish my observations, his assistance in
finding relevant references, and his help editing and improv-
ing this paper.


ponds for the Anguilla National Trust
AsH CoFT, M.T. 1965. A visitto St. Kitts.Nevis and Anguilla.
Gosst Bird Club Broads. No. 4:10-12.
CoRY, C. B. 189 la. A collection of birds taken by Cyrus S.
Winch in the Islands of Anguilla, Antigua, and St. Eustatius,
West Indies, During April, May, June, and part of July,
S890. Auk 8(1) 46-47.
CoRy, C. B. 1891b. On a collection of birds made on the
islands of Anguilla and Cay Sal or Salt Cay, Bahama
Islands, by Mr. Cyrus S. Winch, during May, 1891. Auk
Map of Anguilla: Edition 7. Series E803 (DOS 343)
Edition 7-OS 1997. Crown Copyright.
KEmrn, A. R., AND H. LoFrI. 1992. A birder's checklist of the
birds of the Lesser Antilles. Russ's Natural History
Books, Lake Helen, Florida.
PEmEs, J. L. 1927. Birds of the Island of Anguilla, West
Indies. Auk 44(4):532-538.
WAUF., R. H. 1989. Notes on a visit to Anguilla July I-4.
1988. Unpublished trip report, St. Croix.

ANGUn.LA NAnTONALTRUST. In press. Field guide to Anguilla's


Tall Timbers Research Station, Route 1, Boa 678, Tallahassee. Florida 32312-9712. USA

TLE LuSSi i ANTLLEAN BULLtFIcH (Loxigilla noctis) has
only been documented once as a host for the Shiny Cowbird
(Molothrus bonariensis), a widespread brood parasite in thu
Caribbean (Wiley 1988, Post et al, 1990, Lowther and Post,
in press). A clutch of three eggs of the host and one egg of the
Shiny Cowbird was collected in Christ Church parish, Barba-
dos, on 23 August 1937 (Friedmann 1943). Sixty years later,
this note again provides evidence from Barbados that the
Lesser Antillean Bullfinch is occasionally parasitized by the
Shiny Cowbird.
I watched a pair of Lesser Antillean Billfinches feed ornr
fledgling Shiny Cowbird many times each day from 27
September to 4 October 1997 at Harrison's Point, St Lucy
parish (13'19'N lat., 59'39'W long.), at the northwestern tip
of Barbados. The vegetative cover is highly disturbed coastal
scrub, thickets, and woodlots, which have succeeded aban-
doned sugar cane plantations.
Most of the food that was brought to the young cowbird
was regurgitated, and difficult to identify, but bullfinches
caught in mist-nets were feeding predominantly on the seeds

and pulp of dogwood (Capparisflexuosa). I determined that
the bull finch pairfed the fledgling this food at least twice. The
cowbird also fed on its own on seed heads of guinea (Panicum
maximum) and sour (Digitaria insularis) grasses.
The bullfinches also fed one of its own fledglings from 27
September to about 10 October. The fledgling cowbird ap-
peared to become independent after 4 October. as I saw it
daily through 22 October. during which time it rarely associ-
ated with the bullfinches. Although I have no direct evidence
that a cowbird laid its egg in the bullfinch nest, these obser-
vations strongly suggest that the Lesser Antillean Bullfinch
served as a host for the Shiny Cowbird. The Lesser Antillean
Bullfinch is an acceptor of foreign eggs (Friedmann 1943,
Postetal. 1990). The bullfinch may not be ultimately suitable
as a host, however, because it feeds its young fruit Despite
this inappropriate diet, the pair of Lesser Antillean Bull-
finches apparently raised one Shiny Cowbird.
Most Lesser Antillean Bullfinches at Harrison's Point are
heavily molting during late summer and early autumn, based
on captures of numerous birds in mist-nets (McNair, unpubl.).

El Pitirre 11(1)


Page 4

Shiny Cowbird Parasitism of Lesser Antillean Bullfinch

Regular breeding activities resumed during the last week of
October (McNair, unpubl.) At that time. Shiny Cowbirds are
absent. The absence of Shiny Cowbirds at Harrison's Point
during autumn, when regular breeding resumed for bull-
finches, suggests that they are not preferred hosts, but rather
secondary hosts for tie cowbirds, which may primarily use
another, more suitable species. For example, casual observa-
tions suggest that the Carib Grackle (Quiscalus lugubris) is
a regular host species in Barbados (Friedmann 1943; Hurt et
al,. in prep.: pers. obs.), although an infrequent host in St.
Lucia (Post et al. 1990).
I thank W. Post and J. W. Wiley for their reviews of a draft
of this manuscript


Htrrr, M. B, H. F. Hurr, P. A. BUCKLEY F. G. BUCKLEY, E.B.
MASSAtH, AND M, D. FRosr. In prep. The birds of Barba-
dos. B.O.U. Check-list. British Ornithologists' Union,
LOWTHER, P. E., AND W. PosT. In press. Shiny Cowbird
(Molothrus bonariensis). In The Birds of North America
(A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia, and The American Ornitholo-
gists' Union, Washington, D.C.
PosT, W., T. K. NAKAMURA, AND A. CRUz. 1990. Patterns of
Shiny Cowbird parasitism in St Lucia and southwestern
Puerto Rico. Condor 92:461-469.
WILEY. J, W. 1988. Host selection by the Shiny Cowbird.
Condor 90:289-303.

FRIEDMANN, H. 1943. Further additions to the list of birds
known to be parasitized by the cowbirds. Auk 60:350-


Department of Biology, Caribbean Union College. P. 0. Bao 175, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
Present address: Unit of Zoology Department of Life Sciences, Universiy of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Trinidad and Tobago

THIS PAPER PRESENTS NEW DATA on the status of seven species
of birds from Trinidad and Tobago, including a new species
for each island, based on my own observations while resident
in the country during 1995 and 1996. These records have
been submitted to the Trinidad and Tobago Rare Bird Com-
mittee for evaluation.

GREATER SHEARWATER Puffinus gravis,-While aboard the
M. V. Tobago on 23 June 1996, I noted six large
shearwaters flying 100+ m from the ship as we passed
several kilometers south of Crown Point, Tobago. In my
notes I described the shearwaters as "white below,
including underwings; dark brown back and wings;
blackish on head; whitish collar." Rough water and sea
sickness precluded better observations. There is only
one previous record of this southern migrant from To-
bago (Hayes 1996).
RED-FOOTED BOOtY Sula sula.-While aboard the M. V.
Panorama on 17 March 1996, I observed a booby at
14:33 hr as it glided and flapped low over the surfte of
the water about 50 m from the starboard side of the ship's
bow; about 30 sec later the bird disappeared across ihe
bow of the ship and I was unable to relocate it on either
side. This sighting occurred between Trinidad and
Tobago at 10 59'N, 61 '07 W. 17.5 km N nfMatelot.

Trinidad, and 35 kin WSW of Crown Point, Tobago. In
my field notes I wrote: "adult dark-phased bird, brown
with white tail, white-wedged triangle extending up onto
back." This species is often cited for Trinidad on the
basis of Belcher and Smooker (1934:578), who merely
stated that it "Occurs on the coasts of both islands."
Although the Red-footed Booby is a breeding resident
on St Giles (Dinsmore and ffrench 1969) and recently
on Little Tobago (D. Rooks and F. Hayes, pers. obs.),
both small islands just east of Tobago, this observation
apparently represents the first valid record for Trinidad,
which was the closest point of land.
CocoI HERON Ardea cocoi.-On 24 March 1996, I found a
Cocoi Heron at Buccoo Swamp, Tobago, and observed
it from as close as 35 m with W. K. Hayes and a group
of studtmnL. Tine whiit neck and thighs distinguished it
from the Great Blue Heron (A. herodias), a Nearctic
migrant. Although the bird possessed a whitish belly, the
blackish band crossing the chest above the thighs distin-
guished it from the Gray Heron (A. cinerea) of the Old
World, which has been recorded from Trinidad (ffrench
1991). Although the Cocoi Heron is an tmcommon
visitor to Trinidad (ffrench 1991), there is only one
previously published record of this South American
species from Tobago (ffrench 1975),

El Pitirre 11(1)

McN Ant

Page 5

Trinidad & Tobago Bird Records

Lrrri EGBr-r Egretn garzetla.-On 26 March 1995, M. F.
Hayes and I found two Little Egrets associating with a
Snowy Egret (E. thula) at Buccoo Swamp, Tobago. The
Little Egrets were white-morph birds in basic plumage,
and were easily distinguished from the Snowy Egret by
their larger size and dark lores. At least five previous
records of this Old World species have been published
for Tobago (Murphy 1992, Hayes 1996),
LESSER SCArP Aythya affinis.-From 1730-1740 on 20 De-
cember 1995, 1 observed a scaup swimming with eight
Blue-winged Teal Anas discors in a newly created lake
at Lowlands, Tobago. I observed it through a 25x
telescope from as close as 40 m. The sky was cloudy
with the sun low and behind the clouds, therefore light
conditions were poor. In my field notes I wrote: "larger
than teal; dark brownish(?) head; tot of white seen in
right wing when briefly stretched; dark chest; blackish
rear end; dirty gray sides; dark back; eye yellowish; bill
dark gray; light not too good; head appeared rounded."
I included a drawing of the shape of the "rounded" head,
which nevertheless shows the peak toward the rear of the
head. Kaufman (1990) considered head shape to be the
most reliable field mark for distinguishing between the
Greater ScaupA. maria, whose peak is toward the front
of the head, and the Lesser Scaup. whose peak is toward
the rear of the head (as in my drawing). The "dirty gray
sides" also suggest a Lesser Scaup; the Greater Scaup
has whiter sides. Although the Lesser Scaup is a rare but
regular visitor to Trinidad, ffrench (1991) cited only a
single record of this Nearctic migrant from the previous
century for Tobago. The Greater Scaup is not known
from the southern Caribbean (Bond 1985).
WIL-SN'S PLovER Charadrius wilsonia.-On 27 April L996,
I found a male Wilson' s Plover of the race cinnamominus
with a small flock of Semipalmated Plovers C.
semipalmatus at Buccoo Swamp, Tobago. I studied the
bird with D. Bass from about 15 m through 7x35 binocu-
lars and a 25x telescope for about 10 min. In my field
notes I wrote: "orange on face below eye, slight orange
above and behind eye; whitish ring behind neck, with
lower edge orangish; whitish on forehead extending
above eye; large, thick all-black bill." Although an
uncommon resident in Trinidad, this is the first record
for Tobago (ffrench 1991).
MARBLrC Goowrr Limosa fedoa.-On 10 March 1996, G.
White and 1 observed a single Marbled Godwit on
mudflats at Waterloo, Trinidad. We identified it by its

long, slightly-upturned, bicolored bill and uniform cin-
namon-brown coloration. Presumably this was the same
bird.observed on 7 and 19 October 1995 at Waterloo (G,
White pers. comm.). ffrench (1991) cited only a few
previous records of transients in Trinidad during the
months of September and October. This observation
thus represents the latest dale for this Nearctic migrant.
On 19 October 1996. we noted another Marbled Godwit
at the same locality.


Expeditions to Tobago during Project Sabrewing were
financedby theAmericanBirdConservancy.AmocoTrinidad
Oil Co., BirdLife International, British Petroleum, Caribbean
Union College, Center for the Study ofTropical Birds, Fauna
and Flora International, Guardian Life of the Caribbean Ltd.,
Loma Linda University, Republic Bank Ltd., Trinidad and
Tobago National Petroleum Marketing Company Ltd., and
Trinmar Ltd. I thank these institutions for supporting our
environmental education and research program at Caribbean
Union College. I thank two anonymous reviewers for com-
ments on the manuscript.


BQL.HER, C., AND G. D. SMOOKER. 1934. Birds of the colony
of Trinidad and Tobago.-Part I. Ibis 1934:572-579.
BoN~, 1. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. 5th ed. Collins,
London. 256 pp.
DNSMORE, J. J., AND R. P. FFRENCH. 1969. Birds of St. Giles
Islands, Tobago. Wilson Bull. 81:460-462.
FFRwNCH, R. P, 1975. Some noteworthy bird records from
Tobago. J Trinidad Tobago Field Nat Club 1975:5-1 .
Ff~-RCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds ofTrinidad & Tobago.
2nd ed. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. 426
HAYms, P. E. 1996. Noteworthy bird records for Trinidad &
Tobago, 1993-1994. Living World (J. Trinidad Tobago
Field Nat. Club) 1995-1996:20-21.
KAUFMAN, K. 1990. A field guide to advanced birding:
birding challenges and how to approach them. Houghton
Mifflin Company, Boston. 299 pp.
MUHFRHY, W. L. 1992. Notes on the occurrence of the Little
Egret (Egretra garzetta) in the Americas, with reference
to other Palearctic vagrants. Colon. Waterbirds 15:113-

El Pitirre 11(1)


Page 6


Chemin de ia Mine d'Or 55, CH-2504 Bierme, Switzeriand

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) has been a controver-
sial topic in the taxonomy of this New World species (Bond
1936, Barbour 1943, Garrido and Garcfa 1975, Berovides
and Fernndez 1984, Buden 1987, Garrido et al, 1997).
Although these and other authors have assigned new races to
West Indian populations based partly on plumage character-
istics, the distribution of the races within the Caribbean is
poorly defined. Plumage coloration and patterns in these
kestrel populations are more variable than the morphometric
characteristics of these subspecies. Falco s. spanreroides,
described for Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud (formerly Isla
de Pines), and additionally reported from the Bahamas, may
well constitute the key to clarify the origin of dispersion of
these raptors in the West Indies. Here I report on my studies
of populations from Cuba, Jamaica, the Bahamas, and

I examined all available specimens of the American
Kestrel in eight Cuban and two Jamaican collections. How-
ever, for this study, I selected 19 Cuban specimens collected
in central and eastern Cuba because that region is faunisti-
cally more closely related to the faunal regions of the Baha-
mas, Hispaniola, and Jamaica than is the region of western
Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud. All measurements follow
Baldwin et al. (1931) and were taken to the nearest millimeter
using dial calipers, except forth wing chord, for which I used
a chord ruler. The culmen length was measured from the tip
to the anterior edge of the nostril. The general coloration and
feather patterns described in this study are based on notes
taken of living individuals and museum specimens.


