Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00030
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre (Camarillo Calif.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo Calif
Camarillo, Calif
Publication Date: 1997
Frequency: bimonthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100143
Volume ID: VID00030
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
 Related Items
Succeeded by: Journal of Caribbean Ornithology

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EL PITIRRE

El Pitirre is the newsletter of the Society of
Caribbean Ornithology.

El Pitirre es el boletfn informative de la
Sociedad de la Ornitologfa Caribefia.

EorroR: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St.,
Ruston, Louisiana 71270, U.S.A.
AssisrANT ETrroRs: Barbara Keesee and
Lianne Hibbert, Grambling Cooperative
Wildlife Project, P. 0. Box 4290, Grambling
State University, Grambling, Louisiana
71245, U.S.A.


News,comments or requests should be mailed
to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter.

Noticias, comentarios o peticiones deben ser
envfadas al editor para inclusi6n en el boletfn.


Tyrannu.r dominicensis


Pitirre, Gray Kingbird, Pestigre,
Petchary, Pipirit


The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization
whose goals arc to promote the scientific study and conservation of
Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island
ornithologists and those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for
researchers in the region (refereed journal-Ornitologia Caribefla,
published in conjunction with the Puerto Rico Ornithological Soci-
ety) and to provide data or technical aid to conservation groups in the
Caribbean,

La Sociedad de la Ornitologfa Caribea es una organizaci6n sin
Fines de lucro cuyas metas son promoter cl studio cientifico y la
conscrvaci6n de la avifauna caribcla, auspiciar un simposio annual
sobre laomitologfacaribefia, publicarunarevistaprofesiona llamada
Ornitologa Caribelia (publicada en conjunto con la Sociedad
Ornitol6gica de Puerto Rico), ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entire
ornitdlogos caribefos y en otras dreas y proveer ayuda tdcnica o
datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.


CONTENTS

SmTUACI6N ACTUAL Y CONSERVACION DE LA YAGUAZA ANTm.LANA
(DEowocYGtA ARBOREA) EN LA REPtFBUCA DONUNICANA.
Josd A. Ottenwalder ............................................................. 2
THE AMERICAN KESTREL FALCO SPARVERUS (AVES: FALCONIDAE) IN
JAMtAICA. Orlando H. Garrido, Arturo Kirkconnell, Audrey
Downer, Ann Haynes Sutton, and Robert Sutton ................. 11
Dos CASOS DE ANIDAM ENTO DE LA CARTACUBA TODus MULTiCOLOR
(AVES: TODIDAE) EN UNA CUEVA. Carlos A. Mancina y
Patricia Garcfa Ferndndez ........... ............................. 12
OTROS NUEVOS REGISTROS DEL FRAILECILL SnLBADOR CHARADRWS
MELODvS ME LA PRovvNCLt De LA HAnANA, CUBA. Pedro
Blanco R, y Eneider Ptrez M. .......................................... 13
REPORT DE N1OS INUSUALES DE CIGUA PALMERA DULVS DOMINICUS
(AVES: DuuLDAE). Sim6n Guerrero ................................. 14
REY CONGO NCTAnASSA WOLACEA (AvEs: ARDEIDAE) NImFICANDO
SOBRE UN NEDO DE DuLVS Dorcus. Sim6n Guerrero............ 14
BLACK-CAFPED PETRELS FLEE INTO CANADA BEFORE HURRICANE FRAN.
Leo D ouglas ............ ...... .................................. ................... 15
PRIMER OBSERVAC16N DE COEREMA FEAVEOLA (L NNEO) (AVEs:
COEREBIDAE) PARA EL MACCZO MONTA.4OSO GUAMtUHAYA, CUBA.
Abel Hemdndez Muiioz y Bob Bowles ............................. 16
(Continued on page 46;








S1TUACI6N ACTUAL Y CONSERVACI6N DE LA YAG UAZA ANTILLANA (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA)
EN LA REPUBLTCA DOMINICANA'

JOsm. A. Orr.NwAwtEr
Proveeti BiodhWrvsidad GEF-PNULD/ONAPLAN, Programvi de1 as Naeiones Uiddas para el Desanoloh, Fondo para el Medio
Anjbiernt Mtidial. Apart ado 1424, Saio Donabrgo, Repyiblica Dominicair



An rnAcr.-Tlhe curreiit conservation statRs and distribution of the West Indlan Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arboreal)
in the Dominican Republic is reviewed. Eval uatiori a 'historical and recent available data indicates that existing poplilaTiofln
are found in six major lawland regions of the country. primarily along coastal areas, with the exception of twoNinland ranges.
Even with highly fragmented habitats and local ex rpationsfrDn s pacific localities most historical areas continue to support
populations, which at present appear to he declining in most localitides. The primary causes for population declines are
conversion and environmental degradation of weaLand habitats because of increasing pressure from development activities,
While pressures, for socioeconomic development become more demanding. effective conservation action have hampered
primarily by the lack of adequate political support for the development and implementation of sound biodiversity
conservation and development planning policies, boti at national and regional levels. These conditions will be essential to
promote extirpatinn of institutional weakness and ile strngthening of wildlife agencle.s to allow effective enforcement of
protective regulations concerning the species and its critical habitats. Furnhermnore, there is a lack of detailed information
about tte species' cumrrent population densities, Irends and extend of remaining natural range, conservation problems limiting
ttinibers and habitat quality, and about its natural history and ecology.


DE TODAS LAS EXIPECIES DF ANkIDOS NArVOS de la region
an till ana, DendrocygnIa arborea es la Unicacuyadistribuicidn
estd excustivamente restringida al Area. Existe una Forma
regional del Pato Chorizo (Oxy rajamaiceuasis)qucc. laraza
nomi nal: sin embargo, lad is tri bucidn de la es pi ice see xtic nde
hasta Noreatmnira.,do ade estd rm prse ntlada por utna poblaci 6n
adicional (0. j. nibida).
Eit las Antillas Mayores la distribucian de D. arboreal
inc luye Jamaica, Islas Cay n an, Cu ha, Isla de Pin as, Repiblica
Dominicana, Haiti, Tle-a-Vache, Maoia, Puerto Rico e Islas
Virgenes Briticas y SL. Croix. Se e ncuentra ademas en [as
Bahamas (Andros. Acklins, San Salvador, Rum Cay. Long,
Hog Cay, Ragged, Crooked, Inagu a, y New Providence), y en
las Islas de Tureos y Caicos, En Las Antillas Menores se
en cuentra en las isLas de B arbuda y Anig ua.Tambhin ha side
reporrada en Barbados (Bond 1962). Se consider casual en
el rest de las islas (St. Kitts-Nevis). El registro echo por A.
H,. Verrill en Dominica en 1905, se consider dudoso (Bond
1952). So conucen registros accidentales de Bermuda y en
Texas. Se conoce material fdsil de Puerto Rico (Bond 1958)
y subfosil de Barbados, posiblement del Pleistaceno tard'fo
(Bond 1965). Aunque en algunas localidades no habla side
rcportada hastu ia chas relai vamerite recientescomo en Mona
(1974), Cayman Brac y Pequefie Cayman (1972), Nueva
Providencia (1971) y Barbados (1962), los diltimos informed
indican quc su si Luacid n us critical e n algunas Oroas y dccadentr
en casi today la region, al extrenio que Ia especie tha sido
considerada rara (IUCN Red Data Book), y esti incluida en
el Apendice Ii de In Convencitin sobre TrAfico Internacional
de Especies Amenazadas de Fauna y Flora (CITES).


La Yaguaza Andilana fue una especie abundance en el
pasado. Durante el present siglo su distribuci6n se ha visto
reducida y sus nmmeros han disminuido. Actualmente csta
clasificada come vulnerable a lraves de toda su distribucidn
en tas Antillas (King 1981, IUCN 1986, 1988, Groombridge
1993, IUCN 1996), y sC encuenlra en el Apendice 11 do
CITES. Las poblaciones de la Repdblica Dominicana estdn
consideradas en la mismacategoriade amenazai(Ottenwalder
1990, DVS/SEA 1990).

DismiB CION

En Ia Reptiblica Domi nicana, la yaguazu sc encuenitra
ntayorrnenteen ambientes de humedales costeros salobres y
de agua dulee y asi conio en cihnagas y lagunas interiors,
todas estas dreas restringida a las tierras bajas y llanuras del
pals. Su distrihbucidn n RepTblica Dontinicna se dispute
aquf en tres grades divisions territoriales: a) noroesce-
norle-noreste, b) este-sureste-sur, y c) suroeste (Fig, 1).
Dentro de cada una de las Ires grandes divisions geog c licas
indicadas, losregistros conocidos se identifican asu vez tanto
per ecoregiones subdivisionss fisiogrtificas y ecoldgicas
naturales) coino por localidades especificas confirmadus,
Algti aslocalidades reportadas en la iteratura. I omo"Rincdn
de San Francisco de Mueorfs," "Jicoeitu," y "Esperanza"
(Dud 1981)], no pudieron ser incluidas aqui per falia do
detalles references a su ubicaucin precisa. Las localidades
cuya ubicac in ha podido s r precisada adecuadainente son
indicadas en la Figura 2.


iPresen Lado un lI reunion d:e I Socicdaddc Onitilo]gi dcl C.iribb, Nmssau, hialiaas, 2-7 Agosto 1996. Un trabajo mis complete,
cOnelrtivndci todai l inr fomurnii6n disponible y Ln HTuni.isis iilis detaillado de [a problemArLica de conservac idn dle la uspcL i en la RepiNblica
Domylinin, ser public i ndo post rirmenic.
Page 2 El Pitirre 10(1)






Dendrocygna arborea en la RelpubI. a Dominican Ortenwalder


tLANURA COSTERA
ATLANTCO OCEAELO ArAATNTICO
-,'{,~ o-; e" 'CEA O LrEA LAH I:0



-- .- B




.. ....



a ""'

Fig. 1. _, d: rel.e.c- .n- ra ni.:j rcpI Osie- a'.ru color
gris) y 1lanuras costeras (color negro) e interiores (patron de r.:. .s
verticales) de la Republica Dominicana. La dUnr'uI.:E conocida
de poblaciones y hAbitats dela Y-.iUa2'..L. i- c l ..:enida on 13; ZLt-:'.L
bajas destacadas en color negro. Con la excepci6n de la Hoya de
Erinquillo o Valle dc Neiba donee la extension y movimienrtos de
la especie son mnayores que lo que sugircie las drcas seialadas en
color negro), las l1anuras de interiores marcadas con un sign de
interrogaci6n (?)carecn dereportes (Llanura de Azua, Vall c de .rid
Juan), Bunquees moy probable que su distribuci6n sea mayor en las
porciones del Valle del Cibao alejadas de la costa,


A. DisTRnuUCON NORESTE-NOR.T-NORESTE
Rrgidn de Montecristi y Lianura Occidental del Valle drl
Cibao (comprende las cin :igs coster'.s ucrras bajas il
Oeste Je la Boca del Rfo Bajabonico).
Laguna deSaladilla. Doce colectadas en 26dejunio 1927
'Danf.icnh 1929). Bandada de 15 observada, y cuatro adults
capturados vivos en redes para patos el 2 de abril 1978;
bandadas pequefias y grande han sido observadas par IAO
en varias ocasiones entire 1977 y 1988. Desde el cercano
poblado de Carbonera, gufas locales y cazadores usan esta
lacuna para lacacera deyaguazas (JAO). Unabandadadc 28
observada en 14 de marzo 1985 (Faanes y Haney 19S9.,
Tarbilcn hay repoines con linnados de ejemplarcs cazados en
Laguna de Saladilla durante 1995-1996 (L. Amiarna, comr,
pers.; TAO),
Estero Balsa- Bandadas observadas cn varias ocasiones
entire 1977y 19 8S (JAO),y se conocen ejemplarescazod,-is en
los extensos manglares de Estero Balsa durante 1995-1996
(L. Amiama, com. pers.; JAO).

Llanura COstera none del Atlntinco (esta ecoregion c oimF-ende
los humedales de las tierras bajas de Luper6n y del Rio
Bajabunico la Llanura de Puerto Plata, el V'lle dret Riu
YAsica, y Llanura de Nagua y del Rio Sin Juan).
Saban eta de Ydsica. Observada en los humedales de B oca
del Calio (o Boca del Rio Yasica), desembocadura formada
porla uni6n de los rfos Yasica y Veragua (JAO). Otro report
enestamisma Areacitalos"nianglaresde GasparHernandec"
(D.ad 1981) sin nm a or precision geopiri.La
EL Pitirre lO .) L


B ah.h1 Ji Samand y Llanuras Costeras de Miches y Sabana de
la Mar (en esta ecoregi6n se incluyen los humedales de
las costa none de la Bahia, del Delta del Rio Yuna.
desembocadura del Rio Barracote, y humedales de las
Llanuras Costeras de Miches y Sabana de la Mar),
Bahia de Samand. Fue considerada por WceI mo ric Sw ak.j
(1931) coma la region donde la especie parecfa ser mas
comrin en la Repuhlic Dominicana, particularmente en la
Balia de San Lorenzo, donde fue colectadapor W. Abbott en
julio y septiembrede 1916. Abbott tanbidn colect61a especie
,:n S.inh'- ci re'brerode ccsnmismoN i, Wetmore (Wetmore
y Swales 1931) observe yaguazas en una cidnaga 5 millas al
E de Sinchez en mayo 192"7.- Dos fueron observadas en Rio
Culebra cerca de Sabana de la Mar en marzo-abril 1977 CV.
,kr,.i.I cr-m per..) Ademisdelas localidades mencionadas,
en colecciones de musco se conocen ejemplarc-. colectados
en La Caliita. en la descmibacadurd del RioYuna. Tambidn se
conocenreportes (L, Amiama, com. pers.) de que la a ujz.t
sigue siendo bastante comfin en Lim6n de Yuna.
L2irra'; de Nisib6n. Este nombre es a menudo utilizado
para referirse a las varias laguna., y humedales que se
encuentran el extremo oriental de la -lanuia Cc,s-cr' nfi-L.ieI
del Atidntico,entreSabanadelaMary Nisibon Loshumed:iles
mas importantes en esta region son: la Laguna Red:orida y la
Laguna del Lim6n. Cercade N iStbin se encuentra adermns un
humredal much mas pequcno conocido como Cidnaga de la
Majagua. Todas estas lagunas son bien conocidas por
cazadores entrevistados recientemente, report6ndose la
existencia actual de poblaciones "mas o menos buenas" de la
yaguaza en ellas (L. Amiama, corn. pers.; JAO). Reports
menos recientes en la Laguna del Lim6n incluyen
observaciones por K. Arnold (com. pers.) en dos ocasiones
con un mkiaimo de 4 aves en 3-4 de Junio 1975.

B. Disr-RmuCION ES'TE-SUR-S~-SESTE
Llanura Costera del Canbe (la Llanura Costera del C.manh
cubre una vasta regi6n que se entiende desde Nisib6n en
el este, hacia el oeste, a lo largo de las tierras llanas de
toda Ia region costera sur del pais, desde la Provincia La
AJ tgrac i a. hast 1 a B ahia de las Caldecras, en laP ro'.inc ia
Peravia).
Ha pesar de que la especie ha tenido importantes
poblacioncs en cstn region, que contiene un gran numern de
humedales, particularrncnte en la region Villa Mella-La
Victoria-Monte Plaia- B.yaguana. su existencia en estarea
y en toda la Llanura Costera del Caribe es prActicamente
desconocida en la literature. Actualmente los humedales de
la re giin. tanto los salads costeros corno los de agua dulce
en el interior y en deltas de rios, han sido extensamente
reducidos y convertidos en arrozales, asf como tambi&n
secados para el cottiad o dc aiade iazdcai, pasioreo de janado.
fincas agricolas e industriales, etc. Apesar de esto, poblaciones
Jinijnridas de ia especie en varias localidades,
Porci6n nor-oriental (al note y este de Santo Do'mi ni n .
Informaci6n muy recience, en part consistent enejemplares
obtenidos por cazadores durante 1995-1996, indica que la
Page 3





Dendrocygna arborea en Ia Reptlblica Dominican OLtenwalder


Fig. 2. Localidades relevantes enla distribuci6n de laYaguaza Anillana en la Repdblica Dommicana.
Ver texto en relaci6n a ia importancia hist6rica actual.


especie esta presence en las siguientes localidades, ubicadas
todas dentro de un drea y do esta region: Laguna de Macoris
alesie del Rio Soco (dos ejemplares subaduitoscapturadosen
abril 1996); Bayaguana, arrozales cercanos a El Dean y El
Tablazo, fragmentos de bosque en lomas de Monte Plata
cercanos a los dos Savita, Din, y Tablazo; arrozalcs y
humedales en La Estrella, y El Uno dc La Estrdila, Villa
Mela; Rio Isabela,cuencaaltadelRioOzama, D, N. (irregu-
lar); Los Rieles de Bayona, Hato Nuevo. 20 km none de
Santo Domingo, D.N. (Luis Amiama, com. pers.; JAO).
Pilancdn es mencionada por Dod (1981).
En la porci6n occidental (al aeste de Santo Domingo).
Hay observaciones de la especie en varias lagunas de la
Provincia de San Crist6bal desde mediados de los 1970s,
incluyendo la Laguna Don Gregorio y otros humedales
distribuidos en la franja costera entire desde Haina hasra la
B ahfa de Calderas (JAO). Muchos dc los humedales existentes
hace 20 alios entire Haina y San Crist6bal han desaparecido,
tanto per drenaje artificial come por reileno de materials,
como es el caso de la Laguna de Quitasuefio.

C. DisrRmuO6N SUROEaEn
Valle de Neiba (Hoya de Enriquillo)
Laguna de Rinc6n (= Laguna de Cabrall. Reportadas
como regulates y posiblemente reproduciendo en 1931
(Wetmorc y Lincoln 1933). Unao mas observadas en febreru
1951 por W. Belton (com. pers.). Tres adults capturados el
3 abril 1975 aproximadanmente entre 19:30 y 20:00 hr con
redes de niebla a paapatos, colocadas sobre el agua dentro do
la laguna, en una zona del extreme oeste de esta conocida
come Cristdbal (JAO). Siete huevos colectados por JAO de


un nido en un tronco de palma Royssonea cerca de orillade la
laguna en julio 1976 (incubados exitosamente), Un adulto
capturado con redes de neblina en ]a porcidn de Ia laguna
conocida como "Crist6bal" el lI julio 1977 (JAO).
Lago Enriquillo. Las yaguazas Fueron consideradas
bastante numerosas en el Lago Enriquillo por Abbot en
octubre 1919 (Wetmore y Swales 1931). Seis (6) observadas
per D. Wingate en 6 febrero 1982. Observadas por JAO en
parejas, bandadas entire 5 y 18 aves en varias localidades de
este lago entire 1976 y 1989 (Los Borbollones, Jimanf, Hatc
Nuevo, Baitoa y los extensos humedales del extreme este del
Lago formados por tas entradas del Canal Crisl6bal, Rio Las
Marinas, Caflo Ramillo, Rio Bermesf. y el Cailo Las Damns al
none de Duverge), y particularmente en la costa norte de la
Isla Cabritos.
Laguna de Lim6n. La especie era bastante comun en la
Laguna de Lim6n (tambidn conocida como "Laguna del
Medio", ubicada pr6xima ala margen sur del Lago Enriquillo
y al ct del 1pubiadu du El Limin), ,tiLc dte su ictducidua OL
extension por drenado. Esta laguna no ha desaparecido
completamenteporaportes considerablesde aguacontribuidos
posteriormente por huracanes, yen alos recientes las yaguaz-as
hancontinuado utilizando tanto lalagunacomolos fragments
de basque que la rodean y desde los cuales se dispersan hacia
el Lago Enriquillo.

Peninsula Sur do Barahona
Laguna de Oviedo. Dos subadultos obviamente crfas del
aio capturados con redes de niebla para pawos en diciembre
de 1974 (JAO), Cuatro fueron observadas en febrero 1977
par W. Arendt (corn. pers.).


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 4






Dendrocygna arborea en la Rcptiblica Dominican Ouenwalder


Fig. 3. Hab itat potenc ial de la Yaguaza Antillana en 1 a RepLiblica Dominicana. Dismtbuci6n de los bosqucs
dc manglar en la zona costera, Datos derivados de mapas LopogrIficos 1:50,000 y reconocimiento adreo.


Lag una Saada (= Lag unas de Bucdn de Base). Observadas
en tres ocasiones con un mdximo de 4 individuos entire 24-26
mayo 1975 (K. Arnold, corn. pers.). Individuos solitarias,
parejas, y bandadas de 5, 9, 12, y 18 aves, observadas
movihndose enLre las lagunas de Bucan de Base en febrero y
ocrubre de 1975; dos bandadas de 14 y 23 individuos en 10-
I 1 julio 1976 (JAO). Cinco observadas en febrero 1977 (W.
ArendL, com. pers.), y "vanas" en 3-6 agosto 1977 (Wiley y
Ottenwalder 1990).
Isla Beara. Reportada coma "regular" por los marines de
puesto en la cstacii6n naval de la isla en 1977 (Wiley y
Ottenwalder 1990).

Smr.AC16N DE LA POBLACION SALVAxE

La disminuci6n poblacional de la especie en Ia Repdblica
Dominicana ha sido abordada prcviamence por Ottenwalder
(1973, 1978a, 1978b, 1990), Dod (1981), y DVS/SEA (1990),
y por Collar et al. (1992), centre otros.
La informaci6n disponible no penaite ofrecer estimados
de poblaci6n de la yaguaza en la Republica Dominicana. Sin
embargo, una aproximaci6n at cambio en la abundancia
relativa de la especie es factible en tdrminos hist6ricos. Los
informes de ornit6logos que visitaron la Repiblica
Dominicana a finales del siglo pasado y a principios del
actual, coincidieron en su aprcciaci6n de Ia gran abundancia
de la especie en esa dpoca: coinn en todas las
ci6nagas"..."frecuentcmente observada comiendo los frutos
de palma real lejos de cualquier agua" (Verrill y Verrill
1909); "muy abundance" (Danforth 1929); "bastante coamtn


en las Lierras bajas, particularmente en la Bahfa de Samani"
(Wetmore y Swales 1931).
Las observaciones que hemnosrealizado en el campoentre
mediados de los 1970s y primer mitad de los 1990s indican
claramence que sus ndmeros han disminuido debida
primordialmente a la reduccidn en extension y calidad de suis
habitats, al uso de pesticidas de alta toxicidad, y a la cacerra
illegal. Por otro lado. las personas entrevistadas para este
report, incluyendo cazadores activos, han recanocido que
con ia exception de algunas areas arroceras. las poblaciones
de la especie ha disminuido en todo el territorio national.
Segun los cazadores. "esta situacidn no se debe directamente
a la caceria sino a la moralidad causada por pesticides y a la
degradaci6n y drenado de lagunas". Existe la posibilidad de
que las areas arroceras hallan contribuido a la estabilidad y
quizas al aumento de algunas poblaciones localmente, pero
no se han obtenido datas concretos para apoyarestapremisa.

HISTOMRA NATURAL Y EcoLOGIA

La historic natural de la Yaguaza Antillana cn la vida
salvaje no ha sida estudiada de manera sadisfactoria. y su
situaci6n poblacional en la mayoria de las islas es poco
conocida. La escasez de informaci6n puede star en part
relacianada con el hecho de que las species de habitos
nocLurnos o parcialmente nocturnos, generalmente ofrecen
menos oportunidades para la observaci6n. Aunque no seria
inesperado encontrar pequefias bandadas a plena luz del dfa,
su acrividad se inicia mayormente a la hora del crepuscuto
Estos hbihtos son bien conocidos entire los cazadores, los


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 5







Dendrocygna arborea en la RepblicEa Domrinican Ottenwalder


ctales esperan Ia llegada del ocaso, cuando las yaguazas
vuelan en handadas desde la vegetaci6n cercana a ros,
lag unas y manglares para ezarlas.
En la Reptiblica Dominicana. observaciones sobre la
bialogfu reproducliva de Ia yaguaza han sido realizadas por
tan to in [a vida salvaje emo en cautiverio entire 1974 y 1982
(JAO, manusc rito sin publicar). Datos parci ales de losestudios
real[ados un cautiverio (Ottenwalder 1981), representados
por una tnuestra de 48 nidos registrados enirejulio dc 1978
y noviembre de 1980, han aportado los siguientes resultados:
la posture de huevos se extended desde enero a noviembre,
regisirdndose el pica de [a cstacidn de puesta en re abril y
agosto 67%de los nidadas), el tama5o prnmediode lanidada
fue de 11.6 huevos/nido (N=47). variando entire 6 y 19
huuvos; el tcamaio de ha puesta estuvo influenciado por el
numero de Liembras poniendo y la disponibilidad de sitios
para anidar: postures de hiuevos en un mismo nido por mau du
una hembra Fue frecue nte ("dump nest"), partic ularmente en
los nidos con [as postures mas grandes.

HABITAT

La yaguaza utiliza una gran diversidad de hdbitals en la
Rep]ti b ica Dominic ana: may orne nte man glars y hu media [es
de variable salinidad y de agua dulce. La mayoria de los
hdibilta uLilizados estain Iocalizados en ia zona costera, siendo
Ia tinica excepci n los lagos inLeriores y humedales de] Valle
de Neiba. y algunas localidades de la Llanura Costera del
Caribhe. Tanto la Reptiblica Dominicana como Haitf
(Hispaniola) estfin caracierirados por un relieve moniefios,
to que result enti un drenaje de las aguas hacia [as costas.
Como consecuencia, los lagos y rios intcriores comprenden
menos del I por ciento de la superficie tocal de la Repdblica
Dominicana (399 km' de 48,442 km:n) ars hornet al, 1981).
La uhicacitn de las dreas mas notables se indica en las
Figuras 2 y 3. Estos incluyen: pantanos de agua dulce con
vegetaci6i emergente abundante cerca del mar (Laguna de
Sal adilla, Laguna del Limdn), cienagas de manglar, bosques
salinas inundados adyacentes a la costa (Laguna de 0viedo
- hipersalina, Laguna Salada/Bucdn de Base -salbre), lagos
salinos (Lago Ertriq u iio, I ago h ipersa itno pe rmanente), lagiu-
nas interiors de agua duke (Laguna de Rinci6n), humedales
asociados a rfos y dellas (Rio Yuna), arroviules (La Estrella,
delta del Rio Yuna), bah as (San Lorenzo).
Las comunidades de manglares mas importantes de la
Reptblica Dominicanasoni [ustradasy sefialadasen laFigu ra
3. La costa norte tiene las dreas de mang lares mas grandes del
pL's, con mars de 18,000 ha, crinon trndose [Las n ayores
cotncentraciones en Monteeristi ( ,550 haL) y on la 13ahia de
Sam an (ires concentraciones separadas: 7,783 ha en el delta
del Rfn Yuna, y oiras dos menores de 1,326 ha, y 1,2M18 ha,
para un total de 10,317 ha). Las costusdel este y del sureste
tienen un total de 1.308 hade manglares, dc los cuales 1. 173
estia en el Parque Nacional del Este, y 647 ha en Ia costa sur.
En ei Parque Nacional Jaragua. en el su'oeste, hay 2,471 ha
de man glares. localizados en dos dreas, la Lagura de Oviedo,
y las Lagunas Saladas de Buc n de Base.
Pace 6


Las dreas de terrenos pantanosos o humedales mas
imparcantes de lIa zona costura di [a Rep dblica Doininicana
son indie ados en la Figura 4. Las mayors concentraciones se
encLnentran en: 1) Sabaneta de Yiisica, en cil none; 2) la Bahia
Escocesa, entre Cuba Jackson y Nagua, en el noreste; 3)
planricle y delta del Rfo Yuna, en la Bahfa de Samani, y 4) a
lo largo de la costa noresle-este, desde Sabana de [a Mar en
la Bahfa de Samand, hasa Cabo Engailo. Estos son humed ales
prmanrenites todo el ati, aunque se reduce ocasionalmeRte
durante periods de sequfa. Un gran numero de otrus tierras
pantanos as puLede enconlrarse por todas las llanuras del pais,
aunq ue la mayoria die stas no son tan exLensas ni retienen
aguaen formapermanente. siendodependientes de las [luvias.

