Group Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Title: El Pitirre
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100143/00028
 Material Information
Title: El Pitirre
Uniform Title: Pitirre (Camarillo, Calif.)
Abbreviated Title: Pitirre (Camarillo Calif.)
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wiley, James W
Wiley, James W
Society of Caribbean Ornithology
Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Publisher: Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology
Place of Publication: Camarillo Calif
Camarillo, Calif
Publication Date: 1996
Frequency: bimonthly
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, with some Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 1, no. 1 (Jan.-Feb. 1988)-
Dates or Sequential Designation: Ceased in 2002.
Numbering Peculiarities: Vol. 1, no. 3 covers the period May-Aug. 1988.
Issuing Body: Newsletter of the Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithology, Jan/Feb.-Mar./Apr. 1988; the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, May/Aug. 1988-
General Note: Editor, 1988- James W. Wiley.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: Vol. 15, no. 1 (spring 2002) (Surrogate)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100143
Volume ID: VID00028
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 23284416
lccn - sn 99004863
issn - 1527-7151
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Succeeded by: Journal of Caribbean Ornithology

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EI PIh -1i ,

S ,Society of Cribbean Ormithl6gy :.. ""I

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EL PITIRRE

El Pitirre is the newsletter of the Society of
Caribbean Ornithology.

El Pitirre es el boletfn informative de la
Sociedad de la Ornitologfa Caribeiila.

EurTOR: James W. Wiley, 2201 Ashland St.,
Ruston, Louisiana 71270, U.S.A.
AssIAswrEDrroITs: Chandra Degia, Michael
Bobb, Garfield Brown, Alwin Dornelly, and
Barbara Keesee, Grambling Cooperative
Wildlife Project, P. O. Box 4290, Grambling
State University, Grambling, Louisiana
71245, U.S.A.


News.commen is or requests should be mailed
to the editor for inclusion in the newsletter,

Noticias, conientarios a peticiones deben ser
envfadas al editor para inclusion en el bulletin.

Tyrannus dominicensis


Pitirre, Gray Kingbird, Pestigre, Peichary


The Society of Caribbean Ornithology is a non-profit organization
whose goals are to promote the scientific study and conservation of
Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link among island
ornithologists and those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for
researchers in the region (refereed journal-Ornitologfa Caribefia,
published in conjunction with dithe Puerto Rico Ornithological So-
ciety) and to provide data or technical aid to conservation groups in
the Caribbean.

La Sociedad de la Ornitologia Caribefia es una organizaci6n sin
fines de lucro cuyas metas son promover el studio cientffico y la
conservacidn de la avifauna caribenia, auspiciar un simposio annual
sobre laornitologfacaribefia,publicaruna revistaprofesional iamada
Ornitologfa Caribefia (publicada en conjunto con la Sociedad
Omiliodgica de Puerto Rico), ser una fuente de comuniaeci6n en re
omitdlogos caribeiios y on otras Areas y provecr ayuda tdcniea 0
datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.


CONTENTS

OBSERVATIONS OF AN AUDUBON'S [BLACK-HEADED] ORIOLE
ICTERUS GRAIDUACA UDA IN PUERTO RICO, THE FIRST RECORD
FOR THE CARIBBEAN. Lucy Bunkley-Williams and Ernest H.
W illiam s Jr. .....n........................ ..................................................... ........ 2
NUEVO RECORD DEL GORRION DE CABEZA CARMELITA
{SPlZEFLA PASSERINA) Y NUEVO REPORT DE FECHA PARA
EL BOBITO DE CRESTA (MYIARCIHUS CRINITUS) PARA CUBA,
William Sudrez Duque ................................... 2
NUIVO REGISTRO DE AVOCETA RECURVIROSTRA AMERICANA
(AVES: CHARADRIIFORMES) EN CUBA. Pedro Blanco. Martin
Acosm. Lourdes Mujfca y Denis Dennis .............................. ..... ... 3
WIN'I'ERI NG EASTERN PHOERBES (SA YORNIS PHOEBE),
EMPIDONAX FLYCATCHERS AND SEASONAL RECORDS OF
KINGBIRDS IN THE BAHAMA ISLANDS. David S. Lee. Craig
Faanes, aid J, Cluaib uplicl Hanl cy .................. ................................... 4
OBSERVING MIXED-SPECIES FORAGING FLOCKS OF RESIDENT
AND MIGRATORY BIRDS IN CARIBBEAN HABITATS. Paul B,
Hoamnc and Franciwo J. Vilella ......................... 7
OBSERVACIONES SOBRE BANDADAS MIXTAS DE AVES
RESIDEN'ITES Y MIGRATORIAS FORRAJEANDO EN
AMBIENTES BOSCOSOS DE LAS ANTILLES. Paul B. Harnel and
Francisco J, Vilc la.................................. ....... ............. ....... ........ . ...
TI1E CHARLES-EUGENE JEANNERET COLLECTION OF CUBAN
BIRDS. Carios Wotzkow antd Brigitte Straub ................................... 12


I f(Continued on Masi page)








OBSERVATIONS OF AN AUDUBON'S [BLACK.HEADED] ORIOLE ICTERUS GRADUACAUDA IN
PUERTO RICO, THE FIRST RECORD FOR THE CARIBBEAN

Lucy BUNXLCsy-WUAtu AN E ie-rst H. WIH..AMS, Ji-1

SCaribbean Aquatic Animal Health Project, Department ofBiology, P. 0. Box 5000, MayqgueL. Puerto Rico 00681
'Department of Marine Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, P. 0. Box 908, Lajas, Puerto Rico 00667


We observed an adult male Audubon's [Black-Headed] Oriole
Icterus graduacauda at an approximate distance of 15 m for
10 mins. beginning 15:13 hr, 12 June 1995 in the tree line off
Jobos Beach, near Ramey, Puerto Rico. The following day,
we identified the bird from the literature with the aid of our
field drawings and notes. The brightyellow body (particularly
the yellow back), and black head, wings, and tail of this adult
male were distinctive and diagnostic. By reviewing the
literature, we recognized that this oriole was not a species
normally occurring in Puerto Rico (Biaggi 1983, Perez-
Rivera 1993, Raffaele 1989, Rivera-Cianchini and Mojica-
Sandoz 1981).
The normal range for Audubon's Oriole is southern Texas to
southern Mexico (Clements 1992), approximately 2200 km
from the site of our observation. R. L. Norton (pers. comm.)
informed us that no other reports of this oriole are known
outside of its normal range. Audubon's Orioles almost always
occur in pairs. Our observation of a solitary bird could
suggest an escaped cage bird, or that at least low numbers of
these birds are in Puerto Rico. The great distance from its
normal range and lack of any records from islands between
Central America and Puerto Rico suggest that we saw a
formerly captive bird that had been transported to Puerto
Rico. However, this bird was seen away from any human
population center in its natural habitat (woodland near water),
which is unlike the normal behavior of isolated, caged and
released birds. Studies of released caged birds in Puerto Rico
have shown that such birds do not leave cities (H. A. Raffaele,
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, pers. comm.), although many


exotics have eventually become established in rural areas.
Audubon's Oriole is not a common cage bird in Puerto Rico,
but some people have this species in captivity (R. A. Perez-
Rivera, pers. comm.). We have not been able to find records
of recent sales of this animal, but no records would be
expected because it can not be legally imported (Ptrez-
Rivera, pers. coimm). A range extension or wandering of this
bird from Central America to Puerto Rico is unlikely, but is
an alternate explanation.
We thank Raul A. Pdrez-Rivera, Humacao University
College, University of Puerto Rico; H. A, Raffaclc, U. S. Fish
and Wildlife Service; and Robert L. Norton, Caribbean
Editor. American Birds, for reviewing the manuscript and for
advice and additional information.

LrrTRAumE Cnr-n

Biaggi, V, 1983. Las aves de Puerto Rico, third ed., Rfo
Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Universitaria.
Clements, J. F. 1992. Birds of the world: a check list, fourth
ed., Vista, California: Ibis Publishing Company,
Pirez-Rivera, R. A. 1993. Lista de cotejo de las aves de
Puerto Rico. Exegesis 6(17):6-14.
Raffaele, 1H. A. 1989, A guide to the birds of Puerto Rico and
the Virgin Islands. Rev, Edition. Princeton, New Jersey:
Princeton University Press.
Rivera-Cianchini, 0., and L. Mojica-Sandoz. 1981. Pajaros
notables de Puerto Rico. Guia para observadorcs do ayes.
San Juan, Puerto Rico: Editorial Universitaria.


NUEVO RECORD DEL GORRION DE CABEZA CARMELITA (SPIZELLA PASSERINA) Y NUEVO
REPORT DE FECHA PARA EL BOBITO DE CRESTA (MYIARCHUS CRINITUS) PARA CUBA.