In the first edition of his Birds of the West Indies (1936),
Bond does not mention the American Kestrel as inhabiting
Jamaica. The lack of observations and specimens before ca.
1950 indicates that the species became established on Ja-
maicathoreafter (fHaynes Suttonand Sutton, ms.). Ofcnursc,
small numbers of kestrels in some natural areas may have
gone unobserved by naturalists in the nineteenth and first half
of the twentieth centuries.
At first, the Cuban population of the American Kestrel
was not recognized by Bond (1936) as belonging to the
sparveroides race. but he assigned it to the Hispaniolan
subspecies, F. s. dominticnsis. However, during the last four
decades, several authors separately suggested that the Cuban
race extended its range through invasion of new territories to

the northeast (Bahamas) and southeast (Jamaica), but not to
His-paniola and Puerto Rico (Bond 1956, 1964. 1970, 1978,
1980, 1986, 1987; Garrido and Garcia 1975; Buden 1987).
Bond (1956:33) considered four Jamaican specimens exam-
ined by him as belonging to F. s. dodmnicensis and, until
1979, maintained that the Jamaican population was part of the
Hispaniolan population. However. Bond (1980:3) later men-
tioned two red phase kestrels that were observed in Jamaica
and Haiti (evidently members of the Cuban race,
Buden (1987) assigned specimens from Great Inagua,
Little Inagua, Crooked Island, Rum Cay, and San Salvador to
the Cuban subspecies, F. s. sparveroides, noting that consid-
erablepattern andcolorvariation existedamongsparveroides
individuals. To date, Buden has determined the distribution
of two races: F. s. sparveroides inhabits Cuba. Isla de la
Juventud, the southern Bahamas, Rum Cay. and San Salva-
dor, whereas F. s. dominicensis inhabits Hispaniola and
Jamaica (Fig. I).
Hellmayr and Conover (1949) reported that F. s.
sparveroides and F. s. dominicensis were similar, although
the latter is somewhat larger and never as strongly reddish-
tinted as the Cuban populations. Buden (1987) also de-
scribed the coloration of the specimen of the dominicensis
race of Hispaniola. I analyzed these characteristics in the
specimens in the Jamaican collections (Institute of Jamaica
and Audrey Downer's private collection).
In the Cuban archipelago, except some larger cays (e.g.,
Cayo Coco, Cayo Romano, and Cayo Largo) where the
kestrel populations are consistent in pattern and color, con-
spicuous differences in these characters are evident among
populations throughout Cuba and the Isla de la Juventud.
Individuals in western populations often have red breasts
with black markings on the chest and abdomen. These are
possibly descendants of F. s- rropicalis of Yucatin. The
black markings on the undersides fade as one proceeds
toward eastern Cuba, where the red-breasted morph also
occurs, but with only faint vestiges of the markings.
The so-called "intermediate morph" of Cuba (red chest
and beige abdomen) may or may not have black markings.
but this morph is extremely variable and further studies
(already begun) are needed to determine the distribution of
the variabilities in the archipelago. The upper chest of the
white phase is typically immaculate white or may have a
slight reddish tint, but a few individuals have markings
similar to those of F. s. sparveri s, especially in the black
markings of the chest, flanks, and abdomen, as well as faint
markings in the bands on the outer rectrices. Some individu-
als of the sparverius race collected in Cuba display deeply

El Pitirre 11(1)

Page 7

American Kestrel in the West Indies

Z ^
C Q ^
sy --

___ C wsi

FPi. 1, Distribution of American Kestrel races in the Greater Antilles' and the hypothetical derivation and status pro-
posed in this review'.

'Buden's (1987) analysis of the distribution of American Kestrels in the Greater Antilles included F. s. dominicensis within area C
encompassed by the dash line,
'According to my criteria the race Falco sparverius domniicensis does not constitute a valid subspecies, because It contains individual
characteristic ofF. s. sparveroides(B) in Cuba.and a hgh variability wlich di fferentiatesit from more stable populations in coloration,
such as F. s, sparverius (A) and F. s. caribaearum (D). Should these hypotheses prove to be true. F. s. dominicensis of Hispaniola
would also form a block with the Cuban and Jamaican populations, and then the dash line should be removed.

red-tinted chests, which suggests the possibility of inter-
breeding between the sparverius and sparveroides races.
My analysis of the patterns described suggests that all of
the populations (Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, and some cays
in the Bahamas) are of the same taxa; i.e., the contention that
F. s. dominicensis is not a valid subspecies (Buden 1987) is
supported, in part, because the Cuban population shows such
variability that it ispractically impossible to distinguish them
from the individuals from Rum Cay. San Salvador, Inagua,
Hispaniola, and Jamaica.
My morphometric analysis revealed the Cuban F. s.
sparveroides displays ranges which surpass the extremes
given by Buden (1987) for kestrels on Hispaniola, Cuba, and
Jamaica (Tables 1 and 2). In these analyses Iselected Cuban
specimens collected in central and eastern Cuba, because
these zoogeographic areas are more closely related to the
Bahamas, Hispaniola, and Jamaica than western Cuba and
the Isla de la Juventud. One individual (UP 19070) analyzed
by Buden (1987) enters the range of the Cuban specimens I
measured. Therefore I found no morphometric distinctions
between F s. dominicensis and P s. sparveroides. as earlier
suggested by Hellmayr and Conover (1949).
From 13-25 August 1990,1 observed several individuals,
predominantly white-breasted, in the vicinities of Kingston,
Blue Mountains. Port Antonio. Ocho Rios. Mandeville, and
the Cockpit Country, Jamaica. However, at Hope Zuu
Page 8

(Kingston) on 16 August 1990, AlexanderCruz. Jorge Moreno,
Simon Guerrero, and I observed a red-phase individual which
I considered to be a typical sparveroides. Simon Guerrero
(pers. comm.) noted that this color phase also occurs in the
Dominican Republic. In my opinion, all the red individuals
(typical of the Cuban race) should be considered as evidence
of F. s. sparveroides' range expansion whenever the pres-
ence of sparveroides is confirmed on any of the Caribbean
islands. In spiteof the results of my investigations of Cuban
kestrel populations, my observations of a spanreroides-like
bird in Jamaica leads me to the following hypotheses:

* The races of the American Kestrel in the West Indies, with
their distinctive coloration leading to subspecific sepa-
ration, are derived from three continental races: F. s.
sparveroides shows the red vcsliga of F. s-. ropicalts,
inhabiting Yucalin and Honduras; F. s, dominicensis
displays coloration similar to F. s, isabellinus, living in
northern South America and Isla de Margarita; and F. s.
caribbaernu resembles the patterns and coloring of F. s.
span'erius of North America.
* With time these three Antillean kestrel races, quite well
differentiated in the past, overlapped in distribution, as
they expanded their ranges. The red phase of western
Cuba expanded eastward, creating a polymorphic situa-
tion in central and eastern Cuba as a result of a genetic

El Pitire I If 1)



American Kestrel in the West Indies

TABLE 1. Morphometric analysis among female American Kestrel populations in Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniolat.

Measurement (mm)

Wing chord Tail (inner retrices)

Locality N x (range) x (range)

Cuba 11 186.5 (174-200) 120.3 (106-135)
Hispaniola 13 190.2(183-197) 119.8(116-124)
Jamaica 8 182.0 (169-190) 107.7 (90-113)

'Includes only females and, of these, only the tail and wing measurements are given to make this analysis comparable with that of Buden

TABLE 2. Morphometric analysis among American Kestrel in Cubanl and Jamaican' collections.

Measurement (mm) -1 (range)

Island Sex N Culmen length Wing chord Tarsus Tail (inner retrices)

Cuba M 8 11.2 (108-12.3) 175.6(167-182) 36.2 (33.4-38.2) 110.5 (105-121)
F 11 11.6(11.1-12.0) 186,5 (174-200) 38.1 (32.1-45.3) 120.3(106-135)
Jamaica M 4 11.1 (106-12.2) 167.5 (158-176) 36.8 (35.7-38.3) 99.3 (95-105)
F 8 11.5 (10.2-12.2) 182.0(169-190) 41.0(36.1-47.5) 107.6(90-113)

'In Cuba I only selected specimen of the central and eastern provinces, because they are zoogeographically the closest populations to
Jamaica and Hispaniola. Specimens examined were from the following collections: Musco Nacional de Historia Natural. Colecci6n
"Juan Cristobal Gundlach" del Instituto de Ecologfa y SistemAtica, Institute de Ecologfa y Sistemntica, Colecci6n "Felipe Pocy" de la
Facultad de Biologla de la Universidad de La Habana, colccidn del Musco de Historia Natural "Charles T. Ramsden" del la Facultad
de la Universidad de Oriente, Musco de Historia Natural "Carios de la Torre y Hucrta" de Holgufn. Museo Polivalente "Ignacio
Agramonte" de Camagiley, and the private collection of Carlos Wotzkow.
-The only two specimen classified as domiiticensis arec adult No. 45, and adult No, 255 of the Institute of Jamaica. Collections examined
were Institute of Jamaica and the private collection of Audrey Downer.

flow under fortuitous conditions. The presence of this
red morph in the Bahamas. Hispaniola, and Jamaica is
proof of such a natural invasion of the Cuban race to
Antillean areas formerly not inhabited by this form.
SAt the same time. and on a larger scale than occurred with
the red morph (which is less abundant in eastern Cuba
[Berovides and FernAndez, 1984]), some individuals of
the white and intermediate phases also invaded Jamaica
and Hispaniola.
* If F. r dominicensis is a valid subspecies, at the present its
patterns may be in process ofintergradation, as both the
coloration and size are compatible withF. s. sparveroides.

Should the aforementioned four hypotheses he corrobo-
rated, then the name of F. s. sparveroides. in spite of its
former validity and role in the evolution of present popula-
tion, would then fall into synonymy, because F s. dominicensis
was described 39 years before F, s- sparveroides.
If all of the above are correct, the West Indies would, in

fact, constitute one of the most notable hybrid belts for raptor
populations in the world. It would have at least three subspe-
cies derived from continental races, now gradually develop-
ing into a single race, as it would have been originally,
although not the same as the ancestral one.


I thank the Society of Caribbean Ornithology for their
kindnrtss and fi nanc ing of my trip to Jamaica; Audrey Downer
for her hospitality and cooperation in giving me access to her
private collection; the Sutton family for their gracious wel-
come and collaboration; my former colleagues Luis Roberto
HernAndez, Octabio PNrez Beato, and Ruben Regalado, with
whom this paper was discussed; and Aurea L. Moragon and
Ernesto Garcia for their invitation to travel through north-
eastern Jamaica. I thank Jim Wiley for his help with this

El Pitirre I l()


Page 9

American Kestrel in the West Indies


BALDWIN, 5. P., H-. C. OaERfOLSER, AND L. G. WORLaY, 1931.
Measurements of birds. Sci. Publ.. Cleveland Mus. NaL
Hist. 2:1-165.
BARBOUR, T. 1943. Cuban ornithology. Mem. Nuttall
Omithol. Club No. 9.
B-.Rovmes, V., AND J. FERNANDEz. 1984. Polimorfismo
gendticu del Cernfcalo (Falco spaverius sparneroides).
Poeyana 283:1-11.
BOND,J, 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Academy ofNatural
Sciences, Philadelphia.
BoND, J. 1956. Check-list of birds of the West Indies, 4th ed.
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
BoND, J. 1964. Ninth supplement to the Check-list of birds
of the West Indies (1956). Academy of Natural Sciences.
BOND, J. 1970. Fifteenth supplement to the Check-list of
birds of the West Indies (1956). Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia.
BOND, J 1978. Twenty-second supplement to the Chcc-list
of birds of the West Indies (1956). Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia.
BOND, J, 1980. Twenty-third supplement to the Check-listof
birds of the West Indies (1956). Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia.

BOND, J. 1986. Twenty-sixth supplement to the Check-list of
birds of the West Indies (1956). Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia.
BoND, J. 1987. Twenty-seventh supplement to the Check-list
of birds of the West Indies (1956). Academy of Natural
Sciences, Philadelphia.
BuEN. D.W. 1987. The birds of the southern Bahamas. An
annotated check-list. BritishOrnithologists' Union Check-
list No. 8, British Ornithologists' Union, London.
GAnRRm, O. H., AD F. GARCIA MomTANA 1975. CatAlogo
de lasavesde Cuba. Academia Ciencias Cuba, La Habana.
SUTTroN, AND RB ERT SuTroN. 1997. The American Kestrel
Falco sparveriru(Avcs: Falconidac) in Jamaica. Pitirre
-HAYNIs-SirroK, A.M., AN'o R. SUl-TN. Ms. An ecological
history of introduced bird species in Jamaica. 13 pp.
HELUMAYR, C. E., AND B. CONOVEM, 1949. Catalogue of birds
of the Americas and the adjacent islands in the Field
Museum of Natural History, including all species and
subspecies known to occur in North America. Mexico,
Central America, South America, the West Indies, and
islands of the Caribbean Sea, dhe Galapagos Archipclagio
and other islands which may be included on account of
their faunal affinities. Vol. XIII, Part I, No. 9. Zool. Ser.,
Publ. 634. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago.

Page 10


El Pitirre I ll1)


Calaborador dde Muset NaCional dt Hitoria Naturai de L4 Habana, Cuba

LA FAMIIA TYRANN.DAE esIA bien represeniada en Cuba,
ella contiene los conocidos bobitos y pitirres. De los dilimos,
solo tres species (Tyrannus dominicensis, T caudifasciatus
y T cubensis) crfan en el archipidlago y de ellos, el Pitirre
Real (T. cubensis) es el mis rar de todos (Garrido y GarcTa
1975). En el siglo pasado era comin (Gundlach 1876), pero
en ta actualidad es un ave muy escasa y de diffcil localizacidn
yaque habitat en bosques altos (Garrido y Garcia 1975). Hoy
su distribuci6n en Cuba es la siguiente: Penfnsula de
Guanahacabibes, La Giiira, Isla de la Juventud (Rio Santa
Fd), Ci naga de Zapata (Laguna del 'Tsoro), Sierra deNajasa
ymacizomontaiioso al norestedel pas (Garrido y Kirkconnel].
ms.), ademas se ha visto en Sancli Spfritus (0. H. Garrido y
A. Kirkconnell, com. per.).
El 10 de Septiembre de 1996 escuchd las vocalizaciones de
este tirdnido en "El Copey," cerca de la base de campismo
"La Coronela," localidad ubicada al noroeste del municipio
Caimito, Provincia La Habana, Allf existen elevaciones
redondeadas de poca altura quc presentan su vegetaci6n de
bosque semideciduo algo conservada. Este lugar sc explore
sin poder localizar el ave.
El 13 de octubre de ese aiao, observe en el lugar conocido
como "Muntede Regino," un individuojovende esta especie,
que comfa palmiche (Roystonea regia) y abejas (Apis sp.).
Ingeria las frutas enteras, tomindolas del racimo luego de un
vuelo crnido frente al mismo. Con posterioridad visualied
otroen el mes de diciembre, en unaarboleda ubicada entire las
zonas rurales de Aguacate y La Encarnaci6n, a 2 km
aproximadamente del poblado cabecera. Ademns de lasaves
observadas se conoce un ejemplar (hembra joven) colectada
en este territorio; por ended, existen restos poblacionales de
dicho irdnido en el municipio, noconocidos con anierioridad,
aunque es bastante taro coma en las demAs localidades de
Cuba para las que se report.

Los lugares de mayor densidad poblacional parecen ser las
clovaciones contrales y nortefnas del terriorio municipal,
desde donde se irradian eventualmente a rboles altos cercanos
que visitan con fines tr6ficos, utilizAndolos conmo perchas.
Los dos illimos puntos geogrFificos mencionados se hallan
en llanuras, a un kil6metro de las elevaciones centrales y
present bastante actividad antr6pica. La presencia de este
pitirre en esos lugares parece ser un paso adaptativo de estas
waves a Las condiciones locales.
En el monte de la Laguna de Ariguanabo, municipio de San
Antonio de los Baflos, limitrofe al sureste con Cainito,
Garrido pudo observer un individuoen la dcada del 1960(0.
H. Garrido, com. per.). Por ello es possible que lambiSn habite
a If en I a actualidad, aunque en la mayoria de las localidades
conocidas de esa fecha hadesaparec ido debido a los desmon es.
Este tir6nido pudiera encontrarse en algunas de las montaflas
del pals que presented vegetaci6n poco depauperada o por lo
menos dentro de los ranges tolerables de deforestaci6n para
estas aves,siendomuy raro. Portal motivopasan inadvertidas
sus pequeias poblaciones. Adenms de Cuba e Isla de la
Juventud. tambidn vive y cria en las islas del sur de las
Bahamas (Gran Inagua e Islas Caicos) (Bond 1960).


BoD, J. 1960. Birds of the West Indies. Collins, London.
GAMRRm. O, H. Y F. GARCIA MONTARA. 1975. Catalogo de las
aves de Cuba. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, La
GARAtO, O. H, Y A, KIRKCONNEIL. (ms.) Checklist of Cuban
GUNDLACH, J. 1876, Contribucinalaornitologfacubana. La
Antilla, La Habana.

ElPiirre I1(1)

Page 11


Colaborador del Museo Nacional de Historia Namral, La Habana. Cuba

DIFICIL. SON LAS OrSEKRVACIONE de campo en las aves de
presa nocturnas debido a sus conocidos habiros, asf como per
la necesidad de emplear mdtodos 6pticos propicios dada la
escasez de luz en que se desenvuelven sus actividades,
precisando de un gran porcentaje de tiempo al respect. Sin
embargo, las egagr6pilas (pellets) regurgitadas por esLas aves
brindan una posibilidad singular y una informaci6n
sorprendentemnente amplia de la actividad alimentaria en las
La Lechuza (Tyso alba furcata) es comdn en bosques y
ciudades de Cuba (Garrido y Garcia 1975). Considerada
come un depredador adreo nocturno (Kirkconnell et al.
1992), que se elogia por su provechoso y saneador hibito de
consumer grandes cantidades de roedores (Ratnus y Mus).
AdemAs de cllos sc conocen otros mamlferos que component
su dieta. En Cuba se han reported las species de murcidlagos
depredadas on base a studios realizados en residuarius
frescos (Silva 1979). Dc otrd formna nada se ha investigado
sobre las aves que intervienen en su dieta, aunque sus restos
son muy comunes en los mencionados residuarios. Estudios
de este tipo se conocen en las Antillas. En la Espaiiola,
Wctmore y Swales (1931) reportaron 29 species asociadas
a anfibios, reptiles y maniferos. En Gran Cairndn, Johnston
(1974), porcitar otroejemplo, report tambin variasespecies
de aves y plantea que dstas en esa isla representan un 40%
aproximadamente de todos los rests 6seos examinados.
Con el fin de Fomentar colecciones osteol6gicas de
cnmparaci6n para studios paleornitoldgicos, he colectado
huesos procedentes de las siguientes localidades a travds de
casi toda laisla: Pinar del Rio (Vifiales);La Habana (Caimito,
La Salud); Matanzas (Cidnaga de Zapala); Cienfuegos (La
Sierrita); Sancli Spiritus (Rio Cafias; Manacal); Camagiiey
(Cdspedcs): Guantunaino (Yaterns). En algunos de estos
lugares, los elements 6seos formaban parte de egagr6pilas
frescas (esqueletos completes c incompletos) y en otros.
parte de una capa delgada (elementos 6seos diseminados),
rcsultado de ladesintegracidndeaquellaspordiversosagentes
fisicos. Estos restos son frecuentcs en las entradas de cue vas,
abrigos rocosos, construcciones arquitectdnicas y debajo de
Arboles utilizados coC meIcl reugi pIur lechuzas.
En el presence trabajo dard un lista preliminary de todas las
species de aves encontradas hasta el moment en dichos
dcp6sitos, las cuales suman 37 tixones (129 individuos), sin
incluir anfibios, reptiles ni mamfferos asociados a estos
vertebrados (Tabla 1),

Coma se aprccia, muchas de las species depredadas en la
muestra son enddmicas, siondo Gymnoglaux lawrencii la de
mayor incidencia, seguida por otras aves como Turdus
pflumbeus, Xiphidiopicus percussusy Dives arroviolacea. Es
possible que Tyo alba localice los sijies en el moment en que
dstos se precipitan sobre sus press, proporcionando ruidos
en esas actividades que aprovecha dsta para su ubicaci6n y
capture, Los Passeriformes representan mds del 56% de las
aves encontradas, incluyendo algunas migratorias que son
comunes cn dcterminada dpoca del aso. La relativaabundancia
del Zorzal Real (Turdus plumbers) parece estar determinada
por la amplia y uniforrnme distribuci6n a travds de todos los
punts geograficos pesquisados, teniendo asf una notoria
disponibilidad como alimenio.
Aves de corral, como Gallus galus y Columba livia, son on
ocasiones consumidas por este depredador (Gundlach 1876).
Cuando dstas tienen una talla que result grande para ser
trasladadas e i ngeridas completes (cono oc urre en la maria
de las peque ins aves cuban as), son desgarradas y tragadas en
pedazos, abandonando los despojos de piel con plumas y
panes del cuerpo (patas, alas. etc.) que no sc devoraron,
encima de ramas de Arboles, cercanos a patios y corrales
donde se e ectu6 la capture. He obscrvado este hecho en tres
ocasiones, incluso, muchas veces acuden al mismo lugar para
cazar. Esta fragmentacidn de las press debe ser la causa por
la cual sc encuentran pocos huesos de Butorides virescens y
Porphyrula martinica, pues en el continent es frecuente el
consume de rlidos (Bent 1938). De lasespecies introducidas,
Passer domesticus as la mis depredada. sobre todo en laI
ciudades. Procedentes de La Habana he colectado en un
mismo residuario mis de 30 craneos de gorriones junto a
roedores, Io que demucstralocxpuesto, superandoen ntmcro
a tod as las demis aves mencionadas. La Lcchuza, a pesar de
no tener un gran tamaio, es de constituci6n fuerte y
cumportamiento agresivo, con un hAbito ornit6fago bien
definido, mas marcado adn en las islas (Howell 1920).
La Golondrina Azul (Progne cryptoleuca) lambidn es
objeto de depredaci6n, aunquc no tenemos evidencias 6seas,
se han observado lcchuzas cazando estas aves (Kirkconnell,
com. per.j.
Muchas otras aves se adicinnarAn con seguridad a esta li sta
en el future, sobre todo pertenccientes a las families
Columbidae y Emberizidae, las que deben tcner un espectro
mayor dentro de la dicta de esta rapaz nocturna.

Page 12

El Pitirre 11(1)

Aves Depredadas por Tyto alba

TABLA I. Lista de aves cncontradas en dep6sitos dc eagr6pilas de Tyro alba en nueve localidadcs en Cuba, incluyendo
Vifiales (1), Caimito (2), La Salud (3), Cidnaga de Zapata (4), La Sierrita (5), Rio Caias (6), Manacal (7), Cdspedes (8)
y Yateras (9).

Ndmero afnimo
Especie de individuos Porcentajes Localidades

Brtorides virescens*
Falco sparverius
Colinus virginianus
Porphyrula martinica*
Charadrius vociferus
Zenaida macroura
Cotrubina passerina
Saurothera merlini
Crotophaga ani
Gymnoglaux lawrencii
Glaucidium siju
Chordeiles gundiachii
Priorelus temnurus
Todus multicolor
Meltaerpes superciliaris
Xiphidiopicus percussus
Tyrannus dominicensis
Tyrannus caudifasciatus
Contopus caribaeus
Myiarchus sagrae
Hinmdo fulva
Mimus polyglottos
Dumerella carolinensis
Turdus plumbeus
Myadestes elisabeth
Vireo gndlachii
Dendroica cf. palmarum
Seiurus aurocapillus
Setophaga niicilla
Spindalis zena
Quiscalus niger
Dives atroviolacea
Icterus domtinicensis
Agelaius humeralis
Sturnella magna
Tiaris cf. olivacea
Melopyrrha nigra

2, 3, 5
2, 3,4. 8
1, 3
2, 4, 56,9
I, 2,4,6,9
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9
1, 2, 3, 4. 8. 9


'* = Especies conocidas por un elemento 6,seo.


BENT, A. C. 1938. Life histories of North American birds
of prey. Part 2. Smithsonian Inst. U-S.N.M. Bull. 170.
GARRIDO, O. H. v F. GaRClA MONTArA. 1975. Catllogo de
las aves de Cuba. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, La
GUNLACH, J. 1876. Contribucidn ala ornitologfacubana-
lmprenta La Antilla, La Habana.
HownU, A. B. 1920, Habits of Oceanodroma leucorhoa
heali vs 0. socorrensis. Condor 22:41-42.
E1lPitirre 11(1)

JOr-NSTON W. D. 1971. Food of the Bam Owl on Grand
Cayman, B.W.I. Quarterly Journal of Florida Acad-
emy of Sciences 35:17 1-172.
CLUBIULAs, 1992. Los grupos tr6ficos en [a avifauna
cubann. Poeyana 415:1-21.
SnILA, T- G. 1979. Los murcidlagos de Cuba. Editorial
Academia. La Habana-
WarEirw, A. AND B. H. SwALES. 1931. The birds of Haiti
and the Dominican Republic. Bulletin U.S. National
Museum 115:234-236,

Page 13



PEro RE GALtio Ru[z
nEpresa Nacional para la Pro eccidn de la Flora y ia Fauna, Area Protegida "La Beign,"
Apido, 567, Camagaey 1, C. P. 70100, Cuba

EL LLAMADO CISNE DE LA TUNDRA (Cygrns columbianus)
anida en Alaska y en la tundra ditica canadiense. Pasa el
invierno en la costa atlAntica y pacffica de los Estados
Unidos. deside el csado de Washington hasta California, y
desde Maryland a Carolina del None (Godfrey 1970). La
primera capture de esta especie en Cuba fue en la Cidnaga de
Zapata cl 17 de 1944, hace mas de 50 afios.
El dfa 25 de febrero de 1990, colcct6 cl segundo Cisne de
la Tundra en la gran presa de Nipe, Municipio de Mayar,
pruvincia de Holgufn, cuando se encontraba comirndo en
compafiia de otras aves acuaticas, entire ellas Patos Lavancos
(Anas americana) y Gallaretas de Pico Blanco (Fulica
americana). El ejenmpar result ser una hembra j6ven que
pes6 6.5 kg con las siguientes medidas: ala 530.0 nun;
tarso 105.5 mm: culmen 95.0 mm, Al realizar la
taxidermia del ave corrobord la identificaci6n por la forma de
la traquea, que en esta especie no present la curvatura

vertical debajo del cstern6n que present el lamado Cisne
Tropetero (Cygnus buccinator) y con el cual pueden
confundirse algunos ejemplares aifpicos del Cisne de la
Los pescadores de la presa nos informaron que habian
visto tires cisnes mis en disfintos lugares de la misma, pero
nosstros so amrnte pudimnos veral que fue colectado, apesar
de que rev isamos bien lapresa durante los dos meses anteriores
aa l capture. Actualmente este ejemplar se encuentra en el
Museo Polivalente del Municipio de Mayan, provincia

LrrniAtrRA CrrADA

GoDaFYv, E. W. 1970. The birds of Canada, National
Museum of Canada, Bulletin No. 203. Biological Series
No. 73.


Empresa Nacional para lo Proteccidn de la Flora y la Fauna, Area Protegida "La Beln,"
Aptdo. 567. Camagniey L C. P. 70100, Cuba

haosrata) es una especie oceanica que se dice solamente sc
acerca a tierra para anidar, pero dnicamente lo hace en
determinados sitios montafiosos en lainmediata vecindaddel
mar. En Cuba se repon6 su presenciaporprimera vez en 1977
en la ensenada de La Bruja, costa sur de la Sierra Maestra,
provinciaSantiagode Cuba. done se colectaronlos primeros
ejemplares. En esta zona estuvo siempre asociada a oscuras
Icycndas donde los vecinos escuchaban sus gritos en cl
silencio de la noche sin que pudicran saberque cosa produce Fa
aquellos gemidos, ya que a causa de sus hAbitos nocturnos y
retraidos, el Diabloin se hace muy dificil de localizar.
En el mes de Noviembre de 1976 mientras realizabamos un
studio en el Valle de Yaguanabo en las A]turas de Trinidad,
del Macizo de] Escambray (Guamuaya) en La provincial de
Cienfuegos, escuchamos de noche en la playa Boca de
Yaguanabo, cerca de la desembocadura del rio del mismo
nombre, unos sonidos, como gemidos con variaciones, que
evidentemente cran producidoa por alguna ave marina, ya

que los sonidos provenfan del mar. No pudimos localizar at
ave a pesar de alumbrar con linternas. Solamente en la zona
de la playa situada mis abajo cerca de un arrecife, y gracias
a las luces que proyectaban sobre el mar unas cabalas desde
1o alto, pude observarel vuelo de algunas ayes oscurasde alas
estrechas y alargadas que volaban rApidamente muy pegadas
al agua, virand o una yotra vez, apareciendo y desapareciendo
siempre en la oscuridad. Por aquellos dfas desconocfa quc
especiedeave era aquela. Sin embargo a] leer en febrero de
1977 en la revista Bohemia el descubrimiento del Dr. Nicacio
Vilia sobre la presencia del Diablotin en las costas de la
Sierra Maestra, pens6 que se trataba de la misma especie de
ave que habia escuchado y vista vagamente durante cinco
noches seguidas en La Playa Boca de Yaguanabo, apenas
cuatro rmse5 antes.
Despuis enr fbrero de 1982 volvf a lazona de Yaguanabo.
pero durante los dos dfaz que permanecimos allino pudimos
colectar al ave, porqueel fuerte oleaje impidi6 quc pdiramtos
embarcarnus en un bore, y esta vez no fue possible ver ninguna

El Pitirre 11(1)

Page 14

Pterodroma basitata en Cuba

cercade Ia playa, aunque escuchamnos en varies ocaqsionec sus
gemidos mar afucra al anochccer.
No fue hasta el dfa 10 de enero de 1990 en que tuve otra
oportunidad de visilar de nuevo ha costa y la playa de Bocade
Yaguanabo. y utilizando a luz de dos reflectores conectados
a dos baterfas eldctricas y un bote, pude disparar sobre las
avesque volaban cerca de ia playaa hajaaltura. Aunquetenia
la scguridad de haber herido al menos una, no pudim-us
encontrar nada durante la noche y las aves desaparecieron,
Pero al amanecer, localizamas en Ia orilla de la play el cue rpo
sin vida de un Diablotn hemnbra. Este ejcmplar no pudo
disecarse debido al mar estado en que se encontraba pues
habia permanecido unas nueve horns dentro del agua y los
pieces le habian comido mds de la mitad del cuerpo.
Asf, tras casi 15 afios do espera, pudimos comprobar que
Boca Yaguanabo y los macizos montafiosos del Escanbray
que lorodcancnnstituyen una nuevalocalidadde laprsencia
de Pterodronm hasitata para Cuba y el sitio de ocurrencia

mis occidental para esta especie en el Caribe.


CABRALES, M. 1977. "El pdjaro dela bruja":principioy find
una leyenda. Bohemia (Habana) 69(10):88-89.
HANEY, J. C. 1987. Aspects of the pelagic ecology and
behavior o the B lack-capped Petrel (Perodroana haitata).
Wilson Bull. 99(2): 153-168.
1993. Reassessment of Black-capped Petrel in Cuba.
Pitirre 6(1):4.
LE, D. S., AND N. VIRA. 1993. A re-evaluation of the status
of the endangered Black-capped Petrel, Pterodroma
hasitwra, in Cuba. Ornitologfa Neotropical 42(2):99-101.
WARHAM, J. 1990. The petrels: their ecology and breeding
systems. Academic Press, London. 440 pp,


Vermont Institute of Natural Science, RR 2 Box532, Woodstock, Vennont 05091, USA

DURING RECENT FIELD WORK in montane forests of south-
western Dominican Republic, we encountered two species of
birds that have not previously been reported from Hispaniola.
The first of these, a Swainson's Warbler (Limnothlypis
swainsonii), was captured in a mist neton 10November 1997
during banding studies in moist, predominantly broadleaf
forest at "Palo de Agua" in Sierra de Baoruco National Park,
Pedernales Province (18 12'N, 71'31 'W, ca. 1400 m eleva-
tion). This site is characterized by a dense understory, solid
canopy of broadleaf trees 8-15 m high, and scattered, emer-
gent pines (Pinus occidentalis) up to 30 m in height. The
bird's identity was unmistakable, although we were unable to
determine its age or sex. Most distinctive were the relatively
large, daggerlike bill, unusual among paruline warblers, its
large, somewhat flattened head with solid brown crown and
pale supercilium, and the overall brownish, unmarked col-
oration of its upperparts. The bird's wing chord measured
69.0 mm. it weighed 14,8 g, and it had no visible subcutane-
ous body fat. The Swainson's Warbler was viewed in the
hand by seven people, including the authors, James Tietz,
James Goetz, Jestis Almonte, Elvis Cuevas, and Esteban
Garrido. Three series of photographs were taken.
During a follow-up visit to Palo de Agua in March 1998, we
recaptured this same individual on 7 March within 100 m of
its original site of capture. The bird weighed 15.4 g and had
a trace of visible subcutaneous body fat. Its site tenacity over
a 4-month period strongly suggests that it over-wintered at
the location. On 9 March we mist-netted a second Swainson's
Warbler at the Palo de Agua site. This individual had a wing
chord of 69.5 mm.a weight of 14.4 g, and a trace of body fat.
El Pitirre I11(1)

It was viewedin the hand by six of the above seven observers,
plus Steven Holmes, Tomas Vargas, and Paul Wieczoreck.
Two series of photographs were taken.
The discovery of Swainson's Warbler in the Dominican
Republic is not surprising, given the species' wintering
distribution, which is centered in the Greater Antilles but
extends from the Yucatdn Peninsula and Honduras eastward
to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands (Raffaele 1989, Howell
and Webb 1995, Graves 1996). The highest recorded densi-
ties of wintering Swainson's Warblers appear to have been
found in the Blue and John Crow mountains of Jamaica and
in certain areas of Cuba (Graves 1996). The species is
secretive and cryptically plumaged, however, is not easily
detected in winter, and appears to favor undisturbed or
slightly modified montane forest habitats (Graves 1996). It
is thus likely that Swainson's Warbler has been overlooked
on Hispaniola. Focused surveys that incorporate tape-re-
corded playbacks represent the most effective means to
census this species on its wintering grounds (Graves 1996),
and we believe that such surveys might reveal Swainson's
Warbler to be relatively widespread in suitable habitat on
The second new species for Hispaniola was completely
unexpected and appears to represent a new record for the
Caribbean Basin south of the Bahamas, We observed a Song
Sparrow (Melospiza melodia) on 15 November 1997 in the
western Sierra de Neiba. on the border of Baoruco and San
Juan provinces, in shrubby roadside habitat on the interna-
tional road above "Vueltade Quince" near the Haitian border
(18" 41 N, 71' 46W, ca. 1900m elevation). This site, about

Page 15


New Records for Hispaniola

20km above the town of Los Pinos, is characterized by moist,
broadleaf montane forest, of which only a relatively small
fragment remains. The area surrounding this remnant forest
has been extensively cleared for agriculture and grazing, and
the remaining forested patch contains scattered clearings and
many small trails. The road to Hondo Valle which passes
through this tract is fringed in many places by dense, shrubby
habitat with numerous, small openings. We observed the
Song Sparrow in this low, roadside growth.
The bird was first observed by Rimmer at 09:45 hr as it
flushed from the wet, grassy road into a bordering shrub. His
immediate impression of the bird's identity was of an Oven-
bird (Seiurus aurocapillus), based on its size, brown dorsal
coloration, and streaked underparts. Upon viewing it through
binoculars from a distance of 7-8 m, as it moved furtively but
in occasional full view in a shrub 1-1.5m above ground, both
authors quickly realized that the bird was some type of
sparrow. This was based on the bird having a distinctly
longer tail, richer dark brown upperparts, and a shorter,
heavier, more conical bill than an Ovenbird. During the next
30-45 sec. the sparrow remained in the bush, continually
moving but providing several clear views, despite its fairly
elusive behavior. After about 20 see, both authors exclaimed
nearly in unison that the bird appeared to be a Song Sparrow,
a species with which both were familiar on its northeastern
North American breeding grounds. Several seconds before
flying out of sight, the bird vocalized twice, giving single,
short, high, slightly rising "seeet' or "seeep" calls. These
sounded to the authors exactly like the alarm calls often heard
in North America and confirmed the species' identity in their
minds. Several minutes of"spishing" failed to bring the bird
back into view, and the species' characteristic nasal "tchep"
call note, often given in response to human "spishing," was
never heard.
Recognizing that Song Sparrow was unlikely to have been
previously recorded on Hispaniola, and that neither ofus was
familiar with juvenal or first basic plumages of Rufous-
collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis), a relatively com-
mon species in the area, we independently recorded detailed
field notes within 24 hours of the sighting, before consulting
field identification guides. The following description, com-
piled from our combined field notes, summarizes the salient
features that we believe confirm the accuracy of our initial
identification of the bird as a Song Sparrow, The head was
distinctively marked by agrayish-white median crown-stripe
bordered by two brown lateral crown-stripes and a fairly
broad, grayish-white supercilium without supraloral mark-
ings. A thin but distinct postocular stripe formed the upper
border of ear coverts that appeared pale brownish or grayish-
brown and were bordered below by a dark moustac hial stripe.
The submoustachial stripe was broad and whitish. A promi-
nent, dark malar stripe bordered the whitish, unmarked
throat. The eyes and bill appeared all dark. The upperparts
were brown with a rufous tinge, especially on the back and
wings. The mantle and back were conspicuously marked
with vertical blackish streaks. No wingbars were evident.
The underparts were whitish, with prominent dark sr-eaks on
nii.- I C

the breast and flanks; these did not extend onto the belly.
Neither author saw a central breast spot, which is often, but
not invariably, a distinctive feature of basic-plumaged Song
Sparrows (Byers eta. 1995). The tail was markedly long and
brownish, appearing to be nearly as long as the bird's body.
Neither of us specifically noted the coloration of the legs and
Although we did not observe the central breast spot diag-
nostic of most Song Sparrows in basic plumage, we believe
that the above description rules out any other sparrows
known to occur on Hispaniola or other islands of the West
Indies, The distinctive head striping, bold streaking on the
underparts, and absence of prominent wingbars eliminate the
possibility of confusion with juvenile Rufous-collared Spar-
row or other Zonotrichia species. Grasshopper Sparrow
(Ammodramus savannamm), of which an endemic subspe-
cies (A. s. intricata) occurs on Hispaniola (Dod 1981, Byers
et al. 1995), is smaller with a short tail and unstreaked or only
faintly streaked underparts with a buffy wash on the breast.
Savannah Sparrow (Passercurus sandswichensis), which win-
ters in the Bahamas and western Greater Antilles (Bond 1993,
Byers et al. 1995), has a short, notched tail, indistinct crown-
stripes, yellowish supraloral markings in most subspecies,
and generally liner, less bold streaks on the underparts than
Song Sparrow. Lincoln's (Melospiza tincobii) and Swamp
(M. georgiana) sparrows, both of which have been recorded
as vagrants in the Greater Antilles (Raffaele 1989, Bond
1993), are readily separable in basic plumage from Song
Sparrow; Lincoln's by its finely-streaked underparts and pale
buffy breast and flanks, Swamp by its more uniformly dark
brown crown, lack of distinct malar and moustachial stripes,
and grayish, unstreaked underparts.
The documentation of Song Sparrow on Hispaniola repre-
sents a significant extralimital occurrence of the species. The
known wintering range extends throughout the southeastern
United States to south-central Florida and into northern
Mexico (northern parts of Sonora, Chihuahua, and Coahuila),
with eight sedentary subspecies resident in central Mexico
from Durango to Michoacin and Puebla (Byers et at, 1995).
We are aware of only five previous records of Song Sparrow
from the Caribbean Basin, all sight records from the Bahama
Archipelago between Grand Bahama and Crooked islands
(H. Raffaele. pers. comm.). The encounter reported here,
involving a probable vagrant individual, extends the extral-
imital range of wintering Song Sparrows at least an additional
550 km to the southeast. While we can only speculate about
the ongin of this bird and the causes of its appearance in
Sierra de Neiba, our prior field experience with Song Spar-
rows in the northeastern United States and consultation with
several field identification guides (e.g., Byers et al. 1995)
suggest that it belonged to the nominate subspecies M. m.

We are grateful for field assistance from Jesis Almonte.
Elvis Cuevas, Esteban Garrido. James Goetz, Steven Holmes,
Jos6 Jiminez, James Tietz, Tom!as Vargas, and Paul
Wieczoreck. We thank Jos6 Ottenwalderand Herbert Raffaele


New Records for Hispaniola

for constructive reviews of this note.


BOND, 1. 1993. Birds of the West Indies. Fifth edition.
Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Massachusetts
BYEes, C., J. CURSON, AND U. OLSSON. 1995. Sparrows and
buntings: a guide to the sparrows and buntings of North
America and the world. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston,
DoD, A. STocKTrow DE 1981. Guiade campo paralas aves de

la Repdblica Dominicana. Mus. Nac. HisL Nat., Editra
Horizontes de Americas, Santo Domingo.
GRAVES, G. R. 1996. Censusing wintering populations of
Swainson's Warblers: surveys in the Blue Mountains of
Jamaica. Wilson Bull. 108:94-103.
HOWELL. S.N. G., AND S.W. WEBB. 1995. A guide to the birds
of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford Univ.
Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
RtArFAn.t, H.A. 1989. A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and
the Virgin Islands. Revised edition. Princeton Univ.
Press, Princeton, New Jersey.


'Division of Biological Sciences, 10 Tucker Hall, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211. USA: :Club de Ob.ervadores
de Aves, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic; and -Biology Department. Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri 63501, USA

in first-year plumage at Las Salinas, Bani, Dominican Re-
public on 22 November 1997. The bird was in the company
of a small flock of other gulls and terns, including Common
Tern (Sterna hirundo), Royal Tern (S. maxima), Laughing
Gulls (L atricilla) in various plumages, a Greater Black-
backed Gull (L. marinus) in first-orsecond-winter plumage,
a first-winter Herring Gull (L argentarus), and an adult
Ring-billed Gull (L. delmvarensis). The terns are common at
this site, the Ring-billed and Herring gulls are both uncom-
mon but regularly seen, and several Greater Black-backed
Gulls, although rare throughout the Caribbean, have been
present here for more than a year. Fortuitously, we were able
to study the Lesser Black-backed Gull from a distance of 20-
25 m with a spotting scope, with the bird at times side-by-side
with each of the other gull species. The Lesser Black-backed
Gull was first picked out as possibly unique owing to its size
(intermediate between that of the larger Herring and Greater
Black-backed gulls, but larger than the Ring-billed Gull) and
an entirely black, comparatively small bill, contrasting with
the larger, two-tune bill of the young Herring Gull, which
was distinctly lighter as the hats In general, the bird was
largely brown, but considerably paler than the Herring Gull,
especially on the head, neck, and underparts. In comparison,

the Herring Gull was darker brown with less contrast among
the head. upperparts, and underparts. When the gull jumped
in the wind, spreading its wings, or took short flights, a well-
defined, dark tail-band was seen, contrasting with a light,
almost white rump, which also contrasted with the brown
back. In addition, the wing showed dark primaries, second-
aries, and coverts, such that two dark bars formed on the inner
wing. No light window in the inner primaries was seen as is
typical of Herring Gulls.
This appears to be the first record of the Lesser Black-
backed Gull for Hispaniola, and one of only a few for the
Caribbean. No records of this species exist in Keith et al (in
prep.), and Bond (1979) lists the species as a vagrant, with
records from Puerto Rico and St. Martin. The bird was also
seen by Mia Sondreahl of the Vermont Institute of Natural
Science, and Kate Wallace and Danito Mejias of the Club de
Observadores de Aves Annabelle Dod.


BOND, J. 1979. Birds oF the West Indies. Collins, London.
Ktrm. A.. J. W. WLEY. A .O'Crr0NWALnfa, ANO S. C. LArA.
In prep. An annotated checklist of the birds of Hispaniola-



'Division of Biological Sciences, 110 Trcker Hall. University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 65211. USA; and
2Biology Departnent, Truman State University, Kirksville, Missouri 63501, USA

WE RECORWED StVERAL unusual birds while mist-netting in
dry forest near Cabo Rojo, Pedernales, Dominican Republic
in October and November 1997. These birds included the
first substantiated record of the Chestnut-sided Warbler
(Dendroica pensylvanica), Bay-breasted Warbler (D.
caslanea), and Nashville Warbler ( Vermivora nificapilla) in
the Dominican Republic, and several captures and sightings
of the rarely reported Connecticut Warbler (Oporonisagilis)
and the Golden-winged Warbler (V. chrysoptera).
On 14 October 1997 Latta was the first to see the Chest-
nut-sided Warbler foraging in a buttonwood tree (Conocarpus
sp.). The bird immediately appeared unique because of its
habit of cocking its tail. The bird was generally greenish-
yellow above with two broad, yellowish wingbars. The
underparts were grayish-white, becoming lighter towards
the rear with whitish undertail coverts. The cheeks were gray
and a grayish-white eyering was present. On 15 October we
mist-netted this bird and confirmed the identification as a
juvenile female Chestnut-sided Warbler. In addition to the
above field marks we noted light streaking on the back. The
bill, legs, and feet were dark. The bird was also seen in the
hand by Mia Sondreahl and Danilo Mejias, and was photo-
graphed by Brown. Keith et al. (in prep.) show no records of
this species from the Dominican Republic, and a single
record (Bartsch 1917) from Haiti.
We captured a juvenile male Bay-breasted Warbler on 23
October 1997. The bird appeared similar to the numerous
Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata). except the legs and
feet were blue-gray rather than the unique orange of the
blackpoll. The upperparts were greenish-gray with black
streaks formed by black patches to the centers of the feathers.
The head was a similar grayish-olive and did not contrast with
the upper back, but only minute blackstreaks were present on
the head. The cheeks and lores were dusky, The rump was
also grayish-olive, as was the tail which had white in the outer
three rectrices. Two bold whitish wingbars were also present.
The underparts were generally whitish and unstreaked, but
the sides of the upper breast were stained yellowish-green to
very light gray- The flanks were buffy gray and a very few
chestnut-colored feathers were found on each flank. The bird
was also seen by Mia Sondreahl, Kate Wallace, Bolivar
Cabrera, and DaniloMejias, and wasphotographedby Brown.
Keith ct al, (in prep.) list a single, unsubstantiated record of
the Bay-breasted Warbler from the Dominican Republic.
We mist-netted an adult female Nashville Warbler on 14
November. The upperparts of the bird were generally green-
ish-olive, including the tail, and no while was present on the
wings or tail. The crown, auriculars, and nape were gray and

blended into the green back. The bird had a prominent white
eyering. A rufous patch was concealed in the crown, which
extended about 10 mm. The upper breast and throat was
yellowish, but the throat less so. The lower breast and belly
were whitish, the undertail coverts yellow. The bird was also
seen by Bolivar Cabrera and Danilo Mejias, and was photo-
graphed by Brown. This appears to be the first Dominican
record of the Nashville Warbler.
Although not new species for Hispaniola, two other
records are worth noting. First, a juvenile Connecticut
Warbler was mist-netted on 16 October. The bird was
uniformly brownish-green above, including the back, rump,
and uppertail coverts, with the head, nape, and auriculars
greenish-gray to gray. The gray hood extended to the upper
breast, but the throat was bufly-gray. The bird had a
prominent white eyering, which had slight break in it behind
the eye. The rest of the underparts, including the undertail
coverts, were yellow, but the contrast between the gray bib
and the yellow breast was not sharp. The sides were greenish-
yellow. Two additional individuals were netted on the same
day, both of which had a complete eye ring, and one of which
had more olive-brown bib without the gray wash. All birds
were also seen by Mia Sondreahl and Danilo Mejias, and
were photographed by Brown. Although these birds were
banded, we did not resight them. In the following days,
however, we did see unbanded Connecticut Warblers on
several occasions, suggesting thatadditional individuals were
moving through this area. We continued to see unbanded
Connecticut Warblers until 21 October. Whereas Connecti-
cut Warblers have been rarely reported from Hispaniola
(Keith et al. [in prep] show two birds collected and two
additional sight records), the concentration of so many
sightings at one site suggests that this species may be more
common, at least on migration, than previously suspected,
A second sight record is that of two Golden-winged
Warblers seen by Danilo Mejias on 14 October 1997 about
1.5 km north of the above mist-netting locations, but in
similar dry forest habitat. These birds were well seen and
idtltLified by the gray upperparts, whitish underparts, the
blackish throat and ear patch, and yellow wing patch.

Lri nAruRE C oITE
BAwrsctS, P. 1917. Additions to the Haitian avifauna. Proc.
Biol. Sec. Wash. 30:131-132
Karm, A., J. W. Wi.EY, 1. A. OrrmNWALDER, AND .S C. LtTA,.
In prep. An annotated checklist of the birds of Hispaniola.

Page 18

El Pitirre 11(1)


'Department of Biology, 5 Cwmunington St,, iosan Universiry, Boston, Massachusetts, USA 02215: and
'Department ofAgriehure, P Box N-3028, Nassau, New Providence, Bahamas

As PART OF THE NEWI.Y INmATED West Indian Whistling-
Duck (WIWD) and Wetlands Conservation Project spon-
sored by the WIWD Working Group of the Society of
Caribbean Ornithology, a workshop entitled "The West In-
dian Whistling-Duck and Wetlands Education Training
Workshop" was recently held in Nassau, Bahamas, 13-15
November 1997. The workshop was held at The Retreat,
headquarters of The Bahamas National Trust. Here we
present an official report on the proceedings of the workshop,
along with plans for the way forward.
The Workshop, part of the WIWD Working Group's
activities, was made possible as a result of funding obtained
by the Co-chairs of the Working Group (WG) and the
Bahamas National Trust. Financial support for this project
comes from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Western
Hemisphere Program, the American Bird Conservancy, and
Conservation International Bahamas. The workshop was
organized by the WIWD WG Co-chairs, Dr. Lisa Sorenson
and Patricia Bradley. Lynn Gape of The Bahamas National
Trust led the local organizing committee.
The WIWD WG, formed at the 1996 annual meeting of
the Society of Caribbean Ornithology in Nassau, Bahamas,
has been developing a conservation plan to reverse the
decline of the threatened WIWD in the West Indies. Towards
this end, the group has initiated a region-wide public educa-
tion and awareness program on the WIWD and the impor-
tance of wetlands in general. Specific objectives of this
program include making people aware of the value of WIWDs
and their wetland habitats, creating local pride in the WIWD
as a Caribbean endemic, and raising interest in the potential
of WIWDs (and other wetland species) for eco-tourism.
The objectives of the WIWD and Wetlands Education
Training Workshop in Nassau were to I) promote awareness
of the WIWD and wetlands, 2) review educational tools and
methodologies for the promotion of the WIWD and the
importance of wetlands, and 3) provide training to regional
biologists in population survey and monitoring techniques.
A total of45 people attended the workshop. This included
I to 2 representatives from the following countries: Antigua
and B arbuda, The Bahamas, Caym an Islands, Jamaica, Turks
and Caicos Islands, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Puerto Rico,
the United States, and Canada. Also in attendance were 11
schoolteachers from 4 different Bahama Islands, Bahamas
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries personnel (conserva-
tion officers and game wardens), Bahamas Ministry of Edu-
cation personnel, and members and officers of the Bahamas
National Trust (BNT). Following opening remarks by Lynn
Gape, Public Relations and Education Officer of the BNT.
and by the WIWD WG Co-chairs, the workshop began in

ElPitirre 11(1)



Dr. Lisa Sorenson presented a 45 minute slide show that
she developed for the general public. The show begins by
describing the WIWD's natural history including identifica-
ton, range, breeding biology and behavior, and habitat use;
followed by the WIWD's conservation status and threats to
its continued survival, including poaching and unregulated
hunting, wetland destruction, wetland degradation, and dep-
redation by introduced mammals. The final part of the
presentation addresses conservation efforts: what the WG is
doing to help reverse the decline of the whistling-duck and
save it from extinction. The show describes the WG's Public
Education and Awareness Program, the WIWD poster that
will be distributed throughout the West Indies, and empha-
sizes to the audience the importance of wetlands; that wet-
lands need to be protected not just as habitat for the WIWD.
but also for the health and welfare of local human popula-
tions. The many services that wetlands provide including
food control, sources of fresh, unpolluted water, nurseries for
marine fisheries, and as habitat for other species are described
and illustrated with many beautiful photos (our thanks to
those who donated slides). The presentation ends with the
speaker informing the audience of what they can do to help,
including suggestions such as not polluting, supporting con-
servation of wildlife and wetlands, reporting illegal hunting,
and going birding and enjoying our natural heritage,
Dr. Sorenson commented that the script she prepared was
intended to serve as a guide; it is general enough so that it
could probably be shown on any island in the West Indies, but
she urges that presenters on each island also include local
information and issues related to the WIWD and its habitat,
where appropriate, because this will make the presentation
more meaningful to the local audience, Following the work-
shop, copies of the slide show and script were distributed to
each island representative. A Spanish version of the slide
show iscurrently in preparation and soon will be available for


Ms. Mars van Liefde (Cayman Islands) made a presenta-
tion on the WIWD education method she used successfully
with older schoolchildren in the Cayman Islands. She empha-
sized the importance of reaching this age group with a
conservation message, because this is when many youngsters

Pnae 19

West Indian Whistling-Duck Working Group

become interested in hunting. Ms. van Liefde stressed the
importance of student interaction during the presentation.
She designed her presentation to encourage the students to
determine answers for themselves as opposed to simply
presenting them with facts and figures. Using a blackboard
and overhead projector, Ms. van Liefde presented the foll ow-
ing concepts and information on the WIWD: names (com-
mon and scientific), identifying characteristics, habitat, eco-
logical importance, threats faced by the species and, impor-
tantly, what students can do to help raise awareness and save
the WIWD from extinction. Ms. van Liefde said that she was
always careful to not bombard the students with too many
large words and complex concepts, but rather explained her
ideas as she went along, letting the students figure out words
and concepts themselves wherever possible. Ms. van Liefde
mentioned that she was also conscious of the length of the
presentation, being careful not to bore her audience. She
reported that the students were delighted when informed that
they would not be tested on the material and that no-one ever
fell asleep during herpresentation! Ms. van Licfde' excellent
ideas will be incorporated into our WIWD and wetlands
education workbook (in progress).


This well-received presentation comprised two education
Puppet Show.-Ms. Lynn Gape and Ms. Monique Clarke
(Bahamas National Trust) presented a puppet show written
by Ms. Gape on the WIWD and wetlands conservation
suitable for young children. Assisted by Ms. Karen St, Cyr
from the Ministry of Education (Bahamas) the puppet show
was presented in its first draft. In scene I, the protagonists,
children "Whitney" and "Will," are receiving a talk from
"Environmental Eddie," who has taken them on a tour of the
Adelaide Creek Wetland. Eddie explains why wetlands are
important as nurseries for groupers and crawfish, habitat for
ducks, among other wildlife. The audience is introduced to
other charming characters, including "Whistler" the WIWD,
"Pinny" the Bahama Pintail, and "Blue" the Little Blue
Heron, who are listening in the background. In Scene II,
Whitney and Will return to Adelaide to look at the ducks and
other wildlife. They see a bulldozer and then overhear
"Developer Dan" talking about how he is going to fill the
wetland andmake it into homes forpeople. Whitney and Will
meet Whistler, Pinny, Blue, and other mangrove animals who
ar upset about losing their homuis, Whlitucy and Will suggcs L
they go to Environmental Eddie for help. In Scene III, all the
animals, Whitney and Will tell Environmental Eddie about
the proposed development and ask for his help. After they
leave, Environmental Eddie shakes his head and says that it
is now time for the "Environmental Ninja." In the final scene,
the animals and children led by the Environmental Ninja
(Eddie now wearing a cape and bandanna) meet with Devel-
oper Dan and con vince him thatmangrove wetlands are good,
and that it will enhance his development to have a natural area
for bird watching, and otherenvironmentally friendly activi-
Page 20

ties as part of his development a happy ending for all.
Participation by children in the audience was written into the
script: every time the audience hears "Mangroves are use-
less," they respond with a chant (written on poster board):
No, they are not!
Mangraves are nurseries for crawfish and conch,
They give us protection from storms that knock,
Homes for birds and ducks that fly,
Places of beauty to soothe our eyes.
The puppet show was extremely well-received and drew
much laughter and applause. All agreed that it was fun,
engaging, and with a clear wetlands conservation message
for schoolchildren and grown-ups alike. With a few minor
adjustments, it was thought that the puppet show could easily
be duplicated and shown on any of the participating islands.
The puppet show script, theater design, and photos and
templates of the puppets will be made available to each
Coloring Book-Ms. Melissa Maura, a talented artist and
supporter of The Bahamas National Trust, kindly volun-
teered to prepare drawings for a WIWD coloring book. Lynn
Gape presented the frames, all beautifully done, that had been
created by Ms. Maura. The various drawings depict the
WIWD in the following scenes: upright stance, feeding, in
flight, fighting, with range map, in mangrove habitat with
signs indicating threats to the duck, other species that share
WIWD habitat, adult at nest with eggs, pair swimming with
ducklings. and children bird- watching at a wetland. The idea
of the coloring book was well received and will be actively
followed up by the Working Group. The drawings, along
with descriptive illustrations, will be published in a coloring
book and also as separate pages that can be photo-duplicated
and distributed to schoolchildren.


Mr. Pericles Maillis (past President BNT, conservation-
ist, hunter) presented the Bahamian experience in dealing
with hunters. Mr. Maillis informed participants that the BNT
has for many years been active in working with hunting issues
in the Bahamas. Mr. Maillis highlighted some of the prob-
lems and successes that have occurred in managing hunting
in the Bahamas in the past by describing the management
history of White-crowned Pigeons, a major game bird in the
Bahamas. Some of the lessons learned from this experience
could be applied to the current problems throughout the West
Indies of unregulated hunting and poaching of WTWDs. Mr.
Mailis concluded that the success of the White-cnrwned
Pigeon conservation program was the result of a well-
developed public slide program and hunter education meet-
ings presented by a hunter (Mr. Maillis). This enabled the
presenter to use the same frame of reference as the audience
and quickly win their confidence. Mr. Maillis therefore
advocates that a conservation-minded hunter be involved in
a WTWD Hunter Education Program in each island and, if
possible, should be responsible for making presentations to
hunter groups. It is important to make hunters feel like they
Fl Piti-,- i 1In


West Indian WhiFsliing-Duck Working Group

are part of the solution, not the problem.
Mr. Maillis felt that huntereducation was important in our
conservation efforts of the WIWD. He believes that WIWDs
are presently shot because many people are not aware that
they are endangered or that it is illegal to shoot them. Another
major problem both in the Bahamas and other parts of the
Caribbean is species identification: WIWDs are frequently
reported shot by mistake or by hunters who did not know
what they were shooting. Mr. Maillis believes that hunter
attitudes and behavior would change with education and that
once hunters are educated, we can depend on their know ledge
to increase protection of the duck, as policing can often be
difficult (especially in the Bahamas).
As pan of our Hunter Education Program, the WIWD WG
is currently preparing a slide show on the WIWD specifically
for hunter groups. This show will emphasize duck species
identification, a review of local hunting laws and which
ducks are legal game, and ways in which hunters can aid in
conservation efforts. A plasticized identification card show-
ing both resident and migratory ducks of the West Indies
(standing and in flight) that hunters can take into the field is
currently in production; a mock-up was circulated at the
workshop and comments were made on the lay-out. The
WIWD poster will be placed in areas frequented by hunters,
Also discussed was the initiation of a duck hunting stamp
(modeled after a program developed and administered by
Wildlife Habitat Canada) which would generate funds for
conservation, and offering alternatives such as clay pigeon
shooting to hunters in the off-season.


Ms. Diane Eggeman (Florida Game and Freshwater Fish
Commission) covered basic aspects of waterfowl census
methodology that will be useful in monitoring WIWDs. Her
presentation included the various goals of monitoring (e.g.,
documenting population status and change, evaluating ef-
fects of hunting or other factors that influence populations),
primary versus secondary population parameters, how moni-
toring is used in waterfowl management, the basics of sam-
pling, statistical analysis, and development of a monitoring
program. Ms. Eggeman told participants that they should be
conscious of the following points when thinking about moni-
toring: always begin with a clearly defined goal, identify
parameters for monitoring, identify methods of monitoring,
remember to include variance estimates, and conduct a pre-
liminary study to assess feasibility and precision,
Following Ms. Eggeman's presentation, the group dis-
cussed the potential goals ofa WIWD Survey and Monitoring
Program and several different objectives were identified,
including: obtaining a range-wide estimate of population
size, determining island population size, determining habitat
use, identifying important breeding sites, monitoring trends,
monitoring local hot spots, and determining presence and
occurrence. It was pointed out that we really need to know
baseline population numbers i.e., what is the present range-
wide WIWD population size? Given the special problems
Fl Pitirrr I 11T

posed by WIWDs the inaccessibility of much of their
habitat, their nocturnal nature, and the present lack of re-
sources to adequately sample their entire range partici-
pants agreed that a range-wide estimate of population size
was not currently feasible. Determining habitat use and
identifying key breeding habitats were considered two moni-
toring goals badly needed for WIWD habitat protection
efforts. It was decided that the WG would support survey and
monitoring efforts on several islands (Jamaica, Antigua and
Barbuda, Etcuthera. and Cuba) and pilot studies will be
conducted on these islands in the coming months. Determin-
ing simple occurrence of WIWDs using playback tapes will
also be explored. Ms. Eggeman concluded her session by
emphasizing two important take-home messages: 1) clearly
define the goals and objectives of your monitoring, and 2) be
aware that you will only find WIWDs where you look (i.e.,
don't sample only in certain habitats).


Given an entire day to dazzle participants with her expe-
rience, insights, and knowledge, Michelle Kading (Head
Interpreter, Oak Hammock Marsh Interpretive Centre,
Manitoba, Canada) came through with flying colors, Ms.
Kading began her program by showing a short video and
giving a slide presentation on the history and education
activities at Oak Hammock Marsh Interpretive Centre, a
successful wetland restoration project.
Ms. Kading then discussed interpretive techniques (what
makes a good interpreter), general communication skills, and
how people learn best (by doing, not just by hearing or
seeing), followed by an exercise in how people perceive
wetlands (Wetland Alphabet). Thi s introduction set the stage
for the rest of the day's activities, which included mostly
hands-on demonstrations and activities. Ms. Kading demon-
strated "Critter Dipping" a means of introducing folks to the
insects that live in wetlands. Bugs can be examined up close
using either "low-tech" clear, plastic bug boxes (milk carton
bottoms work too!) and magnifying glasses or "high-tech"
video cameras hooked up to a television set. Children
discover what critters they are looking at by drawing them
and matching them up with bugs on a"Marsh Monster" sheet,
If it is not possible for schoolchildren to visit a wetland
firsthand, Ms. Kading demonstrated the next-best substitute:
the "Port-n-Pond" a sheet of thick plastic, which when
placed on the floor with edges rolled up and a bucket of pond
waterpoured in- works beautifully in a classroom situation.
Before breaking for their own lunch, participants discovered
what owls eat for lunch by dissecting their own owl pellets
and matching up the various tiny bones found with those
drawn on an identification sheet.
In the afternoon, participants divided up into six groups,
each selecting two activities or games to demonstrate to the
rest of the Workshop. Participants were given a framework
and some materials which they used to develop an education
exercise that as then acted out for the other participants.
These activities, although a lot of fun, all have an underlying
nfl -fi


West Indian Whisrling-Duck Working Group

educational objective and are designed to teach students
about some aspect of wetlands. The presentations were in the
areas of general wetland ecology, wetland species and adap-
tations, food chains, water hydrology, and wetland issues,
Judging from the creative ideas, high level ofenth usiasm, and
laughter heard throughout the afternoon, it was clear that the
exercises were well-received and enjoyed by all. Ms. Kading
ended the day's exciting program with an inspirational "Bird
in the Hand" story that left many participants dabbing their
Feedback received from the participants (from evaluation
forms completed at the end of the Workshop) indicated that
all were inspired by Ms. Kading's presentation as well as the
other sessions, and that all returned home with a renewed
sense ofpurpose, confidence, and enthusiasm, and with many
new tools and ideas for carrying out WIWD and wetlands
education in their own country. Overall, the organizers fell
that the Workshop was hugely successful and we thank all
those that were involved in the organization and that gave
presentations for their assistance and hard work. We are
more convinced than ever that we have a great group of
people involved in our conservation effort all enthusiastic,
talented, motivated, and dedicated people with excellent
ideas and an ability to work well together.


The Workshop concluded with four main tasks to be
1. WIWD and Wetlands Education and Awareness Pro-
gram.-The presentations that have been developed (or are
in preparation) for the different target groups and which were
presented at the Workshop are now expected to be used in the
respective islands to begin educating people about the WIWD
and the importance of wetlands. Island representatives that
received binoculars (40 pairs were distributed) are expected

to take schoolchildren and the general public on field trips to
see the WIWD and other wetlands avifauna. Working with
Ms, Gape and Ms. Kading, the WG plans to develop and
publish a Wetlands Education Workbook (using thee excellent
ideas, tools and activities demonstrated by Ms. Kading) for
use by schoolteachers and other natural resource educators i n
the Caribbean. The WIWD coloring book will also be
published and distributed.
2. Monitoring.-Jamaica, Eleuthera, Antigua and Barbuda.
and Cuba were mandated to begin some form of monitoring
activities with a report expected for next year's SCO meeting
in Guadeloupe. It was felt by the participants from these
islands that sufficient logistics are in place to undertake this
activity. Both of these activities will be monitored by the Co-
chairs and reports will be given at the 1998 SCO meeting in
3. Hunter Education Workshop.-As requested by SCO
members in Guadeloupe, the WG plans to hold a Hunter
Ed ucation Workshopat the 1998 SCO meetingin Guadeloupe.
Plans are currently underway,
4. "Watchable Wildlife Ponds. "-The WG would like to
encourage and support the development in the Caribbean of
"Watchable Wildlife Ponds," accessible wetlands where the
public can observe WIWDs and other wildlife. This may
entail building a boardwalk, nature trail and observation
blind, installing interpretive signs that provide information
on birds and other wetland species, and perhaps (at least
initi ally) releasing captive-reared birds into the area to attract
wild birds. Such a pond would serve as an attraction to both
the local human population and eco-tourists, thereby enhanc-
ing an appreciation of wildlife for both its aesthetic and
economic value. To help us get started, the WG plans to
invite a representative from the Pointe-A-Pierre Wildfowl
Trust in Trinidad to share their experience and expertise in
creating wildlife ponds with WG members at the Guadeloupe
SCO meeting.

Page 22


If anyone has a copy of G. H. Voous' English-language version of "Birds of the
Netherlands Antilles" and would like to sell it, please contact:

Bill Murphy
telephone: 304-485-4710
e-mail: bmurphy@bpd.treas.gov


El Pitirre I 1(1)


Catilogo de las Ayes Cubanas par Don Juan Gundlach
publicado en los Anales de la Sociedad Espanila de
Historial Natural, en 1873 con Comentarios al Caidlogo y
Listado Acualizado de las Aves de Cuba Reallkadoa por
Rafael Pardo.-Servicio de Reproducci6n de Libros de
LibreriasParis-Valencia. Valencia. 1996. 35+ 191 +19 pp.
Paper, $30.00.-This facsimile edition of Juan Gundlach's
original Catdlogo, firstpublished in theAnalesde laSociedad
de Historia Natural in 1873, will be welcomed by all orni-
thologists working in Cuba. It replaces my well-worn pho-
tocopy of Gundlach's still quite useful original work.
The publication is divided into three parts. The first
consists of Rafael Pardo's "commentary" on the Cardlogo,
withabrief assessment ofGundlach'scontributions toCuban
zoology, followed by a synonymy of common and Latin
names used by the original author. This synonymy is espe-
cially useful as one ponders such old names as Reghenrias
wilonii (Hook-billed or Cuban Kite) and Erisnmat ra rubida
(Ruddy Duck) in the facsimile catalogue. Pardo also pro-
vides order, family, subfamily. tribe (where appropriate) for
each of the birds treated.
The second part of the publication consists of the fac-
simile copy of the original Cardiogo (with original pagina-
tion from the Anales), Following the species accounts in the
27 families treated by the author, Gundlach provides infor-
mationonadditionalbirdspeciesin fourappendices: Apdndice
I, "Cauilogo de las aves introducidas en la isla de Cuba, y ya

observadas, criando en estado silvestre"; Apdndice II,
"Catalogo de las waves observadas eno e campo, pero
probablemente huidas dejaulas"; Ap6ndice .I, "Catalogo de
las aves indicadas comopertenecientes la ornitologia cubana,
pero equivocadas con otras que. en efecto, se uncuentran en
la isla de Cuba"; and Apindice IV, "Catflogo de las aves
indicadas conmo pertenecientes 4 la omitologfa cubana, pero
indudablemente por error 6 falta de examen critic de sus
The third part of the publication is a "Listado actualizado
de las aves de Cuba realizado por Rafael Pardo," which
includes additions to the avifauna of the island since
Gundlach's period (e.g., Zapata Wren Ferminia crererai,
Shiny Cowbird Moloilrms bonariensis). This list consists of
phylogentically arranged species, by order, family and sub-
family. Latin, English, and Spanish names are provided,
along with status. Five degrees of endangerment are given
for those species considered extinct or at risk.
A bibliography completes the publication, although most
of the references are ofa general nature; e.g., Burton's (1989)
"Birds of prey," with only a few references specific to Cuba.
This publication follows the recent facsimile reproduc-
tion of Juan Lembeye's important work from the same
century (see El Pitirre 9[3]:32). This gives workers in the
region hope that additional rare publications will soon see
light as facsimile editions. --AMES W. WtLEY.

El Pitirre 1 1(1)

Dmnn T



Available from
Jim Wiley
2201 Ashland St.
Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA

US$5.00, including postage

__ _

SMA July
I to 5 July 1998

[SISA is a voluntary, non-profit and independent organiza-
tion, the objectives of which are to study islands on their own
terms, and to encourage free scholarly discussion on small
island related matters such as islandness, smallness, insular-
ity, dependency, resource management and environment,
and the nature of island life. These objectives are pursued by
encouraging the networking of small island communities
through international communication systems, such as news-
letters, journals and the holding of periodic, multi-disciplin-
ary conferences, employing appropriate technologies to
achieve these ends. ISISA was officially established at the
Islands IV conference on Okinawa, following previous meet-
i ngs on Victoria (1986), Tasmania (1988) and Nassau (1992)

ISLANDS OF THE WORLD V CONFEaxctN is to be held in
Mauritius, 1-5 July 1998, sponsored locally by the University
of Mauritius, the Mauritius Institute of Education, Mahatma
Gandhi Institute and the Tertiary Education Commission.
Internationally, the United Nations Environment Programme
and INSULA. the International Scientific Council for Island
Development are co-sponsors.

The major theme is Small Islands in the Third Millennium -
Problems and prospects of island living. There will be
Sessions. Symposia and Workshops for which contributions
are invited.


The emphasis here is on the presentation of papers, discus-
sion ofa current state ofknowledge and what might be needed
in future research.
Symposium 1: Networking and telematics
Symposium 2: Islands on the global scene
Symposium 3: Social & cultural issues in Islander living
Symposium 4: Islanders, oceans and coastal environmen-

Symposium 5:
Symposium 6:

tal problems
Islanders, oceans and political economy
Island biodiversity in the year 2000

Workshop 4:
Workshop 5:
Workshop 6:

and biodiversity the balance sheet in the
year 2000
Islander health and population
Islanders and political economy
Education for sustainable development

NB: Submission of a paper title and abstract implies that
permission is given for the publication of that material on
ISISA's website, without infringement of copyright,


The revised (22.02.98) timetable for this conference is as

I Aug 1997

1 Mar 1998

31 Mar 1998

31 Mar 1998
I May 1998

31 May 1998
1 Jun 1998
After I June 1998
30 June 1998

Islands V First Circular available &
call for papers
Second Circular, with details of pre-
sentations and conference schedule
Deadline for paper proposals &early
Deadline Ibr paper abstracts
Third Circular, with further pro-
gram details
Pre-registration fee due date
Deadline for poster paper proposals
Full registration fee applies
Arrival and registration at Islands
V, Mauritius

The registration fees for this conference are according to
when payment is made (and have been revised from earlier

31 March 1998 Lastday forearly registration fee
of US$275
31 May 1998 Last day for Pre-registration fee
of US$300
*After 1 June 1998 Full Registration fee of US$350

The registration fee includes:

Workshops emphasize instruction or provision of informa-
tion, intensive discussion of specific topics and proposals for
action, including curriculum implications and social policy.
Workshop 1: Communicating island life through elec-
tronic networking systems
Workshop 2: Social & cultural issues in island life
Workshop 3: Remembering the Dodo: Small islands

* Entry to all Sessions, Workshops and Symposia
* Program and abstracts on arrival
* Arrival and departure transfers between airport and
conference hotel
* Transfers between Hotel Monaco and Islands V
conference site & activities
* 6 nights hotel accommodation for one person (Non-

PnnP 7A



delegate companion accommodation by applica-
Conference reception
Cultural Evening presented by the Mahatma Gandhi
Lunch daily during conference sessions
Conference dinner at the Klondike Hotel, including
Sega Night cultural show

The ISISA Website is located at: hlup:/www,isn.net

Completed registration forms and fees be should be sent to:
Dr. Prem Saddul, Secretary-General Islands V
Social Science Department
Institute of Education
M..LE. Reduit, Mauritius
Telephone: (230) 454 1031 or (230) 454 1035
FAX: (230) 454 1037
e-mail: Psaddul @bow.intnet.mu


Name.(Family, then given):

Institutional affiliation (if an'

Postal Address:

Islands) or Region (s) where you research:
Fax: (_) _-m

Telephone: ( )


Symposium of Greatest Interest: Workshop of Greatest Interest:
(NB: Participants may attend as many Symposia and Workshops as they wish)

Proposed paper title (please attach 200 word abstract):

The most important conference relevant to islands I have
attended recently is:

Please attach 50 word single spaced summary for display and
discussion and bring your badge and satchel from that meet-
Are you are willing to use the satchel and identifying badge
you bring with you rather than obtain one supplied by Islands
V? Yes__ No

Early Registration (by 31.03.98) US$275
Pre-Registration (by 31.05,98) US$300
Full Registration (after 01.06.98 and on site) US$350

Amount enclosed

IS1SA Membership (not required for Islands V participation,
but necessary to attend the ISISA AGM and hold office or
membership in ISISA Commissions)

USS20 x persons =

All payments should be in US dollars and payable to "IsLA.NI

Student or group conference fees on application and subject
to Islands V conference finances. Partners who share aroom.
but do not participate in the meetings of the conference, may
register for US$100 less than the established fees above. All
information above is correct at time of writing (22.02.98).

ElPitirre I1(1)


Page 25



A series of robberies in Florida has resulted in the severe
depletion of founder stock and resultant offspring of the
endangered Cuban Parrot (Amazona leucocephala
leucocephala). During the morning of 11 March 1998. Life
Fellowship (Ramon Noegel and Greg Moss) was robbed.
Security fencing was cut as were the front panels of parroi
flight cages. The flights were entered and parrots removed.
The perpetrators also disabled die vehicles on the property.
Fortunately, no one was hurt.

These Cuban Parrots have been previously listed with
ISIS. Their band numbers and color follow in the unlikely
event the birds are seen or recovered with bands intact:

Band number Color Sex

Life 94-242 orange male
Life 94-209 green female
Life 94-226 red male
Life 94-207 green female
Life 94-205 green male
Life 94-210 green female
Life 93-72 purple male
Life 85-2 silver male
Life 94-232 purple male
Life 97- -female
Life 22-26 red male
FC-FC silver female
Life 94-222 red male
Life 94-228 red female
Life 89-6 silver male
Life 94-228 light green female
Life 94-250 orange male
1746 silver female
Life 94-219 blue female
Life 94-221 red male
Life 94-228 red female

Two additional male and one female Cuban Parrots were
taken, as were one male Double Yellow-headed Parrot (A.
orrnix) and one elderly female Panama parrot.
A similar theft previously occurred at Last Chance Farm,
when many Cuban Parrots and other endangered species
were stolen. Additional thefts occurred in the Fort Myers
(Florida) area earlier this year. Unfortunately, none of these
birds have been recovered. There is speculation that birds are
being stolen, dyed. and subsequently shipped out of the
United States.
The authorities have asked that word of these thefts reach
as many concerned individuals as possible. If you hear
anything about the stolen parrots, please contact Luanne
Porter at (941) 674-0321 (telephone) or (941) 675-8824
If additional details become available, they will be posted
on http://www. funny farmexotics.com/IAS/index.htm

El Pitirre 11(1)

Page 26


13-16 July 1998 -Society ofConservation Biology Annual
Meeting, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. (List of
symposia and their convenors can be obtained by consulting
the SCB web site at http://www.bio.mq.edu.au/consblo or
via e-mail from the organizers by contacting

18-22 July 1998- Animal Behavior Society Annual Meet-
ing, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale- Lee
Drickamer, Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois Uni-
versity, Carbondalc, Illinois 62901, USA.

19-25 July 1998 International Congress On Ecology.
Florence, Italy. (Almo Farina, INTECOL; tel:

28 July 3 August 1998 7th International Behavior
Ecology Congress, Asilomar Conference Grounds, Monterey,
California, USA. [Wait Koenig; e-mail: wicker@uclink,
bcrkeley.edu or Janis Dickinson; e-mail: sialia@
uclink2berkeley.edu; both at Hastings Reservation, 28601 E.
Carmel Valley Rd., Carmel Valley, California 93924. USA).

2-6 August 1998 Ecological Exchanges between Major
Ecosystems, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. (Contact: ESA
Program Chair, Fred Wagner, Ecology Center, Utah State
University, Logan, Utah 84322-5205, USA;telephone: 801-
797-2555; e-mail: fwagner@cc.usu.edu).

19-22 August 1998 XXII International Ornithological
Congress. Durban. South Africa. (Information Dr. Aldo
BcTruti, 111 Blair Atholl Road, Westville 3630, South Af-
rica; Fax: 27-31-262-6114: e-mail: aldo@birdlife.org.za;
Scientific Program Dr. Lukas Jenni, Schweizerische
Vogetwarte, CH-6204 Sempach, Switzerland; fax: 41-41-
462-9710: e-mail: jennil @ornins.ch).

8- I September 1998- Coastal Environment 98, Cancun,
Mexico. (Contact: Liz Kerr, Wessx Institute ofTechnology,
Southampton, United Kingdom; telephone: 44-1-703-293223;
fax: 44-1-703-292853; e-mail: liz@wessex.ac.uk).

30 September-4 October 1998 The 1998 Annual Meet-
ing of the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc., David Eccles
Conference Center, Ogden, Utah. (Carl D. Marti, Depart-
ment of Zoology, Weber State University, Ogden. Utah

19-22 October 1998 -International Conference on Tropi-
cal Forests and Climatic Change: Status, Issues and
Challenges, Manila, Philippines. Asian Institute of Manage-
ment. (Contact: The Secretariat, International Conference
on Tropical Forests and Climate Change. Environmental
Forestry Program, UPLB College of Forestry, 4301 College,
Laguna, Philippines; e-mail: cnfor@iaguna.net).

23-30 July 1998

The annual meeting of the SCO will be held 23-30 July 1998 In Guadeloupe, Mourice Anselme and the
Local Committee have been hard at work ensuring a successful meeting, Workshops are planned on
setting conservation priorities in the Caribbean region, and hunting management regimes, Registration
materials and abstract forms should have reached all members by now. If you have not received these
materials, please contact Dr. Rosemorle Gnam as follows:

Telephone: (703) 358-2095 (office); (703) 739-9803 (home)
Fax: (703) 358-2298
E-ma l: rosemarlegnam@mail,fws,g ov

See page 30 for further details

El Pitirre I l~l)

Page 27



the wetland area on the island of New Provi-
dence, Bahamas, known as Wilson and
Harrold Pond is important for wading and
other birds, particularly in the migratory
season: and


New Providence has the highest population THE SOCIETY OF C
and tourist density of all Th Bahama Islands
and this island has few remaining wetland AGREES
areas of such importance; and

this area if left undisturbed would be impor-
tant for ecotourism and environmental edu-
cation; and

Wilson Pond is under increasing pressure RECOMMENDS
from agricultural activity andthe clearing of
the buffer zone on tie south side of the pond;

the ridge and buffer zone to the north of
Harrold Pond has been i increasingly disturbed
recently by the excavation of the hill and the
spreading of ill towards the pond


that the area ofWilson and Harrold Ponds on
the island of New Providence represents an
important habitat for migratory and resident
avian species and has potential as a signifi-
cant ecotourism site and for environmental

that the Government of the Bahamas set
aside the area with a buffer zone under the
protection of the Bahamas National Trust as
a reserve area to be left in its natural state,


The Society of Caribbean Ornithology wishes to express its deepest
appreciation to the Aruban Foundation for Nature and Parks
(FANAPA) and the members of the local organizing committee for
their assistance with this our tenth annual meeting. SCO gratefully
acknowledges the dedication of these workers in planning and
hosting this meeting. A special note oflhanks to the local committee
chair, Mr. Roeland de Kort. who worked to make our visit to Aruba
a memorable occasion.

SCO was heartened by the gracious hospitality extended to us by the
Holiday Inn, Aruba. We wish to thank the entire staff of the Holiday
Inn, especially the Food and Beverage Manager and his staff for the
sumptuous meals which were provided.

We arc also grateful to the Ministry of Economic Affairs and
Tourism, Government of Aruba. the Coastal Aruba Refning Corn-

pany: De Palm Tours. Aruba; Amsterdam Manor Beach Resort,
Aruba; Tropical Bottling Company of Aruba, other local organiza-
tions and the Aruban people for their support and interest in the

We also thank our international supporters, the International Insti-
tute ofTrupical Forestry. USDA Forest Service, and the Office of
International Affairs. USDI Fish and Wildlife Service for their
generous contributions.

SCO hopes to assist Aruba in their future conservation efforts
especially in the development of the Parke Nacional Arikok and
Bubali sanctuary.

We hope our association with Aruba will be long and fruitful.


The Society of Caribbean Ornithology and WHEREAS
nots that West Indian Whistling Ducks
Dendrocygna arbored have been interma-
tionally recognized as in need of consrva- and WHEREAS
tion throughout their range. including Ja-

there areno scientific data on the status and and WHEREAS
distribution of West Indian Whistling
Ducks or other resident or migratory ducks
in JInmaica

there is no habitat protection for any spe-
cies of ducks in Jamaica

no management plans have been devel-
oped or implemented for ducks in Jamaica

the Society has been informed that there is
interest in Jamaica in declaring an open
season to hunt migratory ducks

there is no information about the likely
impacts of hunting of migratory ducks on
resident ducks (including West Indian
Whistling Ducks. Masked Ducks Oxyura
dominica and Ruddy Ducks Oxnujra

Pqrra I'








t ...


and WHEREAS West Indian Whistling Ducks in Jamaica
are often found in the same places as game
species (especially Blue-wingedTealAnas and URGES

and WHEREAS ducks and their habitats have considerable
potential value for ecotourism, but duck
hunting and ccolourism cannot coexist in
the same places at the same times

Be it resolved that the Society for Caribbean Omithology

CONGRATULATES the Government of Jamaica on its decision
not to declare anopen season for migratory

ducks in I997

the Government of Jamaica to maintain its
present pos ition and not to support propos-
als for migratory duck hunting until mea-
sures to ensure the future of Jamaican
populations of ducks, specially West In-
dian Whistling Ducks. (including a scien-
tific assessment of the status and distribu-
lion of ducks, effective habitat protection,
zoning of areas forhunting and ecotourism,
and a management plan for ducks and their
habitats) have been put in place,



the biodiversity of the Cockpit Country of and WHEREAS
Jamaica is ofnational and international impor-
the Cockpit Country provides habitat for all
Jamaica's endemic bird species (including the
Yellow-billed ParrotAnmaona collaria, Black-
billed ParrotAmazona agdiis, Jamaican Black-
bird Nesopsar nigerrimus, and Ring-tailed Pi-
geon Columba caribea) and many endemic and WHEREAS
sub-species of birds (including the nationally
endangered Golden Swallow Tachycineta
euchryseaeuchnrsea and PlainPigeon Cohlnbra Be it RESOLVE
inornata exigua) as well as more than 100
endemic species ofplants, reptiles and amphib- ENCOURAGES
ians, many of which are restricted to the area,

the Cockpit Country is of hydrological impor-
tance for western Jamaica,

the Cockpit Country has great potential for
ecotourism and heritage tourism.

the forests of the Cockpit Country are being
destroyed at an increasingly rapid rate by tim-
ber extraction, and clearance of land for farm.
ing, and the wildlife is being negatively af-
fected by hunting.

mining of bauxite and limestone has been pro-
posed in the Cockpit Country,

D that the Society for Caribbean Ornithology

the Go vemmentofJamaica toinclude the Cock-
pit Country in the national system of protected
areas and to develop and implement a plan for
sustainable management as soon as possible.


Whereas the Bermuda Petrel. Pleradrome cahow, which breeds
only on the Castle Harbour islands of Bermuda and ranges out intn
the Atlantic Ocean is listed as an endangered species hy the U. S.
Fish and Wildlife Service and in Endangered Birds of the World,
The ICBP Bird Red Data Book. When rediscovered in 195 1, after
having been presumed extinct for three hundred years, the popula-
tion was estimutcd to number only eighteen nesting pairs and les
than fifty birds, but as a result of an intensive management and
restoration plan administered by the Bermuda Government, the
population has gradually increased to fifty-two breeding pairs and
an estimated one hundred eighty individuals in 1997.

Whereas the feeding range and migratory movements of this oce-
anic bird were previously unknown, recent collaborative efforts
with ornithological colleagues in the United Stales have yielded
documented sight records and one irrnfutable photograph in the
immediate vicinity of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina,

Whereas this is the only location other than near the Bermuda
nesting grounds where these petrels have been recorded, and given
the small population numbers and the great distance (540 nautical
miles) from Bermuda this implies and non-random concentration of
dte species in that area, primarily where offshore oil/gas exploration
is proposed,

Whereas the Cape Hatteras area is acknowledged to be an area of
exceptionally rich feeding grounds vital to numerous other species
of seabirds, we are concerned that the proposed oil exploration on
the Outer Continental Shelf of North Carolina would endanger the
Bermuda Petrel as well as a number of other critically endangered
species that frequent the area.

Whereas oil spillages or accidents may occur as a consequence of
drilling and seabirds are exceptionally vulnerable to oil contami-

Pnfie 9l




El Pitirm I I(.]


Whereas pctrcls and related night-flying species are known to be Bermuda Petrel.
attracted to lights or gas flares in periods of fog or rain, we are
concerned about the high probability of mortality due to collision The Society of Canbbean Ornithology urges the Government of
with drilling equipment. North Carolina to consider this resolution when determining policy
regarding off shore drilling on the Outer Continental Shelf ofNorth
We are therefore convinced that any oil exploration in the Cape Carolina,
Hatteras area would pose a significant threat to the survival urthe


The eleventh annual meeting of the Society of Caribbean
Ornithology will be held in the Touring Hotel, Ft. Royal, in
Guadeloupe during 24-29 July 1998. The meeting, spon-
sored in part by the National Park of Guadeloupe, will have
a full program of activities. The meeting will have two major
workshops: 1. Setting avian conservation priorities oIr the
Caribbean and the SCO, and 2. Hunting issues and problems
hindering effective sustainable harvest of gamebirds in the
Caribbean. In addition, there will be smaller workshops on
Caribbean wetlands conservation (RAMSAR) and the status
of threatened and endangered Caribbean birds (BirdLife
International). In addition, the event will include meetings of
the SCO's two active working groups: West Indian Whis-
tling-Ducks and Caribbean Seabirds. A keynote address and
a diversity of technical presentations will add to the meeting,
as well as a one-day field trip. The tentative meeting schedule
is provided below:

THURSDAY. 23 July 1998 SCO Executive Meeting;
meeting participants arrive; meeting
registration (continued on Friday morning)

FRIDAY, 24 July
Morning Opening ceremony, welcome by local
dignitaries, keynote address by Dr. Jean
Luis Martin
Afternoon Technical session, with French Antilles
Evening Reception/cocktail (arranged by Local
Committee and hotel)

Morning Hunting Workshop (Facilitator, Dr.
Herbert Raffacle
Afternoon- Hunting Workshop, continued
Evening Meeting of SCO Island Representatives
and SCO Executive Board

SUNDAY, 26 July
All day Field trips: two trips (1) a montane trip to
the endemic Guadeloupe Woodpecker and
forest birds; and (2) wetlands trip to see
birds in mangrove and Pterocarpus
Evening Meeting of West Indian Whistling-Duck
Working Group

MONDAY, 27 July
Morning Caribbean and SCO Conservation Priori-
ties Workshop. Part I (Facilitator, Ms.
Marlene Walker)
Afternoon Caribbean and SCO Conservation
Priorities Workshop, Part I, continued
Late afternoon (4:00 PM) SCO General Meeting
Evening- Meeting of Caribbean Seabird Working

TUES AY, 28 July
Morning Priorities Workshop, Part II
Afternoon Workshop on Caribbean wetlands
conducted by RAMSAR
Evening Workshop to evaluate status of threatened
and endangered birds in the Caribbean, by
BirdLife International (Cambridge, UK,
David Wege)

Morning Technical session
Afternoon Technical session and time to complete
unfinished workshop or working group
Late afternoon and early evening Silent auction
Evening SCO banquet at Touring Hotel

THURSDAy, 30 July Island Representatives depart

Page 30

El Pitirre I 1(1)


El Pitirr I 1(1)

GUIDE to the BmDS of the WEST INDIES

by Herbert A. Raffaele, James W. Wiley, Orlando H. Garrido, Allan R. Keith, and Janis I. Raffaele

With primary illustrations by Tracy D. Petersen and Kristin Williams
Additional illustrations by Don Radovich, Cynthie Fisher, Bart Rulon, Christopher Cox, and Roman

The guide covers all 564 bird species known to occur in the West Indies. Each species is illustrated and has
a full description and a distribution map, Twenty special plates feature island endemics.

412 pages, 86 color plates

Princeton University Press

Due Summer 1998

_ _

Page 31

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