AMtNAiAS

Tries factors pri ncipales bacausado ]a reduccidn nu merica
de las poblaciones de yaguaza en la Repdblica Duominica y
representan las mayores amoenazas parala conservacidn de la
especie: rcduccidn en [a extension y la calidad del habitat
natural parece ser la causa primordial de esta situacidn,
mientras que el uso hidiscrinminado de pesticides y la caccrfa
legal, le siguen en orden dcrecireent de impornancia.

Reducci6n y degradacion del habitat
La situaci6n actual de I s hihi tats naturales utilizados pur
la yaguazu en la Repdblica Dominicana es bastantc critca.
Los humedales han sido grandemente reducidos en su
extension superficial y su calidad ambiental degradada per
una diversidad die impacts, entire estos: conversion de los
hunicdades en arrozales, c vaporadores de sal o 'sa inas" para
producci6n de sal, fincas ganaderas, y acuacultura: drenaje o
relleno para urbanizaciones, turismo, y/o eliminaci6n dc
"plagas." eIc.
Durante los l`limos 20 afios, programs intensivos de
drenaje de humedales naturales en los rios mas grades del
pats para lacreaci6n y habilitacidn de tierras de cultivo, han
resultado en un incremento de dreas dedicadas a arrozalcs dc
un 59%., alcanzandu en 1987 1,200 kin, o sea 2.5 kin'm de la
supcrficle iatal del pals. Los mas extensos habitats de
humnedales, los cuales incidentalmente coincide con la
distribuci6n de la yaguaza en el pats, son precisamente los
mas afectados por la conversion de uso: en Sabaneta de
Ysica han sido modif'icados para fines agrfcolas: en la Bahra
Escocesa han sido convertidos para la crfa de ganado y
producci6n de arroz; y los extensos pantanos de la planici y
el delta del Rio Yuna han sido igualmente modificados en
ticrras arroceras y ganaderas.
Una vasta cxtensidn dc manglares crece en la
desermbocaduma de rios, en la grucsa capa de sedimentos que
han sido arrastrados por los cauces fluviales y precipitados
cuando entraron en contacio con el agun saluda. Esme
important habitat para las yaguazas y itras aves aculticas
cubre solamenic 100 kmn, representando apenas un 0.2 por
ciento dc la superficic total del pats (Harshorn et al, 1981 )- El
core de manglares en el pais es un problema serio,
parnicularmenteparalaproducci6dnde carbn. La degradacidn
El Pitirre 10(1)







Dendrocygna arborea en la Repdblica Dominican Olctnwalder
TABA I,. Toxicidad aguda, para organismos acugiticos y de vida silv:sire, de
pesticides no clasiicados (uso general) que se ullijian comninmentc un [a
Republica Dominicana (Fucnte; Segarra-Carmona 1992).


Status Avian LD Fish LC Inveilebrados
Normbre comfln Reg' 50 (Mallard) 50 (Trou L)LC 50 (Dapania)

Ins-cxicidas
Acefom U 350 >1000 ppm >10() ppm
Birferina U 2150 0.2 ppb 1.6 ppb
Carbaryl U 2179 6.8 ppm 6.4 ppb
Clorpyrifts U 76.6 3.0 ppm 0,2 ppb
Difocol U >3000 0.3 ppm 0.4 ppm
Diniieloato U 15 40.0 ppm
Endosulfan U 205 2.0 ppb
Etuprup U 287 0.0 ppm 5.6 ppm
Oxido de Fenbutadin U 2510 1.7 ppb 40 ppb
Fenitrution NR 1190 1,7 ppb
Fluvalinato U 5620 2.9 ppm 74 ppb
Malathion U 1485i 200.0 ppm 1.0 ppm
Mcthoxyclor U 2510 9.0 ppb 0.8 ppb
Phasmet U 2009 70.0 ppb 5.6 ppb
Rotenona U 2200 22.5 ppb 2J1 ppb
Triclorfon U 6.2 ppm
Permntrina PUR >5000 9.0 ppb
Diazinor PUR 6.3 136 ppm 0.2 ppm
Fungicidas
Benomyl U
Captan U >2400 11.O0 ppm 7.1 ppm
Cloromhalonil U >10000 47.0 ppb 80 ppb
DCNA U 3500 >100 ppm 2.3 ppm
Dinocap U
Fusetyl-al U >8000 > 150 ppm 189 ppm
Mancozeb U >6000 0.5 ppm 0.6 ppm

1U = uso general (no clasificados uso restringido n ais inslrucciones que ilparecen
en las eliquelas, legalmenie definidas en passes desarroltados. violaci6n implica
penalizaciones civiles o crirminales); NR= no regisirada por EPA; PUR = pesticide
de usu restringido potentiall para ciausar dalio a series Iunmains y medio ambient
"muy altu").


de malnglares es notable en varias regions costeras del pais.
La conversion de humedales de manglar para el
establhcimiento de "salinas" (cv aporadores de sal) y tanques
pura el cultivo de camarones esta en aumento. Los
evaporadores de sal descargan soluciones salobres en las
Areas cercanas, aumentado la salinidad de los suelos on los
manglares adyacenles. En las .reas i nmediatamontc prdximas
a las comunidades hioldgicas de los manglares, las
infraestructurnas asoeiadas a las salinas aiteran y en el peorde
los casos eliminan el flujo superficial de agua de liuvia hacia
los mangtares;el ineremento resultantcen salinidad dL suelo
puede resultar en la muerte do los de las comunidades
vegetables terrestres y acuiticas; el access de los pieces a las
aguas puede ser nbstaculizado; a apertura de dreas faciitla e I
access de personas y estimula cl corte de maderas: aumentan
los sedi men tos en suspcnsidn (procedentes du la con strucc i6n
de los evaporadores), Lec. Es obvio que las consecuencias
sobre la cadena alimenticia son innumerablcs. En Montecristi
El Pitirre 10( 1)


cxiste un direa important cubierlta per evaporadores de sal
ocupando los terrenos pr6ximos a los manglares. La extension
de actual de superficie bajo este uso no esta disponihbl, pcro
por to que puede observarse desde cl aire, casi un 90% de las
orilias de los manglares ha sido cubierto por las laguna de
ovaporaci6n. En la Bahfa do dLas Calderas, lts trabajadoresde
las salinas han sido observados dcscargando al estuario de la
bahifa entire 1-2 metros edbicos de agua (salinidad 65 ppt)
desde los evaporadores.

Pesticidas
El impact director die los pesticides en las pobluciones de
yaguaza en el pafs no ha sido evaluado, sin embargo, se
presume que su Lfecto ha contribuido a la disminuci6n de la
especie, particularmente en dreas de arrozales. El usa
indiscriminado do pesticides regulados en la Repdblica
Dominicana es alarmante, Los resultados de una evaluaciin
gen eoda por US A ID sore el uso de pes ticid as en la RepIbl ica
Page 7





Dendrocygna arborea en la RepUbLica Dominican Ottenwalder


Fig. 4. Habitat potential de la Yaguaza Antillana en la Rcpdblica Dominicana. Distribuci6n de
humedales de agua dulkc m6s importantes de la zona costera. Datos derivados de mapas copogrtficos
1:50,000 y reconocimiento a6reo.


Dominicana (Segarra-Carmona 1992) concluyen que:
"Las importaciones de plaguicidas del pafs alcanzan
cerca de US$15 millones por afio, Existen 1,200
formulacioneslegaimenteregistradas. Una gran proporcidn
de los pesticidasy formulaciones utilizados en a Republica
Dominicana, son clasificados par la EPA como Pesticidas
de Uso Restringido (PUR), loscuales pueden causar grandes
efectos negatives tanto a series humans como al mtedio
ambience. Par otro lado, la mayoria de los insecticides de
Uso general (No Clasificados) utilizados en el pafs (Tabla
1) tienen efeccos de toxicidad crdnica en las aves. peces o
invertebrados acudaicos que van de moderado a bajo.
Solamente el Dimetoato puede ser considerado may t6xico
par las aves. Su usoen habitats propios a atractivos para las
aves, deberfa serrestringido (p.e., granos n la plant, come
ec sorgo, millo o arroz). De la misma man era 4 insecticides
son altamente t6xicos para los pieces (bifentrina. endosul-
fan, 6xido de fienbulatin y metociclor). Los dates sobre los
efectos de estos insecticides sobre invertebrados de agua
fresca, no estAn completes, pero la mayorfa son 6xicas a
estos organismos, especialmente clorpirifos y metociclor.
Eluso de estos products en Areas cercanas a organismos de
agua fresca, deben ser hechos con precauci6n para prevenir
y reducir derrames en estas zonas sensitivas."
El inventario de pesticides compilado par dicho studio
(Segarra-Carmona 1992), indica que la lista de ingredients
activos para insecticides comdnrnente encontrados en la
Republican Dominicana alcanza51 products. Del total de los
51 insecticides encontrados en la encuesta, 7 no tenian el


registry de ]a EPA (13.7%). 23 tenfan formulaciones de
pesticides para use restringido (45.1%), y 21 no estaban
clasificados como pesticides (reconacidos aquf como de"uso
general"). Solamente 15, deun total dc21 insecticides de usa
general, tienen los niveles de tolerancia establecidos por la
EPA. Del total de 31 fungicidas encontrados en e mnercado,
7 no estaban registrados en los Estados Unidos, 3 tienen
formulacidn PUR (Pesticida de Uso Restringido), 2 han side
canceladosporlaEPA(CaptofolyPCNB), y 19son fungicidas
de use general, Del total de los 21 herbicidas encontrados, 2
no tienen registry con la EPA, uno fue cancelado, 5 ienen
formnulacidn PUR (Pesticida de Uso Restringido), y 13 son
herbicidasde uso general. De estos qufmicos, el Oxifluorfeno,
fiene algunos uses cancelados per la EPA.
La poca informaci6n disponible sobre el uso de
insecticides, fungicidas, y herbicides restringidos en Ta
Repdblica Dnminicana, aporta evidencia de que existed un
riesgo genuine de contaminaci6n para la especie y su cadena
tr6fica. Los herbicidas, par ejemplo, podrian afectar cultivos
y plants hacialoscuales no van dirigidos si no son aplicados
correctamente. En algunas regions de los Estados Unidos,
done existen species de plants que estin en peligro, el us&
de algunos de estos qufmicos estA restringido. Un pesticide
que no estA en la Tabla I es el metaldefda, el cual es usada
principalmente para combatir amaques de babosas y otros
moluscos.Este pesticidade uso general es t6xico apcquefos
mamnfferos y se sabe poco acerca de los efectos t6xicos en
otrus organisms como reptiles y anfibios. En el pals existen
pocos mecanismos de control para la regulacidn de estos


El Pitirre I0(1)


Page 8






Dendrocygna arborea en la Repiblica Dominican Ottenwalder


Fig. 5. Localizaci6n de los parques nacionales en ]a zona costera dc la Repdbtica Dominicana.


products, y muy pocos programs de entrenamiento para
entrenamiento para seguridad de los usuarios.

Caceria illegal y de subsistencia
Entrevistas recientes realizadas entire cazadores y gufas
locales indican que estos, los que se aun se dedican a la
caceria legal estAn bien informados en relaci6n a las dreas
donde todavia pueden encontrarse yaguazas en ciertos
niimeros; que ]a especie esta protegida, y que sus naimeros
han disminuido much en relaci6n al pasado. Tambidn los
hibitos de la especic son bien conocidos entre los cazadores,
los cuales esperan la llegada del ocaso, cuando las yaguazas
vuelan en bandadas desde la vegetaci6n cercana a r'os,
lagunas y manglares paracazarlas. Comolacacerfase practice
ya con much menos frecuencia, y generalmente dirigida a
otras species mas comunes para lia rnales hay pcriodos de
veda, los cazadares reconocen que hay menos yaguazas y
solo lascazan ocasionalmente y en bajos ndmeros. La practice
de la cacerfa illegal esta actualmentc much mas controtada.
En opinion de los cazadores, el mayor problema para la
conservacidn de la yaguaza esta representado por los
pesticides.

MEDIDAS Dc PROTECCEON EXISTENrES

La especie esta protegida por la ley con veda permanent.
La agencia gubernamental encargada de aplicar las
regulaciones de proteecidn es el Departamento de Vida


Silvestre de la Secretaria de Estado de Agricultura. Muchas
de las zonas que se encuentran dentro de la extension
geogrifica conocida de ]a yaguaza en el pals, se encuentran
dentro de los limits de dreas protegidas exisrentes. Entre
estas, ParqueNacional Montccristi,Parque Nacionallaragua,
Parque Nacional Los Haitises, Parque Nacional Lago
Enriquillo (incluye Ista Cabritos), ReservaCientifica Laguna
Redonda y Laguna Lim6n, Reserva Cientffica Laguna de
Rinc6n o Cabral, y Parque Nacional Los Haitises (Fig. 5).
Otras areas que so encuentran a nivel de propuesta para
protecci6n (ej: Bahia de Samana), incluyen poblaciones de la
especie, Aunque esto implica que legalmente tanto las
poblac io nes como los habitats n atura les es tan baj o proteccian,
el cumplimiento de las regulaciones no es efectivo.

LrrERA1-tRA CrrADA

BoND, J. 1952. Second supplement to the Check-list of birds
of the West Indies (1950), Acad. Nat. Sci, Philadelphia.
BNo, 1958. Third supplement to the Check-listofbirds of
the West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia.
BOND, 1. 1962. Seventh supplement to the Check-list of birds
of the West Indies (1950). Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia.
Bot,'D, J. 1965. Tenth supplement to the Check-list of birds of
the West Indies (1950). Acad. Nat. Sci.. Philadelphia.
CoLAs, N.J,, L.P. GONZACA, N. KRABBE, A. MADRONO NETO,
LG. NARA o, T.A. PARKER Ill, AND D.C. WEGE. 1992.
Threatened Birds of the Americas: The ICBP/IUCN Red


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 9







Dendrvcygna wrborea en hI RepOblica DorainiLan Ollenwalder


Data Book (Third edition, Part 2), international Council
for Bird Preservation and Smithsonian Institution Press,
Washington-
DANtORTH, S. T. 1929, Notes on the birds of Hispaniola. Auk
46(3):358-375.
Doo, A. S. DE. 1981. Gufa de campo para las aves de Ia
Repilblica Dominicana. Mus. Nat:- Hist., Nat., Editorxa
Ilorizuntes de Americas, Santo Domingo, 254 pp,
DVS/SEA. 1990. La Diversidad Bioldgica en la RepLbhlica
Dominicana. Departancat de Vida Silvestre,Secretaria
de Fstado de Agricultura, ScrvicioAlemin de Cooperacid6n
Social-T6cnica, y World Wildlife Fund-US. 266 t 122
pp.
FAANES, C. A,. Y J. C. HANEY. 1989. First record of Kirtland's
Warbler from the Dominican Republic and additional
bird observations. Carib. J. Sci. 25({1-2):30-35.
GROOMBRIDGE, B (Ed). 1993. The 1994 IUCN Red List of
threatened animals. IUCN Gland, Switzerland and Cam-
bridge, UK.
HArSHORN, G., G. ANroNINio. R. DuBois, D, HARCHARIK, S.
HECKADON, H. NIrwroN, C, QUESADA, J. SHORES, Y G.
STAPLES. 1981. The Dominican Republic; Country envi-
ronmental profile, afield study.JRB Associates, McLean,
VA. 134 pp.
IUCN 1986. 1986 IUCN Red List of threatened animals.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, Gland and Cam-
bridge.
IUCN 1988, 1988 IUCN Red List of fltreatned animals.
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre and ICBP, Gland
and Cambridge.
IUCN 1996. 1996 Red List of threatened animals (J, Baillie
and B. Groombridge, eds. and comp.). IUCN Gland,
Switzerland,
KING, W.B, 1981. Endangered Birds of dhe World. 'The ICBP
Red Data Book. Smithsonian Institution Press and ICBP.
Washington D.C.
OTTENWALDER, J.A. 1973, Algunas sugerencias para la
conservaciOn de nuestra fauna: Propuesta para la
modificaci6n y actuailizaci6n de la regulaciones de
proteccidn y manejo de la fauna silvestre de la Reptblica
Dominicana. Report Tdcnico preparado para cl
Departamento de Caza y Pesca, Secretaiia de Estado de
Agriculture. Santo Domingo. 40 pp.


OTrENWALDER, J.A. 1978a. Situacion de las ayes con
poblaciones bajas y en disminuci6n en la Hispaniola.
Report de Estaius, presentado en el "Primer Seminario
sobre la Conservaci6n de los Recursos Naturales de
CarActer Biol6gico de la Hispaniola. Santo Domingo. 1-3
maru, 1978. UniversidadNacional Pedro Henriquez Uruia
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O(rniNwALDER.J.A. 1978b. Fauna amenazada delaRepdblica
Dominicana. Report de Estatus presentado en el
"Coloquio Tnternacional sobre la Prdctica do NI
Conservaci6n". Santo Domingo, 29 Mayo 3 Junio, 1978.
Organizacidn Estados Americanos, Secretaria de Estado
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Domingo-
OTTENWALDER. J. A- 1981. Progress on the West Indian tree-
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OTTENWALDER, J.A, 1990. Listas de las ayes de la Reptblica
Dominicana. Apendices: a) Especies y subespecies de
aves de ha Espanola; b) Aves enddmicas de ta Espafiola
que se encuentran en la Repdblica Dominicana; c) Aves
introducidas establecidas in la Repdblica Dominicana; d)
Aves amenazadasde la Reppdbtica Domnin ican aAp6ndices
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San Domingo, with a list of the species, including a new
hawk. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia 61:352-366.
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birds of Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Proc. U. S.
Nat. Mus. 82:1-68.
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483pp.
WiiLEY, J. W., Y J. A. OTTENWALDER. 1990. Birds of islas Beam
and Alto Velo, Dominican Republic. Stud. Neotrop.
Fauna Environ. 25(2):65-88.


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 10









THE AMERICAN KESTREL FALCO SPAR VERIUS (AVES: FALCONIDAE) IN JAMAICA

ORLANDO H. CiGAlrtioo, AR'URO KIRKCONNELL:, AuDREY Dowmint-,
ANN HAYINES SU'lrro7 AN, RouERT SUTTON'
Mu.seI Nacional de Hisorial Natural, Calle Obs'po Na. 6i t'/Oflios y Tejadillo. La Habana Viejo 10100, Cuba:
P 0. Box 1002, Kingswm 8, Jmarica; ar!d 1Marshall's Pen. P. 0. Bos 58, Madevitlle. Janraica


WHEN JAMES 13OND PUBLISHIEU HES FIRSFIT DOOK "Birds of the
West Indies" (1936:76), he considered ihe American Kestrel
(Falcosparverits) populations from Cuba, Isle of Pines(now
Isle of Youth), Hispaniola, and some 0 surrounding islands, as
the race F. s. dominicensis. He did noi mention Jamaica
within the distributional range of his race, nor Ihe other race,
F. s. caribaerum from Puerto Rico, Vicques. Culebra and the
Virgin Islands. Apparently, there were no records reported
from Jamaica before 1936,
Eleven years later (1947:54) Bond reported the kestrel as
occurring throughout the West Indies, with the exception of
the islands of Jamnica and Isla Mona, Subsequently (1 956:33)
he included Jamaica in the range of the race dominiceirsis,
mentioning several records, including 4 examined speci-
mens, but he still considered this bird as rare in that island. In
(1964:5). he reported die kestrel populations in Jamaica
increasing, the species then being not uncommon. By 1970,
ihe criticized Brown and Amadon (1968) for not including
Jamaica and Mona within the range of Falco doninicensis,
In 1978. Bond mentioned that this race of he kestrel made a
remarkable expansion in range in the last 40 years, stating
that the Hispaniolan race (dominicensis) had reached Ja-
maica and settled there. He also stated that"since theru fescent
Cuban phase has been reported from Jamaica and Hispaniola,.
the latter race has evidently reached these islands, so the
subspecies identity of the present population onthat island
should be investigated." Finally. Bond (1987:12) noted the
population increases of kestrels, the successful invasion of
Mona by dominicensis, the specimens collected in the decade
of the 1940s in Jamaica and Morant Cays, and the recent
dispersion of sparveroides throughout the Bahamas, stating
that "recent sightings in Jamaica indicate the latter may now
inhabit this island,"
Buden (1979, 1987) also confirmed the presence of both
races,spar'e roidcs and dominicensis, in some ofthc Bahaim an
islands. The measurements taken of specimens examrnind by
hint agree with those taken by us, Buden concluded that F.
s dominicensis may not be a valid uLIhspenies.
In 1990 we observed several kestrels of both morphbs in
Jamaica, although most of them were the white phase. In the
field they were indistinguishable from Cuban birds
(spavcraeides race), so we measured all specimreni deposited
at the Institute of Jamaica and in Audrey Downer's collec-
tion. All of these specimens were the white morph and,
therefore, the sparveroides race, according to coloration,
plumage pattern, and measurements. We examined 47 adult
specimens deposited in Cuban collections and obtained the
following measurements: 27 males-wing 165-168 (x =


179.3) mm. tail 106-121(1 17.3) mni;20 females-wing 175-
200 (287.9) mm, tail 108-127 (119.3) mm. Buden (1987)
measured 32 females: wing 177-194 (185.5) mm. Speci-
mens from Jamaica fell within Cuban measurements, and
agree well with the race spa rveroides.
Two specimens deposited at the Institute of Jamaica were
labeled as F. s. dohinicensis. They were collected many
years ago and could well pertain to that taxon. Considering
that they may be the first kestrels collected in Jamaica, these
specimens could be representatives of an earlier Hisp aniolan
dispersion of dominicensis. Thereafter, Cuban spaiveroides
began to disperse north and probably south and, apparently,
many individuals dispersed and settled in Jamaica, increas-
ing the local populations of the island in a short span of time.
IfdominiCcetsis was present in small numbers, as it seemed to
have been (considering the two specimens in the Institute of
Jamaica), probably that race was outnumbered by
sparveroides, which absorbed the weak characters of ihe
doamincensis race, resulting in individuals with the clear
racial characters of sparveroides.
From our investigations and published information, we
have reached the following conclusions:
I. The American Kestrel is a rather recent resident in
Jamaica (i.e., not before the 1930s).
2. Probably the first arrivals came from Hispaniola and
therefore belonged to the race dominicensis.
3. During the range expansion of Cuban sparveroides,
simultaneous dispersions invaded the Bahama Islands
and Jamaica. This race apparently arrived in large
numbers, settled in Jamaica, and absorbed the characters
of dominicensis into the present population.
If these conclusions are correct, then the kesutrel popula-
tions from Jamaica should be considered Falco sparverius
sparveroides.
We take the opportunity to thank Dr. Thomas Pharr for
allowing us to examine the material deposited at the Institute
of Jamaica,

Lr-J a A'TURE CITED

BoND, J. 1936. Birds of the West Indies. Acad, Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia,
BoND, 1. 1947. Field guide to birds of the West Indies,
MacMillan Co., New York.
BONo,J. 1956. Check-list of birds of the West Indies. Acad.
Nat. Sci. Philadelphia.
BOND, J. 1964. Ninth supplement to the Check-list of birds
of the West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sci, Philadelphia.


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 11







Falco .parverhis in Jamatiea- Garrido et al.


BOND, J. 1970. Fifteenth supplement to the Check-list of
birds ol'th West Indies (1956). Acad. Nat. Sc. Philadol-
phia.
Bo4T, J. 1978. Twenty-second supplement to the Check-list
of birds of the West Indies (1956). Acad, Nat. Sci.
Philadelphia.
BoNDJ. 1980. Twenty-third supplement to the Check-list of
birds of the West Indies ( 1956). Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel-
phia.
BOa-, J, 1986. 'I\ve nty-sixth suppleme io thie Chec k-list of
birds of the West Indies (1956), Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadel-
phia.


BOND, r. 1987.Twenty-seventh supplemenittothe Check-list
of birds of the West Indies (1956). Acad, Nat. Scl.
Philadelphia.
Bgow N'. L.. ANDD.AMAnoN. 1968. Eagles, hawks and falcons
of the world. London: Country LiJf Books.
BUDEN, D. W. 1987. The birds of the southern Bahamas.
B.O.U. Check-list No. 8 British Ornithologists' Union:5-
119.
BUnEN, D. W. 1979. Ornithogeography of the southern
Bahamas. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana State University,
Baton Rouge.


DOS CASOS DE AN1DAMIENTO DE LA CARTACUBA TODUS MULTICOLOR
(AVES: TODIDAE) EN UNA CU EVA

CARLOS A. MANC1NA' Y PATRICLA GARCtA PFERNAND1Ez
Instiito de Ecologia y SistruitHici, CITMA, La itabana, Cuba;
'Frnult!ad de Biologica, Unifversidad de la Habana, Cuba


LA CARTACuBA (ToDnUMLTICOLOR) es u na especic endinica
corn en airas huscosas de Cuba y la Isla doe a Juventud
(Garrido y Garcfa Mom nilaa 1975). Esta especie, junto con
oaras cuatro conforman ia Familia Todidae, enddmica do las
Anttllas Mayores,. Son de hAbihos fundamentaltente
insectrvoros y construyen sus nidos en agujcros que escarba n
en la tierra, generalmtente en barrancos (Bund 1985, Garcda
Montana 1980).
Con el objetivo de estudiar algunos aspects reproductivos
de la Golondrina de Cuevas (flirun dofrdva). del 17 al 21 de
.junic de 1996 se realize una expedici6n a la Reserva Natural
de Cayo Caguanes ubicada al Norte de la provincia de Sancti
Spiritus.
Para capturar individuos de golondrinas, se coloc6 en la
Cueva de los Chivos un mall[]a japonesa aproximadamente a
unos 50mdc la entrada principal en uiazonadoi deexisti'an
abundan tcs nidos de esta especie. A poco timipo decolocada
la malla se capturaron dos ejemplares de Cartacuba, uni de
los cuales se encontr6 del lado que daba hacia cl interior de
la cueva, lo que indic6 que se encontraba dentro.
Obscrvacines de la zona permilicron detectar a la pareja


anidando en una grieta de Ja pared rocosa de lacueva, a unos
80 cm del suelo. Por la forma descendenic de esta no fue
possible observer si contenia huevos o pichones.
En el techo do la misma cueva, a unos 5 m del suelo se
observe otra pareja de T. rnwuicolor anidando, junto a mul-
tiples nidos de golondrinas. Ambos nidos se hallaron en
zonas de penumbra de la cueva,
El aprovechamiento de este tipo de estructura-donde
existan condiciones favorables de alimentaci6n y refugio-
como sitios de anidamiento por T. nudlicolor, podria
represenmar una adaptacidn ecoldgica a este tipo de areass can
un alto grado de calcificacidn.

Lrf'EATAJRA CITADA

BoND, J, 1985. Birds of the West Indies. Fifth Edition.
Houghton Mifflin Co,. Boston.
GARCIA MorTAR'A, F, 1980. Las ayes de Cuba: species
enddnmicas. Tomo 1. Ed, Gente Nueva, Cuba.
GARRDo, O.H, Y F. GARCIA MoNTANA. 1975. Cattlogo de las
aves de Cuba, Acad. Cienc. La Habana.


El Pitirre 10(1)


Pitge 12









OTROS N UEVOS REGISTROS DEL FRAILECILLO SILBADOR CHARADRIUS MELODUS
EN LA PROVINCIA DE LA HABANA, CUBA

PEDRO BLANco R.'E ENEiDER PEREZ M.'
nbrsliitut de Eoogi y Siremdriiia. Carnrmem tde Varina Ktrr 3. 5. Boyev., C. labana, Culm, CP: 8029. AA. 10800
PFucitded dle Biulogia, Universidud de la flahb w


ED. ESIt'DIO Y t)ESARROL. de nuevas estrategias y esfuerzos
dirigides a ta conscrvaci6n y reslablecimiento de las
poblaciones del Frailecilto Sitlbdor Charadrius melodus
(especie declarada en peligro de extincidn en territories de
CanadA y Estados Unidos a parlir de 1985). ha sido un tema
que ha centrado la atnuciin de un notable nirmero de
especialistas en di ferentes regianes de America dcl Norte y cl
Caribe on los dtlimos 40 a ios (Marchant 1956: Haig 1985.
1985: Haig y Oring 1985; Sidle 1985: Johnson y Baldassare
]988; Nicholls y Baldass are 1990; Blancoetal, 1993; Gooss n
etaL 1994; Blanco 1995; y otros).
Entre los objetivos principles a alcanzar en estas
invest igacio nesse de staca elin te rs por proloeger I s territories
de crfay detcrmirnar la ubicaci6n de los sitios de invierno que
utiliza esta especie, paru su Futura conservacidn,
En Cuba en los 6ti nos a ios, la temrntica rolacionuda con
la conservaci6dn de las dreas de invierno del Fraitecillo
Silbador lia cobrado un mayor auge. La realiiaei6n de
mill iples esfuerzos en caminados a una mayur divul gaci6n y
una mejor planificacidn y desarrullodt estas investigaciones
en coordinacidn con el Servicio de Vida Silvestre de Canad.,
ha permitido clevar notablemente el nivel de infornmcidn
ace rca de la distribucitn deesta espccic en territorio cubano.,
Duranitee periodode 1965- [995 la especie hasidoobservada
en 18 ocas[ones, en 12 lucalidades del pais (Blanco el al.
1993, Blanco 1995).
De las regions muestreadas del Aithipidlago Cubano
(provincias), done se ba logrado obtener uti mayor ndnmero
de registros, se desi acon los sectores insul aresy zonais litorales
de Matanzas y Ciego de Avila. Par el contrario en la
provi ncia de La Habana solo existe un registro reportado por
Barbour en 1923.
Durante una visit iefctuadu los dias 22 de Ociubre y 30
de Diciebre de 1995 a la zona dot litra] nortne del publado de
Jaimanitas, ubicado entire los 82t29' N y 23 "05' W, en la
pmvincia de La Habana, se observaron tres individuos del
Fraitecillo Silbador alimentandose en ai zona de playa
conocida popularinento con "Los 13ajos dc Santana." En la
primer ocasi6n (Octubre de 1995), solo se observed un
individuo de la especie descansando sobre los arrecifes
c stlerow de sn io. En la segunda oporunidad (Diciembre de
1995), se observaron dos individuos adultos alimentindose
en [a orilla dc la play a.
Un uies posterior a la observaci6n, durantLc a rmvisitn y
anail is del material biolgico depositado en las colecciones
de aves del Musco Felipe Poey de la Universidad de la
Habana, se descubrieron dos ejenmiplares de la especic no
rCportados en la literature con anterioridad, colectados por
Gastdn S. VilIalba durante el I[ de Septierribre de 1917 y el


15 de Diciemrntr dc 1934 en las localidades de Jaimanitas
(antes citada) y Cojimar, respectivamente.
Este hecho demuestra que a pesar del largo pefodo de
tic mpo transcurrido entre Ias dos observaciones (19 17-1995),
algunos sectors costeros del norte de la Provincia de La
Habana y en particular la localidad de Jaimanitas continian
siendo areas potenciales para la eslancia del Frailecillo
Silbador durante el invierno, por lo que se recomienda dar
continuidad a ]as aetividades de invcsfigaci6r y censos de
esta especie en Ja region costera norte de La Habana y crear
medi das y estrategias que garanticen la conservaci n de estos
sitios,
Estos registros constituyen el cuarto y quinto report del
Frailecillo Siihadaroblenido en territories de la provincia de
la Habana y el vigdsimo-segundo parael territori. cubano en
los d1tinios 30 afios.

LrrERATURA CrsADA

BARUnouR, T. 1923. The birds ofCuba, Mem. Nuttal Ornithol.
Club 61-141.
BLANCO, P., J. P. GoossEN, AND H. GONZALEZ. 1993. Occur-
rences of the Piping Plover (Charadrkirs melodus) in Cuba.
J. Field. Ornithol, 64(4):520-526,
BLnwco, P. 1995. Nuevo registro del Frailecillo Silbador
Characrius metodris (Aves: Charadriidae) en Cuba, El
Fitirre 8(3):2.
GOOSSEN, J. P., P. BLANCO, J. StRaoS, ANDH. GONZALEZ. 1994,
Water bird and shorebird counts in the province ofMatan zas,
Cuba. Canadian Wildl. Serv. Techn. ReptSer. No.- 170.
HA)o, S.M. 1985. The status of the Piping Ploverin Canada.
Report to the Committee on the Status of Endangered
Wildlife in Canada. National Museum of Natural Science,
Ottawa, Canada. 34 pp.
HAlO, S. M,. AND W, ORINo. 1985, Distribution and status of
the Piping Plover throughout the annual cycle. J. Field
Ornithol. 56:334-345.
Jo1,NsoN, C. M., AND G. A. BMa.DASSARRE. 1988. Aspects of
the wintering ecology of Piping Plovers in coastal Ala-
bama. Wilson Bull. 100:214-223.
KIRKCONNELL, A., D. SANCHEZ Y D. RoDRImUt-Z. 1992. Noras
sobre cl Charadrius melodus (Aves: Charadriidae) en
Cayo Pared6n Grande, Archipi]iago Sahbana-CamnagLiey,
Cuba, El Volanie Migraltorio 19:29-30.
MARCH.wrT, S. 1956. Occurrences of the Piping Plover
Charadrius melodus in Ecuador. This 98:533-534.
NtcjiA-sJ J, J, ANi G. A. BALDASSAARRE. 1990. Wintering
distribution of ihe Piping Plover along the Atlantic and
Gulf Coast of the United States. Wilson Bull, 102:400-


El PiLinre 10(1)


Page 13







Chamrdrins meodths on La Ha ban a, Cuba Blanco y P6rez
412.
SJDLE. J. 1983. Endangered and hIreatened wildlife and
plants; delermination of end angered and threatened status
for the Piping Plover. Federal Register. 50(238):50726-
50734.


REPORT DE NIDOS INUS:UALES DE CIGUA PALMER
DULUS DOMINICUS (AVES: DULIDAE)

SM16N GUERRERO
Purque Zoohogico Nacional. Repdblica Dominicana


EN EL ULTIMO NIDhERD DE 1. PMRRE (Fall 1996. VoL 9, No.
3). aparece un report titulado"An unusual ncsting record of
the Palmchat Dluus dominicf s, firmnado per tres colcgas
britlinicos. en el cual so describe un enonme nido de esta
especie localizado en la copa dc una Cecropia peltata
"descubierto" por los autores en il limits occidental del
Parque Nacional Sierra de Bahoruco. Aunquc Ie realidad se
trata de un nido conacido por todos los ornit6dogos
dominicanos que han viajado por la zona, es cierto que nidos
tan grades no son comunes a semajanLte alilud (Bond. Birds
of die West indies, London: Collins. 1985). Sin embargo, en
lo que se refiere at tipo de drboles en los que con siruye sus
nidos Drlus donitiicus, esta especie no parece seguir las
instrucciones de la guia de campo del Sr. Bond.
Si bien es cierto que jDta s dominjicus anida mayorinente
en la palmareal(Roysronea hispaniolana), noesraro ncontrar
nidos de esta especie (especialmentc on la z.nra urbana y en


Areas donde escasea la palma real) en otros tipos de iarboles.
tanto natives corno ex6ticos, e incluso en postes del ltndido
eilctrico. Hasta el momento,se hanreporEadon idos de Cigua
Palmera en las siguiences species de drboles: (Nativas)
palma real (Roy.itonea hispanolana),. palma cana (Sabal
donringernsis), yarey (Copernicia verneroana), guano de si-
erra (Coccorrinax odorara), almicigo (Bursera simanruba),
ruble (Catalpa tonguissima) y yagrumo (Cecropia peitata);
(ExdLicas) casuarina (Camuarina ecquisetifolia), anacaguita
(Sterculia apeiala), eucalipto (Eucalyptus rostarta), pino
(Aratcaria excelsa), atmendra (Terminatia catappa), pal ma
de mani la (Viechia merrili), palma cocotera (Cocos auifera)
y amapola (Erythrina poeppfgiana).
De todo modes. reconocemos el mdrito de los colegas
ingleses por haber reportado este nido inusual y habernos
motivado a public ar ostos commentarios.


REY CONGO NYCTANASSA VIOLACEA (AVES: ARDEIDAE) NIDIFICANDO
SOBRE UN NIDO DE DULUS DOMINICUS

SlM6lN Gu-ERERo
Parque Zooldgico Nacional, Reprublica Doininicana


DUARANTE TRES ANCOS COa SECU'ri VO (1 994- 996) he
enconlrado nidos de Rey Congo (Nycranassa violacea)
conscruidos sobre nidos de Cigua Palmera (Dulus domaini-
cus), situados esLos Lilt ios en las coipas de palinas reales
(Roystonea hispaniolana) en terrenos del Jardfn Botinico
Nacionnl. El primer nido descubhirto estaba on una las
pal inas ubicadas en la plaza central del Jard'rn. Los oiuns dos
nidos estaban local izados en unna palma real que bay en las
proxiniidades del Aren do broimtlias. Los nides estaban


siLuadus aunos 300y 500 inMieos, rcspccLivainenie,de la gran
Canada. una species de riachuelo artificial boscoso que
bordea parEe del perinietro del Jardin Botdnico, En los dos
ni dos que fueron obse rvados di rec amen te habia dns polludcls.
Es [a primer vez que se report un nido de esta espccie
sobre un n dudeCiguaPalnc ra, Est unusual coinportamiento
de nidificacidn tal vez es t determinado por el hecho de que
se crata de un habitat parcialmente degradado situado en una
zona sub-urbana.


El Pifirre 10(1)


Page 14









BLACK-CAPPED PETRELS FLEE INTO CANADA BEFORE HURRICANE FRAN

LEO DOUGLAS
Gosse Bird Club and Dqwrrwnie of LJfe Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica


FRAN BECAMIL A'1RorPLL.AL DEPRESStON on 24 August 1996 and
threatened the Lesser Anti lies as a weak hurricane on 29-30
August. After the storm center was relocated farther north
than thought, Fran missed die Lesser Anmiiles, weakened 1o a
tropical storm with winds of [105 k p h (65 mph), then regained
hurricane strength while traveling toward the Bahamas. Like-
wise the Bahamas were spared the worst when the center of
Fran moved north of the archipelago during which time
winds increased to 185 kph (1 15 mph) becoming the third
"major" hurricane of the 1996 Atlantic hurricane season.
About 20:00 hr on 5 September Hurricane Fran made
landfall on the North Carolina coast east of Cape Fear, with
sustained winds of over 120 kph (75 mph) extending out as
much as 225 km (140 miles) from its center (a "'major'
category 3 hurricane on ihe SaFfir-Simnpson damage potential
s.ale). Among those llecing before Fran's advance were
Black-capped Petrels (Pierdroima ha.itara), a seriously
threatened West Indiian species for which breeding populu-
tions arecurrently known on only one (Hispaniola)if the five
historically documented breeding islands (Cuba, Dominica,
Guadeloupe and Martinique). The extant breeding popula-
tion on the island of Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and
Haiti) are small, fragmented and currently believed to be
declining, although the exact sizes, locations, and detailed
chronologies of thdie breeding colonies remain poorly-studied
(Lee 1993), A weakening Fran moved through North Caro-
lina and Virginia sending spiraling rain bands and gale force
winds over the Appalachian Mountains into Pennsylvania
and Finally over Lake Erie, on Canada's Ontario shoreline on
7 September, some 960 km (600 miles) from where it had
made landfall. On 8 September it was reported that a Black-
capped Petrel had been spoiled over Lake Erie. Previous to
this there were only three records of Black-capped Petrels
from Canada (James 1991). Two of these records were from
the 31800s, whereas the other was found dead at Morgan's
Point, Welland County on 21 August 1955, a victim of
Hurricane Connie. All three specimens had been hurricane
victims.
On 13 September an emaciated individual was found dead
by David Bostock and Chris Dunn on the beach close to the
Long Point Bird Observatory's (LPB C) Old Cut field station
where I was staying. It was noted that Ihe bird appeared to
have died recently, Measurements taken from this individual
are presented in Table 1.
By I October, 23 specimens had been found. Twenty-two
of these had been collected on the north shore of Lake Erie
and one specimen was collected on the shoreline of Lake
OnEario (in the area of Hamilton) on 13 September. Seven-
teen of the specimens were found by Bob Curry and John
Olmsted, both of whom walked some 60 km (36 mi)of beach
during Ihe days aftcr the storm in search of storm kills. Curry

El Pitirre 10(1)


Table i. Measurements of a furnmale Black-capped Petrel found on
Long Point Beach, diie soIth of Old Cut Blvd.. by D. Beostock
and C. Dunn on 13 September 1996. Plumage not waterlogged,
ill good :coildiqion. and feu[hers still well-.oiled, so the bird
pr hably died on-shore- Ov arises were smooth. Thebird was in
Dolt (wing and Lail).


Measurement
tg or mm)


Body part


Weight after freezing zero fat- emaciated)
Tarsal length
Middle Iho; length including claw
Wing length
Exposed culmrun
Complete head nieasuremenie
Depth of bill at nostril below tube
Depth of bill at nnsril front top or tube nose
Depth of tube nose


370.9
47.2
61.1
291.0
35.2
86.2
12.1
16
3.9


thought that most of the birds died from 13-16 September,
The last specimen collected by him was a partially decom-
posed individual found on 28 September (pers comm). The
last reported sighting of a Black-capped Petrel alive was on
23 September. when one was seen flying east over Hamlin
Beach near Rochester on Lake Ontario. Based on the number
of sightings and specimens found, it is estimated tha at least
50 Black-capped Petrels might have been driven to Lake Erie
by the storm, and in total far more (the number of which is
difficult to estimate) must have been driven inland from the
Adantic.
Why did these birds get pushed 960 km through the interior
of eastern North America unto Lake Erie? It is thought that
after the birds become isolated from the Atlantic where they
are fairly common along the edge of the Gulf Stream up to
North Carolina from spring tL late fall, they naturally concen-
irated over the first body of water they encountered. Lake
Erie being the most southerly placed Great Lake was there-
fore the obvious choice. Here the peirels must have flown
round and round in search of an outlet back into the Atlantic.
Undoubtedly the petrels were faced with severe dietary
problems on the lake because their natural diet is found in
pelagic oceanic waters where they are crepuscular and noc-
turnal feeders adapted to feeding on various ncktonic cepha-
lopods (predominantly squid), fishes, and crustaceans which
migrate towards the surface at night (Imber 1985). With their
highly specialized, twisted gut design they absorb oils from
their oil-rich prey converting it into stores of fat (Elhrlich et
al. 1988). It must therefore be noted that it appears that the
petrels survived the strenuous flight associated with the
storm and for some 8-14 days (on average) afterwards

Page 15







Hurricane Fran and Black-capped Petrel Douglas


depending in deir relatively l arge bh L nevertheless limited far.
reserves until 1hey eventually weakened and died of starva-
tion.
On !he United States side, 15 Black-capped Petrels were
recorded from North Carolina northwards to New York from
6-9 Sepiember, some of which were found alive and rehabili-
rated. A few of Lhesu birds were reportedly attracted to United
States reservoirs and takes. Additionally one individual was
picked up dying at Niagara Falls, New York on 15 Septernm-
ber.
In all, 64 species of birds (including 9 other petrel and
shearwater species) were described in association with the
passage of Hurricane Fran. Ned Brinkley (pers. comm.)
noted that not all of these species were storm-driven from the
occun- some were pushed into the lee shores of die Atlantic
coast or of the Great Luaks., whereas others may have simply
beendeflected from their regular migratory routes and forced
to cease their overland migration as result f' the storm. It has
been noted that certain species such as Sooty Terns (Stenra
fuiscaia) disperse into interior areas of North America during
tropical cyclones much more widely than others with rela-
tively greater representation in the near-shore western North
Atlantic (like Bridled Terns, S. amnaeherrs) or in much
greater numbers (Black-capped Petrels over all shearwaters
combined). Brinkley suspects that this dispersal trend rl ates
to:
(1) abundance of the species in the areas traversed by the
storm,
(2) wing loading of each species as it relates to dispLrsal
and foraging strategies at sea, and
(3) possibly "storm-related behavior" particular strat-
egies for survival during storms and for re-orientation
after displacement (such as attempting to out-fly or
flying with high winds as opposed to staying between
wave crests in troughs). Brinkley points out that this is
not an area of behavior currently considered in the
liLerature,


AC KNOW l.I.1 CMENTS

I thank Ned Brinkley, Bob Curry, Rex Kenner, Mathew
Gibson, and the staff of LPBO for their assistance in provid-
ing information used in this report:.

Li'ELA'irusR. CITrrED

COLLAR, N. J.,L_ P. G NZACA, N. KRABiE, A. MADRONO NtETO,
L, G. NAArMNo, T. A. PARKER, AND D. C. WEGE. 1992.
Threatened birds [f the Americas. ICBP/IUCN Red
Data B-ook, 3rd ed. International Council for Bird Pres-
ervatiort, Cambridge, U.K.
EH-lRLC:J, P, R,, D. S. DulItLN, ANo D. WitEyl, 1988, The
birder's handbook -A field guide to the natural Iis story
of North American birds. Simons & Schuster Inc., New
York, NY.
GojjiReY, W. E. 1986, The Birds of Canada, revised ed,
National Museum of Canada, Ottawa,
IMBER, M. 1. 1985. Origins, phylogeny and taxonomy of the
gadfly pecrels Pterodronma spp. Ibis 127:197-229.
JAMe-, R. -D, 1991. Annotated list of the birds ofOntario, 2nd
ed. Univ. Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario.
LEE, D. S., AND N. VtNA. 1993. A re-evaluation of the status
of the endangered Black-capped Petrel, Pterodroma
hasitara, in Cuba. Ornitologia Neotropical 4:99-101.
MosrR,M. L. ANDD, S.LEE. 1992. A fourteen-year survey of
plastic ingestion by western North Atlantic seabirds.
Colonial Waterbirds 15(I):83-94
WINCATE D, B, 1964. Discovery of breeding Black-capped
Petrels on Hispaniola. Auk 81:147-159.


PRIMER OBSERVACION DE COEREBA FIA VEOLA (LINNEO) (AVES: COEREBIDAE)
PARA EL MACIZO MONTANOSO GUAMUIIAYA, CUBA

AliEL HEKNANDEZ MuNoz' Y BuR BowLa:s2
'Delegacidn Provitcial del Alinisterio de Ciencia, Tecnologta y AMedio Ambien e en Sancti-Spiriwts, Cuba;
2Qure. Naltwc Tuors, Trrorsri. Cranuda


EL I ito E MAk~ 3o]n- 1 994,se observaron dos individuos de
la Reinita (Coerebaflaveola) entire el follaje en el ecosistema
boscoso de montafiapresente en lalocaidaddde Gra, zoanade
Topes de Collantes, Aliuras de Trintdad, Macizo de
Guamuhaya (comunmente conocido como Sierra del
Escambray), Regidn Central de Cuba. Las aves fueron vistas
durante 7 minuros con binoculars de 7x50, auna distanciade
6 im. Durante el tempo transcurrido se pudieron distinguir
con nitides la forma y los colors del plumaje cameterislicos


d& la species: durso gris oscuro, casi nego; rabadilla amarilla;
una estria superciliar blanca; atra zona blanca en las alas;
garganta de gris blancuzca a negro pizarra y pico curvo.
Esta especie estaba difundida por Las Antillas, America
Central y del Stur. except en Cuba. En marzo de 1965 fue
coluclada por primera vez en el terriloric national, en Cayo
Tro Pepe. al norte de Isabela de Sagua, province ia Villa Clara
en el centro de Cuba.


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 16









EL PELICANO NORTEAMERTCANO PELECANUS OCCIDENTALIS CAROLINENASIS
(AVES: PELECANIDAE) CRIA TAMBItN EN CUBA

JosC. A. MORALES' v ORLANnD H. GARmtDO
'Insituto 1Pedaggicrj dei Cataglity, Cmoragliey, Cuba: y AMrtseo Narcionl de Tit ria Nam ral, LI Habana, Cubn


EL PELJCANO O ALCATRAZ es relalivamente cmnidn en
delerminados shios de las costas de nuestro territorio. St
encuentran dos subeispecies: Pelecanui occidentalis
accidenftalis Linneo, que es nuestra fomia reside nte, y Ia ra a
norteaniericana F. carolinensis GmLlin, que ha sido
reportada prdicicamnente todus uNs imnses del ailo en base a
individuos anillados en Florida y Carolina del Sur (Bond
1956). Bond ade mis plan ted la posi hi I idad de qite la subespecie
non eamericana P. a. caroling esis pudiese anidar en cayos de
la costa none de Cuba. El planteanienito de Bond ha sido
corroborado con este nuevo hallazgo.
Sin embargo, a pesar de ser una especie comrn y bien
distribufda, son nuy pocos los lugares decrfufque se conac 'ant
Cayu Mono Grande y el Canal del Toro entiree Cayo Coco y
Cayo Guillermo) en La costa norte y Cayo Piedra y Cayo
Largo del Sur en la costa sur (Bond 1956, Garrido y Garefa
Monti a u 975; 1, dc la Cruz, comun. persj).
El author senior Tnientras estudiaba aspects eco6lgicos de
u na colon ia n idfican e,desc u bride 6, pelcanos que anidaban e n
Los manglares de la zona conocida como "Pueblo de los
PAjaros," en el "Estero de la Mojarra," de la desembocadura


del Roa Misxim, al nornc dc la Provincia de Camaguey, El
macho do una do la pacejas estaba anillado con la incripcidn
oflcialdel U. S. Fish and WildlifeService, lo quc corroboraba
su origen nortcha, La hembra no tenfa anillo, y los dus
pichuncs fueron retratados en el nido en abril de 1987.
Aunquelarazanorteamericanaesmayory ficilde identificar
en la niano n base a las medidas de la curvatura del ala y del
largo del pico: en el campo, y duranic la dpoca de crfa los
plum ajes son muy sumejantes y. por o tanto, muy diffciles de
separar a menos que scan coleclados. por lo que para evitar
molestias en la colon ia nose hicieron esfuerzos poraveriguar
qud cantidad de individuals pertenectan a una u otra raza.

LrFTEATURA CIlrADA

BOND, J. 1956. Check-list of birds orf ihe West Indies. Acad,
Nat. Sct. Philadelphia.
GaRR)no, 0. H,, Y F. GARCA MONTrrANA. 1975. CalAlogo de las
ayves de Cuba. Acad. Ciencias de Cuba. La 1-labana.


RF.ncONAL EDUCATtONAL INSTITUTIONS

ORNITHOLOGICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH AT
CARIBBEAN UNION COLLEGE, TRINIDAD

FLt.ov E. HAYEs
Department of Biology., Caribbean Uni on College, P.O. Box 175. Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
E-mail: cuans@aol.com


SNUGGLED AMONGST SCENIC, CLOUD-CAPPED MOUNTAINS in the
Maracas Valley oF Trinidad, Caribbean Union Cotlege is a
private tc rti ary institution whose degree programs a re a fi liated
with Andrews University in Michigan, USA, Several years
ago the College constructed a new science building and
began offering a Bachelor of Science degree in biology with
a concentration in zoology. Enrollment increased
dramatically-far beyond the expeeta io ns o fthe institution's
adminislrators-and the first graduates of the program were
produced in 1994. Currently more than a hundred students
are enrolled in the program. Most come from a variety of
Eastern Caribbean countries, with less than hautf roinTrinidad;
each year a small but increasing number l' students come
from various African countries,
In 1993, I1 was recruited to instruct the program's natural
history courses. Having spent several years studying South
American birds, I jumped at the opportunity of exploring a
new. biologically rich country: Trinidad and Tobago,
Represenling the interface between the Caribbean and South
America, Trinidad and Tobago boast a mixture of continental
and island biolas-an irresistible paradise for a tropical
eo'U logist.


After arriving in Trinidad, I was disappointed io learn that
there were no formally trained ornithologists in the country,
especially given the country's reputation as a mecca fuor
visiting foreign birders. Furthermore, ornithology had never
been taught at the tertiary level in the country. Perceiving an
untapped opportunity, I took up the challenge of developing
what I suspect is the firstprogram ofornithologica] education
and research at a tertiary institution in the English-speaking
Caribbean, And I hope that my experiences, detailed below,
will stimulate other tertiary institutions in the region to
recognize the economic and aesthetic importance of birds
(e.g., as environmental indicators and as a source of revenue
from ecolourists), and to develop a similar program of
ornithological education and research.
During each of i h past three academic years I have taught
an upperdivision course in ornithology for fourquarter units
of credit. Thus far 80 students have completed the course,
which includes three hours of lectures per week for teon
weeks, and five days of instruction in the field with an
emphasis on the identification of local birds. After a few
mornings spent identifying birds on the campus, a full day is
spent birding at the Asa Wrighl NatureCentre, Aripo Savamnas


El PitTrre lt0(l}


Page 17







Ornithology at Caribbean Union College. Trinidad Hayes


and the Trincity ponds. Another morning is spent capturing
birds with mist nets, obtaining pertinent scientific data, color
banding, and then releasing the birds o'nr observe aion. The
final field exercise comprises a census olf he birds combined
with habitat measures in the vicinity of the campus, using the
fixed-radius point count method. We then analyze the data in
an effort to htter understand the habitat use uf the most
common species of birds, The ornithology course has
beneFited by donations of bi noculars, field guides and hundreds
of ornithological books and journals (see Acknowledgnients
section).
In addition to our educational program, my students and 1
(along with local naturalist Ishmael Samad) have been in-
volved in severalomithological research projects. In Trinidad,
Tobago, and their satellite islands, we have been using fixed-
radius point counts to study the population dynamics of birds
in a variety of native habitats. Also. in Trinidad we have
studied bird populations in two exotic Caribbean pine (Pirus
caribaea) plantations, one in the mountains and the other in
the lowlands. Within a few years we will be able to compare
the diversity and abundance of birds in a variety of habitats
on islands vary ing in size, topography, and distance from the
ain land.
in Tobago, we have focused primarily on studying the
status, ecology and behavior of the White-tailed Sabre wing
(Campyfopwtrusensipemris), a large speci ues ofhlummingbird
regarded by BirdLi re International as the only species threal-
ened with extinction on Tobago. Our study. dubbed "Project
Sabrewing." has benefited by a series of small grants and
corporate con I ributions exceeding US$5,700 (see Acknowl-
edgments seclion). Thus far 31 students representing 14
countries have participated during fi veexpedituon s of Project
Sabrewing. In addition to receiving free advanced training in
fiedd ornithology, most of the students have obtained aca-
d ni c credit for either independent rese arch or for a Tropical
Ecology course offered during the summer of [996.
During Project Sabrewing expeditions our activities in-
clude exploring and mapping trails in search of sabre wings,
banding forest birds includei ng sabre wings) at several sites,
and recording observations on the behavior and ecology of
selected territorial male sabrewings. We also measure and
analyze the vegetation structure at several sites in an effort to
better understand the ecological requirements of the forest
birds. In addition to learning as much as we can about the
biology of the White-tailed Sabrewing, we hope (pending
future funding) ;o turn Project Sabrewing into a long-term
biomonitoring program for gauging the health of Tobago's
forest bird populations. As a byproduct ofProject Sabrewing.


many young, aspiring 'Third Worid" students are obtaining
an unprecedented opportunity to learn about and appreciate
the complex ecological interrelationships of the rainforest.
A colorful painting of two White-tailed Sabrewing on a
heliconia was donated to the project by Dr. John P. O'Neill,
a prominent ornithologist and artist at Louisiana Stale Uni-
versity. The painting has been printed on T-shirts that are
being sold to raise further funds and to increase environ men-
tal awareness.
The results of our ornithological research were presented
by three students at the 1995 society meedtin in Trinidad, and
by myself at the 1996 meeting in Nassau.
The success of our program is largely due to the organ ia-
lions and individuals who have generously donated resources
and have recognized the untapped potential of West Indian
students who are anxious for opportunities to study their
environment. Our success is also attributable to the birds,
whose bright colors, melodious songs and entertaining antics
pique the curiosity of students more than any other group of
animals. Although we realize that other organizations in the
Caribbean (especially in the Spanish-speaking countries)
have initiated conservation projects and obtained funding for
ornithological education and research, we encourage others
who have not (particularly the tertiary institutions) todevelup
such a program.

AcKNQOWLEDo ENTS

Ornithological education and research at CUC has been
greatly facilitated by the contributions of numerous individu-
als (too many to name) and organizations to whom we owe a
debt of gratitude The Manomet Observatory for Conserva-
lion Sciences Birder's Exchange donated binoculars and
field guides. The Latin American Library Enhancement
Project, sponsored by the American Ornithologists' Union,
donated books and journals, Project Sabrewing has been
financed by the American Bird Conservancy, Amoco Trinidad
Oil Company, BirdLife International, British Petiroleum,
Center for the Study of Tropical Birds, Fauna and Flora
International, Guardian Li re of the Caribbean Ltd., Republic
Bank Ltd.,Trinidad andTobago National Petroleum Market-
ing Company Ltd., and Trinmar Ltd. In addition, food and
drinks were donated by College Health Foods, C. Yip Choy
Bail lie Ltd., Pan American Standard Brands Inc., and Rom ike
Ltd. Hummingbird bands were donated by Bob Sargent of
The Hummer/Bird Study Group Inc. Topographic maps
were donated by Robert Stacy.


ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS PRESENTID AT THE 1996 ArNUtAL MEETING OF SCO AT NASSAU, BAHAMAS
CONTINUEDD FROM VOL. 9 LSS.UR 3)

RESOURCE PARTITIONING BETWEEN GLOSSY IB IS AND WHITE IBIS
IN A RICE FIELD SYSTEM IN SOUTH-CENTRAL CUBA

MAHwl'tN Aco'slA. oLo-RDa MU[CLA, C. MANCINA. AND X. RuiZ
Fucrehrwi de fiouogia, UriUversidad Je La Habona. Cuba

Population density, firaginrg microiiabitat and diet com- abisJ was 2.2 i d/ha in October and for P.fatncinuwhs ranged
position were analyzed for the White b]his (Eudocinatsalbs) from 1.4 ind/ha in August to 217 ind/ha in October, Both
and the Glossy Ibis (Plegadis fidchinelus) while they fed in ihises share the same main foraging microhlabitat, except in
the rive field system of "Sur del Jibaro" (Sancd-Spiritus, October when, coinciding with their highest population den-
Cuba), from May to December. Population density for E. sites. they segregate tieir forag ng grounds. In this month the


El Phirre 10(l)


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Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


White Ibis tend to forage in recently muddied fields where,
owing to the action of machinery. an abundance of shrimp
and aquatic insects are available; whereas the Glossy this
tend to concentrate in flooded fields with mature rice ears
shedding their grains. A general account of diet show that
these species segregate on diet composition: The White Ibis
fed on shrimp (59%), aquatic insects (20%), and fish (18%);.
whereas Glossy Ibis fed on rice grains (53%), aquatic insects
(25%), and shrimp (21 %). A quantitative assessment of the
granivorous feeding habits of the Glossy Ibis is reported for
the first time. and evidence suggesting that this Ibis might be
primarily a plant eater, shifting to an animal-food based diet
during the breeding season, is presented,
La densidad poblacional, el microhlbitat de forrajeo y la
composici6n de la dicta fueron analizados para el Eridocinmis
albus y el Plegadisfalcinethes mientras se alimentaban en el
sistema de arrozales de Sur de Jibaro (Sancti-Spiritus, Cuba)
desde mayo a diciembre. La densidad poblacional para E.
albus fire de 2.2 ind/ha en octubre y para P.falchrellus fue de


1.4 ind/ha en agosto hasia 217 ind/ha en octubre. Ambas aves
compartfan el misino recurso. except en octubre,. cuando
coincidiendo con sus mayores densidades poblacionales,
segregaron ss usreas de forrajc, Durante este nies el E. albus
tiende a alimentarse en campos recientemente anegados
debido a la acci6n de la mnaquinaria, donde hay disponibles
abundanies camarones e insects acudticos, P. falcinelhus
tiende a congregarse en campos ya inundados done las
espigas ya ban madurado sus granos, Una descripci6n gen-
eral de su dicta muestra que estas species se dividend en
cuanto a composici6n desus respectivas dietas. El E. albus se
alimenta de camarones (59%), insects acudticos (20%) y
pieces (18%); mientras que el P.falcinellus se aliimenla de
grants de arroz (53%). insects acuaiicos (25%,) y ca nu'o nes
(21 t %). Una evaluaci n de los h abitos alimenticios granfvoros
del P.Jalcinellus se report por primera vez, y evidencia que
sugicre que esta ave es primariamente ptantfvora y que
cambia su dieta a una basada en comida animal durante la
dpoca de reproducci6n tambi6n se prove.


BREEDING BIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF THE BAHAMA SWALLOW

PAUL E. ALLEN
Bahamars National Trust, Rand Nature Centre, East Settler's Way, P.O. Box F-43441, Freeport, Grand Baheua Bahamas; and
Mon tina Cooperarivc Wildhfe fResearch Unit, University of Moinna, Missoula, Mosntan 5981 f2, USA


The Bahamna Swallow (Tachycinea cyaneoviridix) is an
obligate secondary cavity-nester endemic to the pine forests
of four islands in the northern Bahamas, The near-threatened
status of this poorly-known species stems from the limited
extent of pine forest breeding habitat. a history of logging in
that habitat, and potential competition from exotic secondary
cavity-nesters. Natural nest sites of Bahama Swallows on
Grand Bahama generally were abandoned woodpecker cavi-
ties and nests in all types of cavities were built from pine
needles, Casuarina spp. twigs, and grasses. Mean clutch size
was 3.0 and 1he pure white eggs were slightly larger than
those of Tree Swallows (T. bicolor). Both the mean incuba-
tion and nestling periods (15.8 days and 22.7 days respec-
tively) were longer than those of Tree Swallows. Hatching
success and nestling success were 87% and 81% respec-
tively, giving an overall success rate of 70%. One case of
double-brooding was documented and two other likely cases
were no ted. Weekly surveys of adults in pine forest habitat on
Grand Bah-ama during breeding gave a linear density of 0.J 8-
0.25 pairs-km -'. The results from a single survey on Andros
(0.21 pairs-kmni ) corresponds to survey results on Grand
Bahama in the same period and very roughly agrees with the
outcoRtme ofa 1988 survey.
La Golondrina de Bahamas (Tachicienra cvaneiviridis)
es un ave enddmica a tos hosques de pines de las cuatro islas


del nore de las Bahamas queanida en cavidades secundarias
cn forma obligada. El cstado de cuasi amenazado que tiene
esta poco conocida especie se deriva de la poca extension de
habitat reproductive de los bosques de pinos, una historic de
extraccidn maderera en esa area y una potential competencia
por cavidades de aves ex6ticas, Las Areas de anidaje natural
de estaespecie fueron usualmente cavidades abandonadas de
Carpinteros, y sus nidos en todas las classes de cavidades se
hicieron de agujas de pino, ramitas de Castuarina spp, y
grama. El promedio de la camunada fue de 3 huevos. siendo
estos huevos de color blanco puro poco mis grandes que los
de la Golondrina de Arbol (T, bicolor). Tanto los perfodos
promedios de incubacidn y de anida[e. de 15.8 y 22.7 dfas
respectivamente, fueron mis largos que los de la Golondrina
de Arbol El dxitode oclusi6n y el de lospiehones fue de 87%
Y 81 % respeclivanente, siendo ta razdn dcl 6xito reproductive
total de 70%. Un caso de double eamada fue reportado y ntros
dos posibles casos se notaron. Se real zaron censos semanales
en los bosques de pinos en Gran Bahamas d urante la 6poca de
reproducci6n dando una densidad linear de 0-18 a 0.25 pares
por km'. El resultado de un solo censo en Andros (0.21 pares
por km"-) se asemeja a los resultados del censo en Grand
Bahamas en el mismo period y es similar en cierto modo at
resultado de los censos de 1988.


El Pitirre 10(J )


Page 19







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting
IMPACT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
ON CAVITY-NESTiNG BIRDS IN THE BAHAMAS

PAUL E. ALLEN AND S. M. Hrrccox
Division of litalogicvd Scienc.', University of Morrtana, Missomda, AMowntl a 59812. USA


The decline of many bird species has been associated with
habitat loss in either their wintering or breeding ranges. The
potential development of timber resources in the pine (Pinus
caribaea) forests of the Bahamitas is a conservation concern,
since this unique forest resource provides habitat for several
bird species that are endangered or near-threatened. These
species incl ude the endangered K in land's Warbler (Dewarica
kirliandii), the near-threate ned BahamaSwallo w(Tachycineta
cyanenviridis), and the Bahamian sub-species of the near-
threatened Cuban Parrot (Amazona lencocepha la). Much of
the Bahaniian pine forest was logged earlier this century and,
us one of very few renewable natural resources in 1he Baha-
mas, it is likely to be exploited again in the future to generate
jobs and timber products. Forest management and utilization
proposals produced by the Food and Agriculture Organiza-
tion (FAO) of the United Nations in the 1980s lacked any
assessment of what impact timber management plans might
have on Bahamian flora and fauna. We examine the possible
effects ofiseveral forest management options proposed in the
FAO plans, focusing first on potential harmful impacts on
BahamaSwallows, But, since Bahama Swallows are sec nd-
ary cavity-nesters, it is also important to consider the impact
of the various forest management options on the primary
cavity nesters in the ecosystem, the most important of which
is the Hairy Woodpecker (Dendrocopus viltosus). This link-
age underscores that forest management plans which main-
tain the integrity of the entire ecosystem should be preferred
over those that simply provide for the minimal needs of a
small group of species. We conclude with specific recom-
mendation f how the effects of logging might be mitigated
for cavity nesters.


La merrno en muchas species de avyes se lia asociado a la
pardida do hlbiiat en sus areas de anidaje y de invernacidn. El
potential desarrolo de los recursosTnadererosde Ios bosques
do pinos (Pimns caribe) en las Bahamas es un asunto de
conservacidndc cuidado, yaque este lipode bosque exclusive
provee hdbitat para varias species en peligro de extincidn a
amenazadas. Entre estasespecies esti nDendroica kirlandii,
Tachicienta cyaneiviridis, y Anmawzoa tleucephula. Gran
parte del bosque de pinos de las Bahamas fue talado a
principios de siglh, y come uno de los pocos recursos natu-
rules renovables de las islas, cs possible que se explode en el
fut ur para gen erar trabajos y empleos. Propues tas de manejo
y de utilizaci6n forestall producidas por ia FAO en los ailos 80
carecfan de una declaracidn de que clase de impact tendrfan
estos planes sobre la flora y fauna de las islas. Nosotros
examinamos los posibles efectos de varies de estos planes de
la FAQO.eLfoedndonos primero enlos impacts potencialmente
dailinos sobre el Gorri6n de Bahamas. Debido a que este
gorri6n utiliza cavidades precisamente hechas per otras
cspucies, es important analizarel impact de estas opciones
de manejo sobre species que usan cavidades en forma
primariayobligadaen eleccosistemasiendo el mrs important
de estos el carpintero Dendrocopus villosus. Esta
interdependencia demuestra que los planes de mainejo
forestales que manicnen la integridad del ecosistema en
conj unto de ben ser prferidos sobre aqucilois que simpleme n te
proven para las mininmas necesidades de on grupo reducidu
de speciess. Concluimos con unas recomendaciones
especfficas sobre cdmo los efectos de la extraccidn maderera
pueden ser mitigados para ]as species que anidan en
cavidades.


CONTEMPORARY AND HISTORICAL RANGE OF THE PEARLY-EYED THRASHER, EMPHASIZING
THE GREATER ANTILLES AND THE BAHAMIAN ARCHIPELAGO

WAYNE AREN'T
hrternatiri al ilftilrre of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, P. 0, Bus 490, Palmer. Prrerw Rico 00721


Today, the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fisca us)
inhabits some 80 islands and cays throughout the Greater
Caribbean Basin, from Ruin Cay and San Salvador in the
southern Bahamas south to Bonaire, over a north-south
geographical range of almost 3000km. With the exception of
Puerto Rico, pearly-eyes are noticeably absent from the
larger islands, such as Cuba, Hispaniola, and Jamaica, in hab-
iting only species- poor satellite islands. Categorical model-
ing was used to establish some of the ecological correlates of
Ihe pcarly-eye's contemporary range. Pearly-eyes generally
do not colonize island less than about I km2 or with three or


fewerresidentlandbird species. Nor do they generally inithabit
large islands greater Ihan 1000 km2. Whereas pearly eyes are
resident on small islands with as few as four breeding
landbird species, they are found most often on islands with
about 16 resident species. The Bahamian Archipelago is the
major island group in the northwestern extreme of the pearly-
eye's range. It is comprised of about 30 major islands and
thousands of smaller cays, and has a combined landutass of
13,864 km2. Elevations seldom exceed 5-10 in, except for a
fewridgmesandhillthatreach30-60n, Ihe highest (67 m}
being Mr. Alvernia, Cai island. Although the Pearly-eyed


F EPitirre 10(1)


Page 20







Absuni-ts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


Thrasher inhabits many of the smaller, species-poor islands
and cays of the Southern Bahamas, it is curiously absent on
the small islands and cays in the Cay Sal Bank and Ragged
islands, none of which have more than 11 landbird species.
Contrarily, in the Northern Bahamas within recent years,
there have been increased sightings of dispersing thrashers
on the larger islands, which has led several auhors lu con-
clude that the pearly-eye is spreading its range northward
commensurate with continued development throughoutL he
region.
Al dfa de hoy, el Margarits fuscarms habitat algunas 80
is [as y cay Os a trav6s de lacuenca del Caribe, desde Ruin Cay
y San Salvador at Sur dc las Baham as has ta el str de Boni re,
extendidndose geogrificamente desde norte a sur en casi
3.000 Kinm. Cun la ecepcidn de Puerto Rico, esta ave sai
encuenmra notabletnente ausente de las islas mayors, tales
comn Cuba, Hispaniola y Jamaica, habitando solo pequehias
is las circundantes pobres en especies, El mode aje caiegrico
fue usado paracstableceralgunus de lasrel acionescategdricas
de la distribuci6n actual dte esa ave. El Margarusfascatus
usualmente no coloniza isJas de menus de I km2 o cn tries a
mienosespeciesde aves terre sires residents. Tampocohabita


is.bs con una superficie mayor de 1000 kbn. Ai n cuando esta
especie puede encnlralrse en islas con cuatri Lspecies tdI
aves residents. es mrns comnii encontrarla en islas con at
rededur de 16 species de species reside n tes. El Archi pidlago
de las Bahamas es el grupo de islas mas hacia el extremo
noreste de la extensi6n de esm ave. Esta compuesia de
alrededor de 30 islas principles y de miles de cayos menares
teniendo una ma-sa territorial combinada de 13,864 kin-. La
elevaciones raramenti exeeden Ils 5 a 10 metros, con la
excepci6n de algunas tomas de 30 a 60 metros, siendo la
mayorMonte Alvernia, en Cat Island, con 67 m. Adn cuando
habiLa muchas de las islas pequefiasy pobres en e species y los
cayos at extremo sur de las Bahamas, estd curiosamente
ausente de las islas peque5as y los cayos de Cay Sal Bank y
Rugged Islands, ninguna de Ias cuales tierne ms de 11
es pec ies de aves terrestres, For el ontratio, en aios recienctes,
han habido various avistamientos de Margarus fuscatus
dispersrindose en las isias mayores, io cual ha dado base a
varies autores para concluir quc el Afargans fiuscatus eta
extendiendo su distribucidn hacia el norte en proporcidn al
continue desarrollo de la region.


SHINY COWBIRDS IN THE BAHAMAS: A THREAT TO THE ARCHIPELAGO'S AVIFAUNA?

MICHAF. E. BA't:rz
Division of Bialogicua Sciences, 105 Tucker iHal, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missourt 65211, USA


Shiny Cowbi rds(Moo foitJsbsnariensis) were recorded in
the Bahamta islands for the first time in 1994 on Andros
island. Subsequent surveys of the island nd icate that they are
widespread on North Andros and reproducing. Although
apparently confined to Andros, the species will likely invade
other islands in the arch ipel ago, The detection of the Shiny
Cowbird in die Bahamas offers the opportunity to document
its dispersal throughout ihe archipelago and study the utiliza-
tion of potential hosts, From conservation perspective, the
Shiny Cowbird has been implicated in the extinction or
endangerment of several bird species in the West Indies, As
a result, the potential negative impact of this brood parasite
on the avifauna of the Bahamas Archipelago is cause for
concern.


El Molothnts bonariensis se registry en las Bahamas por
primeravezen 1994 en lais lade Andros. Censossubsiguientes
en la isla indican que estin ampiiamente distribuidos en el
Norte de Andros y reproduci6ndose. Aunque aparentemente
esta species seenc ue n Ire con i nada en Androas, event ualmente
invadird otras islas del archipidlago. Lu dcteccidn de esta
especie en lus Bahamas ofrece Ia oportunidad de documentary
su dispersion a travds del archipid[ago y la utilizaci6n de
hudspedes potenciates. Desde una perspective de
conservacidn, esta especie a propiciadolaextincidn de varias
otras species en las Indias Occidentales y a amenazado [a
exi-stenciade variasotras. Como resultadodeesto, el potential
impact negative de ste parisico de nidos pueda causar a la
avifauna de Las Bahamas es un motive de preocupacion.


USE OF SUCCESSIONAL CATTLE PASTURES BY RESIDENT
AND MIGRATORY LANDBIRDS IN PUERTO RICO

MJCt[AEL E. BAI,'17 ANi) R, S. FUICtANO'
'Universint of MissoLri, Columbia, Misavuri 65211. USA: and tU. S, Fisxh widl Willife Service,
R. 0. Box 5011/, Bioquerd, Puerto Rico 00622


During the last two winters we have used mist-neis to
sample the avian conimunities ol'successional castle pastures
in southwestern Puerto Rico. To date we have captured a total
of 49 landbird species including 6 island endemic and 19


El Pitirre J1(I)


species of neotropical migrants. Many residents regularly
captured are those normally associated with mature dry
forest. Several migrant species are more abundant in this
habitat than in other native habitats sampled in the reg ion, We

Page 21








Abstracts nf Papers from SCO 1996 Meti ring


detail our results and comment on the potential value of
successional habitats to both migrant and resident species in
Puerto Rico.
Durante los ditimos dos inviernos hemos estado usando
redes ornitoldgicas para mues rear las comunidades de ayes
en pastizales abandonados en el sudoeste de Puerto Rico,
Hasta el dia de hoy hemos capturados 49 species de aves
terrestres incluyendo 6 enddcmicas y 19 avyes migratorias


neoiropicales. Muchos de los residents capturados
regularmente son aquellos asociadus normalmente con
bosques secos maduros. Varias species de aves nmigratorias
son m4s abundanies en este tipo dL habitat que en otros tipos
de hbbitals naturates muestreados en la region. Detallamos
nuesu'os resultados y comentamos sobre el valor potential de
los habitats en sucesidn tanto para las aves residents como
para las migratorias en Puerto Rico.


DISTRIBUTION, DIVERSITY, AND ABUNDANCE OF THE TERRESTRIAL AVIFAUNA IN THE SABANA
ARCHIPELAGO NORTH OF VILLA CLARA, CUBA

VICENTE BliROVuDES-ALVAREZ' AND XIOM1ARA GALVEZ-AGOiLM.IkRA
'Universidud de la Habana, FacutiL d de Biologfa. Cuba: y 'Empresa para hi Conservacidn
die ia Flora y ht Farima, Ministe rio delay Agricuttrrra, Cuba


Few studies have been made of terrestrial avian abun-
dance and diversity on the little archipelagos surrounding
Cuba. The purpose of this study is to decirmine the patterns
of distribution, density, and abundance of the avifauna which
inhabits a segment of the Sabana Archipelago found to the
north of Villa Clara. We worked in the cay north of Carahata,
in 7 cays and 3 islets during July 1992 and May 1993. We
observed a total of 25 terrestrial bird species, of which 11
(44%) were also observed in a similar area in Cuba. The
density of birds on die cays (36.4 birds/ha) was lower than in
a similar area on Cuba (51.2 birds/ha), These results are
discussed in terms of rarity and general abundance of the
species in Cuba.


de la avil'auna terrestre de los pequefius archipidlagos de
cayos que rodean a Cuba son escasos. En este trahajo se
propuso determinar los patrones de distribuci6n, densidad y
abundancia de la avifauna que habitat en un segmento del
Archipidlago Sabana, que se encuentra al Norte de Villa
Clara. Sl trabaj6 en la cayeria al N de Carahata, en 7 cayos y
3canalizos duranlejulio/92 a may /93.En total se observaron
25 species de aves terresires, de estas, 11 (44%) tambi6n se
observaron en un area prdxima de La Isla de Cuba. La
densidad para los cayos (36.4 aves/ha) I'ue inferior a la del
&rea pr6xima en Cuba (51.2), Sc discuten los resultados en
tdrminos de la rareza o abundancia general de las species en
Cuba.


Los studios de la distribuci6n, diversidad y abundancia


ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE GREATER FLAMINGO (PHOENICOPTERUS RUBBER)
IN THE SABANA-CAMAGOEY ARCHIPELAGO

ViCENTr BLROVrr)FS-ALVAREZ' AND XIostARA GALVEZ-AcutI.EnKA
'Universidad de la Hflbana, Faachad de Biologia, Cubab. y 'Empresa para la Cotrservaci6n
de la Flora y la Fruna, 4inirterio dela Agricultunt, Cuba


Flamingos are some of tie most attractive species of
birds, but are also highly vulnerable io the negative actions of
humans. Within the Antilles, Cuba has one ol the largest
populations aof he Gre after Flanmingo(Phoenicopterus ruber),
with 4 large geographic areas occupied by the species. Some
populations have up to 90,000 reproductive individuals.
Nonetheless, littic is known about the ecology of this species
in our country. This project was undertaken with the follow-
ing objectives: I ) determine the nesting population in the area
of Sabana-Camagiiey; 2) characterize the breeding sites; 3)
quantify the extent of human disturbance; 4) determine the
extent of interchange among populations; and 5) develop
conservation awareness of the species. We describe die
methods used to accomplish these objectives, based on the
likelihood that the flamingo populations are subpopulations
of a large Cuban and Bahamian metapopulation, which
should be managed as one population for the two countries to
Page 22


ensure the species' survival,
Los flamencos se encuentran entire las species de aves
mds atractivas, pero tambien mnis vulnerable a la acci6n
negative del hombre. Dentrode las Antillas, Cuba cuenta con
el mayor numern de poblaciones del Flamenco Rosado
(Phoenicoplenis rubber) con 4 grande areas geograficas
ocupadas por la especie. Algunas poblaciones poseen hasta
90,000 individuos en repruducci6n. Sin embargo poco es lo
que conocemos sobre la eculogra de esta especie en nuestro
pafs. Este proyecto se propone como objetivos: 1) deternninar
can exactitud In poblacidn total nidificante en el iirea de
Sabana- Canmagey;2)earacterizarlossitios dereproducci6n;
3) cuantificar los factors limitantes antropogdnicos;
4)deterninar el grado de intercambio entire poblaciones; y 5)
rear una conciencia conservacionista sobre la especie. Sc
describe la metodoiogra para cumplimentar estos objetivos,
sobre la base de que las poblaciones de flanmencos son
El Pitirre 10(1)







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Mueing


realmente suhpohlaciones de una gran imnctapoblacion de
Cuba y las Bahanas, que debe ser manejada como un todo


entire los dos parses, si realnente se desea salvaguardar la
especie.


CHANGES IN THE CAYMAN ISLANDS AVIFAUNA
FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE TO 1996

PANrIC]A E. BRADLEY
P, 0, Box 907, George Town, Cayman Islands, British West lndies


An examination of recent paleomithological research,
field results, museums and collections, and unpublished
literature relates the changes in the avifauna of the 3 Cayman
Islands from 1 700 years BP to 1996 to alterations in climate
and habitat and the effects of recent hunan set element. Fossil
evidence showed closer zoogeographic affinities with the
rest olf the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, as well as more
homogenous distribution of the avifauna among the three
islands, than occuratthe end of the 20th century.The Cay man
Islands are the only West Indian islands not to have been
stalled by pre-historic (pre-Colombhian) peoples, retaining
withoutpermanent settlement until 1740: theeffects of recent
human impact on the avifauna are discussed.
Un examen de la invesligaci6n. resultados de campo,


colecciones en museos y literaturapublicada y per publicarse
en el area de la paleornitologra relaciona los cambios de. la
avifaunade ias tires islas Caimanesdesdeel 17,000 ATP hasta
e] present a las alteraciones en 0 cli ma los cambios en el
hdbitat y a lis efectos del reciente asentamiento human, La
evidencia f6sil muestra afinidades zoogeogrdficas itns
cercanas con el reslo de las Antillas Mayores y las Bahamas,
junto con una distribuei6n minds honiog6nea de la avirauna
entire Ias tres isias, que la que ocurre a fines del siglo 20. Las
Islas Cayman son las tinicas islas que no fue ron habitadas per
comunidades precolombinas, permaneciendo sin
asenlamiento permanentes hastu 1740. Los efectos de los
rec ientes im pactos h u manes sobre la av [fauna son di scutidos.


THE BAHAMAS BIODIVERSITY DATA MANAGEMENT PROJECT

EREC CAREY
Tiw Baihanias Biodivers it Dara Management (BDM) project is an United Naiayns
Environmentma Progwrcnme (UN'P) project freded by the Global Environmental Faciity (GEF)


The Bahamas Biudiversity Data Management Project
seeks to develop a metadata base or 'environ mental informa-
Lion that exist in the Bahamas and to make it available for
marshaling into d ecision-making processes. The main objec-
tive is Io make information available to decision makers to
ensure thal the development of the Bahamas is along sustain-
able pathways. Most of the information we seek is located
outside the Bahamas and therefore we are relying on the
cooperation of many international scientists who have con-
ducted research in the Bahama Islands. It is anticipated that
we will also develop as part of the project a Biodiversity Data
Management Plan, which will assist relevant institutions in
the Bahamas to effectively contribute to maintaining the
in form al ion dat abase by report ing to a central "hub," data that
may be useful for providing inlnnaimon for decision makers.
The Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Com-
mission, in the Office of the Prime Minisler, is the Agency
responsible for the administration of the project.
El Proyecto busca desarrollar an gran base de dates de


informacianque ya existed en las Bahamas yhacrla disponible
panic el process de toma de decisions. El objetivo principal
al haceresta infrmaei6n disponible a aquellos en el process
de toma de decisions es asegurarse que el desarrol I de las
Bahamas sea a trav6s de senders sostenibles. Mucha de la
informacidn que buscamus se encuentra fuera de las Baha-
mas. por lo que descansamos en gran pane en Ia cooperucidn
de muchos cicnLfficos internacionales que hayan conducido
investigaciones en las Bahamas. Se anticipa que
desarrollaremos junto con este proyeeto un Plan de Manejo
de la Data de Biodiversidad, el que ayudarA a institucitnes
imporiantesen Ias Bahamas aquecontribuyan efectivamente
al mantenimiento de ia base de informTnacin nmediante los
reports que generen a una matrix central, y esta sera Ia data
que serd titil para la toma de decisions, La Comisifn de
Ambiente, Ciencia y Tecnologia de Bahamas, adscrita a la
oficina del Primer Ministro, as la Agenda responsible por la
administraci6n de este pruyecc


El Pitirre 1(1)


Page 23







Abstracts of Papers front SCO 1996 Meeting
BIRD COMMUNITIES IN A FRAGMENTED BUFFER ZONE OF THE BLUE AND
JOHN CROW MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK

SUZANNE DAVIS AND PETER VOGEL
Deparmrenr of Zoosogy University of dire West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica


A pilot National Park has been developed in the Blue and
John Crow Mountains in Jamaica, an ure aof primary impor-
ta rice for the conservation of the island's biodiversity. Pro-
grossing from lower to higher altitudes, the natural forest of
the park has been degraded by commercial forestry projects,
co ffee pla tat ions, and subsiste nce farming. This has resulted
in a mosaic pattern of land-use characteribcd by patches ofi
forest remnants. culLivated lands, and abandoned plots with
secondary growth, including exotic invaders. Here we report
on an ongoing study to asses the influences oFsuch r'ragrncn-
tation on bird communities in the Rio Grande Valley. Point
Counts were conducted at 21 locations from April 1995 to
March 1996, and the vegetarian structure was assessed using
the point-centered quadrant meLhod. A preliminary analysis
of the data is presented focusing on links between vegetation
structure and the composition of bird communities.
Un Parque Nacional pilot a se dcsarroll6 en [as Morntaias
de Blue y John Crow en Jamaica, un drea de primordial


imprnrtancia para la conservacidn de la biodiversidad de la
isla. En forma progresiva desde las altitudes bajas hacia las
altas, los bosques natLrales del Parque se han Ido degradando
debido a los proyeccis de tala forestal, plantacidn de cafe y
agriculture de subsistencia. Esto ha resulwado en un mosaico
de diferentes uses de [a tierra. caracterizado per remanentes
de bosques, sierra cultivada, y loles abandonados con
crecimiento secundurio que incluye plants ex6ticas. El
present arfculo es un Tepurte acerca de las studios que se
estan Ilevando a cabo parn determinar la influencia de tales
fragments en las comunidades de ayves en el Valle de Rfo
Grande. Conteos de puntos fueron conducidos en 21
localidadcsdesde abrilde 1995 amart.ode 996ylaestructura
de La vegeiaci 6in 'uc esbozada usando el mtodo del cuadrante
con punto en el centro. Se present un andlisis preliminary de
ladamta aeatizando los lazos entire [aestructurade Ia vegetaci6n
y ia cnmposici6n de las comunidades de aves,


NATIVE AND MIGRATORY BIRDS OF TIHE BAHAMAS

C. FErtousoN, E. K ai, J. DILATE, S. McKENZiE, E. WILutcooss, N. BARRY, S. MrrciELL, K. WILSON, AND E. ADDERLEY
The College of The Balueuoas, Nassau, Bahamnms


Each year many Neoiropical birds visit the Bahama
islands. Someol these are winter residents whereas others are
summer residents or transients. It is important to identify
nhesc categories of birds and to collect data on their habitats
and foud sources so that essential information can be pro-
vided to guide decision makers on matters involving land use.
Cada ailo muchas aves migratorias visitan las Bahamas,


Algunasde estas son residents invernales mientras que otras
son residents de verano o pasajeras. Es importance poder
identificar estas categories de aves y recolectar informacion
sabre sus hibilats y fuentes de alimentaci6n para que esta
int'ormaciidn csencial pueda ser provista a atquellos envueltos
en la to ma de dec isi ones o en asuntos que envuelvan el uso del
terreno.


POPULATION CENSUS OF THE CUBAN PARROT (AMAZONA LEUCOCEPHAiL PALVIARUM) AND THE
SAND HILL CRANE (GRUS CANADEANSS NESIOTES) IN NORTHERN ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD, CUBA

XIOMARA GALvrz-AGuILERA', VICENTE BEROVII)rs-AI,VF.IaZ',
JOSE RJVERA zA AND JAMES W. WlITEY
'Empresa Nacional par-n la Corrservrjin dr lt Flora y la Farrna, Mhristerio de Agriculttra, La Habana, Cuba: 'FactiLiad de
Biologra. Uiversidkrd de' 1.a libana; y 3Grambling Cooperarive Wildfife Projeci, Graonbling Stare Universihy, USA


The Sandhil Crane (Grts canuadensis nesiones) and the
Cuban Parrot (AJmazoa Ieucocephala pdamunrms) are Lwo
threatened species of Cuban birds living in the northern part
of Isla de ia Juventud, Cuba, A population census was
organized for both species, with the massive participation Tof
the islandresidents. The census was held 17 Dcem hber 1995,
at 98 observ action points (OP) spread throughout the northern
part of the island, from 06:00 to 10:0(1 hrs., with I lo 4


ohservnrs per point- A toial of 1320 parrots (without corrce-
tion for possible repetitions; 1100 corrected for repetitions)
were observed, with 59.2% of the birds observed at 58 OPs.
A total count of 115 cranes were observed, with 38,7%
recorded at 38 OPs. The island populations consist of three
well-defined sub-populations. Cranes and Parrots co-oc-
curred in 50% of the OPs. Forty-eight species of birds were
detected in Ihe counts. and their occurrence was directly


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 24








Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


related to the abundance of cranes and parrots at the OPs.
La grulla (Gres c anJadietses nesiores) y la Cotorra (Arna-
Zoona leucocep/hala) son dos species do aves cubanas
amienazadas de extinci6n que habitan en la part Norte de la
Isla de la Juventud. Para ambas species se organized un
conteo poblacional, donde de foria musiva participo toda ta
poblacidn de ]a Tsla. El contco se Ilevo a cabo el dta 17 de
diciembre de 1995, en 98 puntos de observaci6n (PO),
dispersos par todo el Nortc de Ia lsla, entre las 06:00 y 10:00
horts, c on 1 a 4 observadores por ptuno. En 58 PO (59,2%) se


observaron cotorras, dando un total de [320 individuos (sin
corregir par posibles observaciones repetidas) y 1100
(corregido). En 38 PO (38.7%) so detectaron grullas, dando
un total de 15 individuos. La poblaci6n de esta especie en [a
Isla conform tires subpoblaciones bien delimitadas. Grullas
y cotorras coocurrieron en il 50.0% de los PO, En los conteos
se detectaron adernms 48 species de aves, directamnente
relacionadas con la abundancia en los PO de Grullas y
Cotorras,


THE STATUS OF THE CUBAN KITE (CHONDROHIERAX WILSONII) IN EASTERN CUBA

Xiomara Gillvez-Aguilera' and Vicente Berovides-Alvere r?
'mpresa para la Conservacidn de la Floram y to Fauna, Ministerio de Ag-iculturni, La Habana, Cuba;
y Facuilad du Biologia, Universidad de lh Habana, Cuba


The Cuban Kite (Chondroherax wilson i). considered by
some to be a subspecies of C. iincinarus. is endemic to Cuba
and one of the three most highly threatened species in our
country. Actually, the species is extremely rare and is con-
fined to die northwest of the eastern portion of Cuba. This
work summarizes the history of observations from those of
Gundlach (1890s) to the present (1996) and their implica-
tions for conservation of this species. In the past century and
the beginning of this century, the species was observed in
montane forests and xerophitic zones in the northeastern
section of the Oriente of Cuba. The species has rapidly
disappeared from these sites, where no observations have
been recorded since 1910. In the decades of 1970, 1980, and
1990, the species has been confined io the montane zones in
gallery forests where their population decline can be attrib-
uted to habitat loss, their diet restricted to arboreal snails, and
man's unjustified killing of the species. Potential protection
plans for this species require forest conservation, protection
of arboreal snails, environmental education on the impor-
tance of raptors, and the use of the local population in
conservation plans.
El Gavilain Caguarero (Chondrohierax wilsonii),


considerado por atgunos coimo una subespecie de Ch.
tucinatus, es endlmica de Cuba y una de las tres ayves mAs
amenazadas de nuestro pafs, actualmcntu la especie es
extre madamente raray estaconfinadaal noroeste de la region
oriental. Este trabajo brinda informaci6n sobre la historic do
los registros visuales de la especie desde Gundlach (1890),
hasta la fecha (1996) y las implicaeiones conservacionistas
que tiene Ia protecci6n de esta especie. En el siglo pasado y
principios del present, la especie seobservabaen los bosques
de imontafias y zonas xeroffticas del noroeste de la region
oriental, desapareciendo rApidamenite de estas ultimas, donde
no hubo mas registros vis ales desde t 1910. En las decadas de
1970, 80 y 90, la especie qued6 confinada a las zonas
montaiosas con bosques de galerfa, donde su disminuci6n
pudo deberse a la pdrdida de habitat y de su alimento
exclusive, los caracoles arb6reos y/o la cacerfa injustificada
par tratarse de un gavildn. Cunaquier plan de proteccidn de
esta especie iene amplias implicaciones conservacionistas
en cuanto a conservaci6n de los bosques, conservaci6n de los
caracolesarbireos, educacidn ambiental parcel noexterminio
de rapaces y la participaci6n de la poblaei6n local en los
planes de conservaci6n.


WHAT'S RARE IN THE BAHAMAS?

LYNN GAPE
Public Relations and Education Ojffier, Bahuamas National Trust, P 0 Box N 4105, Nassau. Bahamnas


The RARE center for Tropical Conservation has supplied
technical and financial help to island nations in the Caribbean
and Indonesia. RARE promotes an educational program
using the region's more glamorous birds to"sell" the concept
of conservation. Hiilights of tis highly successful market-
ing concept are portrayed using examples from the Bahamas
Parrot Conservation Project and also from other Caribbean
projects.


El Centre de Conserv acidn Tropical "RARE" ha proviso
ayuda tdcnica y financiera a naciones insulares desde el
Caribe hasta Indonesia. RARE promueve programs
educadvos usando las aves m6s glamorosas de ta region para
poder"vender" el concept de las canservaci6n. Los concepts
mis sobresalientes de este exitoso eoncepto de mercadeo son
mostrados usando ujemplos del Proyeeta de Conservaci6n de
aI Colorra de Ins Bahamas y de otros proyectos del Caribe.


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 25







Abstracls of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting
THE CUBAN FIELD GUIDE PROJECT

ORLANDO GAq kinO, AXTURu KRKCONNrqELL, AND Ro.sAN CoMPAmY'
Mrne'o Nacionat die H.isria Nftrira/, t4 flabana, Caob


For the first time Cuba is going mt have iIs own field guide
with up-co-date information on all Cubun thirds (including not
onLy the native species bhul also the regular migrants and
stragglers). We will present a slide show with many of the
beautiful plates drawn by Roman Company, as well as the
general information covered in each species account. We will
discuss die status of the guide.


oPr prinmera vez Cuba tendrd su propia Gufa du Camnpo,
con Inforniacidn actualizada do Lodas las ayes cubanas
(incluyendu nos6lolas residentes,si notambinl as migratorias
regulars y las accidenmtaes). Presentaremos una series de
diapositivas con various d los hermosus dibujos
fidedignamente dibujados por Roindi Company, y con
informacidn general que se cubre en cada descripoln de
species. Disculiremos tambifn la situacidn actual del libro.


BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BAHAMA PARROT ON GREAT INAGUA

ROSEMARLE GNA-,M'. MARCIA WIlUSON2, AND IAN LOTHIAN'
IU. S. Fish asd Wfrdihfe Service. Arlingon. Virginia, USA: 'Nuional Biologicat Sernice,
Ptrwuvt l, fan-irand, USA,' Unuisual Touws. Nassau, Bahamas


As part of a long-term study of the bi ology of the endan-
gered Bahama Parrot (Amazona leucocephala bahamensis),
we studied nesting parrots on Great Inagua in 1989, The
Bahama Parrot persists today on the islands of Abaco and
Great Inagua at Ihe northern and southern limits of its Former
range in the Bahamas. We located I I Bahama Parrot nests on
Great Inagua. All nests were in either live or dead trees with
a mean nest depth of 66 em and a mean nest cavity entrance
of 16 x 8.5 cm (length x width). Eggs were laid in late April
and early May. The failure of 5 pairs to lay eggs suggested
that these pairs may have been young, inexperienced birds
which were defending territories hut not yet breeding or that
environmental conditions in Lheir nesting locality were unfa-
vorable for reproduction. Clutch size ranged from 2-3 eggs
and the mean number of young hatched per egg-laying pair
was two. We also col ected data on food habits. In the pre-
egglaying stage, nesting pairs fed heavily on the cone-like
fruit of Buttonwood (Conocarpus erecius), which was abun-
dant in the nest area. The fruit of Buttonwood was nutridiun-
ally analyzed and contained l1i% protein, 2% lipid, 58%
fiber, and less than 1% non-structural carbohydrates. The
nur mbe r o Bahamas Parrots on Gre.Lt Inagua is unknown and
a comprehensive survey to estimate the present population's
size is highly recommended,


Como pane de an studio a largo plazo sobre la biologia
de laamenazadaCotorrade Bahamas.AAmazona le ncvephail
bahamensis, estudiamos las cotorras anidando en las isl] as de
Abaco y Great Inagua en 1989. Esta cotorra persist en estas
islas a los mdrgenes nortne y sur del tcrritorio que antes
ocupaban. Localizamos 11 nidos en [a isla de Great Inagua,.
Todos los nidos estaban en cavidades en Arboles vivos o
muertos con una profundidad promedio de 66 cm y una
cavidad de entradu promedio de 16 x 8,5 cm (largo por
ancho). Los huevos fueron puestos entire fines de abril y
principio de mayo, El hecho que 5 pares fracasaran en poner
huevos s ugiere que estas aves eran ine xpertas y j dvenes y que
estaban defendiendo un territorio pero atn no ponia huevos.
Puede scr lambidn que las condiciones ambientales en la
vecindad sean desl'avorablcs para lareproducci6n. Etpromedio
de la cam ada fue de 2 a 3 huevos, y el promedio de pichones
de 2 por nido. Tamibidn recolectamos informacidn sobre los
hdbitos alimenticios. En la etapa previa a la puesia de hue vos.
[a pareja se alimentaba principalmente de la fruta de
Cowncarpus erectus, abundance en el Area. Analizamos la
fruta de este arbol y contiene I 1% protefna, 2%1 ilpidos. 58%
fibras y menos del 15% de carbohidraios no estructurales. El
nimnerode cotorras en la Is tade Great Inagua cn la actualidad
se desconoce, y un studio para esfimar el tamailo de la
poblacidn actual es grandemente recomendado.


COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF RESIDENT AND MIGRANT
COMMUNITIES IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL CUBA DURING THE WINTER

HIRAM GONZALEZ, ALEJANDRO LLANES, AND PEDRO BLANCO
M.useo Nacionai de [a Hisioria Natural, La Habana, Cuba


We selected 17 sample sites in 5 localities in Cuba, where
we determined avian comn position and abundance using cir-
cular plots and mist nets. The greatest species richness was
detected in the Sihbalos. Centote and Cateta del ''orn in the


Citnaga de Zapata, Salvador in Gilira, Mil Cumbres Cay and
El Verat in Gua nahacabibes; these sites also had the greatest
taxunomic correlations between species and genera, and
genera and families. In these same areas next to Cabanas in


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 26







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


Mil Cumbrcs and Las Caletas in Cayo Santo Maria we
detected the greatest capture rates (birds/i00 net hr) and
relative abundance (birds/count). We determined the species
which were most abundant. We related species richness and
abundance to different vegetation variables for each of the
different sample sites.
Se seleccionaron 17 ireasde muestreo dc 5 localidades de
Cuba. Se determined la composici6n y abundancia medianic
los mdtodos ido conteos por parcee a circular y la capt ra con
redes ornitoldgieas. La mayor riqueza dc especies de aves se
dtcecto en los Sabalos, Ccriaoe v Caleta del Toro en la


Ci naga de Zapaia. el Salvador en la Giira. el Cayo en Mil
Cum brls y El Vera I enGuanahacabibes,asfcome los mayors
valores de los indices do correl ci 6n laxon6mica de species/
gdnero y gdneros/familia. En ustas mismas areas junto a
Cabainas en Mil Cumbres y Las Calitas en Cayo Santa Maria
se dutectaron los mayores valores de tasa de capture (aves/
100 hr) y abundance a rel aiva (aves/conieo). Se determinaron
las species de aves mas abundantes. Se relacionan los
parAmetros de riqueza y abundancia de la avifauna con
diferentes mediLciones de ia vegetacidn para todas las dres,


WHERE DO WORM-EATING WARBLERS GO IN THE NON-BREEDING SEASON?

LtsE A, H-ANNE' ERS -A S. R. PATTro
'he Nature CwnerLanrfc, Devii's /Jen Presen'e. P. 0. Box i 162. Wesson, Connecticui 0683, USA


Worm-eating Warblers (Heniitheros vermivomrs) winter
in the Greater Antilles, the Bahamas, and the Caribbean slope
ofMiddle America. Jamaica is the approximate center of the
Worm-eating Warbler's wintering distribution and might be
expected to support a large proportion of the wintering
population. We surveyed dry scrub and moist forests of
Jamaica in 1994 and found an average density of 2 birds per
kiloinet r, aiong linear point count transects using play bac ks.
Our general impression was that Worm-eating Warblers
were widely distributed in in iny forest habitats,. but were
common nowhere. Using the same technique on St. John in
1994, we recorded only a few individuals on minist forest
transects. Similarly, Wunderlt and Walde (1993) found
Worm-eating Warblers primarily on forest habitats in 5 of the
islands they surveyed in the Greater Antilles and the Baha-
mas, but they were abundant nowhere. In Middle America
dam are limited to observations of a few individuals (e.g.,
Lynch 1989-Yucatan) with perhaps the highest numbers
recorded in the disappearing moist forest ofVLeracruz (Rappote
t: ael 1992). Hypotheses to explain our observations include;
I) areas o concentration and habitat preferences are yet to be
identified, or 2) Worm-eating Warb lers are not abundant and
their low numbers on their wintering grounds reflect low
numbers of breeding individuals on their nesting range,
El Ave Canora Hebnitheros vermivorous invierna en las
Antillas Mayores, as B aham us y en la pendiente caribenia de


America Central. Jamaica es el centro aproximado de la
distribuci6n internal de esta ave y se puede asumir que
sostenga una gran proporcidn de ]a poblacidn durante el
invierno, Censamos un irea de matorrales y un bosque
huniedo en Jamaica en 1994 y encontramos una densidad
promnedio de 2 aves por kmn, a lo largo de conteos en puntos
en transectos lincares usando reproducciones de sus cantos.
Nuestraimpresi6n general esqueestasavesestan distribuidas
ampliamente en un a gama de habitats, sin ser comnunes en
ninguna drea on particular. Usando la misma tdcnica en St.
John, en las Islas Virgenes. en 1994, solo registramos pocos
individuos en transectos en bosques htimedos. En forma
similar, Wunderle y Waide (1993) encontramn Heb itheros
vernmivorous en habitat de bosque en 5 de las islas que
censaron en el Caribe y las Bahamas, sin set abundantes en
ninguna area en particular. En Ia Amdrica Central. Ia data se
limit a observaciones de unos pocos individuos {por Ejem.
Lynch 1989-Yucatan) con lo que quizds sea el mayor
ndimero registrado en cl desvaneenien bosque htimedo de
Veracruz (Rappole et al. 1992). Las hipiltesis para explicar
estos resultados incluyen: 1) las Areas de concentraci6n y las
preferencias de habitat todavra no se han identificado; o 2)
esta especie no es abundant y los bajos ndineros en las treas
de invernacidn rellejan la escasez de individuos
reproduciendoce en las areas de anidaje.


BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY OF TERRITORIAL MALE WHITE-TAILED SABREWINGS
(CAMPYLOPTERUS ENSIPENNIS): EVIDENCE FOR LEK POLYGNY

F. E. HAYES, T. 0. G,&RNt:.V', M. V. BEtRNARD, A. L. BULLARD, D. R. HAY, D-A. D. D, WILSON,
D. J. Wln.so,, V. L, JoSeVH, AND D. K. Sr. Louis
Deparrmnero of Biology, Caribbean Utrion Cuf4lte P. 0. Box 175, Porl of Spain, Trrinidud iitd Thobego


During 20.24 March and 11-20 December 1995, we
studied the behavior of five vocalizing male White-tailed
Sabrewings (Campylopterus ensEpenris) defending territo-
ries in Tobago, West Indies. Territorial males spent most of


theirtime perched and alert on thin, midsuiry branches. twigs
and vines 2-10 m above ground. The males called throughout
the day, particularly during the early morning and late after-
noon. Within the territories the males foraged primarily on


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 27







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


insects (>90% of their foraging time), and occasionally
foraged upon nectar from flowering bromeliadsor heliconias;
some vacated the territory for long periods of time, perhaps
to forage on flowers outside their territories. For three of the
males, most of their foraging sallies covered a distance less
than 3 m: the other two males usually sallied more than 3m.
Intraspecific chases between males were frequently observed,
particularly at the boundaries of their territories. The long-
term clustering of up to three territorial males throughout the
year and the absence of resident females and defensible food
resources within the territories suggest that the breeding
system is characterized by lek polygny.
Durante el 20 al 24 de mar7o y del 11 at 20 de diciembre
de 1995 estudiamos el comportarniento de cinco machos de
Campylopterus ensipennis vocal izando defendiendo
territories en Tobago, Indias Occidentales. Los maches
territories pasaron la mayor part del tiempo posados y
alertas en pequeiLas ramas a medio dosel. ramas y bejucos


entire 2 y 10 metros del suelo, Los machos vocalizaron
durante rodo el dia, particularmente durante temprano en la
mafianay tardeen la tarde. Dentro de su territorio, los machos
se alimenTabanparticularmcntede insectos (>90% del tiempo
de forrajeo) y ocasionalmente se alimentaban de ndctar de
bromelias en 11or ode heliconias. Algunos abandonaban sus
territories por largos periods. quizd para forrajearen nctar
en las afueras de su territorio. Para tres de los machos, la
mayoria de sus alimentaciones en "sallies" cubrfan una
distancia menor de tres metros: los otros dos cubrfan una
distancia algo mayor de los tres metros. Persecuciones
intrespecfficas de utros machos fueron observadas
frecuentemente, particularmente en los lImites de sus
territories. El agrupamiento de hasta tres machos territorialcs
a travys de todo el aio y la ausencia de hembras residents y
de recursos alimenticius defendibles sugiere que el sistema
de reproducci6n cs caracterizado pur la poligenia.


UPDATE ON THE STATUS OF THE THREATENED WHITE-TAILED SABREWING
(CAMPYLOPTERUS ENSIPENNIS) ON TOBAGO, WEST INDIES

F. E. HAYES, T, 0. GARN-rr, M, V. BERNARD, AND 1. SAMo
Department of Biology, Caribbean Union College. P. 0. Box 175. Port of Spain. Trinidad and Tvbago


The White-tailed Sabrewing (Campyvlptriusensipennis),
a threatened species of humntingbird whose distribution is
restricted to northeastern Venezuela and Tobago, was con-
sidered a common resident on Tobago until Hurricane Flora
destroyed most of its habitat in 1963; afterward it was feared
extinct until its rediscovery in 1974. During 20-24 March and
I 1-20 December 1995, we located about 45 sabrewings along
approximately 39.2 km of trails in Tobago, including a
relatively complete transect of the width of the island be-
tween Bloody Buy and Roxborough. All of our sabrewing
sightings were above 282m (925 ft), primarily within the
Main Ridge Forest Reserve; most were in relatively mature
montane forest, but some were in marginal habitats such as
abandoned plantations. Our lowest records were from areas
where the sabrewing was common in March, but absent in
December, suggesting seasonal movements. We estimate a
minimum population size of several hundred sabrewings on
Tobago. The population appears to have made a remarkable
recovery from the hurricane-induced bottleneck three de-
cades earlier,


El Campylopterns ensipennis. una especie de zumbador
cuya distribuci6n esta limitada al noreste de Venezuela y
Tobago, era considerado un resident comnin de Tobago
hasta que el huracen Flora destruyo ia mayorfa de su habitat
on 1963; luego de eso se crey6 extinto hasta su
redescubrimiento en 1974. Durante el 20 al 24 de marzo y del
11 al 20de diciembre del995 localizamos aproximnadamente
45 ayes a lo largo de 39,2 kil6meiros de veredas en Tobago,
i nci uyendo u n transecto relativamen te com ple to del anch o de
la isla, desde Bloody Bay hasta Roxborough. Todos nuestros
avistamientos fueron aproximadamente a 282 m,
principahnente dentin de la Reserva Forestal Main Ridge, la
mayoria en bosque montano maduro, pero algunos fueron en
haTbitat marginal, como tlo son las plantaciones abandonadas.
Nuestros nameros mcis bajos son de 6reas donde et ave fue
comnn en marzo, peroestabaausentien diciembre, sugiricndo
movimientos cemporales, Estimamos un tamaio poblacional
de varias centcnas en Tobago. La poblaci6n aparcnta haberse
recuperado notablemente desde la mortandad several inducida
per el paso del huracan.


THE NEED FOR AN INTERNATIONAL APPROACH TO CONSERVATION
OF THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK (DENDROCYGNA ARBOREA)

ANN M. HAYNES-SUTTON
Marshal's Pen, P. . Box 58, Mandevilte, Janiaca


The West Indian Whistling-Duck(Dendrocygnai-aborea)l
is restricted to the West Indies and is considered to be one of
the rarest species of waterfowl in the world. The duck is
Page 28


dependent on wetlands (including mature mangroves and
swamp forest, which are among the rarest and most endan-
gered habitats in the region). These habitats are of great
El Pitirre 10(1)







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


importance hrr other wildlife (including migrant birds and
rare plants) and are of 'economic importance to fisheries and
coastal protect tion. Because the West Indian Whistling-Du ck
is large, spectacular, and interesting, it is potentially a useful
flagship species for the protection or we lands and wetlland
species. Conservation of this species is urgently needed at the
local, regional, and national levels, WIDECAST
InternaLional's initiative for sea turdes conservation has
demonstrated the utility of a regional approach to recovery
action planning for species that occur in more than one
territory. Although this model hIas never been applied to bird
conservation. it seems likely it could work well for West
Indian Whistling-Ducks. It could include formation of an
international recovery group, developinentuf model recov-
ery action plan which could be adapted and implemented in
each territory by national teums composed of representatives
from government. non-government organizations, and inter-
ested scientists and individuals; plus manuals for an educa-
tion and awareness program and for basic research which
could he adapted for use in each participating territory. A
draft outline of a national recovery action plan as a strategy
for developing a regional approach to recovery planning for
the West Indian Whistding-Duck is presented for discussion.
El pato Dendrocygnea arborea esta restringido a las
Indias Occidentalesy esconsideradocomo una delays species
de aves acuiicas mds raras del mundo. Este pato depend de
los humedales, incluyendo los mangles maduros y bosques
pantanosos, los cuales a su vez son los hAhitats mds raros y
amenazados de la region. Estos habitats son de gran


inmportancia para oru tipo de vida silvestre, come las ayes
migratorias y plants enddmicas. y son de vital importancia
econ6mica para las pesquerias y las protecLi6on de las costas.
Este palo es de gran tamalo, espectacutlar y muy interesante,
hacidndolo potencialmente dtil para usarlo comno estandarte.
en la conscrvacu6n y proteccidn de los humedales y sus
species. La conservaci6n do esa especie Si necesiha
urgenteTnente on los niveles locales, regionales a
internacionales. La iniciativa regional del program
"WIDECAST International" para las tortugas marinas ha
demostrado la utilidad de un acercamiento regional en la
planificaci6n de acciones de rccuperaci6n pare species que
ucurcrn en mis de un territorio. Adn cuando esic model
nunca se ha apticado a la conservacidn de aves, parece muy
probable que funcione bien en la conservaci6n de esta ave,
Puede incluir ia creacidn de un grupo de recuperacidn
international, el desarrollo de un plan modelo de acci6n para
la recuperacion que puede ser adaptado e implemcntado en
cada territorin por equipos nacionales compuestos por
representantes del gabierno, organizaciones no
gubernamentales y cientificos e individuos interesados,
adem is de ineluir manuales para programs de edueacidn y
concienlizaci6n y paralainvestigaci6 n bsica, los quepueden
ser adaplados para el uso en cada territorial. Un bosquejo del
plan ddacci6n de recuperaci6n y estrategias para el desarrollo
de un acercamiento regional para la planificaci6n de la
recuperaciOn de las pohiaciones de Dendrocygna arborea
son presentados para discusidn,


EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIP AMONG ISLAND FORMS
OF THE STRIPE-HEADED TANAGER

NIEunA KLENu
D parvmrnt of Orilhoilogy, Arrerican museumm of NAirrai Hisro', Central Pai W. at 79th SI.. New York. New York 10024. USA


Stripe-headed Tanagers are found on most Caribbean
islands. There are at least 7 morphologically distinct forms,
all currently considered I obe part of a single spec ies,Spindaciis
zena, although recent studies of plumage and sound have
suggested at least four species should be recognized. I have
sequenced the comp lete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) cyto-
chrome b gene and part of the ND2 gene for all forms of
Stripe-headed Tanagers and of appropriate outgroup taxa.
Pairwise sequences divergence between island populations
on Cuba, Cozumel,. and Grand Cayman are closely related to
that group. The other three morphological forms (from Ja-
maica, Hispaniola, and Puerto Rico) are more basal in the
evolutionary tree, and their nmtDNA sequences are quite
divergent from those oF birds from CubU. Cozumel. Grand
Cayman, and the Bahamas, as well as from each other. These
resulIs suggest long-term isolation of several island popula-
Lions and an evolutionary radiation of tanagers within thdie
West Indies.
El ave Sphidalii zer se encuentir en [a mayurfa de las
islas del Caribe Occidental. Existen al menos site forms
El Pitirre 10(I)


morfoltgicamencI distintas, lodas consideradas ser parte de
la misma especie, aunque studios recientes de plumaje y
cantos sugieren que al nienos cuatro species deben ser
reconocidas. He hecho una secuencia complete del ADN del
gen mitochondrial (mtDNA) citocromo b y de parte del gen
ND2 de tod as las formasdeestaave y dc especiesrelacionadas.
Lad ivergencia de las secuencias pareadas e nitr las pablac iones
de las islas varru desde menos del 1% hasta casi el 7%. Un
andlisis parslmniioso sugiere que las pohlaciones de Cuba,
Cozunmel y Grand Cayman estdn relacionadas muy
cercanamente unas de Ins otras, y que las poblaciones de las
Bahamas estin cercanamenae relacionadas a este grupo. Las
oras tres brnm as morfoldgicas (de Jamaica, La Hispaniola y
Puerto Rico) estdn mcis abaja en el irbol evolutivo, y sus
secuencias de mtDNA son much mis diverge notes de las de
las aves de Cuba, Cozumel y Grand Cayman y de las Baha-
in as, y de coda una dellas entire sf. Estos resuliados sugieren
tin aislamientu prolongadu entrelas pohlaci ones de las distin ras
islas y u na diversificaci6n c volutivaente species relac i onadas
en las islas del Caribe occidental.


Page 29








Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting
SEX, SEABIRDS, AND CYCLONES: THE BENEFITS OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD

DAVIO S. lE.
Norhd Carofinr State Musewnm af Natural Sciences, P. 0. Box 29555, Raleigh, North Carouhna 27626 USA


The breeding biology uf seabirds in the Caribbean and
tropical Atlanlic is governed by hurricane activity. Region-
ally generated ideas us to how these storms govern nesting
activities of tropical marine birds apply on a global basis as
well,. Cyclones are prediciable events thai are not randomly
distributed in time (season) or region. The local breeding
phenologies and global distributions of tropical seabirds are
largely patterned for cyclone avoidance. As a general rule,
tropical seabirds have very protracted breedingschedules. re-
nest on short cycles. and have nesting activities correspond-
Ing with periods ol maximum food resources in cyclone-free
areas. Conversely, species nesting in areas of predictable
cyclone activity have highly synchronized breeding periods
and those with prolonged incubation and fledgling periods'
lay early, thus avoiding overlap with major cyclone seasons.
Cyclones also appear to influence distributions of various
species unable to re-adjust breeding cycles. OFIhe sixty-fou r
species of s ab irds that breed in the tropics, 25% are con fined
to cyclone-free regions, whereas many others have current
distributions that seem to be affected by post-Pleistocene
cyclone climates. Previous studies have linked seabird nest-
ing activity with dependability or seasonality of local food
resources, photo-period, introduced predator avoidance, or
life history parameters of the birds themselves, In regions
where annual cyclone activities range from 1.0 to 4.1 storms
a month combined with other IUmiting factors, tropical sea-
birds adjust nesting schedules into very narrow, temporal
windows. Review of tropical seabird nesting phenology on a
global basis indicates plasticity, allowing individual popula-
lions to respond to long-term shifts in cLimatic conditions.
La biolog a reproductive de las aves marinas en el Caribe
y en el Atllntico Occidental es6i dirigida por I aclividad de
los huracanes. Las ideas que se generan en una region en


particular de c6mo estas torments afectan las acti vidades de
ankiage de las aves marinas tropic ales se aplican tambien en
una Forma global. Los huracanes son eve tos predecibles que
no est-n distribuidos al a..ar en el tiempo (temporada) ni
regi 6 n, Los patrons reproducti vos del as es species en regions
paniculares y sus distribuciones globalesestin regidos con [a
intenci6n de evitar los ciclones. Como una regla general, las
aves marinas tlicnn una agenda reproduciora muy lija,
reanidan en ciclos cortos y acomodan el period de
reproduccidn en dpocas de maxima disponibilldad de
alimcentos en areas donde no hay ciclones. A la vez, species
aniidando en e as done la actividad cici6nica es predecible,
tienen perlodos reproductivos allamente sincronizados, y
aq uel las especiesde icubacin y cra de p ichones prolongados
tienden a anidarmis teniprano, evitando asfun solapamiento
con las temporadas de mayor actividad cic16nicau Los
huracanes tambidn aparentan influenciar [a distribuci6n de
vari as e species i ncapaces de reaj ustar sus cic los reproducti vos,
El 25% de las 64 species de aves marinas que anidan en los
trdpicos lo hacen en zonas donde no ocurren huracanes
mientras que muchas otras tienen una distribuei6n actual que
aparenta star afectada por el clima del Pleistoceno iardio,
Estudius anteriores han ligado la actividad de anidaje tde las
aves marinas can la dependencia o temporalidad de los
recursos alimenticios, el fotoperiodo, elusividad de los
depredadores iniroducidos, los pardmetros del ciciode vida
del aveensf. En las regionesdonde losciclones van desde 1.0
a4.1 mensuales combinados con otros facores limitantes, las
aves marinas ajustan sus periods reproductivos a un tiempo
muy reducido. Una revision de la fenologia reproductive de
las aves marinas a nivel global indica una plasticidad que
permit alaspoblacionesindividualesresponderaloscambios
en condiciones climiticas que se produce en el tiempa,


NESTING OF EUNEORNIS CAMPESTRIS, THE ORANGEQUIT

CATIEER]Nr LFVYY
2 Starlighl Avenue, Kings.vn 6, Jwnraica


Eureaorni is one o I' five endemic genera of avifauna in
Jamaica. There is only one species, Euneornis campesiris,
the Orangequit, Little is known of the life history of this
species as nos icntific study has been undertaken. A nest was
found in 1995 and observations were made from the building
of the nest to the fledging of the young. This pa per provides
in format ion on behavior of the male and female adult, on nest
building and defense, on diet, and feeding and development
of the young. Observations are compared to previously
unpublished notes and the only account of its ne-sing, pub-
lished in 1938.
Page 30


Enneomn s es uno de los cinco gneros enddmicos de las
isla de Jamaica. Hay solo una especic, campestnis, y poco se
sabe de la historia natural de [a especie ya que ninguin studio
cientifico se ha llevado a cabo. Un nido se enconLrd en 1995,
y observaciones fueron hechas desde la construccidn de la
estructura hasta el vuelo de los pichones. Este arftculo prove
infofrmai6dn del comportamiento del macho y la hembra
adults sobre la construccidn y defense del nido, dieta y
alminentaci6n y crfa de los pichones. Se comparan las
observacinnes con notas previamentc publicadas y COn la
i1nica resefia de su anidaje publicada en 1938.
El Pitirre 10(1)







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting
FORAGING AND HABITAT USE BY THE FULVOUS WHISTLING-DUCK
(DENI ROCYGNA BICOLOR)

LOURDES MLUGICA-VALD ., MARTIN ACOSTA CRuz, AND R. YDENBERG
Facuilad de Biologia. U.riverstdad de La Habana, Cuba


Foraging ecology and habitat use by the Fulvous Whis-
fling-Ducks were studied in rice fields ofSurde Jibaro in the
central and suithemr portions of Cuba during May and
December. Rice and the seeds of 12 weed species were found
in the stomach con tents. Rice was the most iniportanteonipu-
nent of the diet and contributed 35% by weight of food
ingested during the year but, nonetheless. was not the most-
used resource during harvest in spite of its availability at this
stage. We estimated that 1.2% of the planted rice was con-
sumed by the whistling-ducks. The greatest portion of dthe
rice consumed during the last months of the year comes from
the recently harvested rice and flights to flooded fields.
During the reproductive season the birds remained in the
interior or ithe rice fields where they nested and raised their
young. We conclude that during this stage of the study the
whistling-ducks caused only minor damage to rice cultiva-
tion.


Se estudia la ecologra alimentaria y cl uso del habitat on
La poblacion de yaguasines que habitat la arrocera Sur del
Jibaro en ia porci6n central y sur del pais durante los meses
de mayo a diciembre. Arroz y semillas de 12 species de
mulus yerhas se encuntraron en los cuntenidus estomacales.
El anrro fue el component m&s important de la diema nl
constituir el 35% en peso de todo el alimento ingerido a lo
largo del auo, sin embargo no Fue el recurso mTns utilizado
durante la sicmbra a pusar de star mis asequiblec a las aves
en esta cLapa. Se esiiino que 1.2% del arroz sembrado fue
consumido por los yaguasines. La mayor part del arroz
ingerido durante los tiltimos meses del aho provenia de los
campus recihn cosechadas y vueltos a inundar quc fueron uos
mis usados en ese period, mientras que durante [a etapa
reproductive se mantuvieron en el interior de los campos de
arroz done hacen sus nidos y crfan a los pichones. Se
concluye que duranie Ia etapa estudiada los yaguasines solo
causan daFios menores at cultivo del arroz.


USING POINT COUNTS TO ESTABLISH BASE-LINE DATA ON BIRDS
IN THE BLUE AND JOHN CROW MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK

MARCIA MUNDLE
Gouse Bird Cthb, 93 Old Hope Road. Kingsron 6. Jamaica


The Blue and John Crow Mountain National Park (Ja-
maica). which covers a planimnetric area of 120,672 acres,
was established in 1993. The Gosse Bird Club, through the
sponsorship of the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, is
conducting a study to establish baseline data on bird abun-
dance within the Park. The data presented are for the period
of June 1995-October 1995. Pointcounts were conducted for
10 minutes at four locations, During this period 60 species of
birds were recorded with 8 of these being migrants. In three
of the four locations the number of individuals and the
number of species recorded remained constant during die
sampling time of between 06:00 and 10:00 hrs. The
Streamertail (Trochilus polyimas} was the most numerous
species, with a maximum of 1.28 birds per point. Rank
abundance of species and individuals were compared to
various abundance models. This project is sponsored by the
National Fish and Wildlife Foundation and USAID through
the Partners in Flight program.


Los Parques Nacionales de Blue y de John Crow fueron
estabhlecidos en 1993, y cubren un drea de 120,672 acrcs. El
Gosse Bird Club, a trav6s del patrocinio de la Fundacidn
Nacional de Pesca y Vida Silvestre esta conduciendo un
studio para establecer una base general de daios sobre la
abundancia de aves en estos parques. Los dames que se
presentan son del perfodo de junto a octubre de 1995. So
realizaron conteos de punLts en cuatra localidades por 10
minutes. Durante este period 50 species de aves se
detectaron, siendo 8 de estas migratory as. En tresde las cuatro
localidades el ndmero de individuos y el nimero de species
detectadas se mantuvo constante durante el tiempo de
muestreo, de06:00a 10:00 hr. EL zunbador Trichiritspoytnmus
fue el ave ms numerosa,con un promediode 128 indi viduos
pr punto. La ahundancia de las species y de los individuos
fueron clasificadas segin sus rangos y comparadas con
varlos models de abundancia. Este proyecto esta sivndo
financiado por la Fundacifn Naeional de Pcsca y Vida
Silvestre/USAID a travts del program Partners in Flight -
Aves de las Amdricas.


El Pitrre 10(l P


Page 31







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 MUeLing


UPDATE ON THE GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE WEST INDIES

HERa3,RT A. RAFFAELE
U.S.L Fish and Wiidlife Service. Arlingtin, Virginia 22203. USA


Preparation of the guide is in its sixth year and the text
should be forwarded to Princeton University Press during
1996. Eighty of the 86 plates are completed and the species
descriptions arc being circulated for review, The introdutc-
tory lext, including the conservation section, is now in
preparation. Slides of sample plates will be presenictd for the
Sociey's information and comment,


La pre pa rac i6n de [ag u a ya es tid en s u sexto a io y el texto
debe de estar listo para su publicaci6n por Princeton Univer-
sityPressdurante 1996. Ochenta de las ochena yseis liminas
ya estin Itechas y las descripciones de las e species yaestn en
su tfliiina fase de revision, La introducci6n. incluyendo la
seccidn sobreconser-vacidn. estaenelproucsudusetrpreparada.
Las diapositivas de algunas de las aiminas serdn presentadas
para la informaci6n y comentarius de ia Sociedad,


PRELIMINARY STUDY OF BIRDS OBSERVED AT LOMA BARBACOA,
PERAVIA PROVINCE, BANI, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

DoIINGO SmI
Deparmorrelo de Vida Sih'estrv, Secretria de Estado de Agricultira,
Los-Jardines Santo Domingo, Repiiblica Dominicarra


A study was made of the bird populations at Loma
Barbacoa, Peravavia province. Banri on the south part of the
Cord ill era Central. To complete die project four irips were
made to the area, on 23-25 February, 16-19 March, 20-24
April. and 3-7 May 1993. Data were obtained along transects
established on both north and south sl ope s f Loma Darbacoa,
The censuses showed a total of 23 species and sub-species,
More species were observed on the south slope, with a total
of 22 represented by 157 individuals, with an abundance of
52.33 birds per kilometer, Only 15 species were observed on
the north slope, with 131 individuals, with an abundance of
43.66 birds per kilometer, The most frequently observed
species on both slopes were the Hispaniolan Woodpecker
(Melanerpes striamts), the Bananaquit (Coereba flaveoka),
and the Ruobus-throated Solitaire (Myadestes genibcrbis).
Se realized un studio de las aves que se observan en [a
Loma Barbacoa,Prov. de Peraavvia, Bani, lacual -seencue nra


ubicada en la vertiento sur de la Cordillera Central. Para la
realizacidn de dicho studio se hicieron cuatro viajes al drea
en fechas del 23al 25 de febrero; 16 a] 19de marzo; 20 a[ 24
de abrily del 3 al 7 de mayo de 1993. Los dates se obtuvieron
a braves de muestreos en transectos establecidus tanio en la
vertiente sur como en Ia norte de dicha lamna. Los resultados
de los muestreos reflejaron un total de 23 species y
subespecies. En la vertiente sur fue donde mis aves sc
regisiraron, alcanzando 22 especics con 157 individuos, una
abundancia igual a 52.33 aves par kiltmetro lineal; mientras
que en la parte norte solo se observaron 15 species con una
abundancia de 43.66 aves por kildmetro lineal. Las species
que se observaron con mas frecuencia en ambas vertientes
fueronel Carpintero (Melanetpes striatus), Ia Ciguita Coindn
(Coerchba flaveala) y el Jilguero (Myadestes gefdibarbis),
entire utrous.


SEABIRDS OF THE CAY SAL BANK

ALEXANDER SIriruN', TV
irhomrrs National Trust, Nas.sau, rBahrimaz


The Cay Sal Bank is an isolated and seldom visited
portion of the Bahamas, It is roughly triangular and lies
between the Florida Keys, the Great Bahamas bank, and
Cuba. The bank itself is shallow, 20 to 30 feet deep, and
surrounded by deep channels. The nordiern and eas tern edges
o l the bank contain a broken chain of cays and refcks. Thet
largest of these are the Anguilla Cays in the southwestern
corner. The only information on the breeding seabirds of the
area has been an unpublished report made in 1978.1 was able
to visit the bank during June in 1994 and 1995. There were one
Page 32


species of Shearwater. one species of gull, and six species of
terns breeding on the bank, some in substantial numbers. A
small number of non-breeding seabird species were also
noted.
El Cayo Sal Bank es un area aislada y raramente visitada
de las Islas Bahamas, Es mas o menos triangular y esta
ubicada entrv los cayos de [a Florida. el banco del a isla Gran
Bahamas y Cuba. El bancode donde emergeel cayo es Ilaiuo,
dei 20a 30p ies dc pro fu ndi dad y rodeado d etanales pro funds.
Las areas Norne y Orientales tienen una cadena interr-umpida
E[ PitilTe 10(1)







Abstracts af Piper-. from SCO 1996 Meeting


de cayos y recas. Los mayors de estos son los cayos de
Anguila en la esquina Sudoriental. La tinica inflormacitn de
anidaje de ayes marinas en el lugar ha sido un report sin
publicar hechoen 1978. Pude visitar el Cayodurante Junio die


1994 y 1995. Habfan 7 species de Gaviotas y una especie de
Diablotfn anidando en todo el Banco. algunas en cantidades
significa i vas. Un pequefio nimerodeespecies que nocstaban
anidando se report wambidn.


HABITAT SELECTION AND HOME RANGE OF RADIO-MARKED
WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCKS ON LONG ISLAND, BAIIAMLAS

NA cy STATUS
Graduate Program in Consern'aion Biology, Uriversitv f 4'Minnesota, St. Putl Minnesota 55108, USA


Radio telemetry was used to monitor the movements and
habitat use of 4 female and 9 male West Indian Whislling-
Ducks (Dendrocygna arborea) on the northern end of Long
Island, Bahamas from May-August of 1994-1995, West
Indian Whistling-Ducks are nocturnal, roosting during much
of the day and feeding at night. Roosting birds preferred
mangroves and brackish to saline ponds over sandy ground
scrub, mixed broadleafcoppice, or swash habitats. Birds also
made use of tidal flats and small ephemeral wetland sites to
feed during the day. Most of the marked birds fed at night at
a provisioning station on Hog Cay, a small island at the
northern tip of long Island. However, unmarked birds were
observed feeding at night on brackish or saline ponds, or
ephemeral wetlands both on Long Island and Hog Cay. Birds
most likely fed on aquatic vegetation, as heavily used ponds
contained low densities ofaquatic invertebrates. Three active
nests found in 1993-1994 were all in sandy ground scrub,
Two marked females in 1994 nested. Both the male and
female incubated, alternating 24-hour shifts. Broods were
observed on several brackish ponds, attended by both par-
en s, Home range size averaged 670 ha for females and 720
ha for males. Utilization distributions within the home ranges
reveled that birds have 2 to 3 areas of concentrated use al
favored roosting and feeding sites. Home ranges were fairly
constant during the study period, although two males shifted
their home range 16 km south of the study site and one male
began visiting an island 430 km south of thdie study site in
1995.
Usamos la telemtria radial para monitorearel movimiento
y el uso del habitat de 4 hembras y 9 machos de Dendrocygna
arborea en el extreme None de Long Island, Baham as, desde


mayo a agnsto de 1994 y 1995. Esta ave es nocturna,
descansando durante gran parte del dia y alimentindose
durante la noche. Las ayves que pcrchan prefieren mangles y
aguas salobres o lagunas charcas salinas sobre matorrales
arenosas. matorrales latifolios o ireas cercanas a las playas.
Las aves lambidn hicieron uso de pequefios humedales
effmeros o producidos poar las mareas para alimentarse du-
rante el dfa, La mayorfa de las aves se alimentaron durante la
noche en Hog Cay, un pequefiio islote localizado hacia ec
note de Long Island. Sin embargo, aves no marcadas se
observaron alimentindose durante la noche en lagunas sali-
nas y salobres, o en humedales effmeros, tanto en Long Island
como en Hog Cay. Las aves se alimentaban primordialmente
de vegetaci6n acuitica, ya que las lagunas usadas
extensivamente tenfan una baja densidad de invertebrados
marinos. Tres nidos activos encontrados entire 1993 y 1994
estaban localizados en el suclo arenoso del matorral. Dos
hembras marcadas en 1994 anidaron. Tanto la hembra como
el macho participaron en la incubaci6n, alternando en ciclos
de 24 horas. Varias camadas se observaron en varias lagunas
salobres, atendidas por ambos padres. El Area de
desplazamiento primario ("home range") promedi6 670 ha
paralas hembras y 720 haparalos machos.Ladistrihuci6n de
la utilizacidn dentro del area de desplazamiento primario
revel6 que las aves tienen 2 6 3 dreas de uso concentrado
donde favorecen los sitios de descanso para perchar y de
alimentaci6n. Las ireas de desplazamiento permanecieron
bastante constantes duranie el studio, adn cuando dos ma-
chos corricron sus dreas de desplazamiento 167 Km. al surdel
dreadeestudio, y un macho empezd avisitar una isla 430 Km.
al sur del dreade estudio en 1995.


POPULATIONS OF ORANGEQUITS IN A MID-LEVEL
LIMESTONE WOODLAND, JAMAICA, 1991-1995

ANN M. KHAYNES-SrTrTON mD ROBERT SUTTON
Marshal's Pen, P. O. Box 58, M4andmnile. Jamaica


Little is known about fluctuations of Jamaican endemic
birds. Following sporadic banding in the 1970s and 1980s, a
constant effort banding program was begun at Marshal's Pen
in the 1990slogeneratesuchdata. TheOrangequit(Ertneornis
campesirhs), a Jamaican endemic species belonging to a
monotypic genus, was among the most frequently caught
El Pitirre 10(1)


species. Therefore preliminary data analysis has been fo-
cused on this species. Monthly and annual fluctuations in
Orangequit populations as suggested by banding data were
examined. Results of banding were compared with point
countsand both were interpreted in relation to rainfall data for
Marshal's Pen. Recapture rates were examined with refer-
Page 33








Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


ence to sex and age. Data on longevity were generated.
Muy poco se conoce acerca de las fluctuaciones en
poblaciones de las aves endimicas de Jamaica. Luego de un
anillaje esporaidico en los afios 70 y 80, se coineni6 un
esfuerzo do anillaje constant en Marshal's Pen en la dtcada
de los 90 con c] prop6sito, entire otras cosas, de general dicha
in form acidn. El Euteorniscampestris, unaespecie Lndd6nica
de Jamaica perteneciente a un gdnero monotipico, fue una de
las species utrapadas mis frecuentemente. Por to tanto, el


andlisis preliminary de [a data se based en esta especie.
Fluctuaciones anuales y mensuales on poblaciones de esta
especie come sugiere la itnformaci6n derivada del anillaje
fueron unalizadas. Los resultados del anillaje fueron
comparados con los de los con teos cn puntos y aimbos fueron
interpretados en retacidn a la precipitaci6n en Marshal's Pen.
Las razones de recapture fueron examinadas en referencia al
sexo y la edad, generanda data sobre longevidad.


TRAINING BIRD WATCHING GUIDES IN THE
SCIENTIFIC RESERVE AT LAGUNA CABRAL

EDuADoo VASQUEZ
Grupo Ecologista 77nglar. Calle El Vergel 1#33, Reparto El Vergel. Santo Domingo, Repyiblica Dominicana


A program for edueation-action is described. The pro-
gram is of fundamental importance for birds and conserva-
Lion in the scientific reserve at Laguna Cubral, The program
includes meeting with various groups within the community;
the application of research techniques for the study of learn-
ing, beliefs, attitudes, and practices in relation to the avifauna
and the protected area; creation of educational materials to
enable members of the comm unity to serve as bird watching
guides in the reserve, The program includes teachers and
students in the public schools and private colleges of Ihe area.
This project is expected to contribute to the creation of civic
pride in respect to the local conununity and the scientific
reserve, resulting in a beneficial relation with the protected
area.
Se described Ius actividades de un program de Educ acidn -


Acci6n fundamentado en la importancia de las aves y la
conservaci6n de la Reserva Cientffica Laguna Cabral. El
program include convocatoria de los grupos de base y la
comunidad civil; aplicaci6n de tIcnicas de investigaci6n
cualitativa para estudiar los conocimientos. creencias,
attitudes y prActicas en relaci6n a la fauna ornitol6gica y el
kren protegida; la creacidn de materiales educativos con
alcances de igual a igual (Rotafolios Educativos) y la
capacitacidn de personas de la comunidad para que sirvan
coamo guias para observadores de aves en la Laguna Cabral.
El program se extiende a los profesores y estudiantes de las
escuelas ptiblicas y Colegios privados de la zona. Se espera
quo contribuya a la crcaci6n de un sentimiento de patrimonio
local de la comunidad y respeto a la reserve cientffica a parir
de una relacidn beneficiosa con el drea protegida.


THE YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD (AGELAIUS XANTHOMUS)
RECOVERY PROJECT IN THE SOUTHWEST OF PUERTO RICO

EDUARDO A, VrNTOSA-FEuLES
Deparlmynt of Natural and Envirownental Resources, Box 491, Boquer6n, Puerto Rico 00622


The Yellow-shouldered Blackbird (Agelaitus.anthomus),
an endemic species of Puerto Rico and Mona Island, has been
on the endangered species list since 1976. In 1983, the
Department of Natural and Environmental Resources, with
the cooperation of the Fish and Wildlife Service. established
a recovery plan for this species in the southwest of the island,
The principal objective of the project is to increase the
reproductive success of the Yellow-shouldered Blackbird
and the population control of the Shiny Cowbird (Modotherus
bonariensis), considered the principal cause of the decline of
blackbird populations. In 1975 all the blackbirds nests were
parasitized by cowbirds (35135), In 1995 we found that of
229 active nest.only 11 were parasitized (4.8%). In 1995,158
active nests were found (69%), representing an increase of
57% in comparison with 1994. Also decrease in nests taken
by the Caribbean Martin (Prague dominicensis) and an
increase of the number of blackbird natural nests were found.


An account of the project, changes in methodology, and
results through 1996 are presented. The actual status of the
blackbird population and future plans for short- and long-
term are discussed.
La Mariquita o Capit6n (Agelaius xanthonmus), ave
end6mica para Puerto Rico e islade Mona, se encuentra en el
listado de species en peligro de extincidn desde 1976. En
1986 el Departamento de Recursos Naturales y Ambientales
con la cooperaci6n del Servicio de Pesca y Vida Silvestre
Federal, estableci6 un plan de recuperaci6n para esta especie
en el Sudoesle de la Isla, Los objetivos principles del
proyecto son aumentar el dxito repr dnuctiv de la Mariquita
y e[ control de las poblaciones delTordo Lustru-oso (Mofoih ni
bonariensis), considerado como la causa principal de la
disminucid6n de las poblaciones de Mariquita. En el 1975.
todos los nidos de Mariquita fueron parasitados par el Tordo
(35\35). En 1995 so encontr6 que de 229 nidos activas, solo


El Picirre 10(l)


Page 34








Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


11 fueron parasitados(4.8%). En el 1995 se encontraron 158
nidos exitosos (69%), lo que representa un aumenio de 57%
en comnparaciOn al 1994. Tambitn se encontr6 una reduccidn
en aidos invadidos por la Golondrina de Iglesia (Progne
doinricensis) y un numento en el ntimcro de nidos naEurales


de Mariquita. Una breve historic del prayecto, asf como
caumbios realizados a la merodologfa y resultados obtenidos
hasta el ario 1996 serAn prseantados. El esendo actual de las
Mariquitas. asi coma planes a corto y largo plazo son
discutidos.


IMPORTANT BIRD AREAS FOR THE AMERICAS

DAVID C, WAGE
BirdLife lmnernatiord. Casila 17-17-717, Quito, Ecuador


The Important Bird Areas Programme for the Americas is
a major new initiative for the BirdLife International Partner-
ship. Nationally generated by BirdLife Partners, the
Programme not only represents a substantial contribution to
national biodiversity conservation planning and implemen-
tation, buE also a key opportunity for the institutional devel-
opment of Partners and the BirdLife network. Important Bird
Areas [1BA] for the Americas is part of a global program
which has a proven track record in Europe as an effective way
of combining research and network development to produce
the basis of a national program for conservation and policy
work. Work to determine IBAs is under way in Africa, Asia,
and the Americas.


El program de Areas dc Importancia para [as Avyes de las
Amnricas (ALA) es una novel iniciativa de prominencia de
BirdLife Ininemational Partnership. Generado nacionalmente
pr lossociosde BirdLife.el program nosolorepresentauna
coniribucin significativaa la planificaci6n e implementaci6n
de la conservacidn de la biodiversidad, sino que es ademds
unagran oportunidad parael desarrollo instituclonal de la red
de Socios y de BirdLife. AIA cs parte de un program
mundial con probadaefectividad en Europa coino mecanismo
decombinaci6nde investigacidn con redes de desarrollopara
producer las bases de un program national de conservacidn
y political ptblica. La identificaci6n de las AIA en el Medio
Oriente ya ha sido completada y se estin realizando trahajos
ahora en Africa, Asia y las Amricas.


A STUDY OF INTER-ISLAND VARIATION IN THE THICK-BILLED VIREO

MARINE R. WALKER AND J. C. BARLOW
The Centre for Biodiversity and Conse'vation Biology, Royal Ontario Museum,
and tire Drparient of Zoology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canrada


The Thick-bitted Virco (Vireo crassiristris) is a non-
migratory resident of the Bahamas, nearby Turks andCaicos.
and the more distant Cayman Islands (and possibly Isla
Pruvidencia in the southwestern Caribbean). This species by
virtue of its distribution is ideally suited to test various
hypotheses concerning the influence ofdistanceand isolation
on intra- and inter-populations variations in song. Accord-
ingly we have studied geographic variation and cultural
transmission throughout parts of the range of the species
using songs of 41 birds recorded by JCB and other investiga-
lors. Songs were analyzed by a Kay Elemetrics DSP Sound
Station using both the wide and narrow band settings, Indi-
vidual syllables were compared by Gestalt (visual assay).
The Thick-bill (V. c, approximhans) of Isla Providenciua (a
"chatter" singer) was used as an outgroup in subsequent
statistical analysis of song similarities. Our samples yielded
a minimum o f 55 syllables ty pes that were arranged in at least
21 song types. We found high levels of sound divergence
among our samples which came from New Providence,
Andros, and Abaco in the Bahamas, and Grand Cayman in the
Cayman Islands. Level of divergence increased with distance

El Pitirre 10(1)


of the study population from each olher; i. e., the Grand
Cayman birds song differed the most among the four men-
tioned above, as would be expected as a function of the degree
of isolation and distant consistent with cultural transmission
(meme flow) theory.
El Vireo crassirostris es un resident no migratoriode las
Bahamas, las cercanas islas de Turks y Caicos. y la mris
distance ista Cayman (y posiblemente en la Isla de la
Providencia en el Sudoeste del Caribe). Por virtud de su
distribuei6n, esta especic es ideal para pro bar varias hip6tesis
concernientes a la inlluencia de la distancia y aislamiento
sabre las variaciones intra e interpoblacionalesen los cantos.
De acucrdo a esto hemos estudiado ta variacidn geografica y
la transmission cultural a travds de distintas dreas de su
disiribuci6n especial usando grabaciones de cantos hechas
por J. C. Barlow y\o otros investigadores de 41 aves
indiv iduales. Los cantos fueron analizados por un DSP Sound
Station de Kay Elemetrics usando las amplitudes de bandas
anchasy angostas Las sflabas individuals fueron comparadas
por Gestalt (ensayo visual). El V. crassirostris approximans
de la isla de I as providencia (con un cantode tipo"parloleador")

Page 35







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


fue usado comno un grupo aparte en los subsecuentes anilisis
estadfsticosdesimilitud de cantos, Nuestrosunimlisis rindicron
un mfnimo de 55 tipos du sflabas arregladas en al menos 21
tipos do canciones, Encontramos altos niveles de divergencias
entire nuestras muestras provenienles de las islas de New
Providence, Abaco y Andros en las Bahamas, y Grand


Cayman en ]as slas Cayman,El niveldedivergenciaaument6
con la distancia entre las poblaciones de es udio. Por eje mplo,
los cantos de las aves de Grand Cayman fueron las mins
diferentes centre los cuutro grupos antes meneionados,
esperindose esto como una funci6n del grado d aislamiento
y distancia consistent con ia teora de transmisi6n cultural.


RESIDENT BIRDS OF NEW PROVIDENCE

ANTrHoNY W. WHITE
5872 Marbm-Y Road, Berhesda, Mar-iMrrd 208 7, USA


I will present talk and slide show designed to familiarize
the participants with the resident birds that they may see
during birding trips in New Providence. There will be some
discussion of resident races when these forms are separable
in the field from migrants. Discussion, questions, and an-
swers may include bird species found on other Bahamas
islands.


Se realizara una presentacidn con diapositivas y charla
designada para familiarizar a los participanies con las aves
residents de New Providence que puedan ser vistas durante
los viajes de campo durantc esie encuentro. Habra una
discusi6n sobre las ruzas de ciertos residents cuandoestos se
puedan diferenciar en el campo de las aves tnigratorias. La
discusi6n y las preguntas y respuestas pueden incluir aves
presunies en otras islas de las Bahamas.


THE CASE OF THE BAHAMAS' DISAPPEARING ENDEMIC ORIOLE
(A JAMES BOND MYSTERY)

P. WLLiAM WILLIAM AND S A. SMiri'i
P. 0. Box 901341, Homestead. Florida 33090, USA


For the first 50 years following its discovery in 1890, the
Bahamas Oriole (lcterus norithopi) was considered a valid
species endemic to Andros and Abaco. As part of his philoso-
phy of emphasizing apparent similarities rather than differ-
ences, in 1940 James Bond summarily declared it to be
derived from and conspecific with the Cuban population of
fcterus dominicensis, without stating any evidence and de-
spite considerable differences between those two forms. We
reviewed specimens, vocalizations, and the literature of the
Bahamas Oriole, and conclude that it has no less basis fur
recognition as a "good" species than the other hypothetically
related orioles of thu West.


Por los siguientes 50 afios luego de su descubrimiento en
1890, el lrerus northropi fue considerado como unaespecie
enddmica verdaderade las Islas Andros y Abaco. Como parole
de su filosofia de enfatizar similaridades aparentes en vez de
las diferencias, en 1940 Bond declar6 esta ave sumariamente
como derivada de -y conespecifica con- la poblaci6n cubana
del ictemrs dominicensis, sin considerar otra evidencia y a
pesar de las considerable difercncias entre estas dos forms.
Henos revisado especfmenes, la literatura y las vocalizaciones
de estaave de ]as Bahamas y concluimos que no iene menos
bases para ser reconocida como una especie "verdadera" que
los otros h ipo( ticamen te relac ion ados Icltridos de las Antil las
Occidentales.


THE PRE-COLONIAL AND CURRENT STATUS OF BERMUDA'S SEABIRD POPULATION

DAVID B. WINGATE
Parks DeLaronent, P. O. Boax fM 834, Hawnihon, Bermuda HIM CX


Bermuda is the only oceanic island in the western North
Atlantic, Its strategic location has made it the most important
breeding station for pelagic seabirds which feed on the
Sargasso Sea and nearby sub-tropical convergence. Unfortu-
nately, the impact of human settlement and introduced main-
mal predators was so early, and so severe, that historic
documentation is sparse. Earliest accounts confirm the abun-
Page 36


dance of the Bermuda Pecrel (Calow),. Audubon's Shearwa-
ter, White-tailed Tropiebirds, and unidentified terns, de-
scribed as "sandie birds" and "noddies." They also implied
that cormnnorants and baihies nested. However, only the
Procellariformes have been confirmed from the fossil record.
Scientific documentation of the avifauna began in the nine-
leenth century. By then only the cliff-hole nesting tropicbird
El Pitirre )101)







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


remained abundant. Other species were either extirpated or
reduced to relic populations nesting in marginal habitats in
tiny offshore islets. The only nesting terns by then were the
Common and Roseate. The Roseate Tern and an apparently
tenuous population of Manx Shearwater were extirpated
about 1900. Intensive surveys and conservation measures
were initiated with the rediscovery of the Cahow in 1951. By
that time the tropiebird was estimated at 3U00 pairs, still
widely distributed on main islands cliffs, The Cahow was
reduced to 18 pairs,; the Audubon's Shearwater to 8 pairs,
and the Common Tern to between 15 and 30 pairs. Research
confirmed that nest-site competition with the tropicbird was
now the main factor in the decline of the Cahow and the
shearwater. Bermuda today is the most drastically modified
and densely populated oceanic island in the world with
60,000 people in only 57 kmin. Whereas this has posed a
formidable challenge for seabird conservation, the robust
economy (precluding a need far subsistence harvesting) and
high level of environmental concern have so far enabled the
remaining seabirds to survive with the aid of sophisticated
conservation measures, While this came too late to save the
shearwater, the Cahow has trebled its population to 52 pairs
in 1996 and the decline of the tropicbird and Common Tern
has been slowed.
Bermuda es la inica isla ocednica en el Aildatico
noroccidental. Su localizacidn estratdgica la debe haber
convertido en la mis importance eslaid6n de reproduccidn
para aves peligicas que se alimentan en el Mar de Sargazo y
en lreasde con vc rgenc is subtropicales. Desafortunadarnente.
el impact del asentamiento human y la introduccidn de
depredadores animals fue I an temprana a [a vei tan seven,
que la documentaci6n hist6rica es escasa. Los registros mais
tempranos confirmnnan la abundancia del Diablotin de las
Bahamas (Cahow), Puffinus therminieri. Phaerhon lepturris
y varias gavioias sin identificar, descritas en la literature


comno "sandie birds" o "noddies". Tambien se implica que los
ernnoranes y las hobas anidaban. Sin embargo. solo los
Procellariformes se confirman en el registry f6sil. La
documentacidn cientifica de la avi Faunacomenz6amediados
del siglopasado. Para ese ontronces solo P. lepturs permanecfa
abundant ya que anidaba en hoyos en los desfiladeros. Otras
species fueron eliminadas o sus poblaciones reducidas al
anidar en htibitats marginale sen islotes alejadosde las costas.
Las tinicas gaviotas que anidaban y que eran abundanies en
ese entonces eran Sterna hirundo y S. dougaltii. Esta dltitima
y una poblaci6n aparentemenien tentue de Manx Shearwater
fueron extirpadas para el ario 1900. Se iniciaron censos
intensivos y se tomaron tnedidas de conservacidn con el
redescubrimiento del DiablotLn de las Bermudas (Cahow) en
1951, Para ese entonces el Phaethon fepturas se habfa
estimado en 3000 parejas, con una amplia distribucidn aiin el
los principates desfiladeros de la isla. El Cahow estaba
limitado a [8 parejas, el Puffinus hennminieri a 8 pares y
Stena hirundo entire 15 a 30 parejas. Investigaciones
subsiguientes demostraron que la competencia pur espacio
para anidar con el P. lepturus no era la ra.6n principal en ]a
merma del Calow ni el Puffinus Jherminieri. Al dfa de hoy
Bermnudasigue siendo la isla oceinica mAs modificada y mits
densamente poblada del mundo, con 60,000 habitantes en
solo 57 kin. Arin cuando esto a puesto un reto formidable a
laconservaci6nde las ayes, unaeconomfarohbusta(excluyendo
la necesidad do una agriculture de subsistencia) y un alto
nivel de concientizaci6n ambiental, han permitido hasta
ahora que las aves marinas sobrevivan con la ayuda de
solisticadas medidas de conservaci6n. A pesar de que estas
medidas llegaron inuy tardepara salvaral Manxs Shearwater,
las poblaciones del Cahow han llegado hasta 52 parejas en
1996 y la merma do la gaviota y el P. lepturus se ha
disminuido.


ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION EFFORTS IN THE
NORTHERN BAILHAMAS: PROBLEMS AND ADVANCES

GAIL. L. WOON
Earthcare (Bahamas) P. 0. Bo.t F 40064, Freeport, Grand Bahama, Bahama Islands


EARTHCARE was formed in 1991 to address environ-
mental education needs in the Northern Bahamas. Since that
time, the organization has grown toincludea Dolphin Project,
environmental education for schools as well as for the general
public. Students are given an appreciation for nature and
wildlife, terrestrial and marine. Various habitats are de-
scribed and students are encouraged to take a hands-on
approach to their conservation efforts, In many cases this has
been beneficial to all, including [legislators. This presentation
will describe various environmental programs undertaken in
the Northern Bahamas and will touch on the efforts of other
groups in the region as well.


"EARTHCARE" se fundo en 1991 para lidiar con los
problems ambientales del norte se las Bahamas. Desde ese
entonces, la organizaci6n ha crecido hasta incluiret Proyecto
Delffn, educaci6n ambiental para las escuclas como para el
putlico en general. A los estudiantes se les inculca la
apreciaci6n dela naturaleza en la vida silvestre, tanro marina
coino twrCestre, Mediante [a descripcidn de varies hibitats, a
los estudiantes soe ls estimula a que tomen una participation
active en los esfuerzos de conservacidn, En muchos casos
esto ha sido de gran beneficio. inclusive para legisladores.
Esta presentacidn describird various programs ambientales
Ilevilndose a cabo on el note de las Bahamas y mencionard
los esfuerzos de olros grupos de la region


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 37







Abstracts of Papers from SCO 1996 Meeting


PRE- AND POST-HURRICANE FRUITING PHENOLOGIES:
POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR PUERTO RICAN PARROTS

JOSEPH M. WUNDERLE, JR.
irntrnationwo Ja.t6nre of Tropical Forestin, U.S.D.A. Forest Sen'ice. P. 0. Box 490. Pai n'r, Piuer Rico 00721


Fruiting phenologies of 25 plant species potentially con-
sumned by the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazo na viutata) were
studied to document seasonal and annual variation in fruit
production in the Luquillo Mountains. In 33 months before
Hurricane Hugo, an annual cycle in Lhe number of species
with ripe fruit was evident with a peak in Oetlobr-FtLbruary,
and a trough in June-July, About half the plant species
hvewcd this annual fruiting cycle. However, year-to-year
variation in fruiting was found in theannual cycle of Prestoea
>wO Itana, an important parrot rood, in which the highest fruit
pnrduclion may occur every other year. Irregular noncyciic
fruiting was found in the other half of the plant species and
ranged in annual duration from frequent to rare. Fruit produc-
tion was lowest in October 1989,just after Hurricane Hugo,
when only one species had fruit. The number of fruiting
species subsequently increased, but the pattern in total num-
ber of species with ripe fruit was noncyclic over 27 months
to the study's end. This non cyclic pattern was atributed
mostly to species with annual fruiting cycles in which annual
fruiting shifted out of phase or was suppressed after the
hurricane,. Therefore, parrots faced considerable annual and
year-to-year variation in fruiting phonology before the hurri-
cane, and substantial fruit I oss after the hurricane, followed
by a recovery involving changes in Fruiting phenology of
individual species and the overall community.


La fenologia de 25 species de plants potencialmente
cons umidas por 1a Cotorra de Puerto Rico, Anwaonia vittaja.
se estudii para ducumcntar Ia variacidn annual y temporal de
la produccidn de frutos en las Montaias de Luquillo. En 33
meses anes del huracdn Hugo, un ciclo anua! en el ndmerode
especics con frutas maduras fue evidence con un pico en
octubre y febrero y de junior a julio. Aproximadamente la
mitad de las species mostraron este ciclo de fructificaci6n
anuaL Sin embargo, se encontr6 una variacidn de afto en aino
en los ciclos de fructificati6n de Prestocea montana, una
fuente imporEante de coin da para la cotorra, en done la
mayor producci6n de frutas puede ocurrir en afios alternos,
Una produccidn de frulas de forma irregular y acfclica se
encontr6 en la otra mitad de species y variaron en su
duracidn annual de frecuentes a rars. La produccidn de frutos
fue mns ba[a en octubre de 1989, just luego del paso del
huracin, cuando solo una especie produjo frutos. El ndmero
de species prod ucicndo frutos aument6 subsiguientemente,
peru no hubo un parrdn cfclico definido de fructificacidn en
el total de las species en los siguientes 27 meses del studio
hasta su fin. Este patron acfclico fue atribuido a las species
con ciclos anuales de Fructificacidn an donde estu ciclo se
altered o fue suprimido luego del huracen. Por lo Lantl. las
conorras se enfrentaron con una considerable variacidn annual
y temporal en la fenologfa de la fructificacidn antes del
huracAn, y con una considerable rnerma de rrutos luego del
paso de mismo, seguidos por una recuperacidn que envolvia
cambios en Las species individuals y en la comunidad en
general.


ISLAND RI'OK-r

WHAT'S HAPPENING IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNITY IN ANTIGUA-BARBUDA?

KEVEL LpiDsAY
Aniguna-Barbuda Representative


EN V LRONMENTAL AWA ItI'NiS GPouP PROGRAMS AND ACTnVETIES

The Environmental Awareness Group (EAG) is the larg-
est non-government organization involved in environmental
conserve ati on in Anti gua-Barbuda. TheEAG was e scab i shed
in 1989 to create a greater awareness of the value of the
natural environment and the need for conservation through
plan ning and sensitive sustainable development.

BlODlTVERSEITV PItOGORAM

The biodiversity program is now in its fourth year. Ac-
complishmetnts include a bat cinsxervaiuon and manage.-
Page 38


mernt project, an ecosystem classification project, and the
development of an herbarium.
Presently, the organization's attention is focused on the
conservation of the Antiguan racer (Atsophis antiguae).The
Antiguan Racer Conservation Project was initiated in Octo-
ber 1995. Collaborators include the EAG, Island Resources
Foundation, Fauna and Flora International, and thdie Forestry
Unit, Ministry of Agricullure.
The Antiguan Racer is an endemic snake confined to the
tiny offshore island of Great Bird. The project involves
research on the snake in its natural habitat, the eradication of
introduced rats. a captive breeding programme, a study of the
ecology of the offshore islands, and the eventual release of
El Pitirre 10(1)








Antigua-Barbuda Report Lindsay
captive bred progeny. Future attention will address restora- AGROFORrSTRY TINATIVES
Lion and management of offshore islands and the esmablish-
nient ofbiological reserves. The EAG's Agroforestry Project is in its fifth year.
Presently pairs of two races are in the captive breeding Current emphasis is on re-building and stocking the plant
program at the Jersey Zoo, This program is headed by the nursery destroyed by Hurricane Luis in 1995. We are also
Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust. expanding the program by developing nurseries in schools to
increase tree production and use.


REPORT OF MEETING ORGANIZED BY CUBA REPRESENTATIVE

REUNION DE LOS MIEMBROS DE LA SOCIEDAD ORNITOLOGICA DEL CARIBE EN CUBA,
DECIEMBRE 1996

HIRAM GONA zIZ
SCO Representative fur Cuba


Asistentes:
Hiram Gonzdlez Orlando Garrido
Arturo Kirkconnell Daysi Rodrfguez
Alejando Llanez Eneider Pdrez
Giraldo Alaydn Maria E. Garcia
Marnii Acosta Lourdes Mugica
Denis Denis BArbara Sdnchez
Pedro Bianco Alberto Estrada
Gilberto Silva Carlas Arredondo

I. Inbrmnaci6n de la Reuni6n Anual en Bahamas
a) En las utiimnas elecciones, fue elegido Hiram Con zlez
comno representante por Cuba ante la Sociedad
Ornitoldgica del Caribe (SCO) por un perfodo de 4 aiaos.
b) El ejecutivo actual de la SCO y las elecciones.

Acuerlo No, 1: Los miembros de la SCO en Cuba deben
enviar su voto a Hiram GonzAle en Marzo de 1997 para
que tI pueda enviarlos al Ejecutivo de ia SCO antes de
AbriL
Acuerdo No 2: Aceptar cnmo nuevos miembros a los
especialistas Eneider Pdr&z (Instituto de Ecologia y
Sisternatica [IESI), Rafaela Aquilera (IES) y Denis
Denis (Facullad de BiologiaUniversidaddeLaHabana).

c) Grupos para el studio y prtnecci6n de psitnaciibrmes y
la yaguaza.
d) Pr6xima sede de la reunion annual de la SCO: Aruha,
Agosto de 1997,
2. Funciones del representante de cada isla:
Reportar a los nmiembros de la SCO lo sucedido en cada
reunion manual.
Set via para prayectos y acciones en ornitologia.
Comunicar las resoluciones y acuerdos de la SCO a los
miembros del pafs.
Proponer la parlicipaci6n de ornit6logos en las reuniones
anuales.


* Btsqueda de fondos para participar en reuniones.
* Promo ver la publicacidn de art c ulos y comunicaciones
en las revisLas El Pitirre y Oniitologia Neolropical.
* Promover nuevos miembros de la SCO.
* Promover y desarrollar actividades de conservaci6n de
las ayes en ia isia y el Caribe.
* Velar por la conservacid6n y proleccidn de las avyes.

De acuerdo a estas funciones se sefialaron los siguientes
comentarios y acuerdos:

* Posibilidad de emitir un boletin para hacerlo Itegar a
todos los miembros donde se relLjen informacioncs y
acuerdos.
* Loseubanosenviamos bastaniesarticulos para El Pitirre.
Esnecesariopublicaren Ornitologfa ,Neorropical. Hiram
conversard con Wiley al respect.
* El rcpresentante de la SCO en Cuba puede avalar
proyectos de studio y conservaci6n de aves para la
bisqueda de financiamiento.

Acuerdo No, 3: Emitir carta a la Agencia de Medio
Ambiente planteando nuestrapreocupaci6n porel incre-
mento del comercio illegal de l avyes en Cuba por parle
de individuos y las acciones emprendidas por algunas
Empresas.

Acuerdo No. 4: Enviar planilla a cada miembro done
actualice su informnacirn personal.
Coodinar con el representante de BirdLife International
(antiguo CIPA) en Cuba para aprovechar fondos que
olorga para studios de conservacirn de aves.
Se inf'orma que Hiram ya hizo In primera gcsti6n con
RARE Center para bisqueda de fondos para la prdxima
reunion annual,


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 39








PROPOSED AMENDMENT TO
SCO CONSTITUTION

An amendment to the SCO constitution has been pro-
posed to extend the length of office terms from two years to
four years. A vote among members will be conducted during
the next election fnr officers. The present constitution section
states: Article I11 (officers & board); A. Executive Commit-
tee; Section 4. The president and vice-president shall hold
office for one term (two years) and shall be eligible for re-
election for a further two year term. The secretary, treasurer,
and editor are eligible for re-election indefinitely.
Proposed change: Article III (officers & board); A. Ex-
ecutive Committee; Section 4. The president and vice-presi-
dent shall hold office for one term (four years), and shall be
eligible for re-election for a further four year term. The
secretary, treasurer, and editor are eligible for re-election
indefinitely.


Colorado artist Mary Helsapic presenting her watercolor, "Wild
Treasures of the Caribbean." to Marshall Jones. Assistant Director
for international Affairs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

WTLD TREASURES OF THE CARIBBEAN

Mary Helsaple, the Colorado artist who produced the beau-
tiful painting "Wild Treasu.re of the Caribbean," recently
donated the original artwork to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service in memory of the late Mollie Beattie, former Direc-
tor. Helsaple said she hoped the painting would encourage its
viewers to consider the interconnectedness of people and
wildlife and that all life is a precious gift that we cannot afford
to waste. SCO members can obtain a poster copy of the art,
proceeds from which benefit your Society [see information in
next column).


NEOORN ELECTRONIC BULLETIN BOARD
FOR DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON
NEOTROPICAL BIRDS

Van Rernsen has established this "Iistserv" for interna-
tional exchange of information on Neotropical ornithology.
Topics on NEOORN include news items, questions concern-
ing ongoing and future research, information requests, dis-
cussion of conceptual issues, and conservation items requir-
ing immediate attention. Messages can be in any language. A
primary goal of NEOORN is to provide those working in
regions with minimal library access with a means of request-
ing help from those with good access,
To subscribe, send a message to:
LISTSERV @LISTSERV.LSU.EDU
with only the following text:
SUBSCRIBE NEOORN-L YOUR NAME


CARIBBEAN POSTERS AVAILABLE

The CITES Conservation Treaty Support Fund (CTSF)
has just published a beautiful poster entitled "Wild Treasures
of the Caribbean," depicting sea turtles, birds, coral, and
other endangered species of the Caribbean. The poster ties in
with a brochure published by World Wildlife FundiTRAF-
FIC USA as part of the "Buyer Beware" campaign that urges
tourists and others not to buy endangered species or their
products. The poster is beautiful and depicts Caribbean
wildlife in a natural setting. Its design was done by the
renowned wildlife artist. Mary Helsaple.
The Society of Caribbean Ornithology helped fund the
production of this poster as part of the Society's public
education effort, The idea for the poster and brochure was
conceived at the 1992 CITES Training Workshop for En-
glish-speaking Caribbean nations.
Posters will be made available for free to the CITES
Management Authorities on each Caribbean island. SCO
Island Representatives can contact die CITES Management
Authority on their island to help with distribution of the
posters. A limited number of posters is available to the public
to help raise funds for CITES and our Society. The Society of
Caribbean Ornithology will receive a 10% profit from sales
of the poster. S CO members can obtain the poster by sending
a check or postal money order for $25 (U.S.) to the Conser-
vation Treaty Support Fund (CTSF), 3705 Cardiff Road,
Chevy Chase, Maryland 20815 U.S.A. Please indicate that
you are a SCO memberon your order. Discounts are available
for wholesale purchases (20 posters or more). For further
information, contact George Furness, Jr at (301) 654-3150 or
by fax at (301) 652-6390. PLEASE HELP SUPPORT THE
SCO LN THIS FUND-RAISLNG PROJECT!H!!


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 40






MEETINGS OF INTEREST


17-20 April 1997- 78th Meeting of the Wilson Ornithologi-
cal Society, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas,
USA. (Scientific program inquiries to Dr. John C. Kricher,
Biology Department, Wheaton College, Norton, Massachu-
setts 02766, USA; telephone: 508-286-3950; e-mail:
jkricher@wheatonma.edu. Local Chair: John L. Zimmerman,
Division of Biology, Ackert Hall, Kansas State University,
Manhattan, Kansas 66505-4901; telephone: 913-532-6659
or .6615).

30 April -4 May 1997-67th Annual Meeting of the Cooper
Ornithological Society, Hawaii. (Jim Jacobi, Pacific Islands
Science Center, P. 0. Box 44, Hawaii National Park, Hawaii
96718; e-mail: jim_jacobi @nbs.gov. Inquiries concerning
the scientific program to: Steven C. Hess, Pacific Islands
Science Center, P. 0. Box 44, Hawaii National Park, Hawaii
96718; e-mail: shess@aloha.net).

12-17 July 1997-Fifth International Congress of Vertebrate
Morphology, University of Bristol, United Kingdom. (Prof.
J. M. V. Rayner, School of Biological Sciences, University of
Bristol, Woodland Rd., Bristol BS8 1UG, United Kingdom;
fax: 44-117-925-7374; e-mail: icvm97@bristol.ac.uk; http:/
/www.bio.bris.ac.uklicvm.html).

1-6 August 1997-Society of Caribbean Ornithology. Aruba,
Dutch West Indies. (Joseph M, Wunderle, P. 0. Box 507,
Palmer, Puerto Rico 00721).





SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY
T-SHIRTS AVAILABLE

The SCO has produced a t-shirt to promote the Society and
help raise much needed funds toward the Society's annual
operating costs. The t-shirt depicts the Society's logo, the
Pitirre or Gray Kingbird, on a light blue shirt. Large and X-
large shirts are available. The cost of the shirt is 515 (U.S.),
which includes shipping costs. Please purchase a shirt today
and help support the Society! The shirt makes a great gift for
Caribbean birdwatchers. Send your order and a check or
postal money order made payable to the Society nFCaribbean
Ornithology to Rosemarie Gnarn, Treasurer SCO. 13 East
Rosemont Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22301, U.S.A. Please
don't miss out on this opportunity to promote the Society!


1-3-16 August 1997-American Ornithologists' Union 115th
Meeting, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota,
USA. (Francesca Cuthbert- cuthboo I @ maroon.tc.umn.edu,
or Peter Lowther lowther@fmnnh,org).

21-23 September 1997 Forum on Wildlife Telemetry:
innovations, evaluations, and research needs; Snowmass,
Colorado. Held in association with the 1997 Annual Confer-
ence of The Wildlife Society. (Dr. Jane Austin, e-mail:
jane austin@nbs.gov or Dr. Pamela Pietz, e-mail:
pam_pietz@nbs.gov; both at National Biological Service,
Northern Prairie Science Center, Jamestown, North Dakota
58401; telephone: 701-252-5363; fax: 701-252-4217).

28 July 3 August 1998 7th International Behavior
Ecology Congress,AsilomarConference Grounds, Monterey,
California, USA. [Walt Koenig; e-mail:
wicker@ uclink.berkeley.
edu or Janis Dickinson; e-mail: sialia@uclink2berkeley.cdu;
both at Hastings Reservation, 28601 E. Carmel Valley Rd.,
Carmel Valley, California 93924, USA).

16-22 August 1998 XXII International Ornithological
Congress, Durban, South Africa. (Information Dr. Aldo
Berruti, Department ofOrnithology, Durban Natural Science
Museum. Durban, South Africa; Fax: 27-31-262-6114; e-
mail: berruti@superbowl.und.ac.za; Scientific Program -
Dr. Lukas Jenni, Schweizcrische Vogelwarte, CH-6204
Sempach, Switzerland; fax: 41-41-462-9710),



DIRECTORY OF FUNDING SOURCES IN THE
NEOTROPICS

SIMBIOTA is a volunteer organization run by a group of
graduate students of the University-Madison. SIMBIOTA's
goal is to assist Latin American and Caribbean field biolo-
gists and conservationists (professional, amateur, or student)
in gaining funds for their own projects in the neotropics. The
name and logo are meant to symbolize mutual cooperation. It
is hoped that SIMBIOTA will be a catalyst for stronger
cooperation and support between biologists and conserva-
tionists in the Americas.
As a part of this effort, SIMBIOTA has produced a
directory of funding sources in the region. The directory is
available on the World Wide Web (WWW) at http://www/
wisc.edu/widecollsimbiota.htmi- If you do nothave access to
the WWW and would like to receive a printed copy of the
information (available in English or Spanish), contact:
SIMBIOTA, Department of Wildlife Ecology, University of
Wisconsin, 1630 Linden Dr., Madison, Wisconsin 53706,
USA: telephone: 608-263-7595; fax: 608-262-6099; e-mail:
simnbiora@ macc.wise.edu.


Page 41


El Pitirre 10(1)








REQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE

Seeking information on the occurrence of Osprey in the
Caribbean, particularly Cuba. Would like contact with indi-
viduals interested in monitoring Osprey migration in the
CaribbearL Please contact Mark Martell, The Raptor Center
at the University of Minnesota, 1920 Fitch Ave., St. Paul,
Minnesota 55108, USA. Telephone: 612-624-9790; fax:
612-624-8740; e-mail: martel006@tc.umn.cdu


1997 SCO ELECTIONS

Society Secretary Marcia Mundle has received the following
nominations for officers:

President Roeland de Kort
Vice-president Eric Carey
Treasurer- Rosemarie Gnam
Secretary Marcia Mundle

All candidates have accepted their nominations


FORTHCOMING MEETINGS IN CUBA


CONFERENCIA CIENTIFICA "50 ANIVERSARIO
DE LA UNIVERSIDAD DE ORIENTED"
6-9 October 1997
Universidad de Oriente, Santiago de Cuba

Among the themes of the conference is Ecology and The
Environment. The event will include presentations, exposi-
tions, round tables, and tours. Official languages will be
Spanish and English
Registration US$60 for participants; US$40 for persons
accompanying participants
Special packages with attractive rates are available

For father information, contact:
Dra. Sc. Miriam Irene Cardonne
Conferencia Cicntifica: "50 Aniversario de la Universidad
de Oriente"
Vicerrectoria de Investigaciones y Postgrado
Universidad de Oriente
Patricio Lumumba S/N
Santiago de Cuba CP 90 500
Cuba

Telephone: 53-226-31832
Pizarra: 53-226-33011, 33013, ext. 235
Fax: 53-226-86203
53-226-32689
53-226-43186
e-mail: mirene @rector.uo.edu.cu

Jim Wiley also has copies of information regarding the event


m TALLER DE BIODIVERSIDAD
Centro Oriental de Biodiversidad y Ecosistemas
Ministerio de Ciencia, Technologia y Medio Ambiente
25-28 October 1997

Direcci6n: Museo de Ciencias Tomas Romay
losd A. Saco % Barnada y Paraiso
Santiago de Cuba. Cuba

For information, contact Jim Wiley


MESA RODONDA INTERNATIONAL
HACIA UNA CULTURAL DE LA NATURALEZA
President Antonio Nmfiez Jimdnez
4-8 Noviembre 1997
Baracoa, Guantinamo
Cuba

For information, contact:
Lic, Rosa Maria Carlaya
Direccidn: 5ta B No, 6611 entire 66 y 70
Miramar, Playa
Ciudad de La Habana
Cuba
Telephone: 29-2885
Fax: 33-0438
e-mail: funaho@tinored.cu


Jim Wiley also has additional information.


ANNUAL DUES NOTICE

Members are reminded to pay their annual dues to the SCO
Treasurer, Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam, 13 East Rosemont Ave.,
Alexandria, VA 22301, USA. Individual membership are
USS20.00 per year.


SOCIETY'S WORKING GROUP
RECEIVES FUNDING

The West Tndian Whistling- Duck Working Group, formed
by Society members at the 1996 annual meeting in Nassau.
has been successful in obtaining funding. The Group re-
ceived a US$20,000 grant in support of its conservation work
on the duck.


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 42






FORTHCOIiNG N,'iETINGS IN CUBA (CONTINUED)
IV SIMPOSIO DE ZOOLOGIA
10-15 Noviembre 1997
La Habana Cuba


El Institutode Ecologia y Sistemitica, la Sociedad Cubana
de Zoologfa, el Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, la
Facultad de Biologia de la Universidad de La Habana, el
Ins itutoNacionalde InvestigacionesdeSanidadVegetaly el
Comit6 Nacional de Red Latinoamericana de Ciencias
Biol6gicas tienen cl gusto de invitarle a participar en al FV
Simposio de Zoologia a celebrarse en la Ciudad de La
Habana. Cuba. del 10 a] 15 de Noviembre de 1997.
Se desarrollaran durante el event, mesas redondas,
conferencias magistrates y sesiones tdcnicas en las temrntic as:
Sistemdtica, Ecologia, Etologfa, Anatomfa. Paleontologia,


Nombresy apellidos:
Institucion:
Direccion:
Ciudad:
T r_1 ._


I Leii Uno:


e-mail:


Zoologeograffa, G4netica poblacional, Zoologia Aplicada,
Conscrvaci&n y aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales,
Fisiologia, Relaci6nplanta-animal, Colecciones Zool6gicas,
Ensefianza de la zoologfa, Biodiversidad, IlusLracidn
cientffico-tdcnica y Informaci6n cientifica.
Los resimenes no deben exceder de 300 palabras y serin
presentados antes del 31 de mayo de 1997.
La cuota de inscripci6n es $150 USD. Para los que paguen
antes del 31 de mayo del 1997 es de $100 USD. Los
acompailantes abonarin $70 USD.


Dabos Generales
___________________________________Nacionalidad: ______________


Pais:
Fax:


Profesion:


Envie esta planilla a:
Institute de Ecologfa y Sistemitica
Carretera de Varona km 3-1/2, Capdevila, Boycros
A.P. 8029, CP 10800, Habana 8, Cuba
Fax: (537) 33-9117, 33-9031, 33-1325
e-mail; ecologia@unepnet.cu


FIRST INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON TOURISM RESEARCH: TURCARIBE '97


Dear Friends,


The Organization Board and Tourism Institutions, spon-
sored by the Ministry of Science, Technology and Environ-
ment, University of Oriente, Ministry of Tourism, and other
scientific and cultural institutions from Santiago de Cuba,
invites researchers, professionals, administrators, and tour
operators to participate in the First International Workshop
on Tourism Research: Turcaribe '97, to be held in the heart
of the Caribbean, Santiago de Cuba, Cuba, from 4-6 Decem-
ber 1997. The main objectives of this event are to promote
exchanges of experience from persons involved in the tour-
ism industry in order to provide advice and give conclusions
to allow us to take positive actions toward developing re
search and development projects for the advance of tourism
in the Caribbean region.
All interested persons are encouraged to attend and present
talks on experiences related to the event themes, We await
you in Santiago de Cuba.

Yours faithfully,
Dra. Alga Almaguer
President, TURCARIBE '97 Organization Board
Page 43


Themes:
1. Ecotourism, rural-tourism and bio-tourism, environ-
mental education
2. Commercial tourism strategies, marketing plans
3. Human resources, classification and optimization, ca-
pacity policy
4. Tourism, natural and social impact, cultural develop-
ment strategy
5. Attention Tourist Medical Programme
6. Tourism transportation services: rentability and effi-
ciency
7. Architectural, natural and city values. Preservation and
exploitation.
8- Tourist automatic services
9. Publicity and promotion

Papers selected by the Organization Board can be presented
in conferences, posters or round tables.

Abstracts: Up to 100 words. Due 14 June 1997.
Papers: Up to 10pages, double-spaced; one original and two
El Pitirre 10(1)






FORTHCOMING MEETINGS IN CUBA (CONTINUED)
copies, to be submitted by 16 August 1997. Manuscripts
should include the following information: Name(s) and
surname, institution, address, telephone, fax, e-mail address.
Author(s) selected will be notified before 30 September
1997.

Registration: Author and delegate 5200 USD; includes
credential, welcome cocktail, social and scientific activities,
program of visits to higher scientific centers, certificate of
participation, and event documentation.. Students and com-
panion-$ 100 USD; includes credential, opening and clos-
ing activities, welcome cocktail, and cultural activities


For more information, contact:
TURCARIBE '97
Dra. Maria Teresa Inciarte
Manduley No. 308, Esq. 13
Vista Alegre, CP 90400
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba
Telephone: (53-226) 4-1458 or 4-1081
Fax: (53-226) 14-1579


MANUAL DE CAMPO PARA DETERMINAR LAS AVES DEL GRAN PARQUE NATIONAL
"SIERRA MAESTA" Y DE LOS TERRITORIES ALEDANOS

SY DurnT. 0, ELusmv. NmrA GARCIA S., Luis 0. MEUA., H. ANO Jose NOfjrEZ LARGE
Institute Superior Pedag6gico "Frank Pafs Garcfa"
1987. 178 pp. 2 indexes, bibliography, line drawings


Designed for use in the field, this manual contains a key to
166 bird species that occur in the Orienteof Cuba, along with
individual species accounts.


Available for USS 15,00 through Jim Wiley, 2201 Ashland
St., Ruston, Louisiana 71270, USA.


CONTACT WITH SCO SECRETARY

SCO secretary, Marcia Mundle now can be reached by phone
at home (809) 905-4830. and has access to fax (809) 978-
5881.


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Page 44






CONSERVATION TRAINING CONSORTIUM


A consortium of The Field Museum, Chicago Zoological Society. University of Illinois at Chicago. John G. Shedd
Aquarium, and the University of Chicago was formed to provide intensive training in conservation biology for young
professionals from developing countries, with special emphasis on the Caribbean, among others. By acquiring the tools
necessary for assessing, analyzing, and managing biological diversity, the participants will be better equipped to help
establish conservation programs and direct biodiversity policies in their own countries.
Specifically, participants spend approximately half of their time attending lectures, taking part in seminars, and engaging
in discussions of relevant publications. Topics include habitat disturbance and fragmentation, island biogeography,
conservation genetics, and design and protection of reserves. Participants gain experience writing grant proposals, and are
provided with information on funding for biodiversity research and conservation from United States and international
organizations. During the remainder of the time, participants develop a conservation-related project with their individual
advisor at one of the five institutions.
Participants will be selected from a pool of applicants committed to using what they learn to help guide conservation
programs in their own countries, and who are in a position that will allow them to put their knowledge to immediate, effective
use in their home country.
Over the next three years (1997-1999), two sessions focusing on aquatic ecosystems and four sessions focusing on
terrestrial ecosystems will be offered. Aquatic sessions will be offered in the Spring of 1998 and 1999, and will be 10 weeks
in length. Summer terrestrial sessions will take place in 1997 and 1999 from mid-June through August. Autumn terrestrial
sessions will take place in 1997 and 1998 from mid-August through mid-December. Six participants will be accepted for each
aquatic and Autumn terrestrial session, and eight for each of the summer terrestrial sessions.
Deadlines: 1 February for the summer 1997 terrestrial session; 1 March for the autumn 1997 terrestrial session. Submit
the following: 1. a three-page curriculum vitae, which should include a description of your current and past positions, relevant
professional experience and educational background; 2. names, addresses, telephone and fax numbers, and e-mail addresses
of three references; and 3. a two-page statement of interest, discussing why you would like to attend the program, what aspects
of conservation biology are of interest to you, and how you would implement your training when you return home after the
program. Be sure to include your e-mail address and fax number on all correspondence. Submit applications to: Dr. Wendy
M. Jackson, Conservation Training Consortium. c/o The FieldMuseum, Roosevelt Rd. at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois
60605, USA; telephone 312-922-9410, ext. 432; fax: 312-922-5421; e-mail: jackson@fmppr.fmnh.org


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 45





CONTENTS CONTINUEDD)


EL PEIfCANQ NORTEAIMERICANO PELECA,'S OCCIDL7TAUl CAtOLNE S S (AVES: PELECANIDAE) CR[A TA-MBtN EN CUB'A-
Josi A. M orales y O rlando H. Garrido ...................----------- .................................................................................. 17
ORNITHOLOGICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH AT CARIBBEAN UNION COLLEGE, TRWNIDA. Floyd E. H yes ....................... 17
ABsTR.ACTS OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE 1996 AeNUAL, M-EETiNG OF THE SCO, NASSAU, BAHAMAS
RESOURCE PARTmONING I.EtWEEN GLOSSY IBIS AND WmH. hNis IN A RTCE FIELD SYSTEM [N SOL"1T-CeNTRi. CUBA.
Martih Acosta, Lourdes M ugica, C. Mancina, and X Rufz .................................................................... ...... 18
BREEDING BIOLOGY AND NATURAL HISTORY OF TIE BAHAMA SWALLOW. Paul E. Allen ............................................... 19
IMPACT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT OPTIONS ON CAVITY-N ESTING BIRDS IN THE BAHAMAS- Paul E. Allen and
5. M H itchcox ...... ---............ .. ...... ....... ........ .. .......... ..............".................... ................................. 20
CDoNEMPORARY AND HISTORICAL RANGE OF THE PEARLY-EYED THRASHER, EMtPHASIZING THE GREATER ANTILLES AND THE
BAHAMA ARCHIPELAGO, WayneArendt....... ................. ................................................................... 20
THE SHINY CowBIRD NM THE BAHAMAS: A THREAT TO THE ARCH PELAGO' S AVIFAUNA. Michael E. Bal................. 21
USE OF SUCCESSIONAL CATTLE PASTURES BY RESIDENT AND MIGRATORY LANDBIRDS IN PUERTO Rico. Michael E. Bait,
and R S. Feliciano .................................................................................... ... ......... ............................................... 21
DiSTRIBUTION, DIVERSITY, AND ABUNDANCE OF THE TERRESTRIAL AVIFAUNA IN THE SABANA ARCHIPELAGO NORTH OF
Vlt.LA CLARA, CUBA. Vicente Berovides-Alvarez and Xiomara Gdlvez-Aguilera ............................................. 22
ECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE GREATER FL.AJNGO (PHO'aECOFTEr US RFBER) N THE SAB.ANA-CAMAcGcEy ARCHL ELAGO.
Vicente Berovides-Alvarez and Xiomara Gdlvez-Aguitera .......................................................................... 22
CI.LNGES IN THE CAYMAN ISLANDS AVIFAUNA FROM THE LATE PLEISTOCENE TO 1996. Patricia E,. Bradley .................. 23
THE BAHAtAS B ODIVERSITY DATA MANAGEMENT PROJECT. Eric Carey ...................... ......................... ............. 23
BERD COMMUNITIES IN A FRAGMENTED BUFFER ZONE OF THE BLUE AND JOHN CROW MOUNTAINS NATIONAL PARK.
Suzanne Davis and Peter Vogel ................................................................................... .............................. 24
NAT'%rE AND MIGRATORY BIRDS OF THE BAHAMAS. C, Ferguson, E. Kemp, J. Dilate. S, McKenzie, E. Wildgoose,
N. Barry, S. M itchell. K. W ilson, and E. Adderley................................................... ....................................... 24
POPULATION CENSUS OF THE CUBAN PARROT (A4-ZONA LEUCOCEPImAL PALfARUM) AND THE SAND[ILL CRANE (GaRs
CANAD&LSIS NESIOTS5) IN NORTHERN ISLA DE LA JUVENTUD, CULSB. Xiomara Gdlvez-Aguilera. Vicente
Berovides-Alverez. Josi Rivera, and James W. Wiley .................................................... .......... .................... 24
THE STATUS OF THE CUBAN KnTE (CHo,%vDRomAx WILsoN'I) [N EASTERN CUBA, Xiornara Gdivez-A guilera and
Vicente Berovides-A lverez .................................................................................................................................. 25
W RAT'S RARE EN THE BAHAMAS? Lynn Gape ............ ....................................... ........................ ......................... 25
THE CUBAN FIELD GUIDE PROJECT. Orlando Garrido, Arturo Kirkconnell, and Roman Compay ............................ 26
BREEDING BIOLOGY OF THE BAHAMA PARROT ON GREAT LNAGUA. Rosemarie Gnam, Marcia Wilson, and lan Lothian 26
COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE OF RESIDENT AND MIGRANT COMMUNITIES IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL CUBA DURING 'ntE
WINTER, Hiram Gonzalez, Alejandro Llanes, and Pedro Blunco ................................................................... 26
WHERE DO WORM-EATING WARBLERS GO IN THE NON-BREEDING SEASON? Lise A. Hanners and S. LR Patron ............ 27
BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY OF TERRITORIAL MALE WHITE-TA.ILED SABRELWINGS (CAmPYLOPTERUS EVSt EMvS): EVIDENCE FOR
LEK POLYGNY. F. E. Hayes, T. 0. Garner, M. V. Bernard, A. L Bullard, D. R. Hardy, D-A. D. Wilson, D. J.
W ilson, V. I- Joseph, and D. K. St. Louis ........ ..... ............................................ ........................... ............... 27
UPDATE ON THE STATUS OF THE THREATENED WHITE-TAILED SABREWINGS (CAMPYLOPTERUS ELSIPK6VNIS ON TOBAGO,
WEST INDIES, F. E. Hayes, T. 0. Garnett, M. V. Bernard, and L. Samad.... -................................................... 28
THE NEED FOR AN INTERNATIONAL APPROACH TO CONSERVATION OF nTiS WEST INDtAN WHISTLING-DUCK (DENDROCi',wA
AAoPEA). Ann M Haynes-Sunton .................................................... .....................- ... ................. 28
EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIP AMONG ISLAND FORMS OF THE STRR E-HEADED TANAGER. Nedra Klein ......................... 29
SEX, SEABiRDS, AND CYCLONECS; IR -NEF-T'S OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD. David S. Lee ................. ........ 30
NESTING OF EUNcORni CAMwESTRIS, DIE ORANGEQurr. Catherine Levy .....................,....... ................................... 30
FORAING AND HABT AT USE BY THE FtLvous WHiSTUnNG-DucK (D'.aocrGwA sicoLOi). Lourdes Mugica-Valdds.
M martin Acosta-Cruz, and R. Yden erg .......................... ............ .............................. ............................... 31
USING POINT COUNTS TO ES-TABLISH BASE-LINE DATA ON BIRDS IN THE BLUE AND JOHN CROW MOUNTAIN NATIONAL PARK.
M arcia M undle ....... .......................... ............................ ............................................... 31
UPDATE ON THE GUIDE TO THE BIRDS OF THE WEST INDIES, Herbert A. Raffaele ..................... ....... 32
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF BIRDS OBSERVED AT LOMA BARBACOA, PERAVIA PROVINCE, BANI, DOMINICAN REPUBUC.
D om ingo Sir( .............. ..... .......................... _, -........................... ..... ....... ........................................ 32
(Conftined on page 47)


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 46







CONTENTS (CONTINUED)



SEARDS OF THE CAY SAL BANK. Alexander Spnrnt, V ........................................... ................... ......... 32
HABITAT SELECTION AND HOME RANGE OF RADEO-MARKED WVEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCKS ON LONG ISLAND, BAHAMAS.
Nancy Staus ............... .................. ............. ............................................. ........................................... 33
POPULATIONS OF ORANGEQUITS IN A MID-LEVE..LIMESTONE WOODLAND, JAMAICA, 1991-1995. Ann M. Haynes-Sutton
and Robert Sutton ........................................................... ................... .......... ......... ...................... ................. ..... 33
TRAINING BIRD WATCItiNG GUIDES IN THE SCI.NTIC RESERVE AT LAGUNA CABRAL, Eduardo Vasquez ..................... 34
YELLOW-SHOULDERED BLACKBIRD (AGEL.AJVSNAhTHtOMUS) RECOVERY PROJECT IN THE SOUTHWEST OF PUERTO Rico.
Eduardo A. Ventosa-Febles ................................................................................................................................... 34
LbPORTANT BIRD AREAS FOR THE AMRICAS,. David C. Wage ................................................................................ 35
A STUDY OF IENTER-lSLtAND VARIATION IN TiE THICK-B[LLED Vrnio,. Marine R. Walker and J. C. Barlow ................. 35
REsinrvT BIRDS OF NEW PRovIDENCE. Anthony W. White ................................................................................... 36
THE CASE OF T i B AH-AMAS' DLSAP'PEARING ENDEMIC ORIOLE (A JAMES BOND MYSTERY), P. William William and
S A Sm ith ................ ........ ................................................ .............................. ................................. ............... 36
THE PRE-COLONIAL AND CURRENT STATU-S OF BERMUDA'S SEABIRD POPULATION, David B, Wingare .......... .............. 36
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION EFFORTS IN THE NORTtERN BAHAMAS: PROBLEMS AND ADVANCES. Gail L Woon ............... 37
PRE- AND POST-HURRICANE FRUITING PHENOLOGIES: POTENTIAL IMPLICATIONS FOR PUERTO RICAN PARROTS. Joseph M.
W underle, Jr. ............ .. ............................................. .................... ............... ....................................... 38
Ist.LAND REaoRT WHAT'S HAPPF.NING IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL COMMUNrrY IN ANnGUA-BARBUDA? Kevel Lindsay ........ 38
REUNION DE LOS MIEMBROS DE LA SOCILDAD ORNIrTOLOG~A DtI CARIBE EN CUBA, DECIEMBRE 1996. Hiram Gonzdlez ........ 39
PROPOSED AMMENDMENT TO SCO CONSTIrrON ........................................ ............................................. ...40
W ILD TREASURES OF THE CARIB EAN ..................... ............................. ....... ................................................ .... .. 40
NEOORN-ELECTrONIC BULLETIN BOARD FOR DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION ON NEOTROPIC.AL BDS. ............................ 40
CARIBBEAN POSTERS AVAILABLE. ....................................................... .... ................... .................................. ............. 40
M EETINGS OF (NTEREST. ............................ ................................................ ... ... .......................................... .................... ......... 41
SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY T-SHIRTS AVAILABlF. ..................................................... ... .................... 41
DmECTORY OF FUNDING SOURCES IN THE NEOTROPICS ......................................................................... .......................... 41
R EQUEST FOR ASSISTANCE. ..... ....................... .,................... ... ..... ............... ................................................. 42
1997 SC O ELECTIONS. ................................................ ...................................... ...... .............................. .............. 42
FORTHCOMING MEETINGS IN CUBA. ........ ................. ............................................... ........................... ..... ............. 42
A NNUAL DUES NOTICE.......................................................... ..... ........................ .......................................................... 42
SOCIETY's W ORKING GROUP RECEIVES FUNDING ........................................... .............................................................. 42
MANUAL DE CAMPO PARA DETERMINAR LAS AVES DEL G,,,N PARQUE NATIONAL "SIERRA MAESTRA" Y DE LOS TERRf'ORJOS
ALEDA OS .................... ................... ......................................... ........ .... .................................................................... 44
CONTAcr WITH SC O SECRETARY ...,.. ............... .......... ........................ ......................................................................... 44
CONSERVATION TRAINING CONSORTIUM ...................................... ... ...................... ........... ................... ............... ........ 45


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


President: Dr. Joseph Wunderic, Jr.
Vice President: Mr. Roeland E. de Kort
Secretary: Dr. Marcia Mundle
Treasurer: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam


El Pitirre 10(1)


Page 47




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