WII.uMm SuAREz DuoQE
Ministerio de Sahud Pdblica (MINSAP), provencia de La Habana. Cuba


En cl present trabajo damos a conocer algunos resultados
obtenidos de las observaciones y colectas de aves migratorias
en el municipio Caimito, situado al noroeste de la provincial
de La Habana durante el perfodo comprendido entrelos ailos
1990 y 1995.
Se colecit un ejemplar subadulto del Gorridn de Cabeza
Carmelita (Spizellapasserina), conocidocon elnombrelngils
Chipping Sparrow (Spizellap. passerina) (Bechstein, 1798).
el din 25 de noviembre de 1991, en an potrero de la zona
Page 2


ganadera Quintana Arriba, al norte de la Meseta de Anafe.
Estospotreros presentan unavegetaci6nbajayescasa, formada
lundamentalmente per varias species de gramineas con
fines de past para el ganado vacuno.
El gorri6n fue localizado en el suelo, alimentAndose de
semillas, posteriormente vodl a una cerca pr6xima de un
metro de altura, donde dejd oir un "chip" caracteristico
repetido varias veces. Duranteesta actividad se mantuvo muy
manso.


El Pitirre 9(2)







Spf-ell ptssetrira y M.VJdrchui L-nnitui o Cuba (ConLunled)

Esta especic es considerada curno un visitaxnc occasional,
del cual sdIo se hen colectado dos ejemplares en Cuba. uno
por Juan Gundlach en el siglo pasado y lro potr A. Naranja,
en el mes de noviembre, en la localidad de Ceiba del Agua
(Garridc y Garcia, Catzlogo de las aves de Cuba, Acad.
Ciene. Cuba, La Habana. 1975),
Este constitute el tercer ejemplar colecladu para Cuba,
Lasdos iltimascolectashansidorealizadaseneste muncipio
habancro, por lo que se puede pensar que iste sea uno de los
puntos de contacio durante la migracidn de Ia especie coni el
territorio cubano.
El segundoreportesereflerealBobitode Cresta (Myiarchus
c. criniths) (Linneo, 1758), cl qu6 es considerado para Cuba
como un raro visitante occasional (Garrido y Garcia 1975, op.


ch.). Eskts auLores reportan comc fetha do arribo otoial el 14
de octubre.
Culcti un rmachoadulto de estaespeciceldfa20septiembre
de 1995, en un g uayabal (Psidium guajaba)(Linneo), alnorte
del municipio, luego de un dfa de fiuertes vientos e intensas
tluvias, Se observaron tambidn otras species de
Passeriforrnes, que llegaron en dicha "oleda" migratoria,
como Pitirrc Americano, T)'rannus tyrannus. Bobito de
Bosque, ConStopus virens, Tordo Colorado, Catharus
fuscescens y otras species incliyendo algunas bijiriwas.
Agradczco a Ins omitdlogos Bdrbara SAnchez, Alejandro
Llanes y Orlando Garrido, cl corroborar la clasificaci6n de
los ejemplares.


NUEVO REGISTRO DE AVOCETA RECURVIROSTRA AMERICANA
(AVES: CHARADRIIFORMES) EN CUBA

PEDRO BLANCO', MNIRTIN AcosTA', LOURDES MUJICA Y DENTS DENNlS:
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistenidrica, CITMA. La Ilabana, Cuba
'Facuitad de Biolog I. Univerridwd de La fiabana, Cuba


La espezie migratoria nedrctica conocida por cl norabre de
Avoceta (Recurvirostra americana), es an ave colonial que
cria en Amdrica del Norte. Sus colonies se localizan
fundamentalmente en regions salinas del oeste, lagos de Las
planicies centrales y costa Atlantica de Estados ULnidos, En
Canaddt, ocupan solo unn part de losI Ilanot ce ntnr Ics del pals.
Durante la migraci6n otofial, sus sitios de invierno se ubican
al surocste de America del Norte, Costadcl Pacii c o, regi ones
costeras del Golfo de Mexico y en la Peninsula de la FlorLda,
Existen adernis otros registros de estas aves durante cl
invierno en algunas islas de las Antillas tales como: Cuba.
Jamaica, Barbados, Tobago y Bonaire (Hayman et al. 1986).
En Cuba, la Avoceta esti considerada un visitante internal
muy raro o casual. puesto que ha sido reporlada en pocas
oportunidades en el pafs (Garrido y Garcia 1975).
Durante una expedici6n efectuada del 9 al 19 dejunio de
1995. a ]a localidad subcostera de las Arr-ceras del Jibaro
ubicada centre los 79 15' N y 210 20' W al sur de la pro vincia
deSancti Spfritus, seobservaron varies individuos de Avocela
Amdricana alimentAndosc en parcels recien roturadas y
cubiertas con agua, listas para cl cultivar del arr-_
Can la realizaci6n de 9 censos efectuados en horarios
comprendidos las :008:-09:30 hr. ein ls dreAn de ranguer ta
routuraci6n de parcels, se cornprob6 que ol nrime rode avre de
laespeciesreferida,alcanzd valoresde87-89ind/kni,aunque
se cstima que la cifra total existence en la rcgi6n del Jibaro
durante el perfodo muestreado fu6 superior a los 150
individuos. Esta afirmacidn esti avalada por lob resultadous
obtenidos durante la realizacidn de otros cuatro censos
efectuados en otras Areas del cultivo tales como: arroz recidn
sembrado y arroz verde sin espigar no drenado. donde se
El Pitirre 9(2)


observaron varies (4-10) de estas avyes alimentandose y
descansando.
Las Avocetas censadas se observaron por lo general,
formando bands que oscilamrn entire 27-46 individuos (en
su mayorfaadultos con plurmaje de crfa biendefinido,excepto
3 Jdvnesw). Para dejar constancia de estc hallazgo no comTin
en el territorio cubano. se tomnaron varias fotos (36 mm) alos
bandos mAs numerosos,
Se conoce que las poblaciones de Avoceta abandonan los
sitios de invierno y arriban a suts areas de reproducidn a
mediado del mes de abril, o finales de nmayo (Gibson 1971 ).
Es por ello que consideramos qud la dispersion, arribo y
perrnanencia de este considerable nidmero do inviduos de
Avocetas en las Arroceras del Jfbaro puede star asociado al
surgimiento y desarrollo de condiciones meteorol6gicas no
favorables para ]a migraci6n acontecidas en ]a region del
Golfo de MExico durante el mes de junio (depresiones
cicl6nicas acompafidas de fuertes vientos y Iluvias).
Lapresente comunicaci6n constituye el report con mayor
nmmerode individuos de esta espccie registrado encl territory
del Archipiclago cubano

LrrERA lVKi C I AA

Garrido, 0, H. y F. Garcia 1975. Caltlogo de las aves de
Cuba, Acad. Cienc. La Habana
Gibson. F. 1971. The breeding biology of the American
Avocet Recurvirostramnrericna in central Oregon. Condor
73:444-454.
Hayman. P., J, Marchant y T. Prater 1986. Shorebirds: an
identification guide to the waders of the world.


Pago 3







WINTERING EASTERN PHOEBES (SAYORNIS PHOEBE), EMPIDONAX FLYCATCHERS AND
SEASONAL RECORDS OF KINGBIRDS IN THE BAHAMA ISLANDS

DAVID S. LEE', CRAm FAANMES AND J. CHRISTOPHER HANEY'

WNorth Carolina Stae Mtseum of Natural Sciences, P. O. Box 29555, Rateigh, North Carolina 27626. USA; 'U.S, Fish and Witdlife
Service. Rm. 400. 4401 N. Fairfax Drive. Arlington. Virginia 22203. USA; 'The Wilderness Society. 900 Seventeenth Street, N, W.,
Washington, DC 20006-2596. USA.


The Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe) is a short-distance
migrant with a winter range that is essentially confined to the
southeastern United States (Bent 1942). Eastern Phoebes
winter only in areas where the mean minimum January
temperature is above -4"C (250F) (Root 1988). The primary
winter range is in Atlantic and Gulf coastal states from
Virginia to Texas, and northern Mexico where the southern-
and western-most records are from Oaxaca and Veracruz
(American Ornithologists'Union 1983). Based on Christmas
Bird Count data, areas of peak winter abundance are in
e-atemrn Texas and north-central Florida (September to May).
This flycatcher is a rare and irregular winter resident in the
Keys and extreme southern Florida (Root 1988, Robertson
and Woolfenden 1992). Individuals establish winter feeding
territories and defend them both intra- and inter-specifically.
Despite their winter abundance in coastal areas of the
southeastern United States and a modest number of reports
from Bermuda (Amos 1991), there are surprisingly few
reports of Eastern Phoebes from the West Indies (Table 1).
B ent (1942) and Barbour (1943) noted one from Guantanamo
Bay, Cuba. The immature specimen was collected by Juan
Gundlach in February 1846. It was such an unusual record
that Gundlach, not familiar with the bird, named it as a new
species Aulamax lembevei, Bond (1985) and Brudenell-
Bruce (1975)cite two reports from the Bahamas-Bimini. 18
November- Grand Bahama, 10 October. Bond noted the
period of occurrence for this species in the West Indies as 11
September-18 November. The only additional report of
which we are aware is a single bird seen on Eleuthera,
Bahamas on 7 February 1986 (American Birds 40:529). This
was the only report for the Bahamas or West Indies since
1972.
Because of the small number of records for the West Indies,
two sightings of Eastern Phoebe we obtained on Grand
Bahama in November 1995 are of interest. On 25 November
we found a single bird feeding over a small freshwater pond
on the property of the Rand Nature Center (Bahamas National
Trust), and on 26 November we encountered a second
individual perched next to another small freshwater pond at
West End. BuLh birds were watched imertnihendy for half an
hour or more. Tail-wagging and other field marks were
confirmed as the birds perched and foraged over the corners
of the ponds they occupied. Rick and Kathy Oliver (Rand
Nature Center) informed us that at least one of those was still
present in mid-February 1996.
Although these records undoubtedly reflect as much the


lack of previous field work and reporting as they do on the
scarcity of Eastern Phoebes in the Bahamas (see discussion
below), we should add that this may have been a particularly
good winter for short-range migrants reaching the Bahamas.
From 24 to 26 November we also recorded 2 American
Robins (Turdus migratorius), I Ruby-crowned Kinglet
(Regulus calendula), and 3+ Cedar Waxwings (Bomb)ycilla
cedrorunm) on Grand Bahama, All are considered to be
sporadic, irregular visitors to the Bahamas. Whether or not
these birds collectively represented vanguards of an
unseasonably cold winter in thesouthcastern United States or
vagrants resulting front an earlier aberrant weather system is
unknown.
These phoebe reports represent the fourth and fifth for the
B ahamas, and the fifth and sixth for the West Indies. Dates of
the sightings extend the period of known occurrence in the
Bahamas by nearly three months and are outside the normal
fall migration period for the species.
We also observed one Empidonax flycatcher at West End,
Grand Bahama on 26 November 1995, and one of us (Lee)
found three on Abaco in early December 1995. These
records are at least a month past the fall migration period for
any eastern North American Empidonax, and like the records
of the Eastern Phoebes are here considered as records of
wintering indiv iduals, The Grand Baham a Empidonax was at
the edge of a coastal shrub thicket ca. 100 m from the beach
at West End. It was observed for approximately 10 minutes
by all of us.Other than an incomplete eye ring, no useful field
marks were noted. The Abaco birds were at the edge of a red
mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) swamp bordering a beach
front at Sandy Point (2 and 5 December) and at the airport at
Marsh Harbor (6 December). This latter individual was
perched on a wire under the eve of the air terminal a most
unexpected site of occurrence. The habitat surrounding the
airport is open 30-year-old Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea)
forest. No distinct field marks were noted on any ofthe Abac
birds, and like the individual found on Grand Bahama all
were nnn-vocal- The only previous winter record we know
for the Bahamas is of a single unidentified Empidonax heard
calling from dense vegeration on Etcuthern (BIuhanias) on 7
February 1986 (American Birds 40:339).
Reported migration periods of Empidoint flycatchers for
the Bahamas, and elsewhere in the West Indies, are scarce
and identification in most cases is problematic. The birds are
drab, usually silent, and often provide only fleeting views.
Amos (1991), in describing the situation in Bermuda where


El Pitirre 9(2)


Page 4








Wintering Flycatchers in the Bahlams (ContinueCd)
five species are reported to occur, sums up the problem
nicely: "species identifications have been based on careful
observation and some inspired conjecture." Furthermore;,
twoEmpidanax rcc ntly (1973) recognized as separate species
are distinguished primarily by vocalizations and ecology.
They are difficult to separate in migration or on wintering
grounds where they are typically silent. Hussell (1990)
showed that many immatures of Alder (Empidonixalno nma)
and Willow (E. traillii) flycatchers cannot be separated, and
Seutin (1991) recommended caution when attempting to
identify these flycatchers with morphometrics.
Collected Empidonax specimens and sight records are
usually combined in writing species accounts for specific
islands, masking accuracy of statements, and making it
difficult to decipher what level of confidence can be placed
on what has been published. The situation in Bahamas is a
good example of the problem. A-single migrant collected on
New Providence on 14 October 1961 is an Acadian Flycatcher
(E. virescens). Based on this record this species is the only
Empidonax mentioned for the Bahamas (Brudenell-Bruce
1975) and the descriptive text only tells how to distinguish
the genus Empidonaxr from the Greater Antillean Peewee
(Contopuscaribaeus). Subsequently, the Acadian Flycatcher
has since appeared as the only Empidonax on a checklist nf
the birds of the Bahamas (Bahamas National Trust}.
On 25 November 1995, we also found a single Gray
Kingbird (Tyrannus dominicensis) and one Western Kingbird
(T. verticallis) at West End, Grand Bahama. Both were
foraging in a large fig (Ficussp.) tree with ripe fruit. Both are
late-season records for the northern Bahamas.
Brudenell-Bruce (1975) reported the latest date in fall for
the Gray Kingbird on New Providence as 12 November, but
also includes a 12 December report for Great Inagua much
farther south, Bond (1985) notes that the Gray Kingbird
winters in northern South America but is "chiefly a pe rmanent
resident from Hispaniola eastward." Emlen (1977). however,
reported Gray Kingbirds for Grand Bahamas on 10 January
1968 and 14 March 1969.
The Western Kingbird is a rare passage migrant in the
Caribbean, known only in migration from the Bahamas and
Swan Islands(Bond 1985). Brudenelt-Bruce (1975) recorded
it from 15 October to 1 November on New Providence,
Western Kingbirds have also been seen on Bintini. Grand
Bahama, and Eleuthera. The latest occurrence dale reported
by Brudenell-Bruce is 26 November (Elcuthera), hut there is
i report of 3 I Westerni K-titghird rftr Gruiter Abacs.from 24
December 1983 to 2 January 1984 (Ameri-can Bird. 38:362),
another from Abaco on 16-19 November 1990 (Ameriant
Birds 45:500), and a report from North Andros of one on 10
November 1968 (American Birds 23:38),
We suggest that all these species may occur with greater
regularity and at dates well outside the extreme periods of
occurrence summarized here, and we conclude that furtiter
field work will show all of the species discussed here to be


more common, wid-.spread, or less seasonally-restricted in
the Balitmas and Greater Caribbean Basin than is presenEly
believed. Resolving the identification and status of migrant
and w inte ring Empidona.t flycatchers will require systematic
collections of specimens from several islands, seasons, and
habitats, not just in the Bahamas, but throughout the West
Indies,
This report results from an agreement among the North
Carolina Slate Museum of Natural Sciences, The Bahamas
National Trust, The College of the Bahamas, and the Bahamas
Department of Agriculture. The focus of this agreements dite
development of an understanding and the long-range
conservation of nearctic migrants under the umbrella of the
International Partners-in-Flight Program. We thank Robert
L. Norton, Anthony White, and Catherine Levy forreviewing
the manuscript,

LrTERATURE CrtED

American Ornithologists' Union, 1983. Checklist of North
American Birds, 6th ed. Washington, D.C.:American
Ornithologists' Union.
Amos, E. J. R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Bermuda,
Bermuda: Warwick.
B arbuur, T. 1943. Cuban ornithology, Mem. Nuttall Ornithol.
Club No. 9:1-144.
Bent, A. C. 1942. Life historiesofNorth American flycatchers.
larks, swallows and theirallies. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 179.
Bond, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies (4th Edition). Boston:
Houghton-Mifflin Company. Boston.
Brudenell-Bruce, P. G. C.1975. The birds of the Bahamas.
New York: Taplinger Publishing Co., New York.
Emlen.J. T. 1977. Land bird communities of Grand Bahama
Island: the structure arid dynamic s of an avifauna. Ornithol,
Monogr. No. 24.
Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1980. Wintering of North American tyrant
flycatchers in the neotropics, Pp. 67-78 In Keast, A,, and
E. S. Morton (eds.), Migrant birds in the nectropics:
ecology, behavior, distribution, and conservation,
Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Hussell, D. J. T. 1990. Implications of age-dependent bill
length variation in Empidonax for identification of
iutnature Alder and Willow flycatchers. J. Field Ornmthol.
61:54-63.
Root, T. 1988. Atlas of wintering North American birds.
Chli -go: Uild v. ati Ctait gi Prls.
Robertson, W. B.,. Jr., and G. E, Woolfenden. 1992. Florida
bird species an annotated list. Florida Ornithol. Soc. Spec.
Pub I. No. 6.
Seutin, G. 1991. Morphometric identification of Traill's
Flycatcher: an assessment of Stein's formula, J. Field
Ornithol. 62:308-313.
Stevenson, H. M., and B. H. Anderson. 1994. The birdlife of
Florida. Gainesville: Univ. Florida Press.


El Pitirre 9(2)


Page 5







Table I. Non-breeding distributions of nearctic migrant tyrant fycatchers known or reported from the Bahama Islands
and Caribbean (sources: Amos 1991, Fitzpatrick 19H0. Robertson and Woolfenden 1992. Stevenson and Anderson 1994,
and sources cited in text),

Winter Winter records- Migrant records-
Species distribution Caribbean Caribbean Remarks


Eastern Phoebe
Sayomis phoebe

Western Kingbird
Tyrannus verticalis


Gray Kingbird
Tyrann us
dominicensis


SE US to
S Mexico


S Mexico
to Nicaragua


S West Indies
(rare), Panama,
N Colombia,
Guyana


Yellow-bellied Flycatcher NE Mexico to
Empidonax flavivenmris Panama


Willow Flycatcher
Empidanax trailii


Alder Flycatcher
Empidonax alnormm


Acadian Flycatcher
Empidonax virescens


Least Flycatcher
Empidonax minimus


S Mexico to
Panama


NW Colombia
to Paraguay and
Argentina


Bahamas, Bahamuas, Occurrence in Caribbean 11 Sept. through
Cuba Cuba Feb. Winters in SE US and Bermuda.


none.


Bahamas,
Swan Islands


S and E from N/A
Hispaniola


none


none


none


Costa Rica to W none
Colombia and
NW Venezuela


N Mexico to W
Panama


Grand
Cayman
(10 March)


none


Cuba, Isle
of Pines,
Jamaica

Cuba, Isle
of Pines,
Jamaica

Bahamas,
Cuba, Isle
of Pines

Grand
Cayman


Over 200 reports from Florida (where it has
been reported for all months) and winters in
Bermuda.

Stevenson and Anderson (1994) believed
Florida Christmas Bird Count reports were
stragglers and not winter residents. Spring
and full migrant in Bermuda.

Recorded from Bermuda in
winter. Transient only in Florida.

Fall transient in Bermuda, rare fall and casual
spring migrants in Florida, No winter Florida
records.

Fall transient in Bermuda. rare fall and casual
spring migrants in Florida. No winter Florida
records.

Fall transient in Bermuda; transient in penin-
sular Florida, a few unconfirmed winter
reports.

Fall transient in BCrtnuda. A few individuals
winter in south Florida.


El Pitirre 9(2)


Page 6







OBSERVING MIXED-SPECIES FORAGING FLOCKS OF RESIDENT AND MIGRATORY BIRDS IN
CARIBBEAN HABITATS

PAUL B. HAMMEL' AND FRANCISCO J. VELE.LA2

'USDA Forest Service, Southem Research Station, Southern Hardwoodis Lab, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville, Alisissippi 38776, USA; and
'Mississippi Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Wildlife & Fishenej Department, Mis.issippi Stare Universily, P.O.
Drawer BX, Mississippi State, A ississippi 39762, USA


Participants at the 1995 Society of Caribbean Ornithology
meeting in Trinidad expressed interest in making observa-
tions on mixed-species flocks in Caribbean habitats. Our
purposes in this brief note are to provide suggestions on how
to quantify and standardize field observations of mixed-
species flocks and to encourage SCO members to gather and
publish their data on the composition, habitats, and behavior
of mixed-species flocks.
Characteristic of tropical forest habitats, mixed-species
Flocks of birds typically consist of one or more nuclear
individuals of a highly social and often vocal species, often
a tanager, accompanied by individuals of uther species. In
certain mainland habitats, such flocks have highly stable
composition, consisting of mated pairs of several species
which travel together through a common home range
throughout the year (Moynihan 1962, Valburg 1992). Such
flocking behavior is poorly known in the Caribbean (Willis
1973,Ewert and Askins 199 1, Carlo and Vilella 1992, Hame
and Kirkconnell 1995). Itis possible diat such flocks, which
in theCaribbean consist o fre sident species as wel las numerous
migratory species during g the northern win ter, are an im portan t
part of the avifauna of the islands. Flocking may be an
adaptive behavior of the nonbreeding ecology of migratory
birds as well as rcsidont Caribbean rnpecie. Bctausc of cthc
recognized importance of conservation of resident and
endemic Caribbean species, as well as the interest in migratory
birds expressed by the Partners-in-Flight ad hoc network
(Pashley and Hamel 1995), studies of the composition and
habitats of mixed-species flocks are important and timely
contributions to Caribbean ornithology.
Our suggested techniques parallel those of Morse (1970),
who reviewed literature on mixed-species flocks, and
presented data and analyses of flocks in temperate North
America. Morse (1970) identified several hypotheses to
explain the function of flocking behavior. Whether flocks
function to alert members to predators, to improve foraging
efficiency of members (or both), or for sonie olher advan stage
remain crucial questions for which no complete answers have
been found. Observations of flock composition and behavior
will help to answer these questions.
A flock is a gmup ofhirds that moves together in the same
general direct ion. calling back and forth, or otherwise behaves
in concert. Within a flock, the nuclear individuals or nuclear
species will be recognized as thuse individuals that are
generally in the center of the flock, thai call inore often or


more vigorously, and that are followed by die other individuals.
Minimal observations of flocks consist of the identity and
number of individuals of each species present in the flock.
Observations of flocks may require several minutes for the
identification of each species and numbers of individuals,
especially for species that are relatively silentm or slow moving.
Suggested method for making observations involves a team
of three persons- One observer counts the total number of
birds in the flock. Tallying the number of individuals in the
Sflock is iiist e ffccti vcty done when il theobserver Is at t] e fruit L
of the flock, although the observer must use care not to disturb
the flock. The second observer identifies which species are
in the flock and the total number of individuals (or proportion)
of each, The third observer notes which species are the
nuclear species, which species are followers, and which
species join only as the flock passes through their territories.
The team follows the flock until no longer able to do so, and
then compiles their observations into a single summary of the
observation of that flock (W. Barrow and C.-C. Chen, pers.
comm,).
We suggest that flocks be tallied as to the date; time;
location; and the number, age (e.g., juvenile, hatching year,
after hatching year, etc.), and sex, whenever possible, of
individutn[ o[Feach 'cies ; recorded. Particularly important
are dataon whichspecies are the "nuclear species," orspecies
around which the flocks form and which keep the flock
together. In North America, these species are frequently
parids (Pants sp.). In Cuba, the Yellow-beaded Warbler
(Terecistrisfemandinae) and the Oriente Warbler (T.fmrnsi).
are the nuclear species (Quesada and de las Pozas 1984,
Hamel and Kirkconnell 1995). In the Dominican Republic,
the Black-crowned Palm-Tanager (Phaenicophilus
pahmariir) and the White-winged Warbler (Xenoiigea
montana) act as flock nuclear species (Vilella, pers. obs.). In
Puerto Rico, the Puerto Rican Tanager (Nesospingus
speculiferus) usually provides this function (Willis 1973,
Carto and Vilella 1992), ihe LesserAntillean Pcwee(Coanopus
tarirostris) occasionally acis as a nuclear species (C. Delan noy,
pers. comm.), and migratory species occasionally do so (W.
Arendt, pers. comm.).
Additional useful datathaishould be gathered on flocks are
numerous. For example. we suggest that observers record the
habitat in which the 1ocks occur; the relative position in the
vertical strata of the vegetation that the flock, as well as the
individual members of the flock, occupy, the rate ofmovemnent


El Pitirre 9(2)


Page 7







Mcxed-species foraging flocks (Continued)
of the flock through the habitat, in m/min; dithe consistency of
composition of a particular flock from day to day within a
season (possible only when birds have been individually
color banded); the participation of known individuals from
season to season; the consistency of the home range or
movement area of the flock from day to day and seasonally:
the daily assembly of the flock; the roosting behavior of the
flock members; changes in flock composition from breading
to nonbreeding season of resident species: intra- as well as
inter-specific interactions (e.g., aggression) among flock
members; changes in behavior of resident species as flock
composition changes with arrival and departure of migratory
species; a determination of which species participate only
when a flock moves through its territory as opposed to
members that participate throughout the "home range" of the
flock; changes in behavior of species when participating in
flocks as opposed to when solitary.
Other important observations include information on the
phenology (flowers, fruits, seeds) of vascular plants (trees,
shrubs, vines) in the areas visited by flocks, For example, in
the Dominican Republic certain species of trees (e.g., Trema
micrantha) commonly attract flocks of resident (e.g.,
Xenoligea montana) as well as migratory birds (e.g.,
Dendroica tigrina), that readily feed on their fruits (Dod
1978; S. Guerrero,pers. comm.). Itis important to distinguish
aggregations of birds attracted to localized resources like
fruiting trees from flocks of birds that movejointly through
their habitats.
Summaries of flock composition and size, by study area,
will be useful for comparison of this phenomenon among
islands of the Caribbean. Comparison of flock membership
by species with species occurrence and abundance on point
count data will provide information on the importance of
mixed-species foraging flocks in Caribbean habitats. By
noting individuals observed separately from flocks it will be
possible also to determine the proportion nf individuals of
each species that participate in flocks, to determine any
differences in flock participation among age and sex classes
within species, to note the relative amount of time individuals
of different species spend in flocks, and the propensity of
different species to participate in flocks.
We look forward to corresponding with colleagues in the
SCO concerning this phenomenon in the future. Our
understanding of the importance of flock participation will
assist in determination of conservation priorities among the
Islands of thi Caribbean. Nuclear species are of potentially
greater concern because their conservation may affect not
only their own numbers but also, indirectly, those of other
resident and migratory species which are regular flock atten-


dants.
To aid observers in recording data in the field, we include
a field data sheet (Fig, I), The scheme of Remsen and
Robinson (1990) will be very useful for recording foraging
behaviors, Remscn and Robi nson (1990) identify 27 standard
terms for foraging maneuvers (Fig. I),
We appreciate the comments of Carlos Delannuy, Wayne
Arendt, Wylie Barrow. and Chao-Chieh Chen on this
manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED

Carlo, T. A., and F. J. Vilella. 1992. Ecology of mixed-
species flocks in Cordillera Forest of Puerto Rico:
participation of neotropical migrant landbirds. V Annual
Meeting, Society of Caribbean Ornithology, San Juan,
Puerto Rico, 31 July-5 August 1992. Abstract; 13.
Dod. A.S. 1978. Avesde la Reptblica Dominicana. Santo
Domingo: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural,
Ewert,D.N., and R. A, Askins. 1991. Flocking behavior of
migratory warblers in winter in the Virgin Islands. Condor
93:864-868.
Hamel, P. B., and A. Kirkconnell. 1995. Mixed-species
flocks of migrant and resident birds in Cuba. Abstract 143.
V Congress de Ornitologfa Neotropical, Asuncidn.
Paraguay, 5-11 Agoslo 1995, Programa-Resdmenes:79.
Morse, D. H, 1970, Ecological aspects of some mixed-
species foraging flocks birds, Ecological Monographs
40:119-168.
Moynihan.M. 1962. The organization and probably evolution
of some mixed species flocks of neotropical birds.
Smithsonian Misc. ColL. 143(7); 1-140.
Pashley, D. and P. B. Hamel. 1995. How Partners in Flight
functions in the Southeastern Region. Presentation to the
Society of Caribbean Ornithology Annual Meeting, St
Augustine. Trinidad and Tobago.
Quesada, M., and 0. de las Pozas. 1984. Actividad de
forrajeo de la Chillina, Teretistris femrandinae (Aves;
Parulidae), en un bosque de San Diegodo los Bafios.Cuba.
Misceldneo Zool6gica. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba
19:1-2,
Remnsen,J. V.,Jr.,and S.K.Robinson. 1990. A classification
sc heme for foraging behavior of birds in terrestrial habitats.
Stud. Avian Biology No. 13:144-160.
Valburg, L. K. 1992. Flocking and frugivory the effect of
social groupings on resource use in the Common Bush-
Tanager. Condor 94(2):358-363.
Willis. E. 0. 1973. Local distribution of mixed flocks in
Puerto Rico. Wilson Bull. 85:75-76.


El Pitirre 9(2)


Page 8








OBSERVACIONES SOBRE BANDADAS MLXTAS DE AVES RESIDENTS Y
MIGRATORIAS FORRAJEANDO EN AMBIENTES BOSCOSOS DE LAS ANTILLAS

PAul. I. HAMEL' Y FRANCISCO J. VILUiLLA

LUSDA Forest Service. Soujittrn Research Station, Somhern Har-dwoods Lab, P.O. Box 227, Stoneville,
Mississippi 38776. USA; y W-Naptionl BiologicaL Servire, Mississippi Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research
Unit, Wildlife and Fisheries Department. P.O. Drawer BX. Mississippr State, Mississippi 39762, USA


Los participants en la reuni6n annual de la Sociedad
Ornitol6gica del Caribe (SCO, por sos siglas en ingles)
celcbradaenTrinidad duranteel l995 manifcstaron su in Tcres
en recopilar observaciones sobre bandadas mixias en
ambientes caribefios Nuestros proposilos en este breve
comunicado son los de proveer sugerencias y un protocclo
para observer bandadas mixtas y alentar a la matricula de la
SCO a recopilar y publicar daios sobre la composici6n,
hAbitats, y comportamiento dc bandadas mixtas.
Tfpico de ambientes boscosos tropicales, las bandadas de
species mixtas de aves consistent de uno o mas individuals do
una especie gregaria y usualmente vocalmente conspicua,
comrnmenle Trdupideos, acompanados dc individuos de
otras species. En hAbitats coninentcals las bandadas ttenen
una composicidn muy stable, la cual consiste de parejas
reproductoras de varias species quiencs se desplazan a
travds de un territorio comdn durante todo el ailo (Moynihan
1962, Valburg 1992). Bandadas comao stas y su
comportamiento son muy poco conoci das on el cari be (Wil is
1973, Ewert y Askins 1991. Carlo y Vilella 1992. HameT y
Kirkconnell 1995). Es possible que esias bandadas, 1as cuaies
consisten de species residents asf coma de varias species
tnigratorias durante los meses de invierno, formen una part
integral de la avifauna antillana. Las bandadas puedun
former un conmponente esencitil del ciclo no-reproductivo de
las species migratorias y residents en el caribe. Dada la
importancia de conservar la avifauna antillana resident y
enddmica, asf como del interns por species m igraorias
manifestado a travds de la red establecida par Avyes de Ilas
Amnricas (Pashley y Hamel 1995), investigaciones sobre la
composicidn y hbbitatsde bandadas mixtasson unaimportante
y oportuna contribucidn a la ornitologfa en el caribe.
Las ticnicas que ofrcenios son sinuilares a las propuestas
par Morse (1970). quidn revis6 la literature sabre bandadas
mixtas y present datos y andlisis sobre bandadas en las
regions lenipladas de America del None. Morse 1970)
identific6 una series de hip6tesis para explicar las funciones
del comportamiento gregario. Si las bandadas alertan sus
nicmnbros sobre deprcdadorcs, incrcinentan la eficiencia de
rorrajeo, ambas Oe las aniersores, o Pot otra venTaja
desc;onocida, pc rI-ancern conLm interrogantes que no se han
explicado completameniec La o)bservaci6in subre la
composici6n yel componamrne mode bandad as serzidcudtiidad
para responder a estas preguntas.
Para propdsitos de definici6n, un grupo de ayves que se


comporte o se muevajuntamence se considerarA coma uina
bandada. El ndcleo de la bandada se reconocerd coma dos a
mas individuos movidndose juntos, comunicandose y
manteniendo contact uno con el otro a travds de cantos. Las
observaciones minimas sobre bands de aves consistent de la
identificaci6n y nimero de individuos de cada especie
present, Las observaciones sobre bandos de aves pueden
exigir various minutes para powder determinar el nilmero de
species y de individuos de cada especie en la bandada.
particularmcnic para aquellas species que se tnueven
lentaiLente o cit silencio. Un miterodo sugerido part obscrvor
bands necesita un equipo de tries observadores. El primero
conta el ndmero total de aves en ]a bandada. Para comar el
ntimero de individuos, este observador so pone en frenie del
bandu es necesariu que no perturbe los miembros de lir
bandada. El segundo identifica las species y el nlimero (o el
por cierto) de cada especie. El tercero registra la especie
Tdc! eo, identifica curies especics son las sequidoras, y c ues
species se juntan soldmente cuando cl bando pasa sus
territories. El equipo sigue el band hastL posible,y despues
eilos rccnpilar, sus ubscrvaci6nes juntos (WV. Barrowy C.-C.
Chen, comm. pers.).
Recomendamos que las observaciones incluyan fecha,
horse, lugar, ndmero, edad coma juvenile, adulto, aiae de
empollado, deapuos do afio do ernpollado, etc., y cExo de loS
individuas de cada cspecic en la bandada. Si possible deben
seranillados. De importancia singular son los datos sobre Las
especiesque action como cspccicsntlceo, oaquellasespecies
alrededur de las que se organize el bando y qui6nes ayudan a
mantenerlojunto, En America del Nortedstas son asualmente
Parldeos. En Cuba, la Chillina (Teretistrisfernandinae) y el
Pechera (T fornsi) son las species nicleo (Quesada y de Ias
PuZaLS 1984; Hlamel y Kirkconnell 1995). En la Repdblica
Dominicana, el Cuatro Ojos (Phaenicoph itts patmnanm) y In
Cubera (Xenovigea montana) acidan come species nicleo
(Vilellu. ohs. pers,), En PuerloRica, iaLlorosa.(Nes spirngus
specutiferus) es la especie nicleo principal (Willis 1973,
Carlo y Vilella 1992), aunquc el Babito (Conropus latiroslris)
pucde actuar en algunas ocasiones (Del annoy, com. pers.), y
EigunJ.s espccics migatorinas a voccs tambidn (W. Arcndi.
cotrun. pers.).
La infnrmaci6n adicional que sc puede recoger sobre
bandos mixtos es numerosa Ejeinplos concrelos son, el
hdhita en el que las bandadas ocurren; la localizaci n relative
al perfil vertical que ocupala bandada asf come cadamiembro


El Pitire 9(2)


Page9








en el perfil de la vegetacidn; la tasa de inovimienwi de] bando
a travys del irea; lacomposici6n del bando de din adiadentro
de una temporada; la participation de individuos conoeidoe;
(anillados) de una temporada a oira; la fidelidad en el area
utilizada par la bandada de dfa a dfa y por temporada; la
formaci6n diaria del band; cambios en la composiei6n de
species residents en la bandada de la temporada no-
reproductiva a reproductive; interacciones tanto intra como
interespeerficns (ej., agre-in) de individual cn el hand;
cambios clol6gicos (ej., conduct alimentaria o altura de
forrajeo) en las species residents a media que la
composicion de la bandada cambia con la entrada y salida de
species migratorias; determinaci6n de cuales species se
juntansol amente das bandadas pasandosu territorioy cuales
especics se participan en tudas parties del rango del bando;
cambios ctol6gicos en las species cuando participen en
bandadas y cuando se encuentren s6los.
Otra-s observaciones relevantcs son informaci6n sabre la
fenologfa (cj., flores, frutos y semillas) de plants vasculares
(ej., i-rboles, arbustos, lianas) en las dreas visitadas par las
bandadas. Porejemplo, en la Rcpdblica Dominicana existen
species de irboles como el mimosillo de paluma (Trema
micrantha), que atraen grupos de aves residents (ej,,
Xenrtligea montana) y migratoriaN (cj.. Dendroica rigrina), 1as
que se alimentan de sus frutos (Dod 1978; S. Guerrero, cornm.
pers.). Es important distinguir entire las agregaci6nes du
aves atrafdas a recursos localizados (ej., arboles con muchos
frutos) y los bands de aves que se mueven juntos a travys de
los habitats.
La recopilaci6n de composici6n y tamafio de handadas por
irea de studio serfa de gran utilidad para comparar este
fcn6meno entire las dirferentes antillas. La comparaci6n de la
participaci6n en bandos por especie con su presencia y
abundanciarelativadeterminado porparcelascirculares puede
proveer informacidn sobre la importancia de bandos mixtos
y su forrajeo en ambientes dcl caribe. El observer individuos
solitarios puede arrojar informaci6n sobre la proporcidn de
individual qua participan en bhandudni, determiner diferencitw
en participaci6n por sexo y edad de una especie, estimar la
cantidad de fiempoque pasan individuos dediferentesespecies
en bandadas, y c6an propenso son diferentes espccies a
participar en bandadas.
Estatnos a la enter disposici6n de nuestros cotegas en ]a
SCO para servir de enlace en cudnito a este intresante
fen6meno en el future. El entendemiento de la importancia
del fen6meno departicipacin cnnbandosmixto snns aynidiar.i
a determinar las prioridades para la conservaci6n dc awes en
lis islas caribefias. La conservaci6n de las species ndclcos
-sera aids important, probablemcnte. porque los ndmeros de
otras species, las seguidorasde los bands, ambos residences
y migratorias. dependerd de la conservaci6n de species


ndclefis.
Incluimos un ejemplo de una forma para registrar datos
sobre bandadas en el campo (Fig. 1). El mudelo de Remsen
y Robinson (1990), que incluye 27 definici6nes para
comportamientos de forrajeo, sedi muy dtil para registrar la
conduct limentaria de los mniembros de los bands (Fig. 1).
Agradecemos para los comentarios sobre este trabajo par
Carlos Delannoy, Wayne Arendl, Wylie Barrow, y Chao-
Chieh Chen.

LrTERATURA CrrADA

Carlo. T. A., and F. J. Vilella. 1992. Ecology of mixed-
species flocks in Cordillera Forest of Puerto Rico:
participation of neotropical migrant landbirds. Ab-
stracr13. V Annual Meeting, Society of Caribbean
Ornithology, San Juan, Puerto Rico, 31 July-5 August
1992.
Dad, A. S. 1978. Aves de la Repiblica Dominicana. Santo
Domingo: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural.
Ewenrt, D. N., and R. A. Askins. 1991. Flocking behavior of
migratory warblers in winterin the Virgin Islands. Condor
93:864-868.
HKamel, P. B., and A. Kirkconnell. 1995. Mixed-species
flocks of migrant and resident birds in Cuba. Abstract
143. V Congreso de Ornitologfa Neotropical, Asunci6n,
Paraguay, 5-11 Agosto 1995. Programa-Resdmenes:79.
Morse. D. H, 1970. Ecological aspects of some mixed-
species foraging flocks of birds. Ecological Monographs
40:119-168.
Moynihan, M. 1962. The organization and probably evolution
of some mixed species flocks of neotropical birds.
Smithsonian Misc. Coll., 143(7):1-140.
Pashley, D. and P. B. Hamnel. 1995. How Partners in Flight
functions in the Southeastern Region. Presentation to the
Society of Caribbean Ornithology Annual Meeting. St.
Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.
Quosada, M., and G. de las Pozta. 1984. Actividad de
forrajeo de la Chillina, Teretistris fentandinae (Aves:
Parulidae), en un bosque de San Diego do los Bafios,
Cuba, Misceldneo Zooldgica. Academia de Ciencias de
Cuba 19:1-2,
Remsen.J, V., Jr,. and S, K. Robinson. 1990. Aclassification
scheme for foraging behaviorof birds in terrestrial habitats.
Stud. Avian Biology No. 13:144-160,
Valburg. L. K- 1992. Rocking nnd fnrgivory e effecL of
social groupings on resource use in the Common Bush-
Tanager. Condor 94(2):358-363.
Willis, E. 0. 1973. Local distribution of mixed flocks in
Puerto Rico. Wilson Bull. 85:75-76.


Page 10


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Page 11







THE CHARLES-EUGENE JEANNERET COLLECTION OF CUBAN BIRDS

CAsLos WorzKow1 AND BRGrrrE STRAUB"

SRoute de Reuchenewe 22, CH-2502, Bienne, Sw'iterlmand and 2Mcwstrasse 27. CH-2503. Bienne, Switzerland


The bird collections of Charlcs-Eugane Jeanneret arc a lost
chapter in Cuba's natural history. Jeannerel, born in 1824,
was a friend of Juan Cristobal Gundlach and a disciple of
FPlipe Poiiy. Using the taxidermy and collecting skills hc


learned from Gundlach, Jeanneret collected Cuban birds in
the nirieteenth century. He amassed a large collection or
Cuban birds, which is housed at the Museum of Natural
History, Neuchitel (Table 1).


TA E -1. Summary of the specimens of Cuban birds in the Charles-Eugine Jean eret collection in the Museum of
Natural History, Neuchflel.


No. of specimens No, of species


Family


No. of specimens No, of species


Pelicanidae I
Anhingidae 1
Fregatidae 2
Ardeidae 3
Anatidae 8
Accipitridae 10
Railidae 5
Jacanidac 1
Charadriidae 4
Recurvirostridae 3
Scolopacidae 2
Laridae 2
Columbidac 4
Psittacidae 2
Cuculidae 3
Strigidae 3
Caprimulgidae 2


1


2
6
7
4
I
2
1
2
2

2
2

I


For each specimen in the collection we have extracted
infrurtmaLin on gender and age, as welI as bill, wing, Mrsms,.
and tail measurements. In addition. Jeanneret's notes on some


Trochilidac 7 2
Trogonidae 4 I
Alcedinidae 2 1
Todidae 2 1
Picidae 11 3
Tyrannidae 5 3
HI-Frundinidae 2 1
Mimidae 3 2
Sylviidae 2 1
Bombycillidae 1 1
Turdidae 1 1
Vireonidae 4 2
Parulidae 26 13
Coerebidae 1 1
Thraupidae 3 1
Icteridae 17 5
Fringillidae 11 4


species are available. We are in the process of developing a
more detailed description of the Jeanneret collection.


TROPICAL ORNITHOLOGY COURSE


The Iistituto de Ecologfa, A. C. Graduate Program and the
Depanrtamento de Ecologia y Camportumiento Animal at
Xalapa. Veracruz, Mdxico will be offering its first course in
Tropical Ornithology 24 June-28 July 1996. The course is
field oriented and will last five weeks (two weeks at Xalapa
City and surroundings, and three weeks at La Mancha Fietld
Station, Veracruz). Course objectives include (1) to expose
students to avian studies in the tropics, (2) to integrate
evlintinnnry ernlngy theory wilh flild recsarch, (3) to use
ecological criteria in conservation and sustainabic


management of natural resources, and (4) the training of
young researchers. Participants will bc trained to design aJId
cxecutc field research projects. Lectures and seminars will be
given by several professors. Course participation is limited to
15 persons and the cost will be 5650,00 USD. For more
information, contact Dr. Juan Francisco Ornelas,
Departamento de Ecologia y Comportamiento Animal,
InstiLuto de Ecologia, A. C,, Apdo. 63, Xalapa. Veracruz
9HI0O,, Mdxico, Telephone: 52 28 18-6000; fax: 52,28,
7809: e-mail: ornelasj@sunT.ieco.cotnauyt.mx).


El Pitirre 9(2)


Family


Page 12








THE REGIONAL WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR MESOAMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN


The mission of the Regional Wildlife Management Program
for Mesoamerica and the Caribbean (PRMVS), coordinated
by Costa Rica's National University in Heredia, is to train
wildlife and natural resource professionals to effectively
conserve the fauna and habitats of tropical America. As in all
countries, the leaders of Central American, Mexican, South
American and Caribbean nations mustanswer complex socio-
ecalogical questions involving wildlife, The PRMVS is
conumitted to educating the growing cadre of dedicated and
regionally trained professionals who will be faced with these
decisions.
During their two-year course of study. graduate students
receive intensive training in wildlife management, animal
population ecology, rural sociology, computer science, and
environmental education. They also chose from a range of
elective courses, including biological conservation,
environmental impact assessment, and wildlife diseases.
Nearly half of the student's time is spent in the field. Ongoing
PRMVS research projects in Costa Rica include GIS, Gap
Analyses, and Biodiversity; Mammals and Dry Tropical
Forest Conservation; Scarlet Macaw Survival; and Waterfowl
and Marshland Restoration,
Since 1987, more than 60 students from 15 Latin American
countries have received training at PRMVS. Student's thesis
projects have significantly added to wildlife management


and conservation in the region. Graduates of the program now
hold a wide variety of positions in wildlife conservation.
PRMVS graduates work in research institutions, natural
science agencies and other government departments; they
head conservation groups and teach at universities throughout
Latin America.
The PRMVS is also home to the Wildlife Documentation
Center (BIODOC). Established in 1988, BIODOC is an
extensive collection of books, scientific journals, reprints,
bulletins, theses, and unpublished literature about wildlife
worldwide. with an emphasis on neotropical species. PRMVS
itselfcontributes to the growing body of scientific information
on tropical wildlife by publishing Neotropical Wildlife (Vida
Sihvestre Neotropiral), a quarterly technical journal that
presents research results of scientists and wildlife managers
working in the American tropics,
PRMVS receives funding from organizations including the
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the German Academic Ex-
change Program, the World Wildlife Fund-U.S., the Jessie
Smith Noyes Foundation, the MacArthur Foundation, and
the Organization of American States. For further information
about PRMVS, contact Claudette Mo. M.Sc.,, Direcoira,
Program Regional en Manejo de Vida Silvestre. Apartado
1350 3000 Heredia, Costa Rica. Telephone 506 237-7039.
FAX 506 237-7036, E-mail clce@irazu,una.ae.cr


PROPOSED CHANGE FOR SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY CONSTITUTION


The Society's Executive Committee proposes the following
change to the SCO constitution.

Article III
B. Section 4 reads "The representatives of a territory/nation!
state who are elected to the Board of Governors shall serve a
two-year term."

Proposed change:
B. Section 4. The representatives of a territory/nation/lstat
who are elected to the Board of Governors simll serve a four-
year term. Should a territory/nation/state need to hold an
election for a Board of Governor representative iti;y anl
request the President to call for an election in that territory/
nation/state,

Justificationr: The Executive Committee feels this change is
needed to enhance the effectiveness of the Board of Gover-
norr antd -allow For a period of contliuuity In iulunct/rcnitary
representation. Currently, elections for some positions (Ex-
ecutive Committee or Board of Governors) are held every


year at the Annual Meeting. Elections are time consuming
and have cosily mailings associated with them. Therefore,
the Executive Cummintee feels the goals of the SCO could be
better served if the Board of Governors serves a four-year
term.

The constitution may be amended by mail ballot by two-
thirds majority, or at any regular general meeting by a two-
thirds vote of the members present, provided that the
amendment has been proposed at the preceding general
meeting or has been recommended by a two-thirds vote of the
Executive Comnittee, and a copy has been seat to every
mcjiibec uf Llre Socicty uL Iclast four months prior to the date
of action.

This proposed change to Section 4 of the constitution has
been recommended by a two-thirds vote of the Executive
Ccmmirtcc- It is being sent to every member of the Society
via thip iapo ci of El Pitirre. A voLe will bhe token during tha
SCO business session at the Society's Annual Meeting in
Nassau, Bahamas in August.


El Pitirre 9(2)


Page 13







SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING
2-7 AUGUST 1996
NASSAU, BAHAMAS


The 1996 Annual Meeting will beheld at SouthOcean Beach
Hotel, Nassau, Bahamas, South Ocean Beach Hotel will
accept most major creditcards. The costs for accommodation
are as follows: oceanfront luxury US $80, standard garden
view US$60 for single, double and family occupancy. There
is a government room tax of 8%, a porter charge one time per
person, and a USS2.35 per person daily maid service charge.
Persons sharing a double occupancy room will each pay 50%5
of the room cost, plus tax and maid service charge.
Children sharing a room with a parent stay and eat free. A
ki'sd camp is supervised daily from 09:00 22; 00 hr, including g
lunch, games, and educational activities. Full day camp
(0S:30 17:00 hr) costs USS25, a half day costs USS16,
whereas evening camp (17:00 22:00 hr) costs US$1 8,
There is an 18-hole golf course which costs US$40 net per
person per day, including green fees and mandatory share
cart, four tennis courts and pro. A 2-tank dive is US$65 per
person including weights & belts; other equipment will cost
extra, A snorkel trip including gear costs US$25 per person.
Other hotel sporting activities include beach games.
Breakfast, lunch, and morning and afternoon colfee breaks
together will cost US$20 per day per person, plus a 15%
service charge. Conference participants will have to make
their own arrangements for dinner. The SCO Banquet on
Tuesday, 6 August, will cost US$35 per person. 'he cash bar
will cost extra.
The price for the field trip, on Sunday 4 Augusl, lhas not yet


been determnicd, The price will be payable upon arrival. The
trip will begin in the morning and an afternoon boat trip will
follow lunch, If you are interested in field trips to Abaco or
Inagua before or after the conference, please call for further
details.
For conference participants to receive a group discount on
American Airlines' flights to Nassau, bookings must bemade
through Marazul Tours. Please contact Ramon Hemandez
from Marazul at 1-800-223-5334 or (201) 319-9670 to
purchase your ticket. When making reservations please
identify yourself as an SCO member.
Airport transfers are US$ 16 per person round-trip. The
hotel should be advised of flight arrival and departure times.
The meeting registration fee is USS75 or $35 For students
with identification,

CONFERENCE EVENTS:
Thursday 1 August Delegates arrive, registration
Friday 2 August Opening ceremony, conferenceebegins,
welcoming reception 18:30 19:30 hr.
Sunday 4 August All day field trip
Tuesday 6 August Evening banquet
Thursday S August Deleuates depart

For further information please call Rosemarie Gnam at (703)
739-9803 (evenings only).


ANNOUNCEMENTS


SCO ANNUAL Duis RpMtrNDER


If you have not already done so, please pay your 1996 dues.
Individual memberships are S 15,00 (US). Please make your
check or postal money order payable to the Society of
Caribbean Ornithology and mail to Dr. Rosemarie Gnam, 13
E. Rosemont Ave.. Alexandria VA 22301, USA.

ELECTIONS

1996 is an election year for territory/nati un/state re pre tentative
to the Board of Governors for the Society of Caribbean
Ornithology. Dr, Joseph WunderleJr.. President of ihe Society
will be contacting the current territoryInation/simte (island)
representative regarding the procedures for the election,
Please take the time to vote in your country

US REPRESENTATIVE ELRETra-

Jerry Jackson has been elected as the Society's )US


Representative.


AMERICAN BIRD CONSERVANCY WILLIAM BrI.TON GR& Ars
PROGRAM

The Project Council of the American Bird Conservancy is
reviewing proposals for research projects. Priorities include
conservation actions for threatened species, research on
threatened habitats and training and environmental educa-
tion for the Caribbean or Latin America. Applications are due
by 30 September for the December proposal review. To
receive an application packagei.nd receiver more information,
please contact: William Belton Grants Program, American
Bird Conservancy, 1250 24th St. NW. Suite 220, Washington,
DC 20037. USA: Tel- (202) 467-8348; e-mail
ahc@mnsinc.com,


El Pilirre 9(2)


Page 14








MEETINGS OF INTEREST


19-22 May 1996 Annual Meeting of the Association of
Systematics Collections, Agricultural Research Center,
BelLtville, Maryland. (Amy Y. Rossman; Telephone: 301-
504-5364; Fax: 301-504-5810; amy@fungi.ars-grin.gov).

3-7 June 1996 Society of Avian Paleontology and
Evolution, Washington. D.C. [Storrs Olson, NHB MRC I 16
(Birds), SmithEonian Institution. Washington, D.C- I060*,
U.S.A.; Telephone: 202-357-2031; Fax: 202-786-2328].

2-7 August 1996 Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
Nassau, Bahama Islands. (Jim Wiley. 2201 Ashland St.,
Ruston, Louisiana 71270, U.S.A.; Telephone: 318-274-2499;
Fax: 318-274-3870),

13-17 August 1996 American Ornithologists' Union,
Boise State University. Boise, Idaho. (Peter Luwther, Fiedd
Museum o'f Natural History. Roosevelt Road at Lakeshore
Drive,Chicago. Illinois 60605. U.S.A.; lowther@ finn h.org).

20-24 August 1996 2nd International Symposium and
World Congress on the Preservation and Conservation of
Natural Science Collectioni. St. Johns College, Cambridge,
United Kingdom. (Chris Collins, Natural Sciences Congress
'96, Geological Conservation Unit. Department of Earth
Sciences, Downing St., Cambridge, CB2 3EQ. United
Kingdom: Telephone: 0223-62522; Fax: 0223-60779).


29 September 4 October 1996 6th International Be-
havioral Ecology Congress, Australian National University,
ACT, Australia. [Andrew Cockburn. Botany and Zoology,
Australian National University, ACT, 0200, Australia (e-
mail: [sbe6@anu.edu.au].

2-5 October 1996 2nd Raptor Research Foundation
Enternmathinl Conf'eronte nn Raptors. UTniversiiy of Urbino.
Urbino, Italy, (Dr. Massimo Pandolfi. Insituto di Scienze
Morfologiche, Via Oddi 21 .61029 Urbino, Italy; Telephone:
39-722-328033; Fax: 39-722-329655),

5-9 October, 1996 Southern Hemisphere Ornitho-
logical Congress, Western Australia. For inlbrmation
contact the President of the Royal Australasian
Ornithologists' Union, Professor Brian Collins, School of
Environmental Biology. Curtin University l' Technology,
GPO Box U 1987, Perth, Western Australia 6001 (Tel:
619-351-7041; fax: 619-351-2495).

16-22 August 1998 XXII International Ornithological
Congress, Durhan, South Africa. (Dr. Aldo Berrmi,
Department ol Ornithology, Durban Natural Science
Museum, Durban, South Africa; Fax: 27-31-262-6114;
berruti @supcrbowl.und.ac.za).




r I r


Let's Get To Know The
BAHAMA PARROT
AN EDUCATIONAL COLOURING BOOK -


PUBLICATION AVAILABLE

Media Publishing (Nassau, Bahamas) wishes to announce publication of the educational coloring book. Let's Get to Know
the Bahama Parrot. Society of Caribbean Ornithology Treasurer Rosemarie Gnam authored the book and Franklin Rojas
Suarez (Venezuela) did the artwork.
Media Enterprises hopes the hook will bc 'a delight on Bahamians as well as tourists. The book is available for US $3.50,
plus postage, from Neal Sealey, Media Enterprises. P, O. Box N-9240, Nassau, Bahama Islands. Sales will help conservation
efforts for this endangered Caribbean parrot. Hopefully, the book will serve as a model for other educational projects with
parrots.


IF 1-0


El Pitirre 8(3)


Page 15







CARIBBEAN POSTERS AVAILABLE


The CITES Conservation Treaty Support Fund (CTSF) has
published a beautiful poster entitled "Wild Treasures of the
Caribbean," depicting sea turtles, birds, coral, and other
endangered species of the Caribbean. The poster ties in with
a brochure published by World Wildlife FundJTRAFFIC
USA as part of the "Buyer Beware" campaign that urges
tourists and others not to buy endangered species or their
products. The poster is beautiful and depicts Caribbean
wildlife in a natural setting. Its design was done by the
renowned wildlife artist, Mary Helsaple.
The Society of Caribbean Ornithology helped fund the
production of this poster as part of the Society's public
education effort. The idea for the poster and brochure was
conceived at the 1992 CITES Training Workshop for English-
speaking Caribbean nations.
Posters will be made available for free to the CITES


Management Authorities on each Caribbean island. SCO
Island Representatives can contact the CITES Management
Authority on their island to help with distribution of the
posters. A limited number of posters is available to the public
to help raise funds for CITES and our Society.The Society of
Caribbean Ornithology will receive a 10% profit from sales
ofthe poster. SCO members can obtain the poster by sending
a check or postal money order for S25 (U.S,) to the
Conservation Treaty Support Fund (CTSF), 3705 Cardiff
Road. Chevy Chase. Maryland 20815 U.S.A. Please indicate
that you are a SCO member on your order. Discounts are
available for wholesale purchases (20 posters or more). For
further information, con tact George Furness, Jr. ai (301)654-
3150 or by fax at (301) 652-6390. PLEAS E HELP SUPPORT
THE SCO IN THIS FUND-RAISING PROJECT!!!


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY T-SHIRTS AVAILABLE


The SCO has produced a T-shirt to promote the Society and
help raise much needed funds toward the Society's annual
operating costs, The T-shirt depicts the Society's logo, the
Pitirre (Gray Kingbird), on a light blue shin. Large and X-
large shirts are available. The cost of the shirt is $15 (U.S.).
which includes shipping costs. Please purchase a shirt today


and help support the Society! The shin makes a great gift for
Caribbean birdwatchers. Send your order and a check or
postal money order made payable to the Society of Caribbean
Ornithology to Rosemarie Gnam, Treasurer SCO, 13 East
Rosemont Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22301. U.S.A. Please
don't miss out on this opportunity to promote the Society I


SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


President:
Dr. Joseph Wunderle, Jr.
Vice President:
Mr. Rod land E. de Kort


Secretary:
Dr. Marcia Mundle
Treasurer:
Dr. Rosemarie Gnam


Editor, El Pitirre
James W. Wiley

BOARD MatMres


Antigua-Barbuda
Mr. Kevel Lindsay
Aruba
Mr. Roeland de Kort
Bahama Islands
Ms. Carolyn Wardel
Bermuda
Dr. David B. Wingate
Canada
Dr. Martin McNicholl
Cayman Islands
Ms. Patricia E. Bradlcy
Cuba
Sr. Orlando H. Garnrido


Dominica
Mr. Adolphus Christian
Dominican Republic
Srt Simon Guerrero
Grenada
Ms. Aria Johnson
Guadeloupe
Pascal Villard
Haiti
Mine. Florence Etienne
Jamaica
Ms. Catherine Levy
Martinique
Mmine. Beatriz Conde


Montserrat
Mr. Gerard Gray
Netherlands Antilles
Ms. Martha McGehee
Puerto Rico
Dr. Fredr C Schaffner
St. Lucia
Mr. Donald Anthony
St- Vincent
Mr. Fitzroy Springer
Trinidad and Tobago
Mr. Gerard Alleng


E Pitirre 8(3)


Page 16







PRESIDENT'S COMMENTARY


"ALMOST CERTAINLY EXTINCT"


This title quotes part of the little of recent article by Lamrnenink and
Estrada (1995, Bird Cons. Intl. 5:53-59) which provides a grim
reminder that extinction in the Caribbean is not just an event of the
pas Admittedly documenting the absence of the last individual of
a species is difficult, but the Lammunink and Estrada findings
suggest that little optimism remains for the survival of the Ivory-
billed Woodpecker ("Carpinero Real"). Lammertink and Estrada
searched the area of eastern Cuba where the last population was
known to occur. During the 120 days of field work in 1989, 1991.
and 1993 the two authors and their assistants failed to detect the bird
or find evidence of its recent excavations. Moreover, in the area
from which the last woodpeckers wereknown, no suitable large old-
growth forest habitat remains. It was the destruction of old-growth
forests which is believed to be mostly responsible for the ivory-bill's
demise, as the species required extensive old-growth forest for
survival The ivory-bill disappeared from the southeastern United
States, most by the 1950s, as bottomland forests were extensively
cut for timber. However, population managed to survive in eastern
Cuba until recently, when presumably the effects of past deforesta-
Lion finally caught up with iL Despite the recent efforts of the Cuban
authorities to protect the species and its last known habitat, the
Ivory-billed Woodpecker appears to have finally succumbed.
Even in the 1970s Garrido and Montana (1975. Caidlogo de lax
Avesde Cuba) considered the ivory-bill tobe almost cxtinet in Cuba.


It appears that the species managed to survive there with nonviable
populations for quite some time, and that it was already among the
"living dead"when concerted conservation efforts were initiated. [t
seems unlikely that much could have been done for this species once
most old-growth forests were cut by the late 1800s and early 1900s,
Sadly, we have lost another element of our ecological heritage,and
future generations are unlikely to appreciate just what it wasthat was
lost Unfortunately, in the Caribbean there are no other woodpeckers
ofthe size and grandeur ofthe ivory-bill, although some exist on the
nearby continents,
The loss of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker should serve as a
rernminderthatextinctionin the Caribbeanis still a very real threat and
that biodiversity loss is not an event confined to the past. Admit-
tedly, it was probably the habitat loss in the past which led to this
most recent extinction, and has contributed to the population
reductions of many four threatened and endangered species in the
region. Currently, only about an average of 21% of the area of
Caribbean islands remain in natural forest, Therefore, many island
species are often confined to relatively small habitat patches. This,
of course, restricts population size, making many island species
even more vulnerable to a variety of stresses which would not
normally be of concern for larger populations. Thus the possibility
of extinction is high for many of our island species, requiring
vigilance and constant protection to ensure their survival.


"CAsi EXTINTO DE. SEGURO"


En este ffiulo se cita parte del titulo de un artfculo reciente de
Lammertinky Estrada (1995, Bird Cons, ntl, 5:53-59) clcualprovee
un triste recordatorio de que la extincidn en cl Caribe no es cosa del
pasado. Damos por senrado que documentar la ausencia del tlli mo
individuodeunaespecicesdiffcil, pero loshallazgos de Lammnetink
y Estrada no son muy optimistas acerca de la supervivencia del
Carpintero ReaL Lammertink y Estrada buscaron enl rea oriental
de Cubadonde se tenfaconocimiento de la 61ltimapoblacidn de esta
ave, Durante 120 dfas de trabajo de campo en 1989. 1991 y 1993 los
dos autores y sus asistentes no encontraron al ave o evidencia de sus
excavaciones recientes. MAs a6n. en el Area dande los tllcimos
carpinteros fueron vistos, no sc encucntran porciones significativas
de bosque maduro. Se c-ree que fuc la destruccidn de este tipo de
bosque Io que llev6 a a menma de esta cspecie, ya que la especie
require de cxtensas dreas de hosque maduro para su subsistencia.
El Carpintero Real desapareci6 del sudoesti de los EE- UU. en los
alios cincuenia cuando lons bosques maduros fueras diezmados
severamenie para uso maderero. Sin embargo, una poblacidn logr6
ubincvivir en cl csic de Cuba. nasta que los efecios dc las pasadas
deforestaciones finalmcnte le alcanzaron. A pcsar de los recientes
esfucrzos de las autoridades cubanas para prolegerestaespcciey su
hfibitat. el Carpirtero Real aparentemenme ha sucumbido final mere.
Au n en los artos secetia Garrido y Montania (1995, Cardlogo de
tax acres de Cuba) consideraban al Carpintero Real priMticamentce
extinto en Cuba. Aparenmemenic la especie pudo sobrevivir en [a


zona por un tiempo con una poblaci6n que no era viable, y ya se
encontraba entire los muertos vivientes cuando se concentration los
esfuerzos para su recuperaci6n. Se ve improbable que macho so
pudiera haber hecho por ]a especie cuando ]a mayoria del hosque
maduro de la zona fue talado a fines del siglo pasado yprincipiosdel
presence. Lamentablemente. hemos perdido oiro ecmento de nuestra
hcrencia cultural y fuwras generaciones no podrdn apreciar que fue
exactamente loqueperdimos. Desafortