Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00032
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre (Camarillo Calif.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo Calif
Camarillo, Calif
Publication Date: 1997
Frequency: bimonthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100143
Volume ID: VID00032
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Journal of Caribbean Ornithology

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Soc6 iedad de' a1. Or tal6 Cri




EL PIT IRR

Society of Caribbean Ormithology


EL PITIRRE

El Pitirre is the bulletin of die Society of
Caribbean Ornithology.

El Pitirre es el bolethn informative de la
Sociedad de la Ornitologfa Caribefia.

Eurrot: James W. Wiley. 2201 Ashland St.,
Ruston. Louisiana 71270, U.S.A.
ASSISTANT EDITrrORS: Michael Bobb, Alwin
Dornelly, and Barbara Keesee, Grambling
Cooperative Wildlife Project, P. O, Box 841,
Grambling State University, Grambling,
Louisiana 71245, U.S.A.


News, comments orrequests should be mailed
to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.

Noticias, comentarios o peticiones deben ser
envfadas al editor para inclusi6n en c bolctin.


Tvrannus dominicensis


Pitirre, Gray Kingbird. Pesligre,
Petchary, Pipirit


The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization
whose goals are to promote the scientific study and conservation of
Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island
ornithologists and those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for
researchers in the region, and to provide data or technical aid to
conservation groups in the Caribbean.

La Sockidad de la Omitologfa Caribefia es una organizaci6n sin
fines de lucro cuyas metas son promnover el studio cientifica y la
consurvacidn de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simposio annual
sobre la ornitologfa caribeBa, ser una fuente de comunicacidn entire
omit6logos caribefios y en otras dreas y proveer ayuda Otcnica o
datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.

CONTENTS

MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS AND CONSERVATION OF
CARIBBEAN BIRDS, Robert E. Ricklefs and Eldredge
Bcram inghamrn ................................................................................... 85
REGISTRO DE AVES DE LA SIERRA DE CUB 1TAS. CAMAGOEY,
CUBA, Yanete Concepci6n Hemindez y Rafael Tadco Pcrez........ 93
FIRST REPORT OF THE ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER
(VERM4VORA CEL4TA CEL4TA) IN CUBA. Arruro Kirkconnell.
Alejandro Lanes, and Orlando Garrido.......................................... 95
INDICIOS DE DEPREDACION DE HUEVOS DE HfRUNDO FULVA
(PASSERIFORMES: HI1RUNDINIDAE) POR EPICRATES
ANGULIFER (SERPENTES: BOIDAE). Carlos A. Mancic.a y
Alejandro Llanes Sosa. ........ ....... ..................... ............ .......... 95
LA BIAYA 0 BAMBIAYA DE LOS INDOCUBANOS. Osvaldo
Jimrnez V5zquez . .............. .......... ........... ...... ....... ............._ 96
AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF A GRAY KINGBIRD (TYRANNUS
DOMINICENSIS) TOWARD A BAT (MOLOSSUS MOLOSS US) IN
LA HABANA, CUBA. Juan P. Soy ................... ....................... 97
CU jRRENT STATUS OF WHITE-TAILED TROPICBIRDS
[PHAITHON LEPTURUS) NESTING IN CUBA. Nicasio Villa,
Martha Walsh-McGehee, and David S. Lee .......... ..................... 98
NUEVAS ADICIONES A LA PALEORNITOLOGIA CUBANA.
W illiam SuArcz y Oscar Arredondo. ................................................. 100
ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE SOCIETY OF
CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING IN ARUBA,
DUTCH I WEST INDIES, AUGUST 1997
THE AVIFAUNA OF THE PITONS IN ST. LUCIA.
Donald Anthony .. ....... ......... .............. ,,,........ 102


I CConflinued on page 135


Winter 1997


VoL. 10, Nob3








MOLECULAR PIIYLOGENETICS AND CONSERVATION OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS

ROBERT E. RICKLEFS', AND EL.UHEWa B13EtMINGHAM-

'Department of Biology, University of Missouri at St. Louis. 8001 Natural Bridge Road, Si. Louis, Mi,.vouri 6312 1-4499, USA
'Smithsonian Tropical Research Insir4ae, Unit 048, APO AA 34002-0948. USA or
Apartado Po.ual 2072, Bal&oa, Repdblica de Panama


A'r THi- 1997 MEETING OF THE Society o f Caribbcan Ornithol-
ogy on Aruba, one of us (RER) presented a talk on the
application of new techniques in DNA sequence analysis to
understanding the evolutionary relationships among birds on
West Indian islands. This was followed on the next day by a
panel discussion, organized by Dr. Nedra Klein of Lewis and
Clark University, Portland, Oregon, addressing many of the
same issues in more detail. I was asked to prepare for the SCO
bulletin El Pitirre a brief overview of molecular approaches
ton evolutionary relationships among species and populations
and to summarize the main points and some examples from
this talk. I am pleased to do this with my collaborator, Dr.
Eldredge Bermingham. We have organized this summary to
answer five basic questions: What is DNA sequence analy-
sis? What kinds of information does it provide? What does
this approach show about the distinctiveness of West Indian
birds? How can this information be used in management and
conservation? How can this information be accessed for
particular needs? We will begin by providing some back-
ground about our own project,
We are interested in the regional history and biogeography
of birds in the West Indies. which provide an ideal laboratory
for studying processes of evolution and ecology. We would
like to understand how colonization and extinction influence
the avi faun a of a particular island; we would also like to know
how the ecological relationships of birds change over time.
To pursue these goals, we needed to estimate the ages of
individual island populations and determine their relation-
ships to other island populations within the archipelago. As
we shall explain below, this can be accomplished by measur-
ing the amount of genetic change in independently evolving
lineages of birds. These may be distinct lineages within a
given population, populations of the same species on differ-
ent islands, or different species.
We began to plan this study in 1989 and initiated field work
in 1991. Several individuals have been closely involved in


the work: we would like to mention especially Dr, Gilles
Seutin, now at McGill University in Montreal, who was
instrumental in establishing the field and laboratory pro-
grams for this project. Mr. Irby Lovette, at the University of
Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and Mr. Jeffrey Hunt at the
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Our first priority
has been to collect samples of blood and tissues from island
birds. We have now conducted field work on 14 islands and
several continental localities', sponsored by the National
Geographic Society. Our own samples have been supple-
mented by tissue specimens generously provided by several
museums in the United States, particularly the Academy of
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, the Field Museum of Natu-
ral History (Chicago), the Louisiana State University Mu-
seum of Zoology, and the National Museum of Natural
History (Washington, D.C.). As of this date, our tissue
collection of West Indian birds represents over 3,000 indi-
viduals, including virtually all the species of small land birds,
Our collection also includes representative geographic and
phylogenetic outgroup taxa collected from continental loca-
tions in the Neotropics. We have sampled the majority of our
specimens non-destructively (taking only tissue biopsies and
blood samples) in accordance with our permits from the
various island nations in the West Indies, We capture birds in
mist nets, take samples of blood and breast muscle, and then
release all individuals after processing. Blood and tissue
samples are preserved in buffer solutions in small vials and
returned toEB's laboratory in Panama, where the DNA work
begins. The mortality rate resulting from our work has been
about 2%. We are able to use this non-destructive sampling
method because the birds of the West Indies are completely
known and are readily identified in the hand. Additionally,
we have tissue samples matched by voucher specimens in
museum collections for many West Indian birds, against
which we can check our DNA sequences.:


'These are the following: Trinidad, Barbados, Grenada, St. Vinceni, St. Lucia, Martinique. Dominica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, Puerit
Rico, Dominican Republic, Jamaica. New Providence, Abaco, and continental localities in Venezuela, Panama, and Honduras. In addiLion,
we have obtained material from some other localities from various museum collections, and hope to visit Cuba in the near Future.

A I though we have not collected museum specimens of thirds in our work, we would like to emphasize that there are many types of si udics
invo living the relationship between genetics, morphology, anid taxonomy for which collecting is necessary, We have seen in our work that
genetic variation between island populations does not always corrtipond io subspcctfic or other taxoinomic distinctions, in which case a
more thorough appraisal of morphological and genetic variation may be required to ascertain the distinctiveness of. and relationships
among, island populations. Dr. Nedra Klein's study of the Yellow Warblerhas demonstrated mixing o' highly divergem 1 ineages on several
islands in the I.esser Antitles. In such cases. it is important to asrcenain whether genetic variation is accompanied by recognizable
morphological markers, which can only be accomplished wnh collected specimens.


Page 85


El Pitlirre 10(3)









WHAT is DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS?


First, we briefly review some background information in
genetics, Each cell in our bodies contains all the genetic
information needed to direct our growth and development
and regulate our biological processes. This information is
contained in long chain-like molecules of DNA
(DeoxyriboNucleic Acid). Each DNA molecule consists of
a long string of four different types of subunits, called
nucleotides. The nucleotides are named after their principal
structural components: adenine, thymine, cytosine, and gua-
nine, or A. T, C, and G. Thus, the nucleotide sequence of any
particular part of a DNA molecule might be written as
AATCGGTIACCG. etc. This sequence is read three nucle-
otides at a time when proteins are made, Each nucleotide
triplet specifies which of 20 different amino acids is placed in
each position in the structural proteins and enzymes that are
builton the genetic template. In this example, AAT = leucine,
CGG = alanine, TTA = asparagine, CCG = glycine.
Many of the differences we observe between individuals in
populations, and between different populations and species,
are due to differences in the DNA sequences that encode
particular proteins. Changes in the DNA sequence come
about through mutations, which result in part from errors in
copying the DNA as new cells are formed, including the sex
cells that create the next generation. Changes a] so result from
damage caused by environmental factors such as ultraviolet
radiation, toxic chemicals of various sorts, and highly reac-
tive products of our own metabolism. If these errors are nut
corrected, they are then transmitted as mutations from gen-
eration to generation.
Some mutations affect the structure and functioning of the
organism, either beneficially or, more commonly, to the
individual's detriment. In either case. if a mutation affect L the
reproductive rate of the individual that bears it, its frequency
in the population might be increased or decreased accnrd-
ingly, and the genetic composition of the population changes
over time. This is, of course, what we refer to as evolution,
which is responsible for most of the visible differences
between species and accounts for the adaptation of species to
their particular environments.
Other mutations have no visible effect on the organism,
Some of these occur in parts of the DNA which are not
translated into proteins (there are many of these regions in the
DNA which sometimes represent old gecnc sequences no
longer used). Others result in changes in proteins that have no
functional consequence or more typically cause changes in
the DNA sequence that have no effect on the amino acid
sequence in the protein. For example, the three-nucleotide
sequences CAA, CAC, CAG, and CAT all code for valine:
thus, a change in the third position in this triplet has no effect
on the amino acidsequence of'the protein. Such mutations are
generally considered to be unaffected by natural selection
and are referred to as "neutral" mutations. The rate at which
they appear in populations is determined only by the process


of mutation, which is thought to occur at a more or less
constant rate for a particular part of the genetic sequence.
Thus, neutral mutations allow us to estimate the time that has
passed since the divergence of two lineages by the number of
nucleotide differences that have accumulated between them.
Most studies of the genetic relationships between lineages
of birds are based on a special type of DNA found in the
mitochondria of cells. Mitochondria are organelles respon-
sible for much of the oxidative metabolism of the cell- They
originated more than a billion years ago as symbiotic bacteria
in cells of the organisms that were the ancestors o fall present-
day animals, plants, and fungi. Some of the DNA of die
original bacterial symbionts is retained in our mitochondria.
It is a single circular string of about 16-17,000 nucleotides in
birds. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is transmitted only
through the female line, and thus there is no mixing of
maternal and paternal genes in mtDNA. There are several
advantages to using mtDNA. Because of maternal inherit-
ance, mtDNA is passed from generation to generation as a
single unit and each mutation gives rise to a new, distinctive
lineage which can not mix with other lineages. Thus, an ccstry
is unambiguous. Furthermore, mtDNA in birds has a muta-
tion rate that is several times higher than that of nuclear DNA
(probably due to a less efficient DNA repair enzyme). This
rate has been estimated as one change per 100 million (10*)
nucleotides per generation, as a ball-park figure. Multiplied
by 17.000 nucleotides, this is 0.17 mutations somewhere in
the mtDNA molecule per 1,000 individuals per generation.
By extrapolation, in a population having 6,000 females,
about I mutation would appear per generation. This high rate
of mutation creates a high diversity of mtDNA lineages
within populations and causes relatively rapid divergence in
the sequences of lineages between populations, as we shall
see,
At this point, we should mention laboratory techniques
briefly because DNA sequence analysis is an intensive labo-
ratory procedure. Three major steps are required to go from
a tissue sample to a genetic sequence: extraction of DNA,
amplification of DNA, and determination of the DNA se-
quence. Extraction begins by breaking up the cells in the
tissue using detergents and other chemicals.The DNA is then
isolated by alternately dissolving and precipitating the DNA
so that it can separated by centrifugation from other cell
components. Next, some specific region o f the more-or-less
purified whole DNA (including both nuclear and mitochnn-
drial types) is amplified by Polymerase Chain Reaction
(PCR). In this step, the amount of a specific short sequence
is increased many million-fold to obtain a large number of
copies of the same DNA region. This is done by borrowing
the DNA replication machinery (polymerase enzyme) from
a type of bacterium found in hot springs. The process is
referred to as thermocycling. We can specify which part of
the DNA sequence we amplify by supplying a specific
sequence ofDNAassembled in the laboratory, often about 20
nucleotides long, that attaches to a particular unique point in


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 86










the extracted DNA molecule and causes the replication to
take place only at that point. This short DNA sequence is
called a primer. Amplification proceeds by using two of these
primers, typically displaced from one ano therby 1l,X)-2,000
nucleotides. which create overlapping strands of DNA (or
PCR products) between the two primer points. In the labora-
tory, the temperature of the reaction solution containing the
DNA, enzyme, and primers is then changed in a way that
causes repeated cycles of DNA replication,
In our research, we work primarily with primers that permi t
the amplification of mtDNA genes such as ATP synthase,
cytuchrome b. cytochrome oxidase, and NADH dehydroge-
nase. After a particular region of the mtDNA has been
amplified, the nucleotide sequence ofthese products is deter-
mined by a rather complex procedure which, fortunately, has
been more or less fully automated. We will not delve into the
specifics. What we obtain is a sequence of DNA for each
individual bird, that is, AATCGGTTACCG and so on, up to
1.000 or 2,000 nucleotides in length for a particular primer
pair.

WHAT INFORMATION DOES DNA StQUENCING PROVIDE?

The primary data are the nucleotide sequences. Secondary
data are the number of nucleotide differences between se-
quences, which we can quantify as percent sequence diver-
gence ([number of differences/total number of nucleotides
examined]x 100). Suppose we find the following sequences
of 20 nucleotides in three individuals:


individual 1:
individual 2:
individual 3:


ATC CAT TCC AGG TAC ATT GA ,..
ATC CAT CCC AGA TAC ATT GA...
ATA CGT CCC AGG TAC ATG GA ...


The bold letters indicate positions at which there have been
changes in the nuclcotides (often called nucleotide substitu-
tions). Individuals I and 2 differ at 2 positions out of 20 and
so they exhibit a 10% sequence divergence. Between indi-
vidual 3 and either individual I or 2 there are 4 differences
and thus 20% divergence. This information suggests that
individual I and individual 2 shared a common female
ancestor more recently that either did with individual 3. The
interpretation of this information depends on where individu-
als 1, 2. and 3 were sampled. If they lived together on the same
island, the genetic differences between the sequences pro-


vide a measure of the genetic diversity of the island popula-
tion. If they lived on different islands, and if the differences
between the islands were much greater than differences
within the islands, we could conclude that the island popula-
tions of individuals I and 2 are more closely related to each
other than either are to that of individual 3. Alternatively, we
may say that population 3 is genetically more distinctive, and
bas had a longer independent evolutionary history, than have
populations I and 2.
Sequence divergence among individuals and populations
also tell ussomething of the history of ataxon within a region.
If a population has a very low genetic diversity-perhaps all
the individuals have the same nucleotide sequence for a
particular mtDNA region-we can infer that the mtDNA of
all the individuals was recently descended from that of a
single female. This is most likely to happen when an island is
colonized by a small number of individuals, the so-called
founder effect. Because each individual carries only one
identical set of mtDNA genomes in its cells, colonization of
anislandby a single pair of birds (that is, by only one mother)
results in there being only a single mtDNA sequence in the
descendants of the pair. Even when there are several females
in the founding population, these do not carry all the genetic
diversity of the parental population from which the new one
is derived. In addition, some of the DNA sequences might be
lost just by chance when a particular female carrying a unique
sequence dies.
An older, established population might also have low
genetic diversity if it has been reduced to small size-a
population bottleneck-sometime in the recent past. Often
this can be distinguished from colonization event by the tact
that the mtDNA sequences present on the island, no matter
how few in number, are highly diverged from those of other
islands or continental areas from which the popul action might
have been derived.
When populations of a species on two different islands
have high genetic diversity but share a substantial proportion
of genetic sequences. population geneticists interpret the
pattern to represent occasional (or frequent) movement of
individuals between islands. Movement of one bird (a female
in the case of mtDNA) per generation is thought to be
sufficient to keep two island populations from diverging
from each other. Data from Bananaquits (Coerebaflaveoloa)
in the Lesser Antilles illustrate some of the properties of
genetic variation within island populations:


El Pitirre 10] 3)


Page 87









Island

mtDNA sequence type MO GU DO MA SL SV GR


1 .5 6 8 3 9
2 1 2
3 4 2 1
unique group A 6(4) 3(3) 6(6)
4 5 2
5 3 11
unique group B 7 (5) 4(1)


Individuals (sequences) 5 (1) 6(1) 19 (7) 8 (5) 18 (9) 15 (7) 17(3)


Note: The unique groups include sequences found only on a single island; i.e., on Dominica (DO) 6 individuals each had one of four
sequences found on no other island. Sequences in group A were similar to other sequences (1-3) more widely distributed in the northern
Lesser Antilles; those in group B were more similar to sequences (4 and 5) shared between St. Vincent (SV) and Grenada (GR).


As you can see, Dominica (DO), Martinique (MA). and St.
Lucia (SL) share several mtDNA sequences, which differ
completely from sequences shared by populations on St.
Vincent (SV)and Grenada (GR), Unique sequences withinin
each of these groups of islands are most similar to the shared
sequences within each group, indicating recent common
ancestry. We interpret this pattern to represent either suffi-
cient continuing movement of Bananaquits between the first
three islands to prevent genetic divergence, or recent coloni-
zation events within each of the island groups. We consider
the sequence divergence that has accumulated between St.
Vincent and Grenada, on one hand, and St. Lucia, Martinique,
and Dominica, on the other, to indicate a complete barrier to
the movement of Bananaquits between the two groups of
islands. The presence of unique sequences on each of the
islands may be due to inadequate sampling of individuals or
to mutations that were not carried between the islands by
movement of individuals. The Bananaquits examined in
populations on Guadeloupe (GU) and Montserrat (MO)
carried a single sequence type, which happens to be the
commonest of the Dominican sequences, suggesting that
these populations were established recently by a small num-
ber of founders from Dominica, We should add that the
mtDNA sequences in Bananaquitpopulations on Puerto Rico
to the north and Venezuela to the south are highly divergent
from those of the two Lesser Antillean groups presented here.

WHAT DOES THIS APPROACH SHOW ABOUT THE DISTflNCTMVENESS OF
WEtST INDiAN BIRDS?

Genetic divergence between island populations provides
information from which we can construct hypotheses or
scenarios for the evolutionary relationships among them.
These hypotheses usually take the form of a phylogencfic


tree, in which the most ancestral gene sequence occupies the
trunk position and each branch point in the tree represents a
mutational step that separates one lineage into two different
daughter lineages. One must always remember that. in the
absence of a fossil record, our knowledge is based only on
present-day genetic information, which is represented at the
Lips of the smallest branches of the phylogenetic tree, Rather
sophisticated computer techniques are available for recon-
structing phylogenetic trees and assigning a degree of confi-
dence to each of the branch points. The three hypothetical
sequences described above provide a simple case, as shown
in the following diagram, where the heavy horizontal bars
represent nucleotide substitutions:


individual 1 2 3


Turning to a couple of real cases, one from the Greater
Antilles and one from the Lesser Antilles, we begin to see the
power of' the molecular phylogenetic approach. We empha-
size that these are only preliminary versions of the molecular
phylogenies for these groups. The first example is that of the


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 88








bodies (genus Todus) which comprise an endemic Family
(Todidae) presently restricted to the Greater Antilles. There
are five recognized species, one each on Cuba, Jamaica, and
Puerto Rico, and two on Hispaniolta The phylogenetic tree
shown in Figure 1 portrays several aspects of the evolution-
ary histories of todies quite clearly, and also has a few
surprises. First, the sequences we have used in this analysis
do not provide enough resolution to pinpoint the closest
relative of the bodies or to estimate the age of the group. Fossil
remains from the Oligocene (> 24 million years ago) of
Wyoming and Europe have been assigned to the family, but
there appears to be too little sequence divergence between
todies and several groups of coraciiform birds (kingfishers,
jacamars, motmots) for the Todidae to be of such age.
Alternatively, todies may have evolved uniquely in the West
Indies from a kingfisher-like colonist. What we can say,
however, is that the present species of todies probably formed
about 6-7 million years ago when independent lineages were
established on the major islands from an ancestor that clearly
was a tody, much like its descendants.
How can we estimate the age of a branch point between
lineages? If we take as a rule of thumb that mutations occur
at the rate of one in 100 million per nucleotide per generation,
this is about 1% per million years. (This value islikely to vary
widely depending on the particular DNA sequence and group
of organisms considered, and should be taken only asacoarse
approximation.) Population genetics theory tells us thaU for


10% nucleotide divegence


neutral mutations, the rate of replacement of nucleotides in
the population is equal to the mutation rate. Thus, we might
suppose that a particular sequence changes at about 1% of its
nucleotide positions per million years, and that two se-
quences diverge from each other at a rate of 2% per million
years. This gives us an approximate meter stick for estimate ng
age,
The tody data are not sufficiently well resolved to show
with certainty the order in which populations on the Greater
Antilles were established. However, the Narrow-billed Tady
(Todus angnstirostris), one of the two species on Hispaniola,
is mare closely related to the Puerto Rican Tody (Todus
mexicanus) than to the second Hispaniolan species (T.
subulatus), suggesting either a secondary colonization of
Hispaniola from Puerto Rico. or that the Puerto Rican Tody
was derived from one of two differentiated Hispaniolan
bodies. Apropos of the second hypothesis, we have discov-
ered that populations of Narrow-billed Todies on the north-
ern and southern mountain ranges of Hispaniola are highly
divergent genetically, perhaps having been evolutionarily
independent for 2 million years. From the standpoint of
conservation, these two populations probably should be
considered as different species. The Hispaniolan oadies raise
the possibility that other species exhibit similar divergence
between populations in the northern and southern ranges. We
should emphasize that these results are preliminary and diat
additional sequence for other DNA regions might be helpful


T. mexicanus
Puerto Rico

T. anguslirostris
Hispaniola

T. todus
Jamaica
i, .iT. subulatus
SHispaniola
7'. multicolor
Cuba

green kingfishers
ringed kingfishers
jacamars
motmots
tody motmot


Figure 1. Phylogenctic relationships of the todies (Todide) based un ATPase sequences of (the m1ilocliondrialDNA. Gray shading indicates
poorly resolved branch points in the phylogenetic tree. The solid bar represents 10% nucleotide divergence or approximately 5 million years
of separate evolution. The closest sister taxon of the bodies cannul presently be resolved among Iingfishers, motmots, and other groups of
coraciirorm birds living in tropical Anirica. DNA sequences prepared in collaboration with Lowell Overton. who is a Ph.D. studeil in
Biology at the University of Arkansas-


1---------


Page 89


El Pitirre 10(3)








2% nucleolide divergence


Montserrat


f Brown' Trembler
miU GTrey'Trembler Dominica, St. Vincent
eSt. Lucia
Puerto Rico. Barbuda
Pearly-eyed Thrasher Puerto Rico. Montserrat
Guadeloupe. Dominica
ranyv Cstiirrt


White-breasted Thrasher


:a-- Montseerrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica
SScaly-breasted Thrasher Martinique
SSt. Lucia
Bahmani Mockingbird
I---------- ----- Jamaica ,
Northern
Mockingbird
Venezuela
Trunitdad
Tropical Tnidad
Mockingbird Lesser Antilles



Fi gu re 2, Phylogenetc tree featuring the di stinci ve Lesser Antil lean mi rmids based on ATPase sequences of mitochondrial DNA. The scale
of nuelcocide substitution suggests that the initial radiation of the Lesser Antillean clade occurred about 5 million years ago. Gray shading
indicates poorly resolved branch points in the phylogenetic tree, The solid bar represents 2% nucleolide divergence or approximately I
million years of separate evolution. The DNA sequences were prepared hy Mr, Jeffrey Hunt at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Instilute,


in resolving the relationships among the Cuban, Jamaican,
and Hispaniolan Broad-billed Todies.
Another group of distinctive West Indian birds is made up
of the endemic mimids of the Lesser Antilles and Puerto
Rico. These include the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops
fuscatus), Scaly-breasted Thrasher (Margarops fuscts),
White-breasted Thrasher (Ramphocinclus brachyurus), and
trembler (Cinclocerthia 1mficauda species group). The phy-
logenetic tree in Figure 2 shows that these form a single set
of lineages. or lade, along with the Gray Catbird (Dumetella
carolinensis) of North America. Again, the resolution at the
base of this phylogenctic tree is not yet good enough to work
out where the Gray Catbird fits into the branching order, but
it is possible that this species originated from a West Indian
ancestor. Among the clearer points to be made from this
analysis isthatthe Scaly-breasted and White-breasted Thrash-
ers are genetically the most distinctive of the taxa, their
lineages originating from the base of the Antillean endemics.
The Pearly-eyed and Scaly-breasted Thrashers, which are
now both placed in the genus Margarops are not closely
related (the Pearly-eyed Thrasher is more closely allied with
the trembler); perhaps the latter should be given back its old
generic name,Allenia. Finally, the tremblers appear to com-
prise three distinct lineages rather than two (Gray and Brown
Trembler) as previously suspected.
With regard to the trembles, we found one distinct lineage
on Guadeloupe and Montserrat, a second on St. Lucia, and a
third on Dominica and SL Vincent. This creates a geographi-
cal puzzle: the St. Lucian lineage, placed geographically


between Dominica and St. Vincent, is interposed between
island populations of one of the Brown Trembler lineages.
We occasionally see geographically complex relationships
of this kind, which might arise from our failure to sample
lineages from particular islands, or from the extinction of
lineages on intermediate islands. There is also a possibility of
what is called lineage sorting, which results in the haphazard
disappearance of lineages shared by an ancestral population
on different islands. These processes can only be resolved by
additional sampling of individuals and genetic sequences,
including nuclear genes. Geographical anomalies do, how-
ever, raise red flags which show us where more work has to
be done. To date. such geographic anomalies have turned out
to be rather uncommon in the West Indies.
Much more could be said about inferences from genetic
data, but the examples from Bananaquits. bodies, and mimids
presented above give a general idea of what is possible.

HOW CAN THIS INFORMATION BE USED IN MANAGEMENT AND
CONS iRVATION?

(I) Identification of genetically unique taxra and island
popications. Most importantly. genetic data can provide
information on the distinctiveness of island populations and
their relationships among each other. Knowing that Narrow-
billed Todies of Hispaniola comprise two distinct popula-
tions that have been separated for perhaps 2 million years (4%
sequence divergence) provides a much stronger incentive for
management because neither population can stand in for the


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 90









other. These probably should be considered as two different
species, each ut which potentially would have special man-
.gL men considerations. Similar, k now ing that the Bri, n
Trembler of Guadeloupe is distinct genL ICilli from that of
neighboring Dominica multiplies "he danger of losing either
one of these endemic populations from the standpoint of
piecr iing genetic diversity within the West Indies. In an-
other ivpk al example, populations of Adelaide's Warbler
(Dendroica adetaidae) on Barbuda and St. Lucia differ by
more than 2% nucleotide divergence from each other and by
more than 4- 1- from the population of Adelaide's Warbler on
Puerto Rico. These are all called the same species, but they
clearly have had independent evolutionary histories for a
million years or so and are geneticall. very distinctive,
Mitochondrial DNA sequence data show that orioles of the
Icterus dominicensis group diverged 2-4 million years jeu.
with populations on Montserrat (L oberi), Manrinique (L.
bonana), and St. Lucia (L, audabilis) all being highly distinc-
tive from their relatives in the Greater Antilles. These have
been allJ Jidlr Icrent 'pecie... but an appreciationofihheir azs
drives home the long, intimate, and unique association of
each of these populations with its island home. Each taxon
Sill have its own story, of course, but molecular pli I, 1- :nc ic
data provide the best hope of nmking quantitative assess-
ments of the distinctiveness of island populations and their
relative genetic value for conservation.
I21 Jucfiati aii on of critical habitats for conservation and
,.,inaEu.' ,,r If we can determine the genetic uniqueness of
the populations on a given island, this information can be
combined with the habitat distributions of the species to
establish conservation values for Jil terInt 1u PL' of habitats.
This would allow mimaiger, to defend the preservation of
tracts of critical habitat to maintain an island landscape that
can suppi-rt the maximum biological diversity. Our genetic
analyses suggest that highly endemic species of birds are
most .fteiin found in environments that differ most from
lowland forests, ;w hiLh weie und.ubitdl ih(. habiitL_ .f their
coloni.int. ancestors. Thus, montane forests, cloud Inret.L-.
arid scrub. and wetlands are the most critical habitats for
preservation of avian diversity on islands. Of course, differ-
ent groups of animals have different habitat requirements,
and so a knowi ledge of locil natural history has to be used to
judJci the generality of results obtained for !.ind birds Sin il:Ar
molecular phylogenetic analyses are also underway with
gr,.up- of reptiles and insects, and undoubtedly some other
taxa will be included as these approaches gain adherents and
the West Indies become more widely recognized as an
important opportunity for evolutionary studies and manage-
ment applications of genetic approaches to conservation,
(3) hiir, ..Jlc ranf 'individuals between islands. Trjr: p, ,1
of individuals from one island to another may be a suitable
management approach for a threatened population, as an
emergency action to holster a Jccliniitii p.plIlai.,ni and
perhaps infuse new genetic variation. It is essential in such
cases that the evolutionary relationships between island
populations be known so that widely different genetic lin-


cages are not mixed. From the example of the Bananaquit in
the Lesser Antilles (where populations are hardly, endan-
gered), it would be appropriate to introduce individuals to St.
Lucia from Martinique but not from St. Vincent, whose
Bananaquit populaiiun have had a long period of indepen-
dent evolution. Populations with low genetic variability,
such as those of the B,.iun.rquii on Guadeloupe and the
northern Lesser Antilles, might be helped if there were a need
to do so by infusion of generic diversity from closely related
populations on Dominica, where there are many related
genetic lineages.
(4) Assessment of the history of population size. Large
samples of the genetic diversity of island populations can be
used to infer the history of population change. We have seen
how colonization events can greail redu, e the ocrinetc d i er%-
sity of an i-land population. such as that of the Bananaquit on
aiiideloupe When island populations are old and have had
timine toaCCininul.le eqtilibritni levels ofgenetic di'crsity, as
indicatedb. their.ilneri eng e Irom .is.ierpopulations on other
islands, low diversity can reveal recent bottlenecks in popu-
lation size. Todies and lananaquiits on Pucri, Rico provide
an inler'.,ing comparison in this regard. The gencik diver-
sity among the bodies in our Puerto Rican sample is about
what one would expect of a population of 1-2 birds per
hectare ,)(0-1.8 million on the entire island), whereas the
grietic di'-crsity among Bananaquits (with a population of
about 10n per hectare, or 9 million total) is far too low. Theec
data ,tiL.Si that Bananaquit populari.ins have :luiu-,ted
ge.i.al in the past, but that bodies have maintained a more
constant level, Of course, two species are not enough for a
eencrali/.tiio'n. but the work of Joe Wunderle. of the U.S.
Forest Service in Puerto Rico. and others, ,ue-.li, that
frugivorous and nectarivorous birds such as the Bananaquit
are more vulnerable than such insectivorous birds as bodies to
such disturbances as hurricanes and droughts, It is possible
that additional population-level analyses of diversity mitighl
allow us to predict the ulnerabiliit of populations to cata-
strophic disturbances, judged from past population perfor-
mance. I hi night also permit a closer focusing of T-an1ale-
ment efforts.
(5) Lessons from historical extinctions of island popula-
tions. One pattern that seems quite consistent is dthat older
island populations, that is, populations most distinct g%, i rti-
cally from sister populations on other islands, have had the
[iih',:,L r.ji' iofe: \in tion tI' 'ii.uthrI p eii i' l . whether
habitat destruction, hunting, or introduction of diseases and
predators. This pattern seems to hold true ,-rj the Galapagos
and Hawaiian Islands, as well as for the West Indies. Such is
clcarl\ the case for the trembler on Martinique, and for the
Eouse Wren (T,.:rid\;., aedon) on Martiniqiue and
Guadeloupe. Regardless of the particular causes of the ex-
tinctions of these populations, these represented old, geneti-
cally distinctive lineages within the Lesser Antilles. It is also
clear that the risk of extinction is higher on smaller islands
than on larger islands and, by implication, it is higher in
habitats with smaller areas than in habitats with larger areas


Page 91


EIPiirrc I > 3.








on a particular island. Again, this knowledge should help to
identify potentially vulnerable populations and the habitats
that support them.

How CAN THIS INFORMATION UE ACCESSEI) FOR PA 11CU LAR NEEDS?

Analysis of DNA sequences from tissue samples is time-
consuming and expensive. Thus, although we now have a
relatively complete sample of island populations of small
West Indian land birds, analysis of this material will take
many years, and the resulting publications will not be easily
accessible or interpretable by many individuals working on
conservation issues on particular islands. In addition, al-
though tissue collections are extensive, they are not com-
plete. Some taxa, such as swifts and swallows are difficult to
capture in nets without special efforts. Others, especially taxa
of great conservation concern, are often missed in spite of
efforts to catch them, because of their rareness and local
distribution. For example, in die Lesser Antilles, we failed to
capture the Forest Thrush (Cichthenninia therminien) on St.
Lucia, the White-breasted Thrasher on Martinique., and the
Pearly-eyed Thrasher on St. Lucia and Martinique.
To make molecular phylogenetic results available to indi-
viduals interested in conservation and management of local
populations, we shall respond to direct requests for such
information. If we have sequences on hand that would pro-
vide answers to your questions, we can provide an explana-
tion of the data and interpretation of the results. If we have
suitable unprocessed samples and the information from these
can be used in the context of our own studies, we can give
these a high priority. In each case, we could provide suitable
documentation ofspecimens, techniques, and results to make
a clear assessment of the status of a particular island popula-
tion, When the data contain ambiguities, these would also be
explained. Our goals are to provide genetic results, on an
island-by-island basis, that are directly applicable to conser-
vation issues within the West Indies, perhaps even Icading to
a regional comprehensive assessment of critical species,
island populations, and habitats. This will take time. of
course, but we have a good beginning. Meanwhile, we would
like to hear your comments and will provide assistance where
we can.


ADDmINAL READING

Avist;, J. C. 1994. Molecular markers, natural history, and
evolution. Chapman and Hall, New York.
AVISE, J. C., ANDJ. L. HAMRECK. 1996. Conservation genetics.
Case histories from nature. Chapman and Hall. New York.
BERMIHNGHAM. G. SETrIN, AND R. E. RICKLErS. 1996. Re-
gional approaches to conservation biology: RFLPs, DNA
sequence, and Caribbean birds. Pp. 104-124 in T. B.- Smith
and R. K. Wayne (eds.), Molecular genetic approaches in
conservation. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford and New York.
KWI.s,N. K., AND W. M. BRoWN. 1994. Intraspecific moalcu-
lar phy logeny in the Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechin).
and implications for avian biogeography in the West Indies.
Evolution 48:1914-1932.
SaETLN, G., J. BRAWN,. R. E. RICKIU.ES, AND E. BzRMINGHAM,
1993. Genetic divergence among populations of a tropical
passerine, the Streaked Saltator (Saltator albicolfis). Auk
110:117-126.
SEiUr', G., N. K. KLEIN, R. E. RICKLEFS. AND E. B1ERMINGAM.
1994. Historical biogeography of the Bananaquit (Coereba
flaveola) in the Caribbean region: a mitochondrial DNA
assessment. Evolution 48:1041-1061.


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 92








REGISTRO DE AVES DE LA SIERRA DE CUBITAS, CAMAGOEY, CUBA

YA.NErE CONCEPCCiN HERNANDEt' Y RAFAE' L TADEO PEREZ2
V irtudes 202, Centro Habana, Fa cutiad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana;
3BioKarst,. Cuba; jBiKarst, GrCpo Bioespeleoldgico de la Sociedad de Cuba,


Pocos HAN SIM los studios que se han realizado acorca
de las comunidades de aves que habitan en ]a Sierra de
Cubitas, Camagiley; y estos han sida referidos a algunas
poblaciones en especial o lugares como El Hoyo de Bonet.
Por Io que el present trabajo pretend brindar un lisaido
preliminary de las species de aves de esta zouna. El trabajo fue
realizada durante la expedici6n "Cubitas 96" del grupo
BioKarst en e pcriodo comprendido entire el 7-23 de agosto
de 1996. Los registros se efectuaron en seis localidades:
alrcdedores de Cueva Rolando, Algibito, Hoyo de Bonec1
alrededores de Cueva Lechuza, Cerro Tuabaqucy y la base
del Cerro Tuabaquey.
La formaciones vegetables prcdominantes en dicha sierra
son e bosque sernideciduo mesdfiloy el bosque siempreverde
micr6filo (Mdndez er at, 1989) observdndose en Ins
localidades do Cueva Rolando. Cueva Lechuza y Cerro
Tuabaquey. El grado de antropizaci6n del rest de las
localidades diferfa; encontrddosedesde un bosque degradado
en Algibito, hasta un pastizal dedicado a la ganaderfa y una
presa enla base del Cerro Tuabaquey. El Hoyo de Bonetpor
su formaci6n geomorfoldgica posee determinadas
peculiaridades, encontridose en d1 una vegetaci6n
caracterfstica de mogotes, con un grupo de formaciones en
el que so incluyen la vegetaci6n del pared6n, el bosque
semideciduo y cl siempreverde (Mendez et al. 1990).
Los registros en las localidades se realizaron entire las
07:00 y las 10:00 hr, anotandose todas las aves oidas u
observadas, ya seoa simple vista o con la ayudade binoc ulares.
Como promedio cada localidad fue mucstreada dos dias,
except los alrededoresde Cueva Rolando y Cueva Lechuza,
donde la estancia permitid mayor nimero de registros,
posibilitando determinar ademri la abundancia relaliva por
species (Tadco y Concepci6n, injdito).
Un total de 56 species fueron identificadas (Tabla I).
estando representadas de acuerdo con Garrido y Garcia
(1975) 31 families ya cuatro gdneros end6micos, El indices
de endemismo a nivel de especics result del 14% y anivel
de subespcecie de un 23%.
Segdin la clasificaci6n de Garrido y Kirkconnell (1993)
do este Iistado [a Carairn (Caracara plancus). Codorniz
(Colinus virginianus) y Camao (Geotrygon caniceps) son
consideradas species rarns y cl Catey (Arminga euops) sc
encuentra amecnazado. El resto de las cspccies se esAiman
como comunes.


Es vilido destacar la presencia de tres species
consideradas coma migratoriasde inviernoen franco penr do
deverano, Tales species son: laBijiritaTrepadora(Mukrtidra
varia), la Sefiorita de Monte (Seirinus aurocapillus) y la
Candelita (Serophaga nticilla). De esta ultima ya se ban
hecho reports de que crfa en Cuba (Kirkconnell y Garrido
1996), La presencia de las otras dos especies no antes
reportadas cn este period, puede ser un indicio de una
migraci6n temprana o de una residencia permanent.

AGRAICLtMLENTos

El grupo BioKarst agradece a todas las entidades y
personas qu chicieron possible la realizacidn de la expedici6n
"Cubitas '96."


LrrERATURA CITADA

GARRIDo, H, Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975, Catdlogo de
Ias aves de Cuba. Academica de Ciencias, La Habana.
GARRIUO. 0. H. AND A. KIRKCON'NELL 1993. Checklist of
Cuban Birds. Spec. Publ. for Soc. CArib. OrnithoL. Ann.
Meeting, Playa Gir6n. Cuba,
KIRKCONNELL, A. Y 0. H. GARRIDO. 1996. La Candelita,
Selophaga ntticilla (Aves: Parulidae) nidificando en
Cuba. El Pitirre 9(3):5.
Mendez et al. 1989. Contribuci6n al conocimiento de la
flora y vegetacidn de La Sierra de Cubitas (Camagiiey).
Rev. Jardfn Botinico Nacional 10 (2):147-173.
Mcndez eral. 1990. Valoraci6n dc la propuesta de Reserva
Natural Hoyo de Bonet, Sierra de Cubitas, Camagiley.
Rev, Jardin Botdnico Nacional 11 (2 y 3):135-153.
Tadeo, R. y Y. Concepci6n (inddito). Avifauna de dos
localidades de la Sierra de Cubitas, Camagucy, Cuba.


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 93









TaNba 1. Listado de especics de avcs aids e observAdas de ]a Sierra de Cabihm, Canwiiiey, Cuba, 7-23 de agosic de 1996.


Localidad

lia.e ddc
CuCva Hoyo de Cucva Carro Cerrc
Nornbnr cdenifico' Nomhbr vulgar Rolando Algibiao Bonet Lechlua Twibaqway Tuabaqucy


Egretta caeru!ea
Bbtculrus ibis
Butorides strialus
Cahatres aura
Runorhramus Surcabilis
Batre jamaicensis
Caracara plancus
Falto sparverius sparverinides*
Colinus virginian us cubwrensis*
Galtlnuto chloropus
Arawmu guarauria
Charadrius vociferus
Himarntopus mexicanus
JtdeUiti spisFtsO
Coilumrb squamosa
Zernida asiafica
Zenaida aurila
Zenaidid macrura
Columbrma passerina
Genrqygon chrysia
Geotiygon caniceps canceps"
Geolrygon monlmaa
Starriocnos cyonuceplula ***
Aratinga euops*
Saurothera merlin mterlini*
Crotophaga ani
T'to alba
GtaucidIum siju**
Chardeitex. gudttiachii
Tachornis phoeriLobin iradii
Cilrorostilbon rikordii ricordti*
PriNtelus tenel urus***
Todus mulicolor"*
Melanerpes supercifiaris
Xiphidiopicus percussur***
Crntopus caribaeus caribaeus"
4Myiarchus agrae
Tyrannus idominicensis
Tyrann us c caudifascismts*
Progne cryptoleuca
Turdus plumbers
Mimus pouyglfanos
Virco gundfichii'*
Vireo tdrtiloquus
MAnioill varia
Setuphaga rnlicilla
Setiu ts ourocapilhs
Tererisrris formsi'**
Cvanerpex c yaneust
Spindaii zeem petrel*
Mfeltpyrrha nigra nigria
Tiaris tliivacea
Sturnella magna hippocrepis*
Dives alrarwiucra e"
Quisc.lus niger gundtchii *
Icterts dominicemsis mweCopJisa *


Garna Azunt
Gamrita Bueycm
AgualacainiL
A ara Tiriosa
Gavilin Caracalero
Gavilin de Monte
Caralra
Cunicato
Codoniz
Gallereta de Pico Colormid
Gunrear
Tter Sabancro
Cachiponra
GuIlito de Ric
Trcaza Cucllintorada
Paloma Atibianm
Paloma Sanjuancro
Palorna Rabiche
Tojosa
Barbiqucjo
Canamm

Palama Perdsz
CaTey
Arriero
Judfo
Lechuza
Sijii Platanero
Qwerequetd
VeCiccjitl
Zuaztn
Tocorrn
Canacuba
CapLniero Jabado
Carpinlro Verde
Babito Chico
Bubltu Grandie
Pitfrrm Abcjera
Pitfrre Cuatlbere
Coloadriwu Anul
Zorzal Real
Sinsonte
Juan Chlvf
Bietn-ta-veo
Bijirita Trepaidum
Candetita
Scforilt de Monme
Pechero
Apareido dci Sun Diego
Cabrcra
Negnto
Tunrgfifn de la Ticrn
Sah.ancro
Todt
ChicbinguuL'u
Solibic


+ +


+
+
+
+ + +
+


+ +


+ + + +
+ -I-
+
+ + + +
+


+ +
+
+ +
+ +
* +
r 4 +
.- +
+ +4-


+


+
+
+ +
+ +

+


+ + + +
+
+ + + +
+
+ + +
+ + +

+

44-


4
4 +
.4. 4


+ + +

+ + 4 +
28 26 18 31


1
19 26


tNivcl dc endeimisnc.: "'"Gdnrt; "Especiec; '5ihespcecic.


El Pilire 10(3)


Page 94








FIRST REPORT OF THE ORANGE-CROWNED WARBLER (VERMIVORA CELATA CELATA) IN CUBA


ARTURO KiRKCONNELL.', ALEJANDRO L1.ANEST AND ORI.ANno GARRIDuo
'Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Cuba, 'InTVlituo de Ecologla y Siterraitica, La Habana, Cuba


ON 11 NOVEMBER 1989. during an expedition to
Guanahacabibes Peninsula (westernmost Cuba), we col-
lected an Orange-crowned Warbler (Vermnvora elata celtaia),
The bird was foraging among leaves about 3 m above the
ground in coastal vegetation, near the beach called "Las
'rumbas."
Vemivora c. eelara breeds in northern and northwestern
Canada. It winters in the southern United States and Mexico
(Howard and Moore 1991). The Orange-crowned Warbler
regularly migrates through the United States west of the
Appalachian Mountains, and only rarely through the eastern
states. It occurs casually in the northern Bahama Islands, but
our specimen represents the first record for Cuba (American
Ornithologists' Union 1983).


The Cuba specimen (catalogue number 1065) is depos-
iled in the collection of the Cuban Natural History Museum,

Lr-ERATURE CrrED

AMERIC.N ONTrrToLoiSrs' UNION. 1983. Check-list of North
American birds, 6th ed. American Ornithologists' Union,
Washington, D. C.
HowARD, RICHARD, AND ALICK MOORE. 1991. A complete
checklist of the birds of the World. 2nd ed. Academic
Press Inc., San Diego.


INDICIOS DE DEPREDACI6N DE EHUEVOS DE HIRUNDO FULVA
(PASSERIFORMES: HIRUNDINIDAE) POR EPICRATES ANGULIFER SERPENTSE: BOIDAE)

CARLOS A. MANCmA Y ALE^ANDRO LLANIs SOSA
Institute de Ecologia y Sistenmriico, CITMA, AP, 8029, La Habana, Cuba


EN JUN DE 1996, se estudi6 una coloniade Golondrinade
Cuevas (Hirundo fulva) que se encontraba anidando en una
solapa costera en la Reserva Natural de Cayo Caguanes, al
norte de la provincia de Sancti Spiritus, region central de
Cuba. En este lugar so hallaron depresiones donde las aves
depositaban directamente los huevos sabre material vegetal,
y no se observaron las formas de nido que han sido descritas
para la especie (Bond 1985). A pocos centimetros de uno de
los nidos, en el quo se encontraban dos hucvos, se localiz6 un
ejemplar de majd dc Santa Maria, Epicrates angulifer,
probablemente atrafdo por la presencia de las aves o por el
calor que irradiaban los huevos. Minutos mis tarde. no se
encontraron los huevos ni restos de los mismos, lo eual
sugiere que fueron engullidos par el ofidio,
Las species del genero Epicrates se alirnentan, en
dependencia de su tamafin, de mamiferos (principalmente
rocedres y murcidlagos). aves (tanto silvestres comro
domdsticas) y reptiles y anfibios (Schwartz y Henderson
1991), La alimentaci6n de la especie cubana esti basada
fundamentalmente en roedores (caprdmidos y mdridos) y
species gregarias de murcidlagos, ademis deaves, plquei os
reptiles y anfibios (Gundlach [880, Hardy 1957, Silva y
Koopman 1964).
Godincz er al. (1987) ubicaron a E. angulifer como


enemigo natural de Columba leucocephala, pero sin
especificar en quo consistfan los daftos que esta especie
infringfa a las poblaciones de dicha paloma. Schwartz y
Henderson (1991) citaron el consume de huevos de aves de
corral por Epicrates chrysogaster de Islas Turks y Caicos,
Bahamas, En la literature consultada no so enccontr6 ningdn
caso de consume de huevos por E. angulifer, pero se conice
de Ila capacidad de esta especie de subir a los airboles y rocas
hasta alturas considerable, por lo que la depredacid6n de
huevos de avyes silvestres pudiera resultar un suceso habitual,
Por otra parte se conoce que en Norteamdrica. algunas
especics de ofidios pueden Ilegar adevorar pichnnes, adults
e incluso hIuevos de la Golondrina de Cueva Americana,
Hirundopyrrhonota (Bent 1942, Bullard 1963). En Cuba no
sc conocen enemigos naturales de la Golondrina de Cuevas.
Tanto H. fuiva como Epicrates angulifer son habitantes
communes de numcrosos espeleoaccidentes cubanas, por lo
quo este reptil constitute un depredador potential de las
poblaciancs cavernicolas de esta golondrina.

LrTERATURA CTrADA

BEN'r, A. C, 1942. Life histories ofNorth American flycatch-
ers, larks, swallows, and their allies. Order Passeriformes.


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 95








U. S. Nail. Mus. Bull. 179.
BoND. J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. Fifth Edition.
Houghton-Mifflin Co., Boston-
BLtLARD. R. T., JR. 1963, Banding notes on the Nickajack
CliffSwallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). EBBANews
26:191-203.
GOwINEz, E., M. GOMEz, J. A. PUENTES Y S. VARGAS. 1987.
Caracterfsticas reproductivas de Colnumba leucocephala
en la Penfnsula de Guanacahabibes, Cuba. Pocyana
340:1-8.


GUKt.ACFi, J. 1880- Covnribuci6n a la erpelologia cubana.
Imp. G. Montiel, La Habana.
HARDY, J. D-, JR. 1957. Bat predation by the Cuban boa
Epicrates anguhifer Bibron. Copeia 1957(2): 151-152.
SCJHWART., A., ANDo R. W. Hnr-vris oN,. 1991. Amphibians and
reptiles of Lth West Indies: descriptions, and natural
History. Univ. Florida Press, Gainesville.
SI.A., G. T., AND K F. KoorFAN. 1964. Notes on the
occurrence and ecology of Tadarida laticaudara
yucatimica in eastern Cuba. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2174:1-6,


LA BIAYA 0 BAMBIAYA DE LOS INDOCUBANOS

OsvAl.no JIMNEZ VAZQUEz
Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemndfica, La Habana. Cuba


LA VISION REAL MARAVILLOSA de la fauna y flora cubana,
caus6 grata impresi6n al colonizador curopeo al irrumpir en
nuestra tierra a finales del siglo XV. Los manaltes, psiticidos
de vivos colors, rocas tropicales y oaros components
faunfsticos, merecieron la atenci6n de los cranistas del
descubrimiento ycolonizaci6n. Laidentidad taxon6micade
algunos vertebrados terrestres que coexisticron con los
indocubanos ha estado sometida a discusi6n. los casos mAs
lipicos son el "perro mudo," el Guaminfquinaje y la Bihiyn o
Bambidya. Esta iltima ocupa nuestra atencidn en el present
trabajo-
Las pri neras referencias acerca de un ave conoc ida coma
BambiAya las encontramos en las Crdnicas de Indias. Fray
Bartolomd de las Casas dice: "Hay unas aves que vuelan
cuasi junto al suelo que los indios Ilamaban Bidyas, la media
silaba lue nga, y los indios corriendo las alcanzaban y tambid n
con perros. si no me olvidado, las cuales cocidas hacen el
caldo como azafranado; son muy sabrosas y terfamos en
lugar de Faisanes" (Las Casas in Pdrez-Beato 1942),
Joannis de Laet (1625) relata que habian ciertas aves
Ilamadas Bambidyas que corrian algo sobre In tierra mejor
quo volaban y que los abori genes las cazaban como si fueran
animals salvajes (Paraj6n 1967). Gallinas de la Tierra les
nombraron losh ispanos(SigloXVI). Paradrgicamente seles
relacion6 con el Flamenco (Phoenicoprerns rrber) (Paraj6n
1967. Buide 1986). Otros autores (Paraj6n 1967) estimaron
que era un gallifonne quizAs parccidu a las Chachalacas de
Centre y Sudarmrica (Ortalis vettda, 0. ruficauda).
S.L. Olson (com. pers.)consideraqucel cinicogalliforme
c nddmico de las Antillas siempre ha side Colinns vrrginianus,
Entre las aves registradas en sitios aborigenes cubanos. la que
guard analogfas con las descripciones de los cronistas es el
ralido extinto, Nesorrachis (Wetmore 1918), que Luvo una
especie en Cuba (N. picapicensis) y otras en la Espanola (N.
steganinos) y Puerto Rico e Isla Virgenes (N. debooyi ).
Nesotrochis picapicensis se conoce de siete localidades
cavernarias del occidente cubano, dnos do ellas constituyen
El Pitirre 10(3)


basurales idigenas precolombinos y las restantes dep6sitos
sedimentarios de origen pluvial.
Los caractdres diag6sticos del g6neroNesotrochis, basados
en studios ostcolrgicos (Wetmore 1918. Olson 1974)
muestran un ave mayor que Ra/lus elegant y Gallinula
chloropus aunque con variaciones de talla notables, dadas
par el dimorfismo sexual, Con alas muy conras casi indLiles
para volar coma se observa en los himeros, que son muy
corLos en proporci6n al f6mur comparados con los de oaros
rdlidos antillanos, con la excepcidnde Cyanoltinnascerverai
Barboury Peters, en la cual son los hdmeros tambidn menos
alargados queel fdmur, aunqueen menorproporcidn. Medidas
de correspondencia ernitre fdmurs y hdmeros de algunos
rilidos antillanos (Longitud en mm.). Nesatrochis
picapicensis: f6mur-64, 65.3, 66.8,68.5, 73; h imeros-43.3,
46.5. Cranoaimnas cerverai: fdmur-4t.5, 43.5. 44.2, 47.5;
htimero-32.4, 36.7. Rallus elegans: f6mur-.59.5; hdmero-
60,4 Gallinulachtoropus: fdmur-52.4,55.3; hdmero-53.2,
57.6. Porphyrula martinica: f6mur-52.4; hbimero-53.
Laterallusjamaicensis: f6mur-36.6; hdmero--34.6. A east-se
agrega que ]a Quilla (Carina) del estern6n en ]a cintura
pectoral esta muy reducida, carter tambidn present en
Cyanolinras. Las extremidades inferiores dc Nesonrochis
estaban bien desarrolladas, como es visible en el fdmur y la
tibia, mns fhertes y pesados en proporci6n al largo que en
oraws rdlidos antillanos. ademAs la tibia tiene todas las crestas
y tuhrceulo. muy [leC.srrnlltlnx rpnr I insercidn de miiscuilos
y tendones fuertes (Wetmore 1918). Con toda certeza
Nesorrochis se desplazaba velozmente en tierra al no volar
con habilidad, coma le es possible a ot-ras gallinuelas, cuando
eran invadidos sus hAbitats en lagunas, ci6nagas y m4rgenes
do arroyas. Probablemene por tal razrn los espafoles les
[lamaron Gallinas de la Tierra- Orras aves f6siles cubanas,
casi ineptas en el vuelo, tambitn presentan hmrneros y quillas
reducidos; son las species del gdnero Ornimegalonyx
Arredondo, 1958 (Strigidae) y Grus cubensis (Fischer and
Stephan 1971) (Ciconidae).
Page 96








La presencia en Cuba de various gdneros de aves extintas
con poca especializaci6n en el vuelo quizis sc deba a la
inexistencia de depredadores terrestres del orden Carnivora
antes del arribo del hombre aborigen hace unos 10,000 alios
up.
La ahundancia de Nesotrochis en dep6sitos de dicta
aborigen en el drea antillana, es tn indicio de que su came era
tenida en alta estima como recurso alimenticia, asi como de
ia amplia distribuci6n geogriftca y abundancia que ltvo en
tiempos pre y post colombinos, hasta su extinci6n ocurrida
entire los siglos XVIII y XIX (Paraj6n 1967).

LocM[nAADES Y MATERIALS DE NeI-TROC'stt PICAPICENS$
EXAMINAnoS

Pinar del Rfo.-Caverna de Pfo Domingo (localidad tipo),
Sumidero, Minas. Dep6sito no cultural. Pleistoceno
superior. No se examinaron huesos.

Cueva de Jos6 Brea, Pan de Azdicar, Viiiales.-Silio
arqueol6gico. Tarso derecho OA. 3171. Cueva del
Mono F6sil, Sierra de Galeras, Vifiales; deposit no
cultural. Pleistoceno superior. Tibia derecha GEPAB.
163.

LaHabana,-Cucvade Paradones, Ceibadel Agua, Caimito,
deposit nocultural. Pleistoceno superior. Tarso derecho
OA. 688,
Cueva del Caracol, Siete Cuevas Bejucal. Sitia
arqueol6gico. Fwmur derecho GEPAB 229.
Cuevas Blancas. Quivicin. dep6sito no cultural.
Plcistoceno superior. Tibia derecha GEPAB 340.
Cueva del Indio, Tapaste, San Josd de las Lajas, dep6sito
no cultural., Pleistoceno superior. Cranen 317; pelvis


318,319,320; torsos derechos 321, 322; hdimero derecho
323; fdmures izquierdos 325, 326, 327, 328, derechos
329,330; tibias izquierdas 331,332, 333,339. derechas
334, 335, 336. 337, 338. Todas piezas del GEPAB.

ActiviwtruRAs:
OA- Colecci6n Oscar Arredondo,
GEPAB, Colececida Grupo Espeleol6gico "Pedro A. B orrts."
Sociedad Espeleol6gica de Cuba.

LrTiATTURA CrrADA

BUIDE. M, 1986. Diccionario de nombres vemniculos de
vertebrados cubanos. Edit. Academia. La Habana.
FiscHER, K., AND B. STEPHAN. 1971, Ein flugunflihiger
Kranich (GnOs cubensis n. sp.) aus dem PleistozAn von
Kuba-Eine Osteologie der Familie Kraniche (Gruidae).
Wiss, Z. Humbolt-Univ. Berl., Math-Naturwiss. Reihe
20:541-592.
OI.soN, S. L. 1974, A new species of Nesotrrochis from
Hispaniola with notes on other fossil rails from the West
Indies (Avyes: Rallidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 87:439-
450.
PARA 6, S. M. 1967, Los faisanes de Amtrica. Estudio en
relaci6n conlas aves dcnominadas pornuestros aborfgenes
BiAyas o Bambilyas, que no eran flamencos sino faisanes
de Amdrica, Inddito.
Pt-EZ-BEATo, M. 1942. La Falacia del idioma indigena.
Ensayo lexicogrAfico. Ediciones del Archivo I-ist6rico,
Habana.
WEMaRF., A. 1918. Bones of birds collected by Theodorde
Booy from Kitchen Midden deposits in the islands of St.
Thomas and St. Croix. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 54:513-522.


AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR OF A GRAY KINGBIRD (TYRANNUS DOMINICENSIS) TOWARD
A BAT (MOLOSSUS MOLOSSUS) IN LA HABANA, CUBA

JUAN P. SOv
Apmrtado 4928, Correo de 23 y 12, La Hlabana 4 (10400), Cuba


AT 20:20 HR ON 2 JUNE 1996 1 observed a Gray Kingbird
(Tyrannus dominicensis) perching on the television antenna
of a house in Vcdado, La Habana City. Suddenly the bi rd flew
down with an irregular flight, as if it was trying to catch a
small bird- After the acrobatics, the kingbird returned to
perch on the same antenna. At 20:30 hr 1 observed another
such erratic flight, but this time I verified that the kingbird
was attacking a flying bat, The kingbird made four more such
attacks on passing bats in the next 30 mrins. I observed the
same aggressive behavior by a Gray Kingbird in the same
area on 18 June, at 20:25 br, when a kingbird attacked bats
twice in 30 mins of observation. The bats effectively evaded
the kingbirds' attacks and I did not observe the kingbirds
Page 97


touching any of bats. Because of their crepuscular habit in
foraging for insects during the summer season, the attacked
bat.s were most likely MAolossuts ittu/lus ..
[I did not observe nests of Gray Kingbirds around the area.
and I do not think the birds were Irying to catch the bats fr-
food. Instead, I believe that the aggressive behavior was
territorial defense toward the bat, which isat the same time a
competitor for the insects on which both species feed.
Gundlach '1876) reported the Gray Kingbird's aggressive
behavior against hawks. vultures, herons, and other birds that
approach its nest. Garcfa (1987) also noted the defensive
behavior of the kingbird in protecting its nest. Vaurie (1957)
considered this species "extremely aggressive," and Pough
El Pitirre 10(3)








(1949) characterized the kingbird's aggressive behavior as a
territorial defense against all larger birds and mammals,
including man.
Although I do not consider the behavior I observed as.
predation attempts, Gray Kingbirds have been reported cap-
turing large prey items, including flying vertebrates. Dathe
(1971) reported an American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)
catching basis in La Habana. Although Dathe reported the bar
species as Arnibeus jamaicensis (identified in flight), Silva
[1979) suggested that this bat should be Molossus malossus,
In addition, Seutin and Apanius (1995) reported a case of
hummingbird (Euiampis) predation by the Gray Kingbird.

LrrERAnRE Cn-TD


FledermausjAiger auf Kuba. Milu 3(2):195-197.
GARCIA MONTANA, F. 1987. Las aves de Cuba-subespecies
enddmicas, Vol. 11 Editorial Gence Nueva, La Habana.
GuNnLA.-H, J. C. 1876. Contribucidn d la ornltologfa cubana.
Imprenta"La Antilla" de N. Cacho-Negrette, LaHabana.
POUGH. R. H. 1949. Audubon bird guide. Doubleday and
Company, Inc., NY.
S Etrn,G., AND V. APANmus. 1995. Gray kingbird predation on
a hummingbird. Wilson Bull, 107(3): 565-567.
SuvA, G. 1979. Los murcidlagos de Cuba. Editorial Academia,
La Habana.
VAtURE, C. 1957. Field notes on some Cuban birds. Wilson
Bull. 69(4):301-313.


DATHE. H. 1971. Der Buntfalk, Falco sparverirs, als




STATUS OF WHITE-TAILED TROPICBIRDS (PHAETHON LEPTURUS) NESTING IN CUBA

NicAsio Vt4A', MARTHA WALsH-McGEREE2, AND DAVID S. LrF.

'Josd A. Saco No. 418, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba 90100; island Conservation Effort. P. 0. Box 599. Saba, Netherlands Antilles: and
WNorth Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences. P. 0. Box 29555, Raleigh, North Carolina 27626, U. S. A.


I).sirnETHEE FACrTTHATWhite-tailed Tropiebirds (Phaethon
lepturus) are known to nest throughout the Bahamas. the
Turks and Caicos, and the Greater Antilles (American Orni-
thologists' Union 1983, Sprunt 1984, Buden 1987), in the
interval between the early part of this century and 1975 no
reports of this species nesting in Cuba were published.
Barbour (1943) noted that on a visit to Cabo Cruz in 1913 the
breeding colony of tropicbirds reported by Gundlach in the
19th century was still in existence. Gundlach referenced
White-tailed Tropicbirds in 10 publications dating from 1859
to 1 893. Wiley (ms.) shows 80 references to these tropic birds
in Cuba in his bibliography of West Indian seabirds, Fifty-
three of these references are pre-Barbour (1943) and, with
one exception (Cruz and Alayo 1984), the remaining refer-
ences contain no additional information on the distribution of
breeding colonies or the size of nesting populations in Cuba.
Garrido and Garcfa (1975) listed White-tailed Tropicbirds as
breeders on the southeastern coast of Oriente Province. but
gave no population estimates, van Halewyn and Norton
(1984) reported this species breeding along the entire south-
eastern coast of Cuba, but gave no indication of the source of
this information or of the size of the Cuban population, In
1993. Garrido and Kirkconnell categorized this species as a
rare breeder on the southeastern coast of Oriente Province.
Morales and Garrido (1996) included White-tailed Tropicbtrds
in a list of birds of Cayo Sabinal (Archipitlago de Sahana-
Camnagiiey) with no indication of their nesting status. Whereas
it is possible that they nest there, GonzAlez (under review)


made no reference to these tropicbirds in his summary of
seabirds breeding on the northern coast of Cuba.
Small numbers of White-tailed Tropicbirds continue to
nest along the southeastern coast of Cuba between Cabo Cruz
and ca. 50 km west of Santiago de Cuba. However, they are
apparently absent as a breeding species elsewhere in Cuba
and occur only sporadically along a coastal area smaller than
that indicated by van Halewyn and Norton (1984). The area
along this coast occupied by nesting White-tailed Tropiebirds
may have been more extensivein the past, For e example, Cory
(1891) noted a pair flying about near the entrance to the
harbor of Santiago de Cuba in the spring of 189 1The only
recent report is from Cruz and Alayo (1984) who reported
about 80 nesting pairs at Punta El Ingl6s, a few kilometers
east of Cabo Cruz. The nesting areas are confined to steep or
vertical cliffs rising from the ocean. Vifia (pets. obser.)
estimates the remainder of the Cuban population along this
portion of the coastline to hi anhnifi 10 active pairs. Another
colony of no more than 12 pairs is known from the southern
coast of Guantanumo at Loma de los Chivos, It is not
productive in all years and the site is used irregularly (Jorge
de la Cruz, pers. comm.). Thus, the total Cuban population
numbers approximately 100 pairs.
We attribute this small population size to limited avail-
ability of predator-free nesting sites, The small population
size may, in part, also be explained by the construction of a
coastal road between villages at the base of the Sierra Maestras.
This road was widened and improved in the early- to mid-


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 98









1990s in response to the growing in-country tourist trade,
and the grading has had an obvious impact on the sea cliffs
and presumably on tropicbird nest sites. During the wini er of
1992 and 1997 numerous instances of major erosion and
massive rock slides occurred both above and below road
grade (Lee and Walsh-McGehee. pers. oas.), Cruz believes
the tropicbirds may be abandoning the Guaniantamn site
because of disturbance from the road adjacenito the cliff they
use for nesting. The extent to which this development makes
locally nesting seabirds vulnerable to poaching is unknown,
but poaching is presumed to be limited for this cliff nesting
species. White-tailed Tropicbirds will travel at least 89 km to
foraging sites (Pcnnycuick etal! 1990), and adults can travel
up to an air distance of 315 km in 6.7 hours, the average time
between chick feedings (Schaffner 1990a, b). Strong upwell-
ings along portions of this section of the Cuban coast provide
dependable foraging areas (Lee and Vifia 1993). We have
seen White-tailed Tropicbirds feeding over these upwellings
and have no reason to suspect that food is a locally limiting
resource. We suspect that lack of adequate undisturbed
nesting sites is the primary, and perhaps only, factor restrict-
ing population size.
The western Atlantic White-tailed Tropicbird is an en-
demic subspecies (Phaethon leptruns catesbyi) whose total
population was believed to number more than 10,000 pairs in
the early 1980s (van Halewyn and Norton 1984). Lee and
Walsh-McGehee (unpubl.) made a reassessment in the late
1990s and, despite the documentation of additional colonies,
estimated the total population to be about half this size.
Approximately 2.500 pairs or this population nest in Ber-
muda, an estimated 2,000 pairs breed in the Bahamas (Wals h-
McGehee and Lee, unpubl.), and less than 2,000 pairs nest in
the Greater and Lesser Antilles. Except for a few remote sites
in dithe Greater Antilles, most nesting colonies in the West
Indies are small and consist of less than 50 pairs. These low
numbers clearly result from the introduction of exotic preda-
tors by European colonists. These predators have led to the
tropicbird's current dependence on inaccessible cliff faces
for nesting as is evidenced by a wider selection of nest sites
and by higher densities elsewhere in this species' range
where predators are absent. The White-tailed Tropiebirds in
Cuba. and elsewhere in the West Indies, today appear to be
relict populations and provide only clues to former distribu-
tion and abundance.

LITErrATURE CrTED

AM[RICAN ORNrmHOLOGiTS' UNION. 1983. Check-list of North
American birds, 6th ed. American Ornithologists' Union,
Washington, D. C.
BARBouR, T, 1943. Cuban ornithology, Mem. Nuttall Ornith.


Club. No 9.
UDEN, D,. W. 1987. The birds of the southern Bahamas, An
annotated check-list. B.O.U. Checklist No 8. British
Ornithologists' Union. London.
CoRY. C. B, 1891. A list of birds taken and observed in Cuba
and dihe Bahama Islands, during March and April, 198 1.
Auk 8 (3):292-294.
CRUZ LoikNZo, J.DE LA, AND R. ALAYO STro. 1984. Primeros
datos sobre la nidificaci6n del Vencejo de Collar,
Streprvprocne zonaris pallidifrons, y del Contramnaestre.
Phoethon lepturus caresbyi (Aves: Apodidae y
Phaethonidac) en Cuba. P. 456 in Conferencia Cientifica
sobre Educaci6n Superior. 1984. Univ. La Habana,
GAmnoo, 0. H., AND F. GARCIA MONTA-A. 1975. Catalogo de
las aves de Cuba. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba. La
Habana. Cuba.
GARRtDo, 0. H., ANi A. KIRKCONNELL, 1993. Checklist of
Cuban birds. Special Publ. for Soc. Carib. Ornithol.
Annual Meeting, Playa Gir6n, Cuba.
GONZAuz,. H. Under review. Status of Cuban seabirds. Proc.
Symp. Caribb. Seabirds. August 1996, Society of Carib-
bean Ornithology, Aruba.
LEE, D. S., ANtI N. VINA. 1993. A re-evaluation of the status
of the endangered Black-capped Petrel, Pterodrima
hasitata in Cuba. Ornitologia Neotropical 4(2):99- 101.
MORALES LEAL, J. Y ORLANDO H. GARRIDO. 1996. Aves y
reptiles de Cayo Sabinal, Archipidlago de Sabana-
Camagiiey, Cuba, El Pitirre 9 (3):9-11.
PEN"YCUICK, C. J.. F. C. SCHAFFNER. M. R. FuuLER, H. H,
OuGRCHT, III, AND L. STERNBE.RG, 1990. Foraging flights of
the White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturunes)
radiotracking and doubly-labelled water. Colon,
Waterbirds 13(2):96-102.
SCHAFFNER, F, C, 1990a. Food provisioning by White-tailed
Tropicbirds: effects on the developmental patterns of
chicks. Ecology. 71(1 ):375-390,
SCHAFFNER, F.C. 1990b. Feed size and feeding periodicity in
pelagic birds: notes on methodology. Colon. Waterbirds
13(l):7-15.
SpRuNt, A.,IV. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds
of the Bahama Islands. Pp. 157-168 in Croxall. J, P., P. G,
H. Evans. and R. W. Schreiber (eds.). Status and conser-
vation of the world's seabirds. ICBP Tech, Publ. No. 2.
Cambridge, U. K.
VAN HAlw'YN, R., AND R. L. Nor-roN. 1984. The status and
conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. Pp. 169-222 in
Croxall, 1J P., P. G. H. Evans, and R. W. Sclhriber (cds.),
Status and conservation of the world's seabirds. ICBP
Tech, Publ. No. 2, Cambridge. U. K.
WnEY. 1. W. Ms- A bibliography of West Indian seabirds.
Unpublished.


Page 99


El Pifirre 10(3)








NUEVAS ADICIONES A LA PALEORNITOLOGIA CUBANA

Waub-IM SuAizEy OscAR AlREDONDO
Coiaboradi rrs del fusxe Nacional de Hisnoria Natural dec La Habana. Cuba


EN LOS A.OS 1911 Y 1918 se colectaron los priimeros
especfmenes de aves fdsiles en Cuba. Estos se eshumaron al
suroeste de ]a ciudad de Cienfuegos, localidad de Ciego
Montero. pcro no so dieron a conocer hasta 10 afios despus,.
luego de ser estudiadas por Alexander Wctmore (Wctmore
1928). Desde esa fecha hasta 1957, las aves f6siles voalvieran
a ser ignoradas y permanecieron en el olvido por mds de un
cuartodesiglo. En 1958 se erigi6 el primer g6nero
enddmico para nuestra paleomitofauna (Arredonda 1958),
del mismo (Omrniwgatonyx).seconocen los mayoresestrigidos
de todo el planeta(Arredondo 1958, 1982). Estehecho m arcd
un punto a partir del cual autores cubanos y extranjersm se
dieron a la tarcade conocer nuestras aves fdsiles, sus trabajos
permitieron descubrir nuevos taxones para la ciencia y
evidenciar la presencia de muchos que aunque descritos de
otras tierras formaron part do aquella fauna vertebrada ya
extinta (Arredondo 1970. 1971, 1972a, 1972b, 1982, 1984;
Arredondo y Olson 1994: Brodkorb 1969; Fischer 1968;
Fischer y Stephan 1971; Olson 1985; Olson y Knirochkin
1987).
Recientemente fueron encontrados restos d avyes en
estratos del period terciariu (Mioceno) en e] centro-sur de
Cuba (Macphee e Iturralde-Vinent 1994), los cuiles se
encuentran indeterminados a otros niveles taxan6micos;
ademas sedardnaconxccrochonuevasaves paraelcuaternario
que aun subsisten en el archipielago cubano (0. Jimcnez,
corn. per.).
Luego de reconsideradas por uno de nosotras (Sudrez) las
ayes f6siles del cuaternario (Pleistoceno-Holoceno crmprano)
conocidas y recogidas en la literatura, suman realmenic solo
41 taxones, de ellos dos gdneros son enddmicos de Cuba y la
subregidn anti llana. M uchas de estas serin tratadas en trabajos
apartes, debido a haltazgos de nuevos y mis completes
especfmenes que permitenuna mejor exploraci6n taxnTm ica
y su adecunda ubicaci6n a niveles gendricos y especificos
(Sudrcz, en prep.).
En el present trabajo agregamos cuatro nuevos grneeras
de aves para el cuaternario cubano: tires do ellos son
desconocidos hasta hoy en Cuba y las Antillas, aunque
conocidos en el continent; una especie esta cxtinta de las
Bahamas y otras que aun viven en Cuba pero no habian sido
encontradas antes en dep6sitos fosiliferos.

RELACION DE AVrES

Ordcn Ciconiiformes

Familiar Teratornithidae
Teratornissp.-Matcrial y distribuci6n: 7 especfmnenes.
F6mur derecho complete; colectadii en la Cueva de


Paredones, Caimito, La Habana. Coleccidn del
Insituro de Ecologfa y SistemAtica (IES.) No. 400-
649, c6ndilo medial de f6mur izquierdo, cotectado
en la Cueva de Paredones, colecci6n Oscar
Arredondo (OA-3151); cuadrado, colectado en la
Cueva del Tunel. La Salud, La Habana (OA-2205);
fragment distal de f6mur, colectado en Cuevas
Blancas, Quivicin, La Habana, depositado en la
coleccidn de Osvaldo Jim6nez (OJ-p-8); hlmero
dcrecho incomplete, coracoides incompletoy mi tad
distal de libiotarso derccho, colectados en la Cueva
de Sandoval. Cainito, La Habana, colecei6n de
William Sudrez (WS-936, 363, 364). Gdnera
conocido de Norteamdrica, California, E.E.U.U.
Desconocido en las Antillas hasta hay. Edad:
Cuaternario, posiblemente pleistoceno.

Familia Vulturidae
Gymnogyps sp. Material y distribuci6n: lespecinmen,
Tarsometatarso izquierdo sin trocleas. colectado en
la Cueva de Paredones, Caimito, La Habana (WS-
125). Genero viviente en Norteamndrica. Edad:
Cuaternario, posiblemente pleistoceno.

Orden Accipitriformes

Familia Accipitridae
Accipiter striatusfringilloides Vigors, 1827. Mate-
rial y distribuci6n: 2 especfmenes. FEmures
izquierdosincompletos (WS-975,976);Colectados
en la Cueva de Paredones, Caimito, La Habana.
Edad: Cuatemario, posiblemente plistaceno.

Accipiter gundlachi gundlachi Lawrence, 1860. -
Material y distribucidn; 2 especirnenes.
Tarsometatarso derecho incomplete (WS-277);
Cueva del Tdnel. La Salud, La Habana y
tarsometatarso derecho incomnplcto (WS-785);
coleclados en la Cueva de Sandoval, Cainito, La
Habana, Edad: Cuaternario, posiblemenie
pleistoceno.

Buteopladypterus cubanensis Burns, 1911.- Materal
y distribuci6n: 1 especfnmen. Tibiotarso izquierdo
incomplctn (OA-3023) colectado en la Cueva de
Paredones, Caimito, La Habana. Edad: Cuaternario,
posiblernente pleistoceno.

Amplibuteo sp. Material y distribucidn: 1 esquelemr
incomplete (tarsomeuatarso izquierdo compleio.


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 100







WS-365e; fdmures, WS-374 y WS-375; pelvis,
WS-365s; falangessubterminales,WS-365h,365f,
3651, 382; falanges ungueales, WS-335, 336;
v6rtebras, WS-365o, 365j, 365k, 369; fragments
de hdmero, WS-376a. 376b, 376c; r6tula, WS-852;
fibula fragmeniada. WS-365t; costillas WS-365x0
al 365x6) colectado en la Cueva de Sandoval,
Caimito, La Habana. Etad: Cuaternario,
pasiblemenle pleistoceno. Gdnero conocido en
ambos hemisferios del continent americano,.
desconocido hasta hoy en las AntilIas;

Familia Falconidac
Caracara creightoni Brodkorb, 1959. Material y
distribuci6n: 3 especimnenes. CrAneo fragmentado
(OA-3928) colectado en Cueva Calero, Cantel,
Matanzas; porci6n distal dc fdmur izquierdo (WS-
0209) y mitad proximal de fdmur derecho (WS-
0142), ambos colectados en la Cueva de Sandoval,
Caimito, La Habana. Edad: Cuaternario,
posiblemente pleistoceno. Especie f6sil conocida
de las Bahamas.

Milvago sp. Material y distribuci6n: I especfnmen.
Fragmento proximal de tarsometarso izquierdo
(WS-977) colectado en la Cueva de Paredones,
Caimito, La Habana. Edad: CuatcrnariD,
posiblemenic pleistoceno. Exfste una especie fossil
(A. alexander) descrita para las Antillas (Olson
1976).

Orden Columbiformes

Familia Columbidae
Zenaidaauritazenaida (Bonaparte, 1825).-Materid a]
y distribuciin: 33 especimenes. 15 hdmeros (WS-
264,009,018,023,032,046,095,097,0101,0104,
0206,0210,0211,0212y0216), 12 ulnas (WS-862,
013,017.019,021,027,036,037,0100,0130,0133
y 0207), 3 f6mures (WS-025. 0111 y 0208), 3
tibiotarso (WS-014, 015. 0134) colectados en la
Cueva de Sandoval, Caimito, La Habana. Edad:
Cuaternario, posiblemente pleistoceno.

Orden Cuculiformes

Farniia Cuculidae
Crotopihagaani Linnco, 1758.-Materialy distribuci6n:
2 especimencs. Mitad pr6ximal de tarsomntatarso
izquicrdo (OA--400-305), f6murderecho incomplete
(WS-r-44) colcctados en la Cueva de Paredones,
Caimito, La Habana, y htimero derecho (WS--039)
colectado en la Cueva de Sandoval del mismoa
municipio, Edad:. Cuaternario, posiblemente
plcistoceno,


Orden Piciformes

Familia Picidae
Cataptes fernandinae Vigors, 1827. Material y
distribuci6n: 20 especimenes. 10 htimeros (WS-
353, 783, 784, 005, 008, 028, 0172, 0173, 0175 y
0176), 7 ulnas (WS-047, 0135, 0174, 0177. 0178,
0179 y 0180). 1 fdmur (WS-007), 2 tibiotarsos
(WS-050.094) colectados en la Cuev a de Sando val,
Caimito. La Habana. Edad: Cuaternario,
posiblemente pleistoceno.

Orden Passeriforames

Familiar Corvidae
Corvus palmarum co. minutus Gundlach, 1852. -
Material y distribuci6wn 33 especImenes. 7h6meros
(WS-268. 13124, 004, 088. 098, 0187 y 0188), 8
ulnas (WS-01 1,012,022,036-1.0103.,0186,0191
y 0217). 1 carpometacarpo (WS-0154), 9 f6inures
(WS-620. 856, 002, 016,033,0183,0185, 0198 y
0189), 8 Libiotarsos (WS-942, 0102, 0123, 0163,
0181.0182,0184y0218),colectadosenlaCuevade
Sandoval, Caimito, La Habana. Edad: Cuaternario,
posiblemente pleistoceno.

Familia Hirundinidae
Hirundofulva cavicola (Barbour y Brooks, 1917)-
Material y distribuci6n: 5 especfmenes. I hfimero
derecho (WS-063), 2 cubitos (WS-069. 070). 1
fdmur(WS-034)y 1 tibiotarso (WS-078)colectados
en la Cueva de Sandoval, Caimito, La Habana.
Edad: Cuaternario, posiblemente pleistoceno.

Familia Emberizidae
Staniella magna hippocrepis (Wagler, 1832).- Ma-
terial y distribuci6n: 3 especfmenes, 2 f6mures
incompletos (WS-0199 y 0204), 1 tarsometarso
(WS-0147), colectados en la Cueva de Sandoval,
Caimito, La Habana. Edad: Cuaternario,
posiblemente pleistoceno.

COME.NTARIOS
Muchas aves hoy relictas en Cubay quo han sido halladas
pocas veces on depfsitos fosilfferos (Olson y Pregill 1982),
cnmo Athene [Speoyrto] cunicidaria, se ban encontrado en
gran nmamcro de especimenes y localidades, sobre todo en las
espeluncas del sur de la provincia La Habana, asf tamhidn
tiras species como Torreornis inexpectata, citada par otros
autores (Pregill y Olson 1981) para la region Oriental y La
Habana.
Ayes conocidas solamente de la localidad tipo, como
Gris cabensis, Nesorrochis picapicensis v Two riveroi, han
sido encontradas en las cuevas de La Habana, ampliando su


Page 101


El Pitirre 10(3)








distribuci6n en Cuba.
Dejamos constancia de nuestra gratitud a Storrs L. Olson,
Musco Nacional de Historia Natural, Smiihsonian Institu-
tion, Washington, D. C., per sus opinions y comenmriou
sobre algunos de los especfmenes aqui tratados,

LrMERATURA CITADA
ARRENDoNDo, 0. 1958. Ayes gigantes de nuestro pasado
prehistdrico. El Cartero Cubano, La Habana 17(7) 10-12.
ARRENDONDOo, 0. 1970. Nueva especie de ave pleistucdnica
del orden Accipitriformes (Accipitridae) y nuevo gdnero
para las Antillas. Cienc. Biol., Univ. La Habana 8:1- 19.
ARRENDONDO. 0. 1971. Nuevo gdnero y especie de ave ffMil
(Accipitriforme: Vulturidae) del pleistoceno de Cuba&
Mem, Soc.Cienc. Nat. La Salle 31(90):309-323.
ARRENDONDO, 0. 1972a. Nueva especie de ave f6sil
(Strigiformes: Tytonidae) del pleistoceno superior de
Cuba. Bol. Soc. VenezolanaCiene. Nat.29(122-.123):415-
431.
ARRENDONDo, 0. 1972b. Especie nucva do lechuza gigante
(Strigiformes: Tytonidae) del pleistoceno cubano. Bol.
Soc. Venezotana Cienc. Nat. 30(124-125):129-140.
ARENDONoowo.O. 1982. Los Strigifories f6silesdel pleistoceno
cubano. Bol. Soc. Venezolana Cienc. Nat. 37(140):33-
35,
ARREDmoNDo. 0. 1984. Sinopsis de las aves halladas en
dep6sitos fosilfferos pleistoholocenico de Cuba. Rep.
Invest. Inst. Zool. 17:1-35.
ARRENDONDo, 0. y S. L. OLsoN. 1994. A new species of owl
of the genus Bubo from the Pleistocene of Cuba (Avyes:
Strigiformes). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 107(3):436-444.


BRODKORE, P. 1969. An extinct Pleistocene owl froin Cuba
Q. J. Florida Acad. Sci. 31(2): 12-114-.
FISCHER, K.-H. 1968. Ein flugunilihier Kranich aus dein
pleistoztin von Cuba. Falke 15(8):270-271.
FISCHER, KI Y B. STEPHAN. 1971, Weitere Volgelreste aus dem
pleistozlin der Pio-Domingo-HRhlc in Kuba. Wiss. Z.
Humboldt-Univ. Berl., Math-Naturwiss. Reihe 20(4-
5):593-607.
MACPHEE, R. D. E. y M. A. ITURRAL.DE-VINENT, 1994, First
Tertiary land mammal from Greater Antilles: an early
Miocene sloth (Xenarthra, Megalonychidae) from Cuba.
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nov. 3094:1-13.
OJ.soN, S.L. 1976, A new species of Milvago from Hispaniol a,
with notes on other fossil caracaras from the West Indies
(Aves; Falconidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 88(33):355-
366,
OLsoN, S. L. 1985. A new species of Siphonorhiis from the
Quaternary cave deposits in Cuba(Aves: Caprimulgidae).
Proc. BioD. Soc. Wash. 98(2):526-532.
OLSON, S. L. Y E. N. KtlROCHKIN. 1987. Fossil evidence of a
tapaculo in the Quaternary of Cuba (Aves: Passeriformes:
Scytalopodidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 100(2)353-357.
OLsoN, S. L. Y G. K, PREGruLL. 1982. Introduction to the
paleontology ofBahaman vertebrates. Pp. 1-7in Olson, S,
L. (ed.) Fossil vertebrates from the Bahamas. Smithsonian
Contrib. Paleobiol. 48:1-65.
PRaGLtL, G. K. Y S. L. OLsoN. 1981. Zoogeography of West
Indian vertebratesin relation to Pleistocenectlinatic cycles.
Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst 12:75-98.
WETmomE. A. 1928. Bones of birds from the Ciego Montero
deposit of Cuba. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nov. 301:1-5.


ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY ANNUAL
MEETING IN ARUBA, DUTCH WEST INDIES, AUGUST 1997


THE AVIFAUNA OF THE PITONS IN ST. LUCIA
DOrtALD AW-HoNY
Foretn- Department. Castries, St. Lucia


A SURVEY OF THE BIRDS on Gros and Petit Piton, St. Lucia,
was conducted in February 1997. A total of 27 species were
observed including four island endemics: St. Lucia Oriole
(Icteus laudabilis), St. Lucia Wren (Troglodyres aedun
maesoleucos), Lesser Antil lean Flycatcher (Myiarchus ober).
and the St. Lucia Black Finch (Melanospia richardsani),
Three species of hummingbirds, four columbids, and four
finches also occur in St. Lucia. On die Pitons. man's impact
has been minimal since the steep slopes have deterred most
forms of agriculture. Beard (1949) referred to the Pitons as
"the most spectacular piece of scenery in the West Indies,"
Today the pitons are a haven for bird life.


LA AVIFAUNA DE LAS PITONS EN ST. LuCIA. Un censo de aves
en las islas de Gros y Petiti Piton en St Lucfa se lIcv6 a cabo
en febrero de 1997. Fuero n observadas un total de 27 especi es
de avyes, incluyendo cuatro endtmicas; Icterus faudabilis,
Troglodytes aedon maesoleucos, Myiarchus oberi y
Melanospiza richardwoni. Cuatro species de zumbadores,
cuatro coldinbidos y cuatro gorriones tambidn se encuentran
aquf. En las Pit6n, sin embargo. el impact del hom bre hasido
mninmo debido a que sus empinadas laderus han detenido las
formas tradicionales de agricultura. Beard (1949) se refiere a
las Pitons como "la mis extraordinaria 6rea escenica de las
Antillas." En la actualidad, las Pitons son un paraiso para Ins
aves.


El Pitirrc 10(3)


Page 102








HISTORY AND SUBSPECIATION OF THE PEARLYV-EYKD THRASHER, EMPHASIZING MARGAROPS
FUSCA TUS BONARIENSIS IN THE NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

WAYNE J, AREN'T
International Instilute of Tropical Forestry, USDA FIomI Service, P. 0- Ba 490. Palmer, Pueno Rico 00721


THE PALEONTOLOGICAL REcoRD and early written accounts
document that two of the three subspecies of Margarops
fitscarus were once more widely distributed in the eastern
Caribbean (= Margarops f densirostris) and among the
extralimital islands north of the Venezuela, South America;
i.e., Bonaire and La Horquilla Island in the Los Hermanos
Archipelago (= M. f, bonariensis)., In support of the hypoth-
esis that the predecessorof Margaropsfuscatus arrivedinthe
Lesser Antilles before the Wisconsin glaciation and then
spread northward, there exists an ever-growing body of1
evidence from archeological sites (Amerindian middens) and
paleontological material (owl pellets from caves) in the
Eastern Caribbean dating back to the late Quaternary from
Anguilla, St. Eustatius, Barbuda, Antigua. and Montserrat.
Some mineralized bones date back more than 2,000 years (St.
Martin). Before the turn of the century, authors made refer-
ence to Margarops species, and specimens of M. fascatus
were collected, from both St, Vincent (23 April 1890) and
Barbados (2 March 1889), but today the pearly-eye is absent
on both islands. Whereas the pearly-eye has undergone
population declines in the southern extremes of its range,
populations farther north, on islands such as Puerto Rico and
Montserrat, have exhibited almost explosive population in-
creases. Similarly, on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, the
disjunct population of M.f, bonariensis, which was limited to
the Fontein plantation for almost 100 years, within the last 20
years has spread over most of the island. Univarinte statistics
and stepwise discriminate function analysis (DFA) on five
morphological characters were used to show that Margarops
bonariensis, the most isolated of the three subspecies, is the
most distinct phenotype. Culmen length from the nares,
tarsus, and wing chord, respectively, were the most influen-
Lial variables in the DFA model.


HISTORIA Y SUItiSPECIAC16N DEL MARGAROPS FUSCATUS, CON
EINFASS EN ELAM.F. .BONARmENSIS EN LAS Awrtas HOLANDESAS.
El registro paleontol6gico y documents escritos antiguos
documenman que dos de las tires subspecies de Margarops
firscatus antes se encontraban mins amnpliamente distribuidas
en el Caribe Oriental (=Margaropsf. densirostris) y entire las
islas del noreste de Venezuela, tales come Bonaire c Isla La
Horquilla en el Archipidlago de Los Hermanos (=M. f
bonariensis). En apoyo de la hip6tesis de que el predecessor
del Margorops fiscatus antes de la glaciaci6n de Wisconsin
y luego se dispers6 hacia cl norte, existe una creciente
cantidad de evidencia recopilada en sitios arqucol6gicos y
material palcontol6gico en el Caribe occidental que data del
perfodo Cuaternario Tardfo procedente de Anguilla, St.
Eustatius, Barbuda, Antigua y MonserraL Algunos huesos
mineralizados tienen mns de 2000 aLos (St. Martin). Antes
del fin del siglo pasado. varies autores hacfan referencia a la
especie Margarops, y especfmenes de M, fiscatus sc
coleccionaron en St, Vincent (23 de abril de 1890) y en
Barbados (2 de marzo de 1889), pcro hoy en dfa el ave no se
encuentra en estas islas. Ain cuando esta ave haya inostrado
descensos poblacionales en el extremes sur de su territorio,
en islas como Puerto Rico y Monserrat ha experimenlado
aumentos poblacionales casi explosives. En fonna similar,
en Bonaire, Antillas Holandesas, la poblacidn de M. f
bonariensis, que estaba limitada a la plantactin de Fontein
por casi 100 anios, en los dltimos 20 anlos se ha extendido
sobre lamayorparte de la isla. Diferentes and lisi s estadfsticos
se us aron en cinco caracterfsticas morfol6gicas parademostrar
que M. bonariensis, la mds aislada de las tres subespecies,
posee el fenotipo mns distintivo. Medidas del pico, tarso y Jas
alas fueron las variables mns influyentes en los analysis
estad'sticos.


PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND CONSERVATION STATUS
OF SOME WEST INDIAN VIREOS

JoN C. BARLOW
The Center for Biodiversity and Consermnion Biology, Ro'al Ontario Museum tand Department of Zoology,
University of Tortntu, Toront. Ontario, Canada


CuRMi'N'r PHYLOGENETIC STUDIES (Barlow and Peck 1996,
1997) indicate a probable common origin for endemic West
Indian scrub-dwelling vireos (subgenus Vireo) whereas the
origins of species of 1he "more forest loving" species in the
subgenus Vireosylva (i,e., Black-whiskered Vireo [Vireo
Page 103


altitlotquisssp., 6 iaxa], Yucatdn Vireo [Vireornagisterssp.,
2 taxa]j) are not yet completely determined, Where the two
kinds occur together they tend to forage at higher (Vireosyvva)
and lower (Vireo) levels in the canopy effecting a kind of
habitat partitioning reminiscent of ecological relationships
El Pitirre 10(3)








between members of the two subgenera in mainland environ-
ments. Herein I concentrate on West Indian vireosfrom small
islands (e.g., St. Andrews Vireo [V. caribaeus]) where re-
stricted size of the range versus natural and human-intro-
duced threats are critical to survival of the species and to
speculation about the conservation status of vireos in se-
verely degraded environments on large islands (e.g., Fat-
billed Vireo [V. nanuts] population of Hispaniola). A sum-
mary of taxonomic relationships, based on my research and
that of my students, and of behavioral parameters, is also
provided and examined in the light of my varying experience
with each of these taxa. The prognosis for survival of the
seemingly most vulnerable populations of vireos lics largely
in the hands of the resident conservationists of each of these
countries.
RELACIONtES FiLGENIETICAS EL ESTADO DE LA CONStIRVACION
DE ALGUNOS VIREOS DE LAS ANTILLAS. Los studios
filogcn6ticos actuales (Barlow y Peck, 1996 y 1997) indican
un probable origen cortin para los vireas de matorrales
enddmicos de las Ant illas (subgenero Virea) mientras q uc los
orfgenes de las species mis afines al bosque en el subginero


Vireosylva (tales como el Vireo aoltiloquns spp., 6 taxones; V,
imagistler ssp., 2 taxones) afin no se ban determinado
completamente. En las Areas donde ambos tipos ocurren
simulidncamente tienden a alimentarse en niveles mis altos
(Vireosylva) y rnAs bajos (Vireo) del dosel llevando a cabo
u na repartici6n del hAbitat similar a las relaciones ecol6g icas
entire las dos subgdneros en ambientes continentales. En este
trabajo me concentro en Vireos (V. caribaeus) en las Antil as
pequefias donde ]a comparaci6n del tamatio reducido de su
distribucidn a las amenazas naturales y las aladidas por el
hombre son esenciales para la supervivencia de la especie y
acerca de ]a especulaci6n sobre el estado actual de los
esfuerios de conservacidn en ambientes severamentce
degradados en la islas mayors. Un resume del asrelaciones
taxon6micas, basado en parninetros de comportatmiento y en
studios mfos y de mis estudiantes, tambidn se provee y
amolda ala luz de mis distintas experiencias con cada una de
estos taxones. La prognosis para la supervivencia de eslas
poblaciones tan vulnerable de vireos recae grandemente en
las manos de los conservacionistas de cada ano de esios
parses.


POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE WHITE-CREEKED PINTAIL IN PUERTO RICO

G. BONILLA. R. CASTiO, ANt) F. RiVEtA
Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales. DIvisitn de Fcologia Terresire, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00906-6600


IN Tnis STUDY we analyze certain parameters of the popula-
tion dynamics of the White-cheeked Pintail (Anas
bahamensis). The distribution, movements, population esti-
mates, annual survival, and habit use were determined using
various methods, including capture-recapture and radio te-
lemetry. The species is distributed mostly in eastern Puerto
Rico. The population is estimated to consist of 400-500
individuals. A total of 154 individuals were marked. Habitat
use was determined using 10 ducks fitted with radio transmit-
ters, These birds were found in five vegetation communities
in the lagoon in the wildlife refuge at Humacao.


DINAMICA PORLACIONAL DEL, PATO QUUADA COLORADA EN
PuERTo Rico. En este studio se analizan ciertos parAmetros
de la dinimica poblacional del Pato Quijada Colorada (Anas
bahamansis). Su distribucirn, movimiento, estimado
poblacional, sobrevivencia annual y uso del habitat son
deternninados utilizando mntodos tales, como captura-
recapturay telemetria. Esta e speciesestadistribuidaaleste de
Puerto Rico. Su estimado poblacional annual es de 400-500
individuos. Un total de 154 individuos han sido marcados. El
uso del habitat ha sido medido utilizando 10 individuos con
transmisores. Estos han sido encontrados distribuldos en
cinco tipos de formaciin de vegetaci6n en el sisaema de
lagunas del Refugio de Vida Silvestre de Humacao


CONSERVATION AND STATUS OF THE
CAYMAN BRAC PARROT AND WINTERING NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS

FREDERIC 1. BURrON', PAT'l PrIA E. BRADLEY', E. J,. WiLuLL as, AND TREVOR B. BAX'nII
'National Trust for the Cayman islands, P 0., Box 31(16 5MB. Cayman IslandsL, `Gevrgia Partners in Flight, Wildlife Resources
Division. 116 Ram Creek Drive, Fmorsyh, Georgia 31029 USA


BEGINNING AT' 'lE Society of Caribbean Ornithology meet-
ing in the Bahamas in August 1996, representatives of Gear-
giaPartners in Flight (GPIF) began exploring possible devel-
opment of an international partnership with the National
Trust for the Cayman Islands. The partnership, which may


include research, monitoring, education, and outreach through
nature tourism, is intended to foster cooperative bird conser-
vation efforts necessary for both native bird and wintering
neotropical migrants. Following identification of a priority
bird coutservation need for both an endemic species, the


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 104








Cayman Brac Parrot (Arazona leucocephala hesterna), and
numerous neotropical migrants that either nest or migrate
through Georgia. GPIF secured a private grant to accomplish
the triennial parrot census and collect preliminary data on
migrants sharing the woodland habitat of Cayman Brae. The
Cayman Brac Parrot is an endangered endemic subspecies of
the Cuban Parrot, restricted to the 38 kin- island of Cayman
Brae. Studies in 1991-1994 by Burton and Wiley (in prep.)
indicated that approximately 400 A. 1, hesterna survived in
the wild, and that the population was stable in numbers over
thai 3-year period after a lull in historical pressures from nest
robbing and hunting, habitat destruction, and the introduc-
tion ofexotic predators and competitors. A parrot census was
conducted from 7-14 February 1997, when 62 fixed observa-
tion stations, which were originally established throughout
dithe island in 1991, were manned. The network of stations
sample ca. 50% of the land area of Cayman Brae, including
coverage of all major habitat types. Stations were occupied
for approximately 3 hours during both peak morning and
evening activity periods of parrots. Calls and sightings were
correlated between adjacent stations to develop maximum
and minimum count estimates for contiguous areas each
session. The 1997 census showed no significant difference in
abundance in A, I. hesterna since the previous censuses in
1991 and 1994, with the mean population estimate remaining
around 400 birds. The Cayman Brac Parrot is heavily depen-
dent on old growth Dry Evergreen Woodland which covers
much of the Brac's elevated plateau. This habitat is also
critical for a wide range of flora and fauna, including an
abundant neotropical migrant bird influx in winter months,
with at least 12 species observed during the 1997 census. A
recent flurry of road construction and development incen-
tives are cause for concern that renewed deforestation on
Cayman Brae's woodlands may degrade this diverse and rich
habitat, and further threaten the precariously small popula-
Lion of A. 1. hesterna.
EL EsrTAOo V lA CONSERVACI6N DE ArAZOmVA IUwcocEr ALA
MESTENVA Y DE LAS AVES M tGATORIAS NEOTROPICALES. Luego
de la rcunidn anua] de la Sociedad de Ornitologfa del Cadrbe
en Bahamas en agosto de 1996, representantes de Georgia
Partners in Flight (GPIF) empezaron aexplorar ia posibilidad
de desarrollar una cooperaci6n en sociedad con el National


Trust for fdie Cayman Islands. Esta sociedad, que podria
incluir investigaci6n, censos. educaci6n y alcances amplios
a trav6s del ecoturismo, buscaestimularlos esfuerzos para la
conservaci6n de [as avyes tanto nativas como las migratorias
neotropiuales. Luego de identificar las prioridades de
conservaci6n lanto para la Cotorra de Cayman Brae Amna-
zona leucocephala hesterna y las numerosas avesmigratorias
que anidan o que pasan a trav s de Georgia, GPIF obluvo
fondos privados para lograr censos trienales de la cotorra y
lacoleccidnde data preliminarsobre las avesmigratorias que
comparten el habitat boscoso de estacotorra. La cotorra A. L
hesernaw es una subespecie de la cotorra de Cuba rescringida
a los 32 kin' de la isla de Cayman Brac. Estudios por Burton
y Wiley de 1991 al 1994 (en preparaci6n) indican que 400
individuos sobreviven enestado silvestre.en numerosestables
en los tresailos luegode unatreguaen las presioneshistiricas
en los robos de nidos y ia caceria, le destruccidn del habitat
y la introduccidn de competidores y depredadores. Un censo
se l1ev6 a cabo del 7 at 14 de febrero de 1997, tcupando 62
estaciones dcobservaci6n fijaspreestablecidasen todala isla
desde 1991. Esta red de estaciones es capaz de cubrir cerca
de 50% de la isla de Cayman Brae, incluycndo la cobertura
de los tipos de habitat mAs importantes. La estaciones se
ocuparon por 3 horas en los perfodos pico de las actividades
en la mafiana y al atardecer. Los cantos y los avistamientos
fueron correlacionados entire las estaciones adyacentes para
desarrollar un estimado de mdximo y mfnimo para cada
seci6n en dreas contiguas. El censo de 1997 no mostr6 una
diferencia significativa con los censos de 1991 y 1994, con
un estimado promedio de la poblaci6n mantenidndosc
alrededor de los 400individuos. LaCotorra de Cayman Brae
es altamente dependiente del Bosque Seco Siempreverde
que cubre gran parte dela zona alta de Brac, este hMbitat es
crucial tnmbidnparaunaaltagamade floray fauna, inctuyendo
un flujo de aves migratorias neotropicales en los meses de
invierno, con al menos 12 species de avyes observadas en el
censo de 1997. Un reciente frenesf en la construcci6n de
casinos ven los incentives para eldcsarrollo son un motive
de preocupaci6n ya que nuevas presiones causadas por la
deforestaci6n en los bosques del Brac puede degradar este
rico y divers habitat y amenazar ain mis la precaria
poblacidn de ]a Cotorra de Brae.


DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACTS OF HURRICANES ON CARIBBEAN SEABIRDS

J. W. CHADIKNE AND R. D. MoRRiS;
'Canadian Wildlife Senrice, St, Johlm's, Newfovidland. Canadati .Brock Univesity, St. Catharines, Onrario. Canada


'THE PAST FEW VLARS have seen an increase in the frequency
and severity of tropical storms in the Caribbean. In fact the
1995 season was considered the most severe since the 1930s.
In September 1989,just after the breeding season, a category
4 hurricane (Hugo) passed over our Brown Noddy (Anuus
stolidus) study site in the Culebra National Wildlife Refuge,
Puerto Rico. The storm killed both adults and fledglings.
Only 67% of adults alive in 1989 survived to 1990, whereas
survival rates typically exceed 90% per annum at our study
Page 105


site. This change amounted to a tripling of the mortality rate
in 1989 compared to typical years. In addition, only 3% of the
1989 cohort of chicks was recruited into the breeding popu-
lation, compared to 7-13 % in other cohorts. In September
1995, category 4 (Luis) and category 2 (Marilyn) hurricanes
passed by Culebra within a week of each other and, again,
adult survival was reduced in the subsequent year. Despite
reduced survival, colony size did not decline appreciably in
1990 or 1996. which suggests that a pool of birds was
El Pitirre 10(3)








available to enter the breeding population and fill gaps left by
dead birds. Since breeding dispersal of noddies at Culebra is
virtually zero, we assume that new recruits are Fiat-time
breeders. Thus the average age of noddies breeding at the
study site likely declined in 1990 and 1996. The existence of
a pool of young birds capable of breeding if given the
opportunity impacts a buffering capacity to seabird popula-
tions against fluctuations in survival rates as are caused by
hurricanes. Periodic reductions in survival would ac to draw-
down this pool of non-breeders, which would build up
between events through reproduction. Repeated draw-downs
caused by more frequent hurricanes may reduce the size of
the pool to a level at which it can no longer act as an effective
buffer.

LBPACTOS DEMOGRAFICOS 1i LOS HURACANEaS EN LAS Ay'ES
MARINAS DEL CARIBE. En los pasados afios hemos visin un
aumento en la frecuencia y severidad de los huracanes on el
Caribe. De hecho, la temporada de 1995 fue considerada la
mi's several desde 1930. En Septiembre de 1989,justo luego
de la temporadade anidaje, un huracin de categoria4 (Hugo)
paso sobre nuestra drea de studio del Anous sroidus en el
Refugio Nacional de Vida Silvestre do Culebra, en Puerto
Rico. La tonnenta mat6 tanto a los adults como a los
pichones. Solo el 67% delos adultosvivos en 1989sobrevivi6
hasta 1990, cuando las lazas de supervivenciatfpicas exceden
el 90% annual en nuestra Area de studio. Este cambia logr6
triplicarla tazademortalidad comparAndoloaafios anteriores,


Ademas de eso, solo el 3% de los pichones pudieron ser
reclutados a la poblaci6n adult, compardndolo con un 7 ai
13% en otros aios anteriores. En sepliembre de 1995,
huracanes de categorfa 4 (Lufs) y de categorfa 2 (Marilyn)
pasaron por Culebra con solo una semana de diferencia,
reduciendo ]a supervivencia de adults en el aito siguiente. A
pesar de la reducci6n de la supervivencia, el lamafio dc la
colonia no se redujo notablemente en 1990 o 1996, lo que
sugiere que un fondode aves estaba disponible para integrarse
a la poblaci6n reproductive y llenar las brechas dejadas por
las aves muertas, Debido a que la dispersion reproductive de
estas gavioias es practicamente nula, asumimos que los
nuevos reclutas son gaviolas que se habrAn de reproducir por
primer ve.- Por lo tanto la edad promedio de las gaviolas
reproduci6ndose en nuestra Area de studio declined en 1990
y 1996. La existencia de una fuente de aves j6venes con la
capacidad de reproducir si se le da la oporturnidad le imparte
una capacidad arnortiguadora a las poblaciones de ayes
marinas con tra las fluctuacionesen tastazas desupervi vencia
como son las causadas por los huracanes, Las fluctuaciones
periddicas en las tasas de supervivencia actuarfa atrayendo
esta fuentce de aves no reproductoras, la cual se irfa frrn ando
entire events catastr6ficos y temporadas de anidaje. La
repetida recurrencia a asta fuente causada par una mayor
frecuencia de los huracanes puede reducirla en tamafil haNst
un nivel en el cual no pueda actuar mis como amortiguadora
efectiva.


AMAZONA PARROTS IN JAMAICA

HI Ltu-nDAVis AND SusAN KoENING
'Department of Life Sciences, University of West Indies, Mona. Jamaica; and
2School of Forestry & Environmental Sciences, Yale University, Connecticut, USA


IN LIGHT OF THE CURREtNT PRorOSAL to upgrade the Black-
billed Parrot (Amazona agilis) from Appendix 11 to Append ix
I of CITES, efforts are now being made to look more
comprehensively at the distribution and movement of the two
JamaicanAmazona Parrots, particularly in western Jamaica's
karst area. This research is but one component of the Jamaica
Parrot Project, which also includes study of the reproductive
biology of the Black-billed Parrot and Yellow-billed Parrot
(Amazona collaria) in our study area in Windsor Parish,
Trelawny. Both species occur in good numbers in the lime-
stone terrain known as the Cockpit Country, with a imorec or
less patchy distribution for other parts of the island, such as
Lumsden, Worthy Park, and the John Crow Mountains. In
1891 Scott stated that A. agilis was common in the Parish of
Portland. Subsequently, various authors have remarked that
it was becoming more and more rare. By 1976, Lack stated
that "no modem ornithologist has seen it in the John Crow
Mountains." A year after hurricane Gilbert. Varty found A.
agflis only in the Hog House Hill area ofeas.tern Portland, On
the other hand, A. collaria is has generally been reported as
more widespread and the commoner of the two species. Tlis


paper will present information gathered by the Jamaica
Parrot Project on the distribution and movement patterns
observed in the Cockpit Country, and in other parts of the
island. So far, results obtained differ from previous reports,
and they raise more questions than they provide answers.

LAS. CO(YORRAS DEI GENERoA MAzoNA EN JAMAICA. A luz de
la propuesta actual de elevar la cotorra Amazona agillis del
Apendice H1 al Apendice 1 de CITES, en estos moments so
estin Ilevando a cabo esruerzos para entender en form mros
abarcadora la distribuci6n y movimiceto dc la. duo cut urms
del genero Amazona en Jamaica, particularmnente en la zona
kArstica occidental de Jamaica, Este es solo una parte del
Proyecto Cotorrade Jamaica, al mando de por Susan Koening
de la Universidadde Yale. Ellay sus asociados han examine ado
en forma intensive la biologfa reproductive do Amazona
agilis y Amazona collaria, en la localidad de Windsor, on
Trelawny. Ambas species se encuentran bien representadas
en los terrenos do piedra caliza en el Area conocida comno
Cockpit Country, con una distribuci6n desordenada en otras
parties de Ia isla, tales como Lumsden, Worthy Park y las


Page 106


El Pitirre 10(3)








Montailas John Crow. En 1891 Scott asever6 que Aniazona
agilis era comtin en el Condado de Portland. Luego de esto
various autores remarcaron el hecho de que se estaba
convirtilndomis y s raracadavez,iha-staqueen 1976 Lack
asevera que "ningdn ornit61logo modemrno la ha visto en las
Montanias de John Crow." Un afio despuds del huracdn de
1988, Varty colocaa-Anzona agitiscn el ,reade Hog House
Hill en el Area oriental de Portland. Por otro lado,A. coltaria


se report generalmente como siendo Ina ms dispersa y
cnmtin de [as dosespecies. Esietrabajo presentardinformaci5n
coleccionada por el Proyecto Cotorra de Jamaica acerca de la
disLribuci n y patronesde movimientos observados en Cock-
pit Country y en otras parties de la isla. Hasta el moment, los
resultados obtenidos difieren de otrus reports previous.
levantando mais preguntas que las respuestas que provec.


RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT FRAGMENTATION AND BIRD COMMUNITIES IN THE
BUFFER ZONE OF THE BLUE AND JOHN CROW MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK

SUZANN. DaVIS
20 Gloucester Ave., Kingsson 6, Janaica


HABIrTAT FRAGMENTATION in the Rio Grande Valley area of
the Blue and John Crow Mountains National Park (BJCMNP)
buffer zone, has resulted in the conversion of extensive forest
into a patchwork of forest with other types of vegetation.
Agriculture and silviculture have been key factors in the
process of habitat fragmentation. Subsequent changes in
vegetation structure (e.g., tree density; herb, shrub, and
canopy cover) are assessed in this paper and related to the
composition and relative abundance of bird communities.
Recommendations are given for the management of avifauna
in the Rio Grande Valley area of the BJCMNP buffer zone.

RELAFCIONES ENTIRE LA FRAGMENTACI6N DEL HABITAT Y LAS
COMUNIDADES DE AVES EN LAS ZONAS DE A-MIORTIGUAMIENTa


liU PARitrE NATIONAL BLUE V JOHN CROW MOUI tNAS
(BJCMNP). La fragmentaci6n del habitat en las zonas de
amortiguamiento del area del Vallc de Rfo Grande en el
BJCMNP, ha resultado en la conversion de grandes
extensions de terreno boscoso en un mosaico de bosque y
otros ipos de vegetaci6n. La agriculture y la silvicultura han
sido factors claves en cl process de la fragmcntaci6n del
habitat, Los cambios producidus en la structural de la
vegetaci6n (tales como la densidad de arboles, la cubierta de
hierbas, arbustos y dosel. etc.) son discutidos en este studio
y relacionados a la composici6n y abundancia relative de las
comunidades de aves. Se dan tambidn recomendaciones para
el manejo del area del valle de Rfo Grande en la zona de
amuoriguamientu del BJCMNP.


CONTRIBUTION OF THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK TO
AVIAN CONSERVATION IN HISPANIOLA

SIMON GUERREO
Parque Zoovtgico Nacional fZOODOM), San ro Domingo, Repriblica Dominicana


HERE I SUMMARIZE the Hispaniolan bird species represented
in the National Zoological Park, including those species
which Form part of the captive collection and those that live
freely in the natural environment of the park, Also, I will
describe the education and research programs implemented
by ZOODOM for the conservation of the native avifauna.
CONTRIBUCIONTS DEL PARQUET ZOOL6GICO NATIONAL A LA


CONSERVACION DE LAS AVES DE LA HISPANIOLA. Sc reportan
las especics de la avifauna de la Hispaniola representadas en
el Parque Zool6gico Nacional, tanto las que forman pade de
su poblaci6n cautiva, comio las que viven libremente en los
ambientes naturales del parque. Tambidn de described los
programs educativos y de invcstigaci6n que implement el
ZOODOM en pro de la conscrvaci6n de la avifauna native,


CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF STUDIES OF EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS
AMONG SOME CARIBBEAN BIRDS

NEDRA KLEtN
Zoology Deparitent, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706. USA; and Department of Ornithology,
American Museum of Natural History. New York, New York 10024. USA


I STUDmED EVOLUTIONARY relationships among Bananaquits
(Coerehaflaveofa), Yellow Warblers (Dendroica petechia),
and Stripe-headed Tanagers (Spitualis zena) on Caribbean
islands, using mitochondrial DNA sequences and morpheo-
Page 107


logical characters. From the results I infer that the West
Indies has been colonized more than once by Bananraquii
and Yellow Warblers, and some individual islands have been
colonized multiple times by Yellow Warblers. Several island
El Pilirre 10(3)








populations of all three species are both morphologically und
genetically distinct, suggesting a long, independent evolu-
tionary history. They can thus be considered "phylogenelic
species" and worthy of recognition in conservation planning
for the region, I have also studied evolutionary relationships
among paruline warblers, emphasizing the relationships of
Caribbean endemics to the rest of the group. Preliminary
results suggest that the endemic species are genetically very
divergent from the rest of the warblers. Any conservation
strategy plans for the region should take into consideration
the high level of genetic diversity that's contributed by these
Laxa.
LAS IMPLICACIONES PARA LA CONSERVACI6N EN N SESTLUDIOS
om RELACIONES EvoLilrtvAs EN ALGUNAS SPECIES DE Avvs
DEL CAitn;. He estudiado las relaciones evolutivas encre
Coerebaflaveola, Dendroica peiechia y Spindalis zena en las
islas del Caribe usando secuencias del ADN Mitocondrial y


caracteristicas morfol6gicas. De los resultados obtenidos
intiero que las Antillas Occidentales han sido colonizadas en
mas de una ocasidn por Coereba flaveola y Dendroica
petechia y en algunas islas en multiples ocasiones por este
iiltimo, Varias poblaciones islefias de estas species son
distintas tanto gendtica comn morfol6gicamenle, sugiriendo
una historic evolutiva larga e independiente. Estas species
por lo tanto se pueden considerar como "especics
filogendticas"y merecedorasdereconocimientoenlosplianes
de conservaci6n de la region. He estudiado tambinc relaciones
evolutivas entire Pardlidos, haciendo dnfasis las relaciones
entire las species endemicas del Caribe con el resto del
grupo. Los resultados preliminaries sugieren que las species
endemicas son muy divergentes gendticamente del rest de
] asaves canoras. Todos los planes cstratdgicos de conservaci6n
para la region deben tener en cucnta los altos niveles de
variaci6n genrtica que este tax6n contribuye.


A CD-ROM GUIDE TO THE RESIDENT BIRDS OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

NicoLAs Lot.z
Club de observadores de Aves AnnabeUe Dod, Santo Domingo, Repniblica Domrinicana


AN iNTERAcTrI CD-ROM guide ofthe birdsof theDomini-
can Republic was created for educational purposes to be used
by birders, schools, museums, and other interested institu-
tions. This guide contains more than 120 calor photos of birds
resident in the country. Besides a distribution map. descrip-
tions of the birds and habitats are included,
UNA GUfA INTEmRcrivA en CD-ROM de Ins aves residences


en in Reptiblica Dominicana ha sido creada con fines
educatives para ser utilizada por ornitdlogos, aficionados,
escuelas. museos y demds instituciones de interds. Esta gura
cuenta con mis de 120 fotograffas a color de las aves
residences en el pals. ademAs incluye mapas de distribuci6n,
descripci6n del ave y de su habitat.


VALUES OF THE CONVENTION ON WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE

Herbert A, Raffacle
Chief, Office of lntternaional Affairs, U.S. Fish atdl Wildlife Service


THis PRESENTATION WILL OLINE the values of the Conven-
tion on Wetlands of International Importance (Ramsar Con-
vention) as it relates to the Caribbean. It will also describe
Wetlands for the Future, a small grants initiative supporting
on-the-ground conservation activities in wetlands of Ramsar
party nations. The potential benefits of Wetlands for the
Future to the Society of Caribbean Ornithology will be
explored.

EL VALORk 1I LA CONVENCI'N SOBRE ANEGAUOS [IE


IMPORTANCIA INTERNACIONAI. Esta presentacidn subrayard la
importancia de la Convenci6n Sobre Anegados cte ImpDrtancia
Internacional ( a Convenci6n de Ranisar) segin se relaciona
al Caribe, Tambidn descrihird la iniciativa de pequefias
ayudas financieras conocida como Anegados Para el Fu turo,
que ayuda las actividades de conservaci6n "in situ" en [os
anegados de las naciones participants del grupo de Ramsar.
Los beneficios potenciales del program Anrgadv s Para el
Futuro para la Sociedad de Omitologfa Caribheia serdn
explorados.


UPDATE ON WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK CONSERVATION

LIA G.- SORENsON
Muxre mr of Zoology/Bird Dio4sion. Unioiersiy cf Michigan. Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1079, USA


THE WEST IND AN W ]isTrLNG-DUcK (Dendrocygna arborea),
a non-migratory species endemic to the West Indies, has
experienced a drastic decline throughout its range in recent
ElPitirre 10(3)


years due to excessive hunting, destruction of wetland habi-
(at, and the introduction of predators. Following discussions
at a workshop on the West Indian Whistling-Duck at the

Page 108









Society of Caribbean Ornithology (SCO) annual meeting in
Nassau, August 1996, the West Indian Whistling-Duck
Working Group (WIWD-WG) was formed to initiate a
regional conservation program to reverse this decline. I
report on progress made by the group during the past year.
First, an action plan summarizing this species' status, threats
to its continued survival, and conservation needs has been
completed by Nancy Sinaus. This document will be available
for review by meeting attendees for final comment before
publication. Second, several grant proposals have been sub-
mitted for funding of two objectives of the group: (1) initiation
of a public education and awareness program in six Carib-
bean countries on the decline and threatened status of the
West Indian Whistling-Duck, and (2) survey of West Indian
Whistling-Duck population levels and habitat use, and in itia-
tion of a long-term monitoring program of West Indian
Whistling-Ducks. To date, we have been awarded funding
from two agencies: the U.S-Fish and Wildlife Service West-
ern Hemisphere Program and Conservation Intentional
($30,000 total). In addition, we have obtained commitments
from SCO WIWD-WG members, natural resource agency
personnel, schoolteachers, and local volunteers on each is-
land to donate their time and resources to the successful
completion of this project We are currently working on the
education program's slide show on the West Indian Whis-
tling-Duck and importance of wetland conservation and are
gathering materials and developing the education program
for schoolchildren. During the present meeting, we will meet
to review the slide show and coordinate plans for the project
for the coming year,

LA INoURMAC6ON MAs R clN'IFS ACERCA DEL PROYrCTOo
PARA LA CONSERVACI6N DEL DENDROCYGN A ARBOREA. El pato
Dendrocygna arborea. una especie enddmica no migratoria
de las Antillas, ha experimentado una drdstica merma en los
tiltimos afios en todo su territorio debido al exceso dc cua. la


destruccidn de su habitat de anegados y La introducci6n de
depredadores. Luego de una discusi6n sobre esta especie en
un taller en la reunion annual de la Sociedad de Ornitologla del
Caribe Ilevada a cabo en Nassau en agosto de 1996, sc form
el Grupo de Trabajo del Dendrocygna arborea, (WTWD-
WG, por sus siglas en inglds) con la idea dc formarprogramas
regionales deconservaci6n pararevertireste decline. Dare un
in Forme sobre el progress hecho por este grupo en el pasado
aiLo, Primero, un plan de acci6n resumiendo el estado general
de la especie, las amenazas para su continue supervivencia y
sus necesidades de conservaci6n ya ha sido completado per
Nancy Staus. Este docum ento estara disponible para r vis i6n
de los presents para los comentarios finales antes de su
publicaci6n. En segundo lugar, varias propuestas para la
obte nc i6n de fondos ya han sido sometidas para solve ntar los
dos objetivos del Grupo: (1) la iniciaci6n de un program de
concientizacidn y educaci6n en seis pauses del Caribe acerca
del decline y la amenazaexistenLc sobre esta ave; y (2) census
de los niveles poblacionales y uso del habitat de estaespecie,
ademas de Lainiciaci6n de un programade monitoreo a largo
plazo del D. arborea, Al dfa de hoy, se nos han concedido
fondos dedosagencias: del Programa Hemisferio Occidental
del Servicio de Pesca y Vida Silvestre de los EE. UU. y de
Conservation International ($30,000). AdemAs, hemos
obtenido el compromise de miembros del WIWD-WG y de
la Sociedad, del personal de las agencies de maneju de
recursos naturales, maestrosde escuela y voluntaries locales
en cada isla para que done tiempo y recursos para completar
exitosamente este proyecto. En este moment estamos
trabajando en las diapositivas de un program educational
del ave y de la importancia de la conservaci6n de los
humedales, a la vez que esiamos recolectando materials y
desarrollandoun programaeducacionat paranifiosdeescuela.
Durantce esta reunion, nos reuniremos para revisar la
presentaci6n en diapositivas y para coordinar planes para el
pr6ximo ailo en el proyecto


PREPARATION AND PRODUCTION OF EDUCATION MATERIALS FOR
AVIAN CONSERVATION IN THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

E. VA7zQUE, K. WVALl C.;, AND R. LoREN-Zo
Grupo Ecologisra Tinglar, Sanm Donringo, Repdibica Dominicana


WE DESCRIBE THE STAGES involved in the creation and
production of education materials for the conservation of
birds. The creation of the materials involves the community
(or groups likely to be impacted) in an initial stage to
determine the appropriate themes to be included in the
education materials. Finally, the initial community partici-
pants are actively involved in the education effort to increase
the effectiveness of conservation education in the comniu-
nity.


CO 'rICCION V PRODUICCION DE NLATERIALEs EDUCATIVOS
IPA.A LA CON. SRVACI6N in) LA Avr.-.wuNA, Grupo Ecologista
Tinglar, Santo Domingo, Repuibica Dominicana. Se describe n
]as rases para 1 a creaci6n y produccidn de materi ales educativos
relatives a la conservaci6n de la avifauna; creacion que
include participaci6n de las comunidades o dc los grupas a
impactar, inici almente en unn fase de investigaci6n c ualitati va
relative a los temans que se tratan en el material. Finalmente,
los participanies quedan integrados como Multiplicadores
Educativos Comunitarios.


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 109








CONTROL OF THE SHINY COWBIRD (MOLOTIHRUS BONARIENSIS): CAN IT IMPROVE THE
REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS OF RARE OR ENDANGERED SPECIES? THE CASE OF THE
YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD (AGELAIUS XANTHOMUS) IN PUERTO RICO

E. A. VENTOSA-FIBLtsm, R. L6PEZ, J. CAMACHO Y A. FALCON
Departarirento de Recurcos Nartrfires y Amnbienotaes. Box 491, Boquerdn. Puerto Rico 00622


THE P'AkrASJrtC SHINY COWBIRD (Molothins bsnuriensis) was
originally restricted to South America and Trinidad. During
the last 97 years, this species has expanded its range into the
Caribbean and the southeastern portion of the continental
United States. As a nest parasite, the cowbird adversely
affects its host by reducing the host's reproductive success.
Since the beginning of the cowbird control program in
southwestern Puerto Rico, the population of this brood para-
site has shown a substantial reduction in population (2.255 in
1985 vs. 107 in 1997). Also, we have found a considerable
reduction in the proportion of Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
(Agelaiusxanthomus) nests which have been parasitized by
cowbirds (94% in 1975-1982 vs 0% in 1996) and an increase
in the number of successful blackbird nests (13 in 1985 vs.
167 in 1996). We present a complete methodology to initiate
a control program for the cowbird, including materials for
traps, costs, and location for the control effort.

LA CAPTURADELTORDO LusTROSo (MotmITss no,NARImEis):
LPURED. MEJORAR EL EXITO REPRODUCTIVo DE EsrECIws


RARAS 0 EN PELIGRODE EXTINCI6N? EL CAsot m LA MA RIQU ITA
tI PUERTo Rico (AGEL.U'S XAL4THOMUs). El ave parasitica
Tordo Lustroso (Molothrus bonariensis) se encontraba
originalmence restringida a SurAm6ricay Trinidad. Durance
los tiltimos 97 anfos, esta ave ha expandido su terriorio en Ia
region del Caribe y laparte este de los EE. UU. El parasitismo
del Tordo afecta adversamence al hospedero, reduciendo
grandemente su dxito reproductive. Desde que comenz6 el
program de control del Tordo, en el sudoeste de Puerto Ric o,
las poblaciones del tordo han demostrado una reduccidn
significativa en los conteos poblacionales realizados (2.255
en 1985 vs. 107 en 1997. Tambidn se ha encontradn una
reducci6n sign fincativa en el porcentaje de nidos de Mariquita
(Agelaius xanthomus) parasitados por el Tordo (94% entire
1975-1982 vs, 0% en 1996) y un aumento en el nimero do
nidos exitosos en laMariquita (13 en 1985 vs. 167 en 1996).
Sepresentaunacompletametodologfaparalarealizaei6n del
program del control del Tordo, incluyendo materials de Ias
trampas, costo, localidades y esfuerzo, entire otros.


RESTORATION AND HABITAT MANAGEMENT AT THE HUMACAO WILDLIFE REFUGE.
PHASE 1: HABITAT ASSESSMENTS AND WETLAND MANAGEMENT PLAN

FRANCISCO J. VItIt.- AND MATTHEW J. GRAY
Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Wildlife and Fisheries. Mississippi State University, USA


THI: HUMACAO WILDuFE REFUGE (HWR) in eastern Puerto
Rico includes estuarine lagoons, herbaceous and forested
wetlands, coastal forest, and beach scrub. The Puerto Rico
Department ofNatural and Environmental Resources (DNER)
has jurisdiction over HWR, and is currently interested in
implementing wetland management practices. We quantita-
tively assessed HWR habitats by measuring vegetation.
censused vertebrate communities, and evaluated water chem-
istry in herbaceous marsh, Prerocarpus and mangrove wet-
lands, coastal forest, beach scrub, and six open-water la-
goons. Geo-referenced spatial coverage of HWR vegetation
types were generated using G IS analysis. Animal community
complexity and species occurrence were typically related to
microhabitat (vegetation, water) characteristics and land-
scape diversity. Vertebrate and insect abundance were great-
est (P < 0.05) in coastal forest, and insect diversity was
greatest (P < 0,03) in Pterocarpus forest. In lagoons, bird
abundance and diversity were greatest (P< 0.05) in Mandri
1. Greatest occurrence of breeding waterfowl was in Palmas
and Santa Teresa 2 (P < 0,05). Our results indicate Mandri 2
and Santa Teresa 1 were the best locations for herbaceous
wetland and waterfowl management. We recommend con-


servation of pristine (mangrove, Pterocarpus) and restorable
(coastal forest, beach scrub) habitats at HWR. We propose
two projects in our HWR Wetland Management Plan for
breeding and wintering waterfowl. Vegetative productivity
and waterbird use is maximized by fluctuating water levels
and performing mechanical manipulations in herbaceous
wetlands. We suggest excavation of levees and installation of
water control structures in Mandri 2 and Santa Teresa I. In
addition, essential wetland management (e.g., portable hy-
draulic pump, agricultural disk) and leveen maintenance (e.g.,
side-mounted mower, backhoe loader) equipment needs to
be avai able at 1-WR. Phase II of the plan will involve initial
surveying work and drafting engineering plans, as well as
securing all necessary agency permits and initial on-site
construction.

RESTALrRACI6N Y IANJO DEL HABITAT EN EL REFUGIO DE
VmA SILVESTRE DE HUMACAO. FASE 1: EVALUACI6N TEL
IHAflJTAT V PLAN DE MANEJO DE HUMEIDALEs. El Refugio de
Vida Silvestre de Humacao esta localizado al sudeste de
Puerto Rico e inclyc lagun as estuarinas, humedales herb6ceos
y hoscosos. bosques costaneros y matorrales de playas. El


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 110








Departamentode Recursos Naturalesy AmbientalesdePueno
Rico tienejurisdiccidn sobre esterefugio y esta interesadoen
ta implantaci6n deprdicticas de manejodehumedales. Hemos
evaluado cuantitativamente los distintos habitats del refugio
midiendo la vegetaci6n, realizando un conso de las
comunidades de vertebrados y un anilisis qufmico de la
composici6n del agua en los panianos herbaceos, anegados
de mangle y de Pterocarpus. bosques costeros, matorramls
playcros y en 6 lagunas. Coberturas espaciales
georeferenciadas con los distintos lipos dc vegetacidn del
basque se generaron usando GIS. La complejidad del la
comunidad animal y la ocurrencia de species estaban
tfpicamente relacionadasa lascaracterfsticasdel microhabitat
(vegetacidn, agua) y a ladiversidad del paisaje. La abundancia
de insects y de vertebrados fue mayor (P>0.05) en el bosque
costero y la diversidad de insects fue mayor (P>0.03) en el
bosque de Pterocarpus. En las laguna, la abundancia y
diversidad de aves fue mayor en Mandri 1 (P>0.05). La
mayor ocurrencia de aves acuAticas en reproducci6nse dioen
las lagunas de Palmas y Santa Teresa 2 (P>0.05). Nuestros


resultados indican que las lagunas Santa Teresa I y Mandri 2
fueron las rnejores locali-aciones para el manejode anegados
herbAceos ydeavesacuiticas. Recomendamos laconservacidn
de los habitats intactos (mangle, Pierocarpus) y de los
restaurables (bosque costero. matorral player) en el Refugio
de Vida Silvestre de Humacao. Proponemos dos proyectos
para las aves acuiticas reproducidndose y las quo inviernan
en nuesLtr Plan Para el Manejo de Anegados en el Refugic.
La productividad vegetal y su uso por las aves aculiticas se
maximize mediante la fluctuaci6n de los niveles de ag ua y las
manipulaciones mecinicas en los humedales herbAceos.
Sugerimos la excavaci6n de can ales y estrucluras de control
de agua en Mandri 2 y en Santa Teresa I. Ademls, equipo
esenci al para el manejo de los humedales (por ejem., born bas
hidriulicas portitiles) y para el mamenimientode las canales
(cortadoras manuals portitiles, perforadoras)debe de star
disponible en todo moment en el refugio. La Fase II del plan
envolverd los trabajos de mensura y los planes pre liminares
de ingenierfa, la obtenci6n de los permisos pertinentes de
todas las agendas y la construcci6n inicial en el sitio.


ARE HURRICANES A KEY FACTOR FOR THE ECOLOGY OF THE GUADELOUPE WOODPECKER?

PASCAL V [LLARD
Association pour I'Etude et in protection des Vertebras des petites Antilles (AEVA), c/o Barre.
Bel Air Desroderes. 97170 Petit Bourg, Guadeloupe. French Antilles


INTHE LESSERANrTILLE, Guadeloupe (including Bass-Terre
and Grande-Terre) is the only island with a sedentary wood-
pecker (Melanerpes herminier). In the West Indies four
other endemic species of Melanerpes inhabit the Greater
Antilles. In the Lesser Antilles, a hurricane with winds > 118
km/h has been recorded on average every 2 years since 1886.
From 1885 to 1995 (110 years), centers of 32 hurricanes
passed closer than 180 km of Guadeloupe (one every 3.4
years). Because of the small size of the island, the population
of the Guadeloupe Woodpecker is more likely to be affected
by close-passing hurricanes than would be woodpecker spe-
cies on larger islands. Hurricanes can affect the ecology of the
woodpecker in several ways, including: (1) proximate ef-
fecis-high mortality of fledglings, and (2) ultimate ef-
fects-end of breeding season in August. No helpers? -
Almost no use of living coconut trees compared to dead ones?
Hurricanes seems to be molding the biology and ecology of
the Guadeloupe Woodpecker.
SON LOS HuIRACANEs UN FACTOR CLAVE PARA EXPLICAR LA
ECOLOG(A MDL CARPINTERO DE GUADALOLTE? En las Antillas
Menores. el archipidlago de Guadaloupe (incluyendo Basse-
Terrey Grande-Terre) son las tinicas con un pijaroc arpintero
sedentario (Melanerpes hennrminien). En el Caribe, oras 4
species de Melanerpes endnmicos habitan las Antillas
Mayores. Cada dos aiios desde 1886. se ha registrado un
hurac aeon vientos > de 118 kn/h. Desde 1885 al 1995 (110
afias) el centre do 32 huracanes pasaron dentro de un radio de
180 krrn de Guadaloupe. uno cada 3.4 arios. Debido a] tamalao
reducido de la isla, la poblaci6n del Carpi nte rode Guadal oupe
Page 111


tiende a ser mAs afectada por los huracanes que si estuviera
en islas mayors, LC6mo es possible que los huracane s tengan
un efecto en Ia ecologfa del carpintero? Comoa efecto inmediaLo,
una altamortalidad en los pichones, Como efectos posteriores,
un finaltemprano deo a ltemporadadereproduccidnen agosto;
Ia eliminacidin de los ayudantes del nido; un uso mifnimo de
palmas de cocos vivas comparadas a las muertas. Los
huracanes aparentan star muldeando la biologia y ecologfa
del Carpintero de Guadaloupe.
LESCYCLONES SONT ILS UN FAcEL-R CLE POUREXPLIQUER
L'ECOLOGEM D Pic DE LA GULADnFLOUP. Dans les Petites
Antilles, la Guadeloupe (Basse-Terre et Grande-Terre) sont
les seules iles avec une espece sedentaire de pic (Melanerpes
herminieri). Dans les Caraibes, quatre autres especes
endnmiqucs de Melanerpes se Irouvent dans les Grandes
Antilles. Dans les Pelites Antilles, depuis 1886, chaque 2
anndes, un cyclone avecdes vents> 118 km/h cLaitenregistrd.
De 1885 4 1995 (110 annres), 32 cyclones sont passes avec
I'oeil i mnoins de I 0 km/h de Ia Guadeloupe (soit un chaque
3,4 annfes). Du fait de la faible taille de I'lc, les populations
du Pic dc la Guadeloupe sont plus susceptibles d'etre affecteds
que sur une grande ile. Comment les cyclones peuvent ils
avoiruneaction sur 'ecologie du pic? EtTect direct: Mortalit
6levte des jeunes qui ont quiltt Ic nid. Effect h long terrne: -
La fin de la saison de reproduction en aoOc. Pas d'aides a [a
reproduction?- Quasirnent pas d'utilisation des cncooiers
vivants cornpards & ceux qui sont maorts? La biologic et
I'dcologie du Pic de la Guadeloupe sont done ifflue nodes par
ks cyclones.
E1P Fitirre 10(3)








THE THICK-BILLED VIREO: A CONSERVATION PERSPECTIVE FOR A WEST INDIES ENDEMIC


MARLENE WALKER
The Center for Biodiversity and Conservation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum,
and the Departient of Zonlogy. Univrity of TornUo, Toronio, Canada


THE PRESENT INVESTIGATION of conservation issues for the
sedentary, endemic Thick-billed Vireo(Virev crassirostris)
of the West Indies, is part of an ongoing study of the
magnitude of inter-island genetic and vocal variation for the
species. Its unique distribution, primarily in the Bahamas and
the Cayman Islands, is bisected by the Cuban land mass
barrier on which a relic population may exist. This species,
which exhibits a high degree of song plasticity within an
individual as well as among and between populations, has the
most highly fragmented 'megapopulation' in the subgenus
Vireo in the region. Increasingly the small islands which it
inhabits are being subjected to anthropogenic fragmentation.
superimposed on the natural patchiness of the islands. This
fact. combined with stochastic ones, including catastrophes,
can spell disaster for thespecies. Multiplicative consequences
of fragmentation on islands requires a model that demon-
strates the potential loss of diversity. The Embedded Model
of Island Fragmentation predicts that when islands habitats
are embedded within a true island, dire consequences may
result; neither thie problems of habitat fragmentation nor the
isolation of small islands alone have the same degree of
importance. When we consider the impact of hurricanes with
anthropogenic fragmentation, the relationship strengthens in
magnitude. The Thick-billed Virco is well adapted for persi s-
tence in the aftermath of hurricanes, but not for increased
anthropogenic habitat loss. destruction, and fragmentation.
Although not currently endangered, increased anthropogenic
impact and the demise of other West Indian songbirds sug-
gest that active conservation planning for the protection of
the scrub habitat on which the Thick-billed Vireo and other
scrub-dwelling insular avifauna depend would be valuable.
EL ViREO CRASSIROSTRIS: UNA PERSPE CTIV'A
CONSERVACIONISTA PARA UNA EFPECIE ENDEInCcA DE LAS


ANTaLLAs. Esta present investigacidn acerca de distintos
asuntos de la conservaci6n del sedentario y cnd&mico Vireo
crasirostris cs part de un studio que se esta llevando a cabo
sobre la variaci6n vocal entire islas para esta especie. -La
distribucidn unica del Vireo crassiroszris, primordialmencte
en las Bahamas y las Islas Cayman, es bisecada por la barrera
delamasa de tierra de Cuba, en done una poblaci6n vestigial
pudiera existir. Esta especie, que exhibe una gran plasticidad
en los cantos delos individuos, comoentre poblaciones, ciene
lamis altamente fragmentada megapoblacin en el subgrnero
Vireo en la region. Las pequeitas islas en que habita estis
siendo sujetas a una acelerada fragmentaci6n antropoginica,
superpuesta a la fragementaci6n natural de las islas. Estos
factors, combintados con los estocsticos, incluyendo los
huracanes, pueden representar serious problems para esta y
otras species end6micas de las islas. Las consecuencias
multiplicativas de la fragmentaci6n de las islas require de un
modclocapaz dedemostrarlaperdidapotencial de diversidad,
E[ ModelodeFragmentaci6n de Islaspredice quecuando una
isla de habitat esti incrustada dentro de una isla real, pueden
dar como resultado consecuencias fatales, que ni la
fragmentaci6n del hAbitat, ni el aislamientode laisla, pueden
tener por sf mismas. Cuando consideramos el impact delos
huracanes con la fragmentaci6n antropogdnica, sc fortalece
esa relaci6n en magnitud. La especie esta bien adaptada para
su persistencia luego del impact de un huracln, pero no para
acclerada una pdrdida, destruccidn y fragmentaci6n
antropog5nica del hAbitat. Aunque hoy por hoy no esta
amenazada, el constant impact antropoginico y el decline
en otras aves canoras antillanas sugiere que una planilicaci6n
para la conservaci6n y protecci6n del habitat del matorral del
que el Viren crassirostris y otra avifauna insular dependent
sern muy valiosa,


IMPLICATIONS OF INTRODUCED PREDATORS AND PARASITES FOR THE
PUERTO RICAN VIREO IN GUANICA FOREST, PUERTO RICO

BETHANY L. WOORWURTh
Biological Resources Division, USGS. Pacific Island; Ecosystems Research Center. Hawaii National Park, Hawaii 96718, USA


THE PUETro RtCAN VIREO ( Vireo latimeri is a single-island
endemic songbird which is declining in Gudnica Forest
Reserve, Puerto Rico. During 1990- 1993, I1 color-marked 88
birds and located 156 nests. This research showed that the
primary causes of reproductive failure in this population are
brood parasitism by the introduced Shiny Cowbird(Molothrus
bonariensis; 73-83% of nests parasitized), and nest predation
by native and introduced predators (80% of active nests
depredated). As a result, daily nest survival rate was only 0.93
( 0.01), and only 5% of nests fledged viree young. Females
El Pitirre 10(3)


re-nested after failure and attempted two to six nests per
season, fledgling on average 0.24-1,33 vireos per season.
Adult and juvenile survival rates were relatively high (74 and
40%, respectively). To determine the implications of these
demographic data for population persistence of the vireo, I
used a model of seasonal fecundity (Pease and Grzybowski
1995) combined with a stage-based matrix model. This
approach is widely applicable to songbirds, and allowed the
explicit examination of the relative contributions orfparasit-
ism, predation, and survival rates to population persistence,
Page 112








and the quantitative assessment of ahernative management
options.
LAS IMPLICACIONESDELA LNTROeDUCCI6N DE DEPREDADOIkPS
V ui PARASITOS PARA EL VIREO LATIMERI EN EL BOSQUE DE
GUANICA, Puerto Rico, El Vireo fatimeri es un ave canora
enddmica la cual esta declinandoen la reserve del Bosque de
GuAnica, Puerto Rico. Durante 1990-93 marqud con anillas
de colors 88 aves y localic6 156nidos, Estc estudiodemostr6n
que las causes principles del fracaso reproductive en esta
poblaci6n son el parasitismo de nidos por el Moloithrus
bonariensis (73-83% de los nidos parasitados) y la dcpredaLidn
de los nidos por depredadores introducidos o nativos (80% de
los nidos activos depredados). Como resultado, la taza de
supervivencia diaria del nido fue de solo cl 0.93 ( 0.01) y


solo el 5 % de los nidos produjeron pichones del ave. Las
hembras volvieron a anidar luego del fracaso intentando de
dos a scts nidadas por temporada, produciendo un promcdio
de 0.24 a 1.33 pichones por iemporada. La supervivencia
adults y de juveniles fue relativamente alta (74 y 40%
respectivamenta). Para determinar las implicacionesde estans
datos demogrdificos para la persistencia poblacional del ave,
use un modelode fecundidad temporal (Pea-se y Gryhbowsky
1995) combinado un modulo do matrices "stage-based," Este
modelo es cdmodamente aplicable a las aves canoras y
permit e xaminar explfcitamente las contribuciones relatives
del parasitismo, depredacidn y tasas de supervivencia a la
pers istencia poblacional, permitiendoa la vez una evaluacidn
cuantitativa de varias opciones de manejo.


THE TIMING OF THE BREEDING SEASON IN THE BANANA QUIT (COEREBA FLAVEOLA)
ON THE ISLAND OF GRENADA, WEST INDIES

J. M. WUNDERLE
Inernasional Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Senrvice, P.O. Box 490. Palmer. Puerto Rico 00721


CARInUREAN BIRD SPECIES display considerable variation in
the timing of their breeding seasons, which are assumed to
coincide with maximum availability of Food for egg produc-
tion and/or rearing of nestlings. However, few studies in the
Caribbean have tested this hypothesis, despite its importance
for understanding avian breeding seasons and potential con-
servation value in some species. Here I describe a study in
which I compare die consequences of early versus late
breeding in the Bananaquit (Coerebaflaveola) in an effort to
identify the selective pressures that seasonally adjust its
reproductive period in a seasonally dry forest on Grenada.
Initiation of Bananaquit breeding is synchronized with the
earliest rains of the wet season. In the course of the five-
month (March-August) breeding season, clutch sizes in-
crease, weights of nestlings increase, nest predation rates
increase, and nestling deaths due to starvation decrease.
Fledgling success decreases as the breeding season proceeds,
reflecting the increased predation rates. Although early breed-
ers may be food stressed, late breeders face high nest preda-
tion probabilities. Thus the timing of Bananaquit breeding i n
this dry forest is seen as a balance between increasing food
availability and increasing nest predation.
CRONOLOGIA DE LA TEMPORADA DE REPRODUCCI6N DE LA
COERAsA FLAVEOLA EN LA ISLA DE GRANAtA, ANTILLAS
MNENOR.s. Las aves del Canbe tienen much variaci6n on los
pe rodos reproductivos, to que so asume es una coordinaci6n
con ta mximadisponibilidadde alimentos para laproduccidn


de huevos y/o pichones. Sin embargo, habfan muy pocos
studios que probaran esta hip6tesis en el Caribe, a pusar de
su importancia para engender el calendario reproductive y su
valor potential para la conservaci6n de algunas species.
Aquidescribounestudioendonde compare las con secuencias
dela reproducci6n en elprimera pane de laepoca reproductive
con [a ,ltima part en la Reinita (Coereba flaveola), El
objetivo del studio fue la identificacidn de las fuerzas
selectivas que determinan el calendario reproductive en un
bosque seco en la isla de Grenada. El inicio del period
reproductive de laReinitaesiA sincronizado con el comienzo
de Ia 6poca de lluvias. A lo largo de los cinco meses que dura
die ho period (Marzo-Agosto) se observa un incremento en
cl tamafio de la nidada, en el peso de los pichones y en los
Indices de depredaci6n en cl nido;, la proporcidn de polls
mucrtos debido a insuficiente allimento decrece durante este
mismo period. La probabilidad de supervivencia de los
pichones disminuye conform avanza ta tpoca de
reproducci6n, reflejando un incremento en los indices de
depredaci6n. Las primeras parejas en anidar suelen estar
expuestas a fuentes insuficientes de alimento, las aves que sc
reproduce posteriormente afrontan incrementos en la
prohabilidad de perdida de huevos y pollos en el nido. El
calendario reproductive de estaespecie es interpretado como
el resultado de un compromise entire el acceso a una fuente
mayor de alimentos power un lado, y la exposici6n a un fndice
creciente de depredacidn en le nido en el otro.


HUMAN INTERACTIONS WITH SEABIRDS IN THE CARIBBEAN

ANN M. HAYNs-SurroN
Marshall's Pen, P. 0- Box 58, Mandeville, Jamaica


THE rISTORY OF THE USE ofseabirds in the Caribbean is as
long as the history of human settlement. The scale and extent
Page 113


of the uses of seabirds in the Caribbean has never been
documented. Seabirds and their products have been used as
El Pitirre 10(3)








subsistence and luxury foods, aphrodisiacs, fishing bait, fuel, and their habitat. The collection of eggs. especially tern eggs,
Fertilizer. and medicine. Seabirds have been killed for sport is probably the most widespread and detrimental of all
and predator control, and fishermen depend on them for interactions. Studies in Jamaica suggest that egg harvesting
navigation and finding fish. A few colonies are impurtanr for contributed to a catastrophic decline in tern populations,
tourism or research. Human activities, including coastal Habitatprotectionandcontrolledexploitation reamongthe
development, pollution, and fishing, may impact seabirds options for the future.


GREMIOS TROFICOS DE LAS COMUNIDADES DE AVES RESIDENTS Y
MIGRATORIAS EN DIFERENTES LOCALIDADES DE CUBA

HRAmt GoNzALEz ALONSO
Musea Nacional de Hisioria Natural La Habana, Cuba


SE BICARON TODAS las especies de aves de las 15 local idades
cstudiadas dentro de las 17 categories de gremios tr6ficos
propuestas por cl author. Sc determine que el mayor nfimero
deespecies ylos mayores valores de abundanciacorresponden


alas species clasificadas como insectivoros de follaje y los
insectfvoros-frugivoros de follaje, tanto en la residencia
invernalcomoen lamigraci6n otofial. Se analianilos factors
que incident en estos resultados.


AREAS DE IMPORTANCIA PARA LA REPRODUCCION DE SPECIES
MARINAS COLONIALES (CHARADRUFORMES) EN CUBA

PioaRO BLANCO RoDRJGUEZ, BARBARA SANCHEZ Y A. HERNANDEZ
Institute de Ecologia y Sistemdrica, CITfIA, La Habana, Cuba


SE OFRECE IN]OR.MACION grifica acerca de la distribuci6n de
las principles colonies de nidificacidn de aves marinas del
orden Charadriiformes que se conocen hasta la fecha en Cuba
correspondientes a 8 species, entire las que figuran: Lorus


atricilla, Sten nmaximta.Sterna sandvicensis, Sterna dougaclii
y Anous stolidus, cntre otras. Sehace referencia ademis a la
existencia de otras areas de interCs para la nidificaci6n
colonial de estas species en base a observasiones de campo,


AREAS DE LMPORTANCIA REGIONAL PARA LAS AVES DEL ORDEN CHARADRUFORMES EN CUBA

PEDRO BLANCo Rouli cuTz
Instituto de Ecologia y Sisienewtfica, CITMA, La Hlabana. Cuba


SE LEXPONE LA PROYECCION general y re sultados preliminares
de un proyecto de investigaci6n national dirigido al studio
y evaluaci6n de las comunidades de residents y migratoria!s
del orden Charadriiformes, desarrollado durante el period
de 1989-1997. en Cuba. La informnaci6n que se ofrece selogra
a partir del desarrollo, anilisis e integraci6n de diFerentes
temiticas entire las que figuran: la recuperacidn de anillas
extranjeras en Cuba desde 1925, la consult del material de
colecciones depositado en varias infituciones cientiFicas del
pu|i y evaluacion y monitoreos de campo, entire otras


activ idades. Para una mejor interpretacidn de la informal id n,
los resultados se muestran de forma grfica a trav6s de mapas,
fotos y figurasreflejandodatos indditosacercadelaubicaci6n
de las areas de mayorimportancia para el arribo y pc rmanenci a
de avyes nearticas migratorias del orden Charadriiformesen el
Archipidlagocubano, sitios de nidificacidn de gran valorpara
espccics de este orden incluyendo aves marinas cokonialcs,
asi como sitios de invierno frecuentados por una especie en
peligro de extinci6n.


AREAS DE INVLERNO DEL FRAILECILLO SILBADOR EN CUBA

PEiKO BLANCO RoDRIGUEZ
Institiao de Ecologia y Sistemidrica. CITMA. La Habana. CJuba


SE LXPONE LNFORMACT6N acerca de 23 registros del Fr-aileui [o
Silbador(Charadrius melodus) obtenidos en 14 regions del
territorio cubano durante el period 1965-1996. Se ofrece a
El Pitirre 10(3)


trav6s de un mapa la ubicaci6n de las areas de invierno que
son utilizadas por la especie durante la migraci6n y screflejan
adenims algunos comentarios do interns acerca de la
Page 114








importancia del Archipielago cubano como sitio invernal de importancia para esta especie en cl irea del Car hbe.

COMPOSICION Y ABUNDANCIA DE LA AVIFAUNA EN DOS FORMACIONES VEGETABLES
DE LA ALTIPLANICIE DE NIPE, HOLGUIN, CUBA

BARBARA SANCHI.t, RAMONA OvniaDo1, NiLS NAVARROM ARTURO HERNANDEZ', CARLOS PERA2 Y ERNESTo REYESn
'hrstixuro de Ecologia y Sistemiciica, CITMA, La Habana. Cuba; Muaseo de Ciencias Naturales "Carlos de la Torre Huertao," Hogtn.
Cuba; y 3Eslacion Ecoligica de Mayarn CITMA, Mayari, Cuba


SE DETERMENi LA COMPOSiciON y abundancia de las aves en
dos formaciones vegetables (Piiar y Charrascal) a trav6s de los
mtinodos de capture con redes ornitol6gicas y de conteos de
parcelas circulates en la Altiplanicie de Nipe, Holgufn. Los
muestreos seefecturarondel 14 a] 22 de octubre de 1996y dcl
19 de enern al 3 de febrero de 1997, correspondiendo con los
periods de migraci6n tofial y residencia inverna] de las
aves migratorias. En total se detectaron en cI area 13 espceies
nmigraorias y 19 residents permanentes. Los mayores valores
de abundancia relative y tasa de capture correspondieron a la


vegetacidn de Charrascal, en ambos perfodos analizados.
Algunas species migratorias como Dendroica tigrina,
Serophaga ruricilla, Helmitheros vertnivorus, Parula
americana y Sphyrapicus various permancecicron en el
Chamrascal s61o temporalmente. Se comparan los resultados
con los obtenidos on otras localidades de Cuba. Se present
una tendencia a obtener valores bajos de riqueza de species
y tasade capture de las aves migratorias durante el periodode
residencia internal en estos hdbitat estudiados.


ESTRUCTURA DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES EN LA ARROCERA DE SUR DEL JiBARO, SANCTI
SPIRITUS

LOURDES MUGICA, MARTIN ACOSTA, DEl-Ns DENIS Y PEDRO L. MARTINEZ
Facidtad de Biologfi, Universidad de La Habana, Cuba


SE ESTU IA LAESTRUCruRA de lacomunidaddeavesasociadas
ai cultivo del arroz durante los afos 1992 y 1995, Un total de
72 species de 12 6rdenes so reportan, de los cuales
CiconiiformesAnscriformes, Gruiformesy Charadriiformes
son los mejor representados. Se determine la variaci6n men-
sual de los diferentes Indices ecol6gicos. Octubre muestra u n
impurtanic pico por la entrada de la migraci6n que aporta un
36% de las species que usan laarrocera. Se analizael usodel
habitat desde la siembra hasta la cosecha, cncontrindose las
mayores densidades de aves durante ia preparacion para la
siembra. Se establecen las varinciones anuales y el uso del
habitat en los 6rdenes mais importantes. So concluye quo las
arroceras constituyen un valioso ecosistema para la
conservacidn de las aves acuAticas.
BIRD CoMMUNm'TY FROMs Tte SUR DEL JIBARO RICE CUL-L


TURES IN SANCTI SrimTRs, SOIrn--CENTrERAL CUDA. The
structure of die bird community associated with rice cultures
was studied during 1992 and 1995 in the "Sur del Jibaro" ri cc
culture, south-central Cuba. A total of 72 species were
reported through the year. Birds in the orders Ciconiiformes,
Anseriformes, Gruiformes y Charadriiformes were the best
represented. Annual variation of the ecological indexes was
determined. October showed an important increase resulting
from winter migration (36% of the species were winter
migrants)., Habitat use (from sowing to harvesting) was
analyzed as well. Highest densities of birds were found
during preparation for sowing. Habitat use and annual varia-
tion was analyzed for the most important orders. We con-
clude that rice field habitats should be recognized as impor-
tant areas for waterbird conservation.


RELACION ENTIRE LA MORFOLOGIA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO CON LA DIETA
EN EL COCO PRIETO PLEGADIS FALCINELLUS

DEuNNI DENIS, MARTIN AcosrA Y LotJUOT MUrGIC
Facrdlad de Biologia, Univcrsidad de La Hlabana. Cuba


EN EL AC-ROECOSISTEMA arroccro Surdel Jibaro, en la zona
sur-central de Cuba, se ha detectado que el Coco Prieto
(Plegadis falcinellus) cambia estacionalmente su dicta de
totalmentc granivora en la dpoca no reproductive a
depredadora durante Ia reproductive. En el presented tIrabajo
se describe la possible influencia que tiene este cambio
estacional de la dicta en la morfometrfa de las estructuras
Page 115


digestivas y asf conocer [as adaptaciones morfol6gicas aesta
situaci6n. Al igual quc en Anseriformes y Charadriiformes
exist unavariacidn del tamaiioy masa ecstomacal en relacidon
con Iacomposici6n cuantilativa de la dicta. Durante ]a etapa
no reproductive, el est6mago aument6 su mesa muscular en
un 22%, Por el contrario disminuyc el grosor de la capa
muscular de este 6rgano en un 69% cuando La dicta pasa a ser
El Pitirre 10(3)








depredadoradurante el periado reprductivoen cl que existen
alias demands protdicas, Se describe una serie d
Sorrelaciones existentes entire la morfologfa externae intearn
y las caracterfsticas de la dieta.

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TH EM OkPHOL.GY OFThE D IGES1TrVE
SYs r1AND DrET IN TE GLOSSY IBIS (PLEGADISFALCINELLUS),.
The Glossy Ibis (Plegadisfalcinellus) changes its diet sea-
sonally from granivorous during the non-breeding sea-son to
feed on animal items in the breeding season. The influence of


the seasonal changes on the morphometry of the digestive
system is described. The stomach variations in size and mass
in relation to the composition of the diet is similar to the
variation found in Anseriforres and ChaTadriiformes. Dur-
ing non-reproductive season the stomach increased 22% in
muscle mass, whereas the width of the muscle layer de-
creased 69% in the breeding season, when protein demands
were higher. Several correlations between the external and
internal morphology and the dies are also described.


ALIMENTACI6N DE BUBULCUS IBIS IBIS (AVES: ARDEIDAE) EN UN PASTIZAL
DE LA PROVINCIA DE LA HABANA, CUBA

MARaU EENA. GARciA RoMcER
Instinto de Ecologia y Sistemitica, Mibisterio de Ciencia Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, La Habana, Cuba


SE OFRECEN UNA caracterizaci6n del subnicho tr6fico de
la Garza Boyera (Bubulcus ibis ibis) a travds del andlisis do
23 contenidos estomacales (10 hembras y 13 machos). Los
ejemplares fueron capturados en un pastizal manejado para
pastoreo de ganado, en la localidad conocida como Nitia
Bonita en la provinciade La Habana, Cuba. Sedeternin6 que
Iadicta alimentaria estA basada fundamentalmenteen material
animal, siendo los insects el grupo mejor representado. Los
6rdenes mns consumidos fucran: Lepidoptera, Orthoptera,


Dyctioptera, Dermaptera y Coleoptera. El mayor valor para
el fndice de diversidad (H') se obtuvo en la estaci6n de I lu via.
al igual que la amplitud del nicho (Bij); dpoca en quo se
observed Ia menor equitatividad de los artifeulos alimentarins
(Y1). La comparacidn entire sexos permiti6 conocer que la
diversidad alimentaria de los machos y las hembras es
semejante, aunque la de 6stas dltimas es ligcrame ntc superior
y el indice de superposici6n entire ambos. es alto (0.70).


LAS RAPACES EXTINTAS DE CUBA Y SU LMPORTANCIA ECOLOGICA DURANTE EL CUATERNARIO

CAULOS ARREDONDo ANTrNEZ
Universidad Pedagdgica Enrique J. Varana, Facutrad de Cincias Naturales, Delmrtanenur de fliologia,
Calle 108 #29E08 e 29E y 29F, Cijdad LUbertad. Marianao. Ciudad Habana, Cuba


SE HACCEUN ANAusissobre lacompusici6n y distrihucidn
de la ornitofauna extinta de rapaces cubanas halladas en
dep6si tos Pleisto-holocdnicos. Mds de 10 gdneros y 15 species
actuaron como controladores ecol6gicos en los ecosistem as
terrestres de Cuba duranme el Cuaternario sobre las extensas


poblaciones de mamiferos existentes entonces pertenecientes
a generos como, Capromys, Geocaproyms, Heterpsomys,
Nesophontes, entire otos. Se discue sobre el control ecol6gico
de las rapaces en Cuba a partir de la escasa presencia dc
mamiiferos del 6rden Carnivora.


CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD TR6FICA DE TYTO ALBA FURCATA Y
LA NECESIDAD DE SU CONSERVACI6N

CAi..cS ARPREON-D ANT6NEZ
Unirer.'idad Pedagdg tca Enrique I. Varona, Facutad de Ciencias Naenrates. Departwnenti de Biotogia,
Calle 108 #29EO e/29E y 29F. Ciudid Libertad, Marianao. Ciudad Habana. Cuba


Pocos HAN siDo los trabajos realizados en Cuba sobre la
actividad tr6ficade la Lechuza (Tyro albafurcata). Screaliza
Liun anilisis del contenido 6sco en 800 egagr6pilas coleetadas
en varias localidades de la region central de Cuba. Cada
egagr6pila rue esiudiadad por separado, separando todo cl
material que lacomponia, Posteriormentese identificaron lns
species contenidas en cada bolo regurgitado, obenicndose
cono resultado una dominancia de restoins de man fferos (Mus
El Pitirre 10(3)


y Rattus), asi coma valores importantes en restos de an fibios
(Osteopillus y Rana); los grupos menos importantes en la
dieta son los reptiles y las aves. Se discuten los resultados y
derivado do esto la necesidad de promovcr una campafia de
protecci6n a la Lechuza, ave de extrema impartancia como
controladora de potenciates vectors de enfermedades y de
enemigos de los semibrados del hombre,


Page 116








SCO REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS


JAMAICA

SuZ7_NNE DAVIS
island Representative for Jawmaia, Socitly of Caribbean Ornithology


ACTIVE PROMOTION OF environmental education activities
has been given priority among both non-government (NGO)
and government organizations. NGOs such as the Natural
History Society of Jamaica (NHSJ), as well as die Jamaica
Conservation Development Trust (JDCT), have organised
island-wide school competitions on insects, the seashore.
recycling, and organic gardening. The NHSJ has also pro-
duced an A-Z Colouring Book on Jamaican Wildfife. In
keeping with the International Year of the Reef, the Centre
for Marine Sciences. University of the West Indies, has held
public seminars on marine ecosystems and related issues.
The Gosse Bird Club (GBC) has held its own by develop-
ing a public education programme on Jamaican birds. Fund-
ing obtained from the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service was
used to develop and print 500 copies of a Teacher's Guide to
the Birds of Jamaica and 1000 copies of a colour poster
showing five Jamaican birds. The illustrated black-and-
white Teacher's Guide was designed to make teachers and
students aware of local bird life and their habitats. These
resource materials along with the colour photographic field
guide Birds of Jamaica by A. Downer and R. Sutton (1990)
will eventually be distributed to mainly secondary level
schools and resource centres islandwide. Thanks to the edu-
cation component of the Institutional Strengthening Project
financed by the Canadian Green Fund, the GBC held a
successful three-day Teacher Training Workshop. The Work-
shop demonstrated how the resource material could be used
and gave practical "hands-on" experience through two
birdwatches and in the making of bird feeders. The twelve
participants from primary and secondary level schools, re-
source centres, a teacher's college, an environmental youth
group, and the national zoo maintained high level of interest
and enthusiasm. It is hoped that in the future die GBC will
attract more funding to grant the participants' requests for
more workshops,
These environmental education activities in the NGO
sector coincide with current efforts by government agencies.
The Natural Resources Conservation Authority (NRCA) has


collaborated with representatives from the Ministry of Edu-
cation, Association of Science Teachers of Jamaica, the
University of the West Indies, NGOs, other community
groups, and the media to establish a National Environmental
Education Committee (NEEC), According to the NRCA
supplement of June 1997, the central objective is to give
focus and momentum to environmental education in formal
and non-formal sectors. One of the major outputs scheduled
for later this year is a National Education Action Plan for
Sustainable Development.
Other significant developments over the past year are:

The NRCA's delegation of co-management of the Blue
and John Crow Mountains National Park (BJCMNP) to
the JCDT and the delegation of the Montecgo Bay
Marine Park to the Montego Bay Marine Park Trust-
An emerging National Protected Areas System.
The introduction of a new Permit and Licensing System
by the NRCA which stipulates that any development in
a prescribed area which can potentially affect the envi-
ronment must get permission from the NRCA before
implementation.

It is unfortunate that after all the initiatives taken by the
NRCA, its future is questionable because of a proposed
merger with the Town Planning Department, the Land Devel-
opment and Utilization Commission, and the Rural Physical
Planning Unit. The rationale for the merger according to
statements released by the Ministry of Housing and Environ-
ment, is the facilitation of more efficient functioning of the
four agencies. The proposed merger has been a source of
heated debate, as there are fears that the NRCA's capacity to
manage Jamaica's natural resources under the NRCA Act,
the Beach Control Act, the Wildlife Protection Act, and
Watershed Protection Act will be compromised.
Research on birds in Jamaica continues to expand with
more involvement from local persons, as well as overseas
visitors (Table I).


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 117








Table 1. The status of some recent research projects in Jamaica.


Project Status Participants' Institution


Inventory of birds
in the Blue and John
Crow Mountains

Censusing Swainson's
Warblers


Habitat fragmentation
effects on bird
communities in the
buffer zone of the
BJCMNP

Biology & distribution
of psittacines in
Jamaica


The impact of human
disturbance on tropical
dry limestone forest of
Jamaica on resident &
migrant bird communities


Completed



Completed


Results pending


In progress




In progress


Marcia Mundle'



Gary Graves'
Kevin Winker


Suzanne Davis


Susan Koenig'
Jimmy Basant
Herlitz Davis


Leo Douglas


Gosse Bird Club
(Jamaica)


National Museum of
Natural History,
Smithsonian
Institution (US)

University of the
West Indies (Jamaica)


Wildlife Preservation
Trust International
(US) and Gosse Bird
Club (Jamaica)

University of the
West Indies (Jamaica)


'Leader


TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

GEIRAR ALLENG


GOVERNMENT INIMInVES
Habitat Consenrvation
The Wildlife Section of the Forestry Division of the
Ministry of Agriculture, Lands and Marine Resources
has an on-going wetlands programme aimed at the
conservation of wetlands in Trinidad and Tobago,
Through this programme, the Section attempts to moni-
tor some components of the waterfowl and shorebird
populations within these habitats. Regular bird surveys
are conducted within four wetlands of national impor-
tance: Caroni Swamp (western coast of Trinidad),
Nariva Swamp (eastern coast of Trinidad), Godineau
Swamp (western coast of Trinidad), and Icacos Swamp
(southwestern coast of Trinidad). The surveys focus on
population trends and threats to certain species, particu-
larly species of national concern such as the Scarlet Ibis
(Eudocimus niber). Some minimal socio-economic and
ElPitirre 10(3)


habitat assessments are also undertaken at the sites.
Concern for the Scarlet Ibis increased because they
ceased nesting in the Caroni Swamp a few years ago and
only recently resumed after many years of inactivity.
This wetland is the main nesting area for the species in
Trinidad andTobago. There have been reportsof smaller
populations in other wetland areas and the Section has
been trying to monitor and manage these areas and, by
extension, these populations through the wetlands
programme.

* Education Programme
The Wildlife Section has initiated an education
programme under the RARE Center for Conservation.
aimed at conservation education with regard to the

Page 1S1








Trinidad Piping Guan or Pawi (Pipile ppile). This bird
is the only endemic sub-species found on the island and
is considered to be endangered as a result of habitat loss
and over-hunting. The section has focused its efforts on
increasing the awareness of its importance among com-
munities who live close to the habitat of the species,

SEstablislunentrOf A National Park And Wildlife AuthoriOy
A draft of a bill for the establishment of a National Parks
and Wildlife Authority in Trinidad and Tobago was
released for public comment in April 1997. by die
Government of Trinidad and Tobago, The bill is "an act
to provide for the establishment, conservation, manage-
ment of national parks, strict nature reserves, wildlife
management reserves, recreation areas, protected land-
scapes and other areas. the conservation and manage-
ment of wildlife in terrestrial, aquatic and marine envi-
ronments within Trinidad and Tobago, the establish-
ment and operation of a National Parks and Wildlife
Authority and for related matters." Part of the bill
involves the protection of native species of animals,
including birds. A number of birds are listed under
endangered, vulnerable and rare species of animals. The
bill seeks for example, toremove all seed-eating birds or
finches from the list of caged birds allowed to betaken
in the wild, It seeks to place them on the protected list
because of declining population trends. The bill is pres-
ently being reviewed, but a decision has already been
taken to separate the two components; there will be a
separate wildlife bill.


Captive Breeding Programnme
The Wildlife Section is actively pursuing a captive-
breeding programme of the Blue-and-Gold Macaw (Ar-
ararauna) with the aim of re-introducing the species
back into the Nariva Swamp, its only natural habitat. The
species was extirpated from this area because of over-
hunting for the pet trade.

Natriva Swamp (Ramsar Site)
The Government of Trinidad and Tobago has awarded a
contract for an environmental impact assessment of
activities in the Nariva Swamp. Part of the programme
involves the formulation of a management and monitor-
ing plan for the area, which has implications for the bird
populations utilizing the system.


RisF.s ct I NNrATIVES

Research Project
A new research project directly related to the conserva-
tion of birds in Trinidad and Tobago was initiated at the
Zoology Unit, Department of Biological Sciences, Uni-
versity of the West Indies, St. Augustine. The project
started in September 1996 and is a survey of shorebirds
and seabirds in Trinidad and Tobago. It is an attempt to
investigate the use of coastal habitats by birds, with the
aim ofimproving the coastal sensitivity index ofTrinidad
and Tobago.


SABA REPORT

MARTHA WALsiI-McGEHEE


SAUA, THE SMALLEST ISLAND in the Netherlands Antilles,
occupies little more than 5 sq. mi. and has only 27 resident
bird species. It has, nevertheless, made significant progress
this year toward the preservation of the birds and their
habitats.
A proposal to establish a reserve at the upper elevation of
Mt. Scenery has been presented to the Lieutenant Governor,
and his signature is expected momentarily. This reserve will
protect the elfin cloud forest and tree fern zone where the less
common species, such as the Brown Trem bler (Cinclocerthia
ruficauda), Bridled Quail-Dove (Geotiygon mnvsracea).
Purple-throated Carib (Erdampis jugularis), and Scaly-
breasted Thrasher (Margarops fiscus), arc most frequently
encountered.
With the assistance of the USDA Forestry Service and a
team of volunteers from Canada, Saba's eight nature trails
have been greatly expanded and improved. More interpreta-
tive signs are being constructed, and local guides are becom-
ing increasingly familiar with the indigenous birds.
Thc Government of the Netherlands has directed the local
governments of Saba. St. Eustatius, and St Maarten to enact
Page 119


new wildlife legislation for their respective islands. This
legislation must be completed within two years. Tradition-
ally, wildlife legislation has focused on marine life, but Island
Conservation Effort and the Saba Conservation Fcundatiun
have asked that bird species on Saba be afforded protection
under the new law. Both organizations have contacted NGO
counterparts on the other two islands to ask their assistance in
coordinating protection throughout the three closely situated
islands.
In late April 1997, David S. Lee (North Carolina State
Museum of Natural Sciences) and Martha Walsh-McGehee
(lsland Conservation Effort) established a one hectare site for
a study of breeding Red-billed Tropiebirds (PhaethfnI
aethereus). After circumnavigating the island by boat to
survey the coastline and determine areas with a high density
of tropicbirds, a breeding colony on the southeastern coast
was selected as a study site because of the relatively easy
access to the nests. Although only preliminary studies have
been completed, 24 nests have been located (last published
estimate was less than 20 pairs on Saha; Voous 1983).
Approximately 80% of the coastline provides suitable nest
El Pitirre 10(3)







sites for tropicbirds, and a rudimentary estimate of 750- I000
pairs made by Lee and Walsh-McGehee makes. Saba the
largest known colony of breeding Red-billed Tropicbirds in
the Caribbean Basin. Some components of the study are
being documented with video, and an educational video will
he c created for use in schools and other commu nity gather rigs.
Public awareness of the tropicbird study has produced an


increased interest in birds in general. One nature club has
already been established at the Saba School of Medicine to
coordinate volunteer assistants for nest monitoring. Other
volunteers have come from the local community.
The final draft ofA Guide to the Birds of Saba, by Walsh-
McGehee, has been reviewed and should be ready for pub]i-
cation in 1998.


THE CAYMAN ISLANDS

TaR oa BArTER
Cayman Islands Bird Club, P. 0. Box 630GT, Grand Cayman, and Narional Tnrst for the Cayman Ilands,
P. 0. Box 31116 SMB, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands. B. W. L


TtIRRESTRCAL CONSERVATION :FFWRTS in the Cayman Islands
are primarily undertaken by the National Trust for the Cay-
man Islands, a statutory non-profit NGO, whereas the Cay-
man Islands Government's Department of Environment fo-
cuses on marine conservation, and regulatoryllegal matters
regarding the environment. The Trust now owns and man-
ages 655 ha[ 1,619 acres] of protected conservation land in all
three of the Cayman Islands, which includes significant
habitat for resident and migratory birds. Major terrestrial
reserves on Grand Cayman are the Salina Reserve (253 ha
(625 acres]) of primary woodlands, thickets, buttonwood
wetland and sedge swamp; the 155-ha [382 acre] Mastic
Reserve (old growth woodland); and parts of the Central
Mangrove Wetland (approx. 648 ha [1,600 acres] are par-
tially protected). On Cayman Brac, the Brac Parrot Reserve
protects 73 ha [ 180 acres] of woodland, and in Little Cayman
die 81-ha (200 acre) Booby Pond Nature Reserve protect Ls a
large breeding colony of Red-footed Boobies (Sula sula).
Overall, 5'% of the total area of the Cayman Islands now
enjoys some level of environmental protection.
In March 1997 the Trust conducted a survey of the large
Red-footed Booby (Subl sula) rookery in Little Cayman (F,
J. Burton, P. E. Bradley, E. A. Schreiber, G. Schenk, and R.
W. Burton, in prep.). The nesting population was estimated
at 5.000 pairs, occupying an area almost entirely protected in
the Trust's Booby Pond Nature Reserve, which is currently
the Cayman Islands' only Kamsar site (Table I). 'his larec
seabird rookery appears to have expanded since it was last
surveyed by R. Clapp in 1986 when 2,800 pairs were counted,
and is clearly thriving. Several other species were surveyed,
including Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magmnficens),
Bridled Tern (Sterna anaetherus), and Least Tern (S.
antillanam) (Table 1). Bradley surveyed the West Indian
Whistling-Duck, frigatebird, and Least Tern on Little Cay-
man,
Immediately after the Red-footed Booby survey, the
Trust teamed up with volunteers from the Cayman Islands
El Pitirre 10(3)


Bird Club, to perform dithe third triennial census of the endan-
gered Cayman Brac Parrot (Amazona leucoceplhala hestema),
Occupying fixed stations at 0.6 km spacing, first established
in 1991, the survey team observed parrot activity for 3 hours
beginning at dawn and 3 hours ending at dusk for each of 7
days to estimate the parrot population area by area tllroug hout
the island. All three censuses, in 1991, 1994 and 1997 have
indicated the Cayman Brac population is currently stable, at
approximately 400 birds. No statistically significant differ-
ences were detected between the three censuses. Census of
the Grand Cayman parrot, using the same standardized tech-
nique, show this subspecies (A. L cawnen.ensis) also to be
stable, with a population of approximately 2,000 birds in
1992 and 1995.
The 1997 Brac Parrot Census was funded by a Partners in
Flight grant through the Georgia Department of Natural
Resources: this was the first formal Partners in Flight project
in the Cayman Islands, and we hope to build on this relation-
ship. The habitat for the Cayman Islands parrots is also
important habitat for neotropical migrants.
The population of the West Indian Whistling-Duck
(Denrdrocygna arborea) continues its recovery in Grand
Cayman, where we have recent sightings in the developed
western districts long vacated by this species. The population
was estimated at approximately 400 adults by Fiona O'Brien
in 1995. The species is also present in Little Cayman and
Cayman Brac. A total of 220 adults in five populations was
estimated in 1996-1997 (P. E. Bradley). One population at
Booby Pond consisted of 22 adults with 48 young in August
1997 (P. E. Bradley). Since hunting ceased, the ducks feed on
roadside ponds throughout the day and breed from January
through August.
On Cayman Brac, Patricia Bradley conducted a survey of
the wetlands and a survey of the waterbirds for the Depart-
ment of Environment, including surveys of the tropicbirds,
Brown Booby, Least Tern, and West Indian Whisiling-Duck
(Table 2).


Page 120








Building on early work by W. B. Richardson. C. B. Cory,
then Percy Lowe and James Bond, Patricia Bradley and
members of the Cayman Islands Bird Club now have records
of over 200 bird species in the Cayman Islands, and records
of rare migrants arc being continuously added. Bradley and
Baxter have compiled a list of migrant warblers recorded in
the Cayman Islands up to 1997 (Table 3).
Patricia Bradley has produced the fourth checklist (fol-
lowing Cory 1892, Lowe 1911, and Johnston et a. 1971) of
birds of the Cayman Islands for the British Ornithologists'


Union series. The manuscript is scheduled for publication in
1998- Reconrds, including those of unpublished visiting birders,
Cayman Islands Bird Club members, residents, and P. E.
Bradley (1982-1997) bring the tolal species list to 220. In
1996-1997, Bradley studied the Cayman Islands collections
in the American Museum of Natural History, U. S. National
Museum, Louisiana State University Museum, Field Mu-
seum of Natural History, and British Museum of Natural
History.


Table I. Results of surveys of birds in Little Cayman and Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, 1983-1997.


Species Site Year Estimated population


Red-footed Booby (Suda sula) Little Cayman 1986 2,800 pairs (Clapp)
1997 5,000 pairs (Burton ct al)
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnificens) Little Cayman 1983 150 pairs (Bradley)
1986 150 pairs (Bradley)
1996 350-400 pairs (Bradley)
1997 350-400 pairs (Bradley)
Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus) Grand Cayman 1995 19 pairs (Bradley)
1997 21 pairs (Bradley)
Least T'ern (Sterna antillanin) Little Cayman 1996 60 pairs (Bradley)
1997 54 pairs (Bradley)




Table 2. Results of Patrica E. Bradley's surveys of wetlands in Cayman Brac, Cayman Islands. 1983-1997.


Species Year Estimated population


White-tailed Tropicbird (Plwethon lepturus) 1984 ca. 800 adults
1996 ca. 85 adults
1997 54 adults
Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster) 1983 ca. 360 adults, ca. 130 young
1996 65 adults, 20 young
1997 60 adults, min- 15 young
West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendroclgna arborea) 1996 25 birds
1997 22 birds
Least Tern (Sterna antillanim) 1996 27 pairs
1997 45 pairs


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 121








Table 3. Status ofmigran t warblers recorded in the Cayman Islands up to 1997, compiled by Trevor Baxter (from Bradley and
Rey-Millet, Birdsofthe Cayman Islands (1995). Status data are preliminary and these observations represent a guide
to the frequency in an average year.


Species


Status


Blue-winged Warbler Vennivora pinus
Golden-winged Warbler Vermivora chrysoptera
Tennessee Warbler Vennivora peregrina
Orange-crowned Warbler Vermivora celata
Nashville Warbler Vermivora ruficapilla
Northern Parula Panda americana
Yellow Warbler Dendroica petechia
Chestnut-sided Warbler Dendroica pensylvanica
Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia
Cape May Warbler Dendroica ligrina
Black-throated Blue Warbler Dendroica caerudescens
Yellow-rumped Warbler Dendroica coronata
Black-throated Green Warbler Dendroica virens
Blackburnian Warbler Dendroica fiusca
Yellow-throated Warbler Dendroica dominica
Pine Warbler Dendroica pinus
Prairie Warbler Dendroica discolor
Palm Warbler Dendroica palmandm
Bay-breasted Warbler Dendroica castanea
Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata
Cerulean Warbler Dendroica ceruiea
Black-and-white Warbler Mniotilta varia
American Redstart Setophaga nuticilla
Prothonotary Warbler Prothonotaria cirea
Worm-eating Warbler Henintheros vermivorus
Swainson's Warbler Limnorhlypir swainsonii
Ovenbird Seiurus aurocapillus
Northern Waterthrush Seiluns noveboracensis
Louisiana Waterthrush Seinrus motacilta
Kentucky Warbler Oporomis fonnosus
Connecticut Warbler Oporornis agilis
Common Yellowthroat Geothlypis trichas
Hooded Warbler Wilsonia citrina
Wilson's Warbler Wilsonia pusilla
Canada Warbler Wilsonia canadensis
Yellow-breasted Chat Icteria virens


Very rare
Very rare
U ncommon-common
Unconfirmed
Very rare
Fairly common
Common
Rare
Uncommon
Fairly common
Fairly common
Rare to locally common
Rare
Uncommon
Fairly common
Rare
Common to fairly common
Common
Very uncommon
Very uncommon
Very rare
Fairly common
Fairly common
Rare
Fairly common
Rare
Fairly common
Fairly common
Very rare
Rare
Unconfirmed
Fairly common
Rare
Vagrant
Very rare
Unconfirmed


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 122








WHAT'S -HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNITY IN ANTIGUA-BARBUDA

Kevel Lindsay
Island Resources Foundation, P. 0. Box 103, Mueran of Andigua-larbuda, Long Street, St. John's


WETLANDS PROJECT
Environmental Awareness Group, Island Resources
Foundation and United Nations Environment Programmel
Global Environmental Facility

The Environmental Awareness Group (EAG) has just
received a grant from the United Nations Environmental
Programnme(UNEP)IGlobal Environmental Facility (GEF)
Small Grants Project to conduct a survey of the wetlands of
Antigua and Barbuda The project aims to catalogue all
wetland sites on both islands, update current information,
prepare maps, conduct a detailed study of five selected sites,
and develop an action conservation plan. There is a conmmu-
nity component, which entails a survey and mapping of
wed and sites. The funding is for 18 months, starting this July.

FaRGAT'r BIRD SANCTUARY PROJECT-BARBUDA
Organization of American States/Natural Resources
Management Unit, Environmental Unit & Barbuda
Council

The Organization of American Stales Natural Resources
Management Unit (OECS/NRMU) is working with the
B arbuda Government Council and the Environmental Unit in
the Ministry of the Environmeni, to develop a management
plan for the Magnificent Frigatcbird (Fregata magu4ifcens)
nesting colony in the Codrington Lagoon in Barbuda, The
Colony is estimated to have over 2500 nesting pairs, and is
believed to be one of the largest in the Caribbean. Dr. Betty
Ann Schreiber has already paid two visits to the island to
conduct surveys and provide recommendations as to the
management needs of the colony. A survey is also being done
on the marine habitats of the lagoon. This project is ongoing.

AtROFORESTRY PROJECT
Gilbert Agricultural Rural Development Centre, Environ-
mental Awareness Group (EAG), Barclays Bank &
Caribbean Natural Resources Institute

During the 1995 hurricane season, the EAG nursery was
completely destroyed when Hurricanes Lufs and Marilyn
passed the Leeward Islands. Today. the EAG and the Gilbert
Agricultural and Rural Development Centre (GARDC) are
collaborating on developing plant nursery facilities and tree
planting programmes throughout the country, A nursery
programme has been initiated in two schools. Itis hoped that
the nursery facilities will be producing native and introduced
species for community projects, private gardens and forestry
projects. A number of workshops will also be conducted to


sensitize banners to the need to reforest their plots and help
conserve and protect biodiversity, soil fertility, and increase
water retention.

CLIMATE CHANGE PROJECT
United Nation Environment Programme/Global Environ-
mental Facility, Government of Antigua-Barbuda

In order to prepare for potential climate change, UNEP is
developing methods of evaluating climate change impacts
and formulating strategies to adapt to climate change, and to
moderate its impacts. UNEP has selected Antigua-Barbuda
as one of four countries from around the world to participate
in the formulation and development of these methods and
strategies. The Ministry of Planning has commissioned a
national study team to undertake and to report on the expected
impacts of climate change on Antigua-Barbuda, as well as
possible adaptation and mitigation measures. The study team
is made up of various sectors of the economy and the society.
The study ends in September 1997.

CONSERVATION OF TIH ANTIGUAN RACER
Environmental Awareness Group/Island Resources
Foundation/Fauna & Flora International/Forestry Unit

The conservation of the Antiguan racer snake (Alsophis
antiguae) continues. Following up on the 1995/96 effort to
determine the status and biology of the rare species, Dr. Jenny
Daltry conducted a follow-up survey in March 1997. Dr.
Daltry spent two months on Great Bird Island, the only home
of the snake, completing a mark-recapture programme of the
snakes to determine the current population, Dr. Daltry was
particularly interested in the breeding success of the snakes
over the past two years, especially since the passage of
Hurricanes Luis and Marilyn, and the eradication of intro-
duced black rats (Ratlus rattus).
In her preliminary report, Dr. Daltry concluded that the
population of the snakes has increased from approximately
I5) in 1995, Io nvrr 100 in 1997. She observed a number of
year old juveniles and reported that all snakes seem to he
doing quite well, No fresh scars were observed, which is a
good indication that the threat of the introduced rats has been
eliminated. There were no signs of rats. The project is
ongoing.

BiRt MONITORING PROGRAMME
Island Resources Foundation

The Foundation has continued its "seabird-monitoring


Page 123


El Pitirre 10(3)







programme" in 1997. The project was initialed a year ago
after che Rat Eradication Project on Great Bird and the nearby
Galley Islands, and the Parham Harbour Project's develop-
ment of the Bird Island Marine Reserve's Management Plan.
The Foundation was contracted to complete the desi gn of the
management plan. Although the main focus is the island in
the North Sound off of die northeastern tip ofAntigua, were
also gathering data from other small offshore island, Red onda
and Barbuda. This is an ongoing project of the Foundation,

NEvls PROJECTr
Organization of American States & Environmenaul Unit

Tlie Organization of American States has provided fund-
ing for the development of organic pesticides and other
products from the neem tree (Azadarancha indica). The two
major aims are to encourage local cottage industries and
encourage farmers to look at alternative to synthetic pesti-
cides. The project is based at the Environmental Unit, Min-
istry of Environment. The initial duration is a year and a half,
with the hopes of further extension.

BIODIVERSITY PaoFILI.S & SiEcits &Ecosys'rEt REcov-
ERY PROGRAMMES/UPDATED VEGETATION CLASSIFICATiON
Island Resources Foundation

The Foundation has prepared a draft of the Antigua-


Barbuda Biodiversity Profile. The profile is a synthesis of the
current information on. the information available on the flora
and fauna of Antigua-Barbuda. Out of this synthesis will
arise a Species and Ecosystem Recovery Programme for
Antigua-Barbuda and Redonda, The recovery programme
will examine various approaches to the conservation of rare
and endangered species and ecosystems, and the institutional
framework needed ensure their future survival. This is an
ongoing project of Island Resources Foundation.

SEATONS DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
SC, Environmental Awareness Group(EAG). German
Government and Caribbean Natural Resources Institute

Members of Seatons Village, a small coastal community
on the northeastern end of Antigua, have gotten together to
sustainably manage their coastal resources, and encourage
self reliance. The person spearheading the programme is
Foster Derrick, who is also a member of the EAG. Funding
has been secured from the Caribbean Natural Resources
Institute (CANARI) and the German Government to develop
artificial reefs in Seatons Harbour and the cultivation of
seamoss. The artificial reef foundation has been created using
discarded tyres. It was established two years ago and is
already showing signs of life as lobsters, soft coral and
juvenile fish have moved in. The seamoss project is now in its
initial stages. This project is ongoing.


STATUS OF ORNITHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE BAHAMAS

CAROLYN WARDLE
Bahamas Represenatsive, P. 0. Box N3J89. Nassau, Bahamas


R.sEARCH PERMITS ISSUED
CURRENT AND PROPOSED PROJECTS


GENETIC STUDIES OF THE WEST INDIAN WOODPECKER
(MEiANERPES SUPERCLLUARIS)
Dr. Lowell Overton
Department of Biological Sciences
University of Arkansas
Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701, U. S. A.
Research Locations: Abaco,San Salvador.GrandBahadma


STUDY OFt1IE INIER-ISLAND VARIATION OFTtHtCK- Bi.LIED VmREOS
( ViREO CRASSIRorIS)
Dr. John Barlow and Ms. Marlene Walker
Royal Ontario Museum
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Research Locations: New Providence, Abaco, Andros,
Rum Cay, San Salvador and Crooacked Island


TRAPPING OF SHINY COWBIRDS (Mi.OTrwrus BONARfEAWIS) ON
AN1ROS ISLAND (PROPOSED PROJECT)
Funding being sought
Michael Baltz
Division of Biological Sciences
University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri 65211, U. S. A.

THL NAlUh CUN. ERVANUY: KIRTLAND'S WARBLER
(DEvNROICA KIRTLANDII) WINTER HABITAT suIVEY
Mr. Eric Carey, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries,
Mr. Paul Dean, Bahamas National Trust (BNT), Mr.
Rick Oliver, BNT and Mrs. Aileen Bainton, BNT were
invited by The Nature Conservancy to visit the summer


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 124








breeding grounds of the Kirtland's Warbler.They were
able to see the bird in its summer habitat and discuss
possible wintering habitats. The four participants wera
selected for their ability to return to the Bahamas and
educate others so that a monitoring program for the
Kirtland's Warbler can be implemented this winter.
The BNT Ornithology group is keen to participate and
will be organizing their monthly bird walks with this in
mind.

ESTABLISHMENT" OF HABITAT FRAGMENT AND NATIVE TREE
AREA IN SAN Souct, NEW PROVmDENCE
Joint project of the BNT Native Flora and Ornithology
group, A vacant lot was donated to the BNT with the
request that it be maintained as an area for Bahamian
bird life. Plans are currently underway to fence, and
label trees already there as well as replant native trees
for use as an outdoor classroom.

WEST INDIAN WHISTLNG--DUCK (DEVDROCYGVA ARBORFA)
CONSERVATION PROJECT
Society of Caribbean Ornithology, West Indian Whis-
ding-Duck Working Group Bahamian Counterparts:
Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries. Bahamas Na-
tional Trust and Ministry of Education. The Bahamas
National Trust with the Ministry of Agriculture has
worked with the committee submitting their ideas for
the educational programs as well as the monitoring
program for the family islands. The BNT requested and
received an additional grant of $5,000,00 from Conser-
vation International Bahamas Ltd. for the whistling-
duck project. This donation will be utilized to cover
travel expenses within thdie Bahamas so that BNT Edu-
cation Officers will be able to assist in the presentation
of the educational program. The Trust has also solic ited
the assistance of a local artist, Melissa Maura, in the
production of a whistling-duck coloring booLk

BAHAMAS NATIONAl. TRUST GAtMEBRD SPECIAL MuEMnNG ON
THE Sc'rENrnc MoNrfruING OF THE WMHTE-CROWNED Pt-
G(ON
The Bahamas National Trust Gaminbird Sub-Commit-
tee at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries organized a special meeting March 1997 for
ornithological experts and knowledgeable local people
to discuss the scientilfi mcniinring of the Wihi te-crowned
Pigeon. Attending from abroad were David Blankenship
of the U. S. Fish Wildlife Service, who conducted
White-crowned Pigeon research for Audubon from
October 1975 to October 1976 and Mr. Alexander


Spruin, IV, who was Research Director for Audubon at
the time. Also invited but unable to attend were Tom
Bancroft, Archbold Research Center in Florida, Dr.
Frank Rivera, U. S. Fish and Wildlife and Dr. James
Wiley, Grambling State University. All minutes were
circulated to overseas representatives who were unable
to attend for their input. The group realized that many
of the problems for the White-crowned Pigeon had to
do with hunter education. The BNT Gamebird Com-
mittee, an arm of the BNT Wildlife Committee, re-
solved to visit and organize public meetings in the
Family Island Communities that have hunting popula-
tions. The object of the meetings will be to facilitate
better communication between the BNT's GamUebird
Committee, the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries
and hunting population of the family islands. A special
effort will be made to present an educational program
about the biology of the pigeon thus explaining its
needs, and why certain legislation must be in place to
manage this resource. The Gamehird Committee has
also agreed to assist the Ministry of Agriculture and
Fisheries in the collection of wings from Mourning
Doves (Zenaida macroura) so that decisions regarding
the hunting of this bird can be founded on scientific
evidence.

REPRojucrflN OF BAHAMA PARROT FACT SHEET AND A-Z
BOOKLET OF BAHAMIAN WI.DIu.-FE AND WILD PLACES
RARE Center for Tropical Conservation has recently
granted funding to the BNT for the reproduction of the
Bahama Parrot (Amazona leucocephala balumensis)
Fact Sheet and the A-Z Booklet of Bahamian Wildlife
and Wild Places.

Gtoo, PoND, GREAT EXUMA
This area has been pinpointed by local BNT members
as an important wetland and efforts are under way to
identify the owners of property surrounding the Grog
Pond in an attempt to heighten awareness of its impor-
tance and ultimately to attempt to have the area under
the protection of the BNT.

WII.soN AND HARROLD PONoDs, NEW PROVIDENCE
The Ornithology Group has pin-pointed this area as an
important habitat for wading and other birds. The
BNT is particularly concerned about tho agricultural
activities on the east side of Wilson Pond. Efforts are
under way to verify the status of the land in this area
before proceeding further, A comprehensive list of
birds using this area has already been compiled.


Page 125


El Pifirre 10(3)







ACTIVIDADES DE CONSERVACI6N DE LA AVIFAUNA EN LA REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA EN 1997


SaION GUERRERO
Znuderm, Santo Dornigils, Repablica DomJinicana


DUtJWmr EL OLTmlo ,Ao se iniciaron diversos progranas
relacionados con la conservacidn de las aves en la Repdblica
Dorninicana. Lanto por organisms gubernamenLales comre
por organizaciones privadas. Entre los organisms oficiales
habrfaque citar al Depnarniento deVida Silvestre, el cual ha
iniciado una revision de los reglarnentos que regulan todd lo
relative al uso de la vida silvestre y hace esfuerzos para que
se cumplan las leyes de fauna vigentes.
Una comisi6n de ascsorfa ecoldgica creada par la
Procuradurfa General de la Repdblica ha sido de gran ayuda
en la aplicaci6n de inas eyes que protege ]a fauna.
El Jardin Botlnico Nacional sirve de sport alacampulna
Tnasiva de reforestaci6n que desarrolla el Plan Nacional
Quisqueya Verde, suministrAndole plintulas nativas y
enddmicas producidas en su Centro de Conservaci6n de
Plantas. El Jardfn botinico cuenta, ademAs, con un banco de
semillas.
Comno miembro del Plan Quisqucya Verde, cl Parque
Zool6gico Nacional implement un program de creaci6n de
"Mini-Reservas de Vida Silvestre," las cuales consistent en
dreas pequerfas cuyo acceso al pdblica se restringe y ca las
cuales se siembra arbustos, arbolitos y lianas natives que
proporcionan refugio y alimento a la fauna silvestre. En este
program se introduce el concept de "Restauraci6n
Ecol6gica," que vendria a complementary e! tdrmino
"Reforestaci6n" que ha sido distorsionado par el model
agron6mico,
Otra actividad conservacionista realizada por el Parque
Zool6gico fue un acto de Bienvenida a las Avyes Migratorias
en cordinaci6n con la Direcci6n Nacional de Parques y el
Club de Observadores do Aves Annabelle Dod. El acto se
real i z6 en la escuela primariade "LasCalderas,"en elsurdlot
pafs, una zona de gran importancia para las aves migratorias.
El Parque Zool6gico implement, en la acLualidad, un
program de Instalaci6n de nidos arlificiates para aves que
anidan en cavidades, especialmente de los gineros Amazona
y Aratinga, species de las cuales existen pequefias
poblaciones estabtecidas cn la Ciudad dc Santo Domingo.
Con este program pretendemos educar a la genie sobre la
importancia de realizar actividades que contribuyan a la
conservaci6n de la avifauna, 1o que es particularmenteo
important en el caso dc los dos Psittacitormes endemicos de
la isla, que son percibidos por lapoblaci6n Lnicamenic come
mascotas. Estos nidos son financiados power estudiantes queo
participan activamente en su instalaci6n y sc comprometen a
darle seguimiento a los mismos.
En el manejo de la colecci6n de aves del zool6gica y en
sus proycctos de educaci6n e investigaci6n, se hace 6nfasis on
las species nativas y end6micas. Ademis, se realizan lrabaj os
de restauraci6n en los lerrenos del Parquc, a fin de mejorar la
calidad dcl hbitat en el que viven inuchas species silvesrres.
Otro prograna de conservaci6n del Zooltgico incluyc
ElPitirrc 10(3)


campaflas que se inician con el diselo de afiches en pro de la
conservacidn de la fauna aut6ctona, El primero de la serie
ileva una fote de un arbusto (Lantana camera) con flores y
mariposas y la leyenda "Para que vuelvan las Mariposas," en
el cual se instruye a la ciudadanfa a plantar de eslos arbustos
en patios yj ardines comn una forma de facilitar I a recuperaci6n
de estas species. El lema de otro afiche de laserie tend riuna
foto de otro arbusto (Amelia pattens) con flores y col ibrics y
el lorma "Para que vuelvan los Zumbadores."
Otro afiche promoverA la siembra de Ficus, como panre de
una campafta en pro de la conservacidn de los murcidlagos.
Tambidn se apruvcchan las exhibiciunes naturales que hay en
el Parque (nidos de Dulus dominicus y vencejos de palmar,
por ejemplo). para fines educativos.
Para hacer mis efectiva esta campafia, se ha consti tufdo
un "Club Infantil Amigos del Zool6gico," cuyos Tniembros
participarin activamente en las areas de conservacidn del
Parque.
El ZOODOM esid cambidn involucrado en la promacic6n
de los cultivos orgAnicos, especialmente los cafetales de
sombra, cuya importancia para la avi fauna esti am pliame nte
demostrada. Se contempla la creaci6n en el Parque de un
cafetal de sombra con fines educativos.
El Parque Zooldgico desarrolla en ]a actualidad, en
coordinaci6n con la Direcei6n Nacional de Parqucs, cl
Proyecto de Recuperaci6n de la Cotorra Puetorriquefia y las
Universidadcs de Mississipi y Carolina del Norte, unproyecto
de liberaci6n de Colorras Dominicanas (Amazona ventrafis)
de ias nacidas en los aviarios del proyecto puertorriqueilo.
con el prop6sito de hacer studios do tlemetrfa y determinar
el indice de sobrevivencia de las inismas.
Entre las ONGS tenemos al Grupo Jaragua Inc., que
trabaja en cl Area protegida del mismo nombre, situada en el
surocstc del pals, realize census anuales de Cotorras
Dominicanas, Palomas Coronitas (Columbai eucocephala) y
de las aves acudiicas de la Laguna de Oviedo, tanto nativas
como migratorias, con la participacidn de de voluntarios de
Ias comunidades pr6xinas al Parque. Este grupo iambidn
colabura con el proyecto que implement Chris Rimmer en el
Parque Nacional Sierrade Bahoruco, con laespcc ie migratoria
Bicknell's Thrush (Cathants bicknelli).
El Grupo Ecologista Tinglar, a travys de su filial Club de
OhservadoresdeAves Annabelle Dod, realizacontinuaimente
visits al camnpo con el prop6sito de iniciar a los jdvenes en
la observaci6n de las aves. Tambi6n trabajaron entrenanda en
[a identificaci6n dc las aves a estudiantes de Samand y del
Parq ue del Este. con o part de program a Parques en Peligro,
que auspicia The Nature Conservancy. Nicolds L6per,
miembro del Club, cnnfeccion6 un CD ROM sobre las aves
residents de la Reptiblica Dominicana. Tamnbien produjo
este grupo camisetlas con dibujos do aves enddmicas de la


Page 126








NEWS OF MEMBERS

Fred C. Schaffner has recently been named Chairman.
Department of Science and Technology, Universidad
Metropolitan (UMET), P. O. Box 21150. San Juan, Puerto
Rico 00928. Telephone: 787-766-1717, ext. 6457. e-mail:
uin_fschaiTnc@suagm3.suagm.edu (institutional) or
fcspr@caribe.net (personal). Web page: hiup://
urnme_mie.suagm.edulumet/projects/fschaffn/fred.htlmi
The home address listed in The Flock remains valid.


REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE

I would be very grateful for tape recordings of rhythmic
dawn song oF Conropus latirostis front St. Lucia, Tyrannus
caudlifasciatus from the Bahamas, and tapes from Oxyira
dominica (male) from anywhere, and any unpublished color
slides or prints of adult Contopus latirostris from Guadeloupe
or Martinique. George B. Reynard, 105MidwaySt.,Riverton,
New Jersey 08077-101, U.S.A.


POSITIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE

Universidad Metropolitana (UMET) invites applications
for faculty positions at the Assistant Professor level in the
following program areas: (1) computer science, (2) math-
ematics or applied mathematics,. (3) inorganic or physical
chemistry, (4) physics, and (5) environmental science, biol-
ogy, or geology. Minimum qualifications for each position
include a Ph.D degree from an accredited institution, al-
though we will accept applications from Master's level
candidate in computer science. One or two positions are
anticipated in each program area, beginning in January or
August 1998. Each position includes a maximum of 9 credit
hours of undergraduate teaching, and release time for re-
search involving undergraduate students. Candidates must
be highly motivated team players with a vision for the future
and strong comifitment to undergraduate education and
student/faculty collaborative research in the small university
setting. The ability to communicate with students in their
native language, Spanish, is considered highly desirable.
Funding for these positions is provided through the NSF-
sixnsored Model Institutions for Excellence program, a
consortium of six institutions nationwide (USA) devoted to
excellence in undergraduate science education. UMET en-
joys excellent agreements for research collaboration with
numerous national laboratories, including NCAR, LBL, the
Arecibo Observatory, CORE, and others. The Department
currently has about 30 full-time faculty and staff and over 50
part-time faculty, and offers Bachelor's degrees in Biology,
Cellular and Molecular Biology, Environmental Sciences,
Chemistry, Computer Science, Sales and Distribution of
Chemical and Pharmaceutical Products, and "General Natu-
ral Sciences." Master's degree programs are contemplated


within the next two years. Applicants should specify to which
program area they are applying, submit a complete curricu-
Ium vitae, selected reprints, evidence of teaching excellence,
and statement of teaching and research goals, and should
arrange to have three letters of reference sent on their behalf.
Materials should be addressed to; Dr. Fred C. Schaffner,
Chairman, Department of Science and Technology.
Universidad Metropolitana, P. 0. Box 21150, San Juan,
Puerto Rico 00928-1150: tel. (787) 766-1717, ext. 6457; e-
mail: um_f.schaffne @ suagm3.suagm.edu.
An Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity Employer,
Women and minorities are strongly encouraged to apply.
Consideration of applications will begin immediately and
continue until suitable candidates are found.

MEETINGS OF INTEREST

6-12 April 1998 Joint North American Ornithological
Meeting: The American Ornithologists' Union, Association
of Field Ornithologists, Colonial Waterbird Society, Cooper
Ornithological Society, and Wilson Ornithological Society
will hold their annual meetings jointly in St. Louis. Missouri.
The Raptor Research Foundation will hold a special raptor
symposium. For information on the scientific program,
contact Jeff Brawn, Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 E.
Peabody Dr., Champaign. Illinois 61820, USA (telephone:
217-244-59371; e-mail: birdmeet@mail.inhs.uiuc.edu). For
information on local arrangements. contact Bette Loiselle,
Department of Biology, University of Missouri-SL Louis,
8001 Natural Bridge Road, St. Louis, Missouri 63121, USA
(telephone: 314-516-6224; e-mail: birdstl@umsl.edu). In-
formation about the meetings will be posted on BIRDNET
(http :Iwww.nmnhsi.edu/BIRDNET/).

13-16 May 1998- Ecotourism and Island Birds, Miyake-
jima Nature Center, Izu Islands, Japan. Symposium topics
include Island birds: population processes and ecology
and conservation; and Ecotourism. Tctsuji Hidaka, Yutaka
Yamarnoto, and Dr. Jack T. Moyer, Miyake-jima Nature
Center, 4118 Tsubota, Miyake-mura, Miyake-jima, Izu Is-
lands, Tokyo 100-12. Japan (telephone: 81-4994-6-0410;
fax: 81-4994-6-0458).

18-22 July 1998- Animal Behavior Society Annual Meet-
ing, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Lee
Drickamer. Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois Uni-
versity, Carbondale, Illinois 62901, USA.

19-25 July 1998 International Congress On Ecology.
Florence, Italy. (Almo Farina. INTECOL; tel: 39-187-400-
252).

28 July 3 August 1998 7th International Behavior
Ecology Congress, A silomar Conference Grounds, Monterey,
California, USA. (Walt Koenig; e-mail: wicker@uclink.
berkcley.edu or Janis Dickinson; e-mail: sialia@


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 127








uclink2berkeley.edu; both at Hastings Reservation, 28601 E.
Cannel Valley Rd., Carmel Valley, California 93924. USA).

19-22 August 1998 XXII International Ornithological
Congress, Durban. South Africa. (Information- Dr. Aldo
Berruti, 111 Blair Atholl Road. Westville 3630, South Af-
rica; Fax: 27-31-262-6114; e-mail: aldo@bird]ife.org.za:
Scientific Program Dr. Lukas Jcnni, Schweizerische


Vogelwarte, CH-6204 Sempach. Switzerland; fax: 41-41-
462-9710; e-mail: jennil@orninst.ch).

30 September-4 October 1998 -The 1998 Annual
Meeting of the Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.,
David Eccles Conlerence Center, Ogden, Utah- (Carl D.
Marti, Department of Zoology, Weber State University.
Ogden, Utah


JORNADA 30 ANIVERSARIO
Musro DL HisromuA NATURAL
"CARLOS DE LA TORRE Y HJERTA"
HoLGulN. CUBA
MAYo on 1999

Inforrnaci6n Preliminar


El Musco de Historia Natural de Holgufn y la Direcci6n
Provincial de Patrimonio le invita a participar en la Jornada
Cientifica por el XXX Aniversario del Musec de Historia
Natural "Carlos d la Torre y Hucrta." Este event cientffico
se desarrollarA en la sede de este musco en el mes de Mayo de
1999. Los interesados podrAn exponer sus trabajos en la
siguientes disciplines:

Biologia (SistemAtica, Ecologia, Etologia y Zoogeograffa)


Museologfa (Conservaci6n, Animacidn Cultural, Fondos e
Inventarins)
Sistema Curatorial (Formnnaci6n de Colecciones, Mancjo,
Automatizaci6n)
Museograffa (Disefio, Montajes, etc.)

La participaci6n en estajornada estard limitada, por lo que
rogamos respond a este cuestionario y to envie antes de
Mayo de 1998 fecha en que se enviard la segunda circular.


Nombre y Apcllidos:
Centro de Estudio o Trabajo:
Especialidad:
Direcci6n dc su Trabajo:


Direcci6n Particular:


Tel6fono:


Correo Elcctr6nice:


Desco participar en

Enviar a:
Musco de Historia Natural "Carlos de la Torre y Huerta"
Macco No. 129 c/n Manr y Luz
Caballero Holgufn, C.P. 80100
Cuba

Telefax: 42-3935


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 128








EVENT INITE'RNCIONAL kD FOTOGRAFIA DE AvES


FOTOAVE

Noviembre 30 Diciembre 8, 1998
Gran Parque Montemar
Peninsula de Zapata
Cuba


El Grupo Turistico Rumbos y el Gran Parque Natural
Montemarconvocan alarealizaci6n dell Evento de Fotograffa
de Aves a efecruarse en uno de los escenarios dL mayor
belleza y enemismo del Caribe, invemadero ademas de aves
migratorias de Norteamcrica, que se eflectuar del 30 do
Nuviembre a! 5 de Diciembre de 1998 en la Peninsula do
Zapata, provincial de Matanas, Cuba.


COMrf': OGRANEZADOR
Dr. Josd R. Cucvas
Ing. Lazaro Cotayo
Lie. Eusebio Guerrero
Lie. Marfa E. Dominguez

CoMrrt TEcNIco
Hiram Gonzalez Alonso

Orlando H. Garrido
Celso Rodrfguez


Academia de Ciencias
Parque Natural Montemar
Rumbos Parque de Zapata
Rumbos Cuba


President del Museo
Ornitoldgico de Cuba
Especialista en Ornitologra
Fot6grafo, Prensa Larina


CONCURSAN EN
* Mejor instantinea
* Conjunto fotogr6fico quemuestrede fonnaartisficade las
aves en su medio acuatico natural.
Fotografia a un ave de la zona de gran valor por su
endemismo y rareza.

CUOTA DE INSCRIPCION
Fot6grafos $90.00 USD
Observadores de avyes $50.00 USD

REQUisiTos
I. Los concursantes traer.n sus equipos de fotograffa.
2. Los trabajos se presentarAn en 35 mm.
3. Se podri participar cnn trabajos a color y en blanco y
negro,
4. Se presentaran en fotograffa de 8 x 10 pulgadas y/o
slides (diapositivas).
5. La cantidad de fotos a presentar seri mayor de 5 y
menor o igual a 10. las cuales serdn patrimonio del
Comild Organizador.


FACaI.DADES

* Padrdn adquirir la gufa de campo de observacidn de aves,
* El revelado do los rullos lo realizard la cntidad Cubasol a
precious m6dicos.
Se podran exponer las mejores fotograffas de los autores
durante el cvento con access al gran pdblico.

PratMos
Se olorgard un premio per cada tematica. Gran premio a la
mcjor FoLograffa.


PRaORAMA
Dfa 30 de Noviembre



Dfa 1 do Diciembre

Dfa 2 de Diciembre
Dfa 3 de Diciembre

Dfa 4 de Diciembre
Dfa 5 de Diciembre


Llegada a La Habana y traslado
a la Penfnsula de Zapata,
acreditaci6n, alojamiento y
c6ctel de bienvenida.
Visita al refugio de Fauna Las
Salinas.
Visita at bosque de Soplillar,
Visita al refugio de fauna de
Santo Tom is,
Excursi6n a Guamd.
Almuerzo de despedida y
premiaci6n de los trabajos
presentados.


PAUETEm TURISnTCO
Dbl, $372.00 USD
Sgl. $399.00 USD

INCLLIYE
* Alojamiento en MAP x 5 noches. Hoteles ** y

* Todos los transfers.
* Excursion a Guamd.
* Almuerzo de despedida.

Envid el cupdn de inscripci6n a la siguiente direccidn:
Calle 0 No. 108 e/c 1 n y 3". Miramar, Ciudad deLa
Habana, Cuba
Telefono: (537) 24-4520
Fax: (537) 24-7167
24-7168


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 129






INTERNATIONAL BIRD PHOTOGRAPHY EVEN-r

FOTOAVE

Noviembre 30 Diciembre 8,. 1998
Gran Parque Montemar
Peninsula de Zapata
Cuba


Dear colleague:

We are pleased to announce that Rumbos, the Recreation
and Tourism Company of Cuba and Montemrar Grand Natu-
ral Park will convene the First Internalinnal Contest of Bird
Photography from 30 November to 5 December 1998 in the
Zapata Peninsula, M atanas province, Cuba. The venue ofthi s
important event is one of Cuba's most interesting and beau-
tiful places of unquestionable natural and historical values
and constitutes one of the most important natural areas in
Cuba and the West Indies. This Natural Park is the habitat of
numerous waterfowl species.


ORGANIZING COMMITTEE
Dr. Josd R. Cuevas
Ing. LAzaro Cotayo
Lie. Eusebio Guerrero
Lie. Maria E.
Dominguez


Academy of Sciences
Grand Natural Park Montemar
Rumbos, Zapata Peninsula
Rumbos Cuba Travel Agency,
Central Office, Habana City


TECHNICAL COMMITTEE
Hirdm Gonz alez Alonso President of the Ornithological
Museum of Cuba
Orlando H. Garrido Ornithologist
Celso Rodriguez Photographer, Prensa Latina

CONTEST CATmIGORIFS
Best close-up.
Ensemble of photographs showing, artistically, birds in
their natural aquatic habitat.
Photograph of a local endemic or rare bird.

REGiSTRAnON FEES
Photographers $90.00 USD
Bird watchers $50.00 USD

REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTESTANT'S
1. Contestants will provide their own photographic equip-
menl.
2. Work will be presented in 35 nmm.
3. Photographs may be in color or black-and-white.
4. The format established for the contest is 8" x 10" for
prints. Color slides are also acceptable,
5. The number of photographs submitted to the evaluation
committed will be more than five, and up to 10 maxi-
mum, which will constitute patrimony of the Organizing
Committee.


FAClunTU
Paticipants can receive the Checklist of Cuban Birds.
The film will be developed by Cubasol Company, which
will offer special modest prices during the event.
Contestants will take their photographs throughout the
event in public sites especially designed for the contest

PRIES
Each theme will be awarded a prize. The best photograph
will receive a special Grand Award.

PROGRAM
November 30 Arrival in Havana, transfer to Zapata Pen-
insula, accredidation, secure lodgi n g, wel-
come cocktail, opening session.
December I Visit to the natural reserve at Las Salinas
December 2 Visit to the Soplillar forest.
December 3 Visit to the Santo Tomis natural reserve.
December 4 Excursion to "Guama," a replica of an
Indian village at Treasure Lake, and the
crocodile breeding farm.
December 5 Farewell lunch, awards ceremony. and clos-
ing session,

TouR PACKAGES
Double room $372.00 USD
Single room S399.00 USD

PACKAGE INCLrDES:
Plan MAP (5 noches). ** y *** hotels.
All transfers (in/out domestic).
Excursion to Guami.
Farewell lunch.

Reservations must he addressed directly to the Organiz-
ing Committee. First International Contest of Bird Photog-
raphy.
Calle 0 No. 108 e/c 1 y 3", Miramar. Ciudad deLa
Habana, Cuba
Telefono: (537) 24-4520
Fax: (537) 24-7167
24-7168


El Fitirrc 10(3)


Page 130









EvlrmTO INTERNATIONAL DE FOTQOGRFIA n, Avts


FOTOAVE


Cupon de Inscripci6n

Sirvase llenarlo a maquina o letra de mnlde.

Apellidos/Surnames
Nombres/Name(s)
Instituci6nt Organization
Direcci6n/Mailing address

Pafs/Country
Fax
E-mail

Participa como:
Fot6grafo/Photographer
Observador de aves/Bird watcher
AcompaT ante/Accompanying person







NEW PUBLICATION


A TEACHER'S GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF JAMAICA

PREPARED BY THE EDUCATION SUI"COMMITTEE OF THE Gossa BIRD CLUB
TExT BY LEO DOLrGOtAS
ILLUSTRATIONS HY MARGARET HODGES AND LEso DOUGLAS
FUNDING BY U. S. FisI AND WILDLIFE SERVICE
1997 38 pp.

This new guide includes three chapters, entitled "Our Birds," "Bird Studies using the School Grounds,"and "Suggestions
fur Class-Birder Activities." Additional materials are provided in the appendices. including Methods of presenting data, a
glossary of bird related terms, national curriculum comments, list of useful contacts, and a bibliography. Accompanying the
guide is a color poster, "Birds of Jamaica protect our birds and where they live."

Available from:
Gosse Bird Club
93 Old Hope Road
Kingston 6, Jamaica, W.I.

Telephone and Fax: 876-978-5881


Page 131


El Pilirre 10(3)








TALLER CIENCIA, SOCIEDAD Y MEDio AmBIENrTE ALTERNATIvAS PARA EL PROXIMO MILENIO


UNIVERSIDAD PEDAGOGICA "FRANK PAIs GARCIA"
D.L 15 AL 17 DE DIC[EIDRE DE 1998


Auspician el event
La facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad Pedag6gica
"Frank Pafs Garcfa"
La Unidad de Medio Ambiente Dclegacidn Territorial
del CITMA
La Citedra Mujcr y Sociedad de Santiago de Cuba

Objetivo
El event pretend analizary debatir las differences temt icas
mediante el intercambio de experiencias, cl debate de
trabajos desarrollados por educadores y estudianles en
torno al tema central del event.

Temitictas
Ciencia y medio ambient
Educaci6n ambiental curricular
Experiencias do educacidn ambiental por vfas no
formales
Trabajo comunitario y Educaci6n Ambiental
Salud, educaci6ny culturaen laescuelay la comunidad
Educaci6n sexual
El juego para el desarrollo de habitos de salud.
Experiencias
Turismo,. medio ambience y pedagogia
Mujer, sociedad y medio ambient

Program preliminary del event
Cursos pre-evento
Conferencias especiales
Presentaci6n y debate de ponencias en tatleres
Exposiciones temiticas
Visitas y recorridos espcciali2adost: a escuelas y
comunidades, museos, jardfn de helechos, Areas
Protegidas
Mesas redondas


Cuota de inscripcion
Ponentcs y delegados: $40.00 MN/USD
Acompafiantes: $15.00 MN/USD

Sin incluir hospedaje y alimentaci6n, pero con derecho
de acceso a las actividades del program a, recibir el
m6dulo, los curses y certificados

Formas de participaci6n y normal para la presentaci6n
de los trabajos:
Se podri participar en calidad de ponente u observador.
El resume no excederA de 250 palabras debiendo
incluir tftulo, autor(s). instituci6n y pats, objetivos y
synopsis del trabajo. Se enviard al Comit6 Organizador
antes del 15 de Noviembre de 1998.

Los ponentes entregarAn un ejemplar del trabajo.

El idinma official serA el Espafiol. Se ofrece servicios de
iraducci6n en Ingles y Franc6s.

Las solicitudes y correspondencias podrin dirigirse a:

Dra. Eumelia V. Romero Pacheco
Universidad Pedag6gica "Frank Pais Garcfa"
Kmin 3-1/2 Autopista Nacional
Z. Postal 90400
Caja Postal 4047
Santiago de Cuba
Cuba

Telex: (53-226) 6-1227
Telifono: 4-1123
Fax: 4-3113


ElPitirre 10(3)


Page 132








IN MEMORIAMt GEORGE A. SEAMAN, 1904-1997


Ro WAuna.
315 Padre Lane, Victoria. Texas 77905, USA


NATURE LOVERS LOST a good friend and colleague when
George Seaman passed away on 17 September 1997 on the
tiny Caribbean island of Saba. He was buried two days later
at The Bottoms with only a few Folks in attendance, Most of
us conservationists, ornithologists, birders, and other ad-
mirers did not receive the bad news until it was too late. He
left behind lots of friends, twa sons, a daughter, and several
grandchildren. But more importantly, perhaps, at least in the
long-term. were his many written contributions that revealed
his love of nature and perspective on West Indian conserva-
tion. These will remain long after the restolus have followed
George to our final reward.
George Seaman, born in December 1904, was deeply
involved with natural resource studies and resource protec-
tion long before most of us became aware that our island
resources were disappearing. For the vast majority of his
lifetime, he fought to protect those resources, He lived a full
and exciting life, exploring the tropics from South America
to the South Seas and throughout the Caribbean. Many
Caribbean biologists were present when he was honored at
the seminal meeting of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology
at St. Croix, 20 May 1988. That conference, which he
attended, was in fact, dedicated to "George A. Seaman,
Naturalist Par Excellence."
One of the best descriptions of George comes from one of
his own books, "Ay Ay An Island Almanac," where he
wrote that he was "obsessed from earliest boyhood with the
urge to investigate my surroundings and see the other side of
the hill." Elsewhere in "Ay Ay" he describes himself as "an
incorrigibledreamerandromantic." And in his book, "Sticks
from the Hawk's Nest," he reveals his inner priority. in
describing his friend Harry Beatty's discovery of the Bridled
Quail-Dove on St. Croix. he wrote,"One small thiing like this
can justify an entire life."
George Seaman credited his love of nature to his stepfa-
ther, John C. DuBois. It was DuBois who introduced young
George to reading, to the nightmare stars and to birds, to
nature in every sense of the word. George once told me
(recorded on three 90 minute taped interviews). "In all
sincerity and truthfulness, Idon't believe any boy could have
had a better father than I had." Young George received his
primary education on St. Croix, and at the age of 16, with only
$25 in his pocket, went to New York City to complete his
education and to find work. Because of his knowledge ofr
birds and taxidermy, he secured a job at the American
Museum of Natural History re-labeling specimens from a
Birds of the World display for Dr. Frank M. Chapman. He
also assisted the famous African explorer Carl Ackley with
taxidermy.
Upon learning that Dr. Ludlow Griscom, the most renown
ornithologist of the day, was preparing for an extensive
Page 133


expedition to Panama, George asked to be included. He was
first turned down, but young Seaman was finally accepted
when he informed Griscom that he could speak Spanish. So,
less than two years after leaving his native West Indies, he
found himself in the unexplored Chirique highlands of
Panama. Although the expedition began well, the Guaymis
Indians misunderstood the use of binoculars (they believed
binoculars could look into the mountains and find gold) and
forced die Griscom party to suddenly fold camp and flee for
their safety. Back in Panama City, George offered to stay in
Panama with the Expedition's guide, Rex Benson. and con-
tinuedcollectingbirds. Griscom reluctantly agreed and George
remained in Panama studying birds for the American Mu-
seum for almost a full year,
The use of arsenic in preserving bird specimens was
commonplace in those days, and when George came down
with a serious case of poisoning, he was forced to leave their
jungle camp to seek medical help in Panama City. It was
there, while he was recovering, that he learned about a British
expedition to the South Seas. The British team of scientists
and their dhree-masted barkentine the St. George were in
port loading supplies.
When the St. George sailed a few days later, George was
on board. The expedition lasted about one year and collected
specimens from the Galapagos, Marquises, Societies, and
Easter islands. Upon his return to Panama, after myriad
experiences, including a major typhoon off Easter Island, a
message that his mother was extremely ill awaited him.
George immediately returned to St. Croix, and his mother
died soon afterward.
Jobs during the 1920s were scare on St. Croix, so George
sought employment elsewhere. He worked in the Dominican
Republic for three years before returning to SL Croix and
various management jobs. But those did not satisfy his desire
to explore "the other side of the hill." So, in 1936, when an
opportunity to join the Weber Expedition to Venezuela came
nbout, he accepted.
George Seaman fell in love with Venezuela. When the 6-
week expedition came to an end, he remained in Venezuela,
taking a job with Standard Oil Co. and living mainly in "wild
cat" camps on the llano. In his spare time he collected bird
specimens for William H. Phelps, Sr., who was then gather-
ing his famous Venezuelan bird collection. George remained
with Standard Oil for six years. "The longer I stayed the more
I loved Venezuela," he told me. "The bird life! I was on the
Orinoco Delta. Couldn't have been a need for waterbirds,
including the rare Orinoco Goose and the Jabiru Stork.
Ducks! I never saw ducks in my life like that. They rose up
in clouds that practically covered the sun."
World War U shutdown the oil business in South America.
But it rekindled the need to obtain rubber from native plants,
El Pitirre 10(3)








and so after a brief return to St, Croix in 1942, he joined
several of his Venezuelan companions who went to work for
the Rubber Development Corporation in Brazil. All during
the war he traveled the Amazon Basin, supplying 13 stations
by air. "We used enormous Catalinas," he told me, "They
could fly from Brazil to Miami without refueling, taking 5
tons of rubber with them. At least once a week I visited one
of these stations."
In 1949, George again returned to the Virgin Islands,
Although his visit was intended to be a short one, the Virgin
Islands Government enticed him to accept a position of"
Wildlife Supervisor for the Department of Fish and Wildlife.
So, on May 16, 1949, at 45 years of age, he began a new
career. First stationed on St. Thomas, he moved to St. Croix
a year later, where he was provided an office at the Agricul-
tural Station by his friend. Dr. Richard Bond, a well-known
scientist in his own right. George and Bond became close
friends and companions.
George Seaman remained with the Virgin Islands Fish
and Wildlife until he retired in 1969. For 20 years he was dithe
only government spokesman for wildlife and their essential
habitats. Few others cared enough about the deer, doves and
pigeons, quail, and other wildlife to study their populations,
document the results, and make recommendations on what
the government must do to protect those valuable resources.
George's official reports included a diversity of topics:
life history studies of White-crowned Pigeons and Zenaida
Doves, as well as food habitats of pigeons, doves, and Bridled
Quail-Doves. From 1950 to 1960, he banded 1,271 White-
crowned Pigeon chicks at Krause Lagoon. His white-tailed
deer studies resulted in an important paper titled "Short
history of deer of St. Croix." George produced numerous
reports on the introduced small Indian mongoose, which
included information on its life history and threat to native
animals. He also reported on the life history of the Pearly-
eyed Thrasher, a deer-cattle fever-tick study, and the actual
and potential stocking programs of various huntable species,
such as guincafowl, chachalacas, White-winged Doves, and
quail, In 1958, George published the first "Check-list of Birds
of the American Virgin Islands." This document has proved
quite valuable in assessing changes in the Virgin Islands'
birdlife since then.
In 1966, he authored a special report: "Conservation
MasterPlan for the U. S. Virgin Islands." This document was
the first of several "land use master plans" written but never


approved for the Virgin Islands. George wrote: "We must lay
aside suitable areas now for the protection of the native flora
and fauna if tomorrow's population is to have and enjoy it.
Our countryside can be urbanized out of all beauty and
recreational value in an astoundingly short time. One look
around and it is alarmingly evident that the scenic beauty of
all islands is at stake."
George left the Virgin Islands government with frustra-
lion, "During the 20-odd years that I had with the local
government, in the field in which I worked, Ididn't get to first
base," he told me. "It was very unsatisfactory from the
standpoint of having built a feeling among the people of the
islands relative to conservation...! did everything possible...l
never got to first base. They were not interested."
Although George may not have "got to first base" during
the years that he struggled as the lone government voice for
resource protection, many of his recommendations have
since come to pass. St. Croix's Sandy Point has been set aside
as a national wildlife refuge to protect nesting leatherbac k sea
turtles. Green Cay, off St. Croix's north shore, was estab-
lished as a national wildlife refuge to protect the last remnants
of the endangered St. Croix Ground-Lizard. Many of the
small Cays around St. Thomas have been given special legal
protection because or their importance to nesting seabirds.
And the Virgin Island Legislature passed a Territorial Parks
Act in 1973 to protect other places of biological importance.
But George was not finished after retirement. He then
began to write about nature for the people. His first book,
"Sticks from the Hawk's Nest," was published in 1973. "Ay
Ay An Island Almanac," 12 chapters about the changing
seasons, appeared in 1980and was republished by Macmill an
in 1989. In 1988, "Sadly Cries the Plover,"a series of poems
about the jungles and llanos of Venezuela, appeared. And
most recently, "Every Shadow is a Man: A Journey Back into
Birds and Time," was published in 1993. Although my
personal favorite is "Ay Ay," each offers something special;
each deserves reading by anyone with an interest in the West
Indies.
George Seaman understood, as no one else, what the
islands were like before commercial developments and habi-
tat degradation began. His perspective on the islands that he
loved so much offers rare insights that are unavailable else-
where. We are richer because of those writings and his years
of conservation. He will be sorely missed!


El Pitirre 10(3)


Page 134









Contents (continued)


HISTORY AND SUBSPECIATION OF THE PEARLY-EYED THRAStHER, EMPI IASIZING MARGAROPS FUSCATUS
BONARIENSIS IN THE NETHERLANDS ANTILLES. Wayrte J. Aret ............................................................................ 103
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND CONSERVATION STATUS OF SOME WEST INDIAN VIREOS.
Jon C B arlow .............................................. ............................... .......................................................................... .... .............. 103
POPULATION DYNAMICS OFTHE WHITE-CHEEKED PINTAIL IN PUERTO RICO. G. Bonilla, R. Castro and
F. R ivera ............... ..................... ..... . ........... ..................... ...................................................... .............. 104
CONSERVATION AND STATUS OF THE CAYMAN BRAC PARROT AND WINTERING NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS.
Frederic L Burton, Patricia E, Bradley, E. J, Williams, and Trevor B. Baxter. ............................................... ........... 104
DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACTS OF HURRICANES ON CARIBBEAN SEABIRDS. J. W. Chardine and R. D. Morris. ............ 105
A MAZONA PARROTS IN JAMAICA. Herlitz Davis and Susan Koening. ............................................ ................................... 106
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HABITAT FRAGMENTATION AND BIRD COMMUNITIES IN THE BUFFER ZONE OF
THE BLUE AND JOHN CROW MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK (BJCMNP). Suzanne Davis. .................... 107
CONTRIBUTION OFTHE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL PARK TO AVIAN CONSERVATION IN HIIISPANIOLA,
Sim 6n G uerreo, ............................... ..... ... .................................................................. ............................. ............. ... 107
CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF STUDIES OF EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPS AMONG SOME
C A R IBB EA N B IR D S. N edra K lein. .............................................................................. ............ ........ ............... .... ............ 107
A CD-ROM GUIDE TO THE RESIDENT BIRDS OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Nicolis L6pcz ............................... 108
VALUES OF THE CONVENTION WETLANDS OF INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE. IHerbert A. Raffaelc. ................. 108
UPDATE ON THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK CONSERVATION. Lisa G. Sorenson. ........................................... 108
PREPARATION AND PRODUCTION OF EDUCATION MATERIALS FOR AVIAN CONSERVATION IN THE
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. E. Vhzqucz, K_ W allace, and R. Lorenzo, ....................................................... ......................... 109
CONTROL OF TH-E SHINY COWBIRD (MOLOTHR US BONARIENSIS): CAN IT IMPROVE THE REPRODUCTIVE
SUCCESS OF RARE OR ENDANGERED SPECIES? THE CASE OF THE YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD
(AGELAIUS XANTHOMUS) IN PUERTO RICO. E. A, Ventosa-Febles, R. L6pe., J. Camacho y A. Falcn ......................... 110
RESTORATION AND HABITAT MANAGEMENT AT THE HUMACAO WILDLIFE REFUGE. PHASE I: HABITAT
ASSESSMENTS AND WETLAND MANAGEMENT PLAN, Francisco J, Vilella and Matthew J,. Gray. ........................... 1 t
ARE HURRICANES A KEY FACTOR FOR THE ECOLOGY OF THE GUADELOUPE WOODPECKER? Pascal Villard. 11III
T IE THICK-BILLED VIREO: A CONSERVATION PERSPECTIVE FOR A WEST INDIES ENDEMIC. Marlene Walker. 112
IMPLICATIONS OF INTRODUCED PREDATORS AND PARASITES FOR THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO IN GUANICA
FOREST, PUERTO RICO. Bethany L. W oodworth. ..... .... .......................... ........................................ ...... ... ....... 112
TI IE TIMING OF THE BREEDING SEASON IN TIHE BANANAQUIT (COEREBA FL.AVEOLA) ON THE ISLAND OF
GRENADA, W EST INDIES. J. M W underle ............. ........ .......... ....................... ................................................ 13
HUMAN INTERACTIONS WITH SEABIRDS IN THE CARIBBEAN, Ann M. Haynes-Sutton. ....................................... 113
GREMIOS TROFICOS DE LAS COMUNIDADES DE AVES RESIDENTS Y MIGRATORIAS EN DIFERENTES
LOCALIDADES DE CUBA. Hiram Gonzalez Alonso......... ............................................................................ ........ ......,,, ]4
AREAS DE IMPORTANCIA PARA LA REPRODUCCION DE ESPECIES MARINAS COLONIALES
(CHARADRI]FORMES) EN CUBA. Pedro Blanco Rodreguez, BArbara Sinchez y A. Hemnndez. ..................................... 114
AREAS DE IMPORTANCIA REGIONAL PARA LAS AVES DEL ORDEN CHARADRIIFORMES EN CUBA.
Pedro B lanco R odrfguez ...... ,,..... .. ........ ... ... .. ............................... .... ..... .......................................................... 14
AREAS DE INVIERNO DEL FRAILECILLO SILBADOR EN CUBA. Pedro Blanco Rodriguez.......................,,.................. 11
COMPOSICION Y ABUNDANCIA DE LA AVIFAUNA EN DOS FORMACIONES VEGETABLES DE LA ALTIPLANICIE
DE NIPE, HOLGUIN. CUBA. BArbara SAnchez, Ramona Oviedo, Nils Navarro. Arturo Hernmndez. Carlos Pefia y Ernesro
R eyes. ............................................... .................. ............ .... ... ............................. .... ........... ..... ............................................. 15
ESTRUCTURA DE LA COMUNIDAD DE AVES EN LA ARROCERA DE SUR DEL JfBARO, SANCTI SPfRITUS.
Lourdes M ugica, Martin Acosta, Dennis Denis y Pedro L. M artinez........................... ........................................................... 115
RELACION ENTIRE LA MORFOLOGfA DEL SISTEMA DIGESTIVO CON LA DIETA EN EL COCO PRIETO PLEGADIS
FALCINELLUS. Dennis Denis, Martfn Acosta y Loutdes Mugica ..................... ........... ................. .................. 115
ALIMENTACION DE BUHULCUS IB13S IBIS (AVES: ARDEIDAE) EN UN PASTIZAL DE LA PROVINCIAL DE LA
HABANA, CUBA, Maria Eicna Garcia Romero...... ... ...... ...... ..................... ..... .... ............ ................. 116
LAS RAPACES EXTINTAS DE CUBA Y SU IMPORANCIA ECOLdGICA DURANTE EL CUATERNARIO, Carlos
Arredondo A nt6nez. ................... ..................... .................... .................. ....................... .... .. .. ............. ................. 116
CONSIDERACIONES SOBRE LA ACTIVIDAD TROFICA DE Ti70 ALBA FURCATA Y LA NECESIDAD DE SU1
CONSERVAC1IN. Carlos Arredondo Antdne ........................................................................................ 116
SCO REPRESENTATIVE REPORTS
JA M A IC A_ Suzanne D avis. ................. ... ........... ,,..... ,,............................................. ................... ....... ... ... .... ............ 117
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO Gerard Alieng .................................... ........................ ...... ...................................... 11
SABA REPORT. Martha W alsh-McGehee ................. ..... ............. ............................. .................................... 19
THE CAYM AN ISLANDS. Trevor Baxter .......................... ........ .... .. .............. .................................................... 120


Ei Pitrre 10(3)








Contents (continued)


WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENT COMMUNITY IN ANTIGUA-BARBUDA. Kevel Lindsay, ............. 123
STATUS OF ORNITHOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE BAHAMAS. Carolyn Wardle ........................................................ 124
ACTIVIDADES DE CONSERVATION DE LA AVIFAUNA EN LA REPrBLICA DOMINICANA EN 1997.
Sim 6n G uerrer ............ ............ ......... ,,,,....................... ......... .................... ... .................................................................. 126
NEW S O F M EM BERS ....................................... .............. .. ......... .............. ........................................ ................... ......... 127
REQUEST FOR A SSISTANCE ......... ...... ...... .... ..................... .................................... ................................ 127
POSITIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES AVAILABLE .................................................................................................................... 127
M EETIN G S OF INTEREST ................... .................................. ............ ............. .... .................................. 27
JO RN A DA 30 ANIVERSA RIO ....................................... .................. ........................ .................................... ...................... ...... .. 128
FOTO A V E .................................- 1....... ............................... ......... .................................. ............... ...................... 129
NEW PUBLICATION
A TEACHER'S GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF JAMAICA ........................................................... .... ............................. 131
TALLER CIENCIA, SOCIEDAD Y MEDIO AMBIENTE............................................. .................................... .............................. 132
IN MEMORIAM: GEORGE A. SEAMAN, 1904-1997. Ro Wauer. ................................................................................................ 133











SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

President: Dr. Joseph Wunderle, Jr.
Vice President Mr. Rocland E. de Kon
Secretary: Dr. Marcia Mundle
Treasurer: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam


El Pitirre 10(3)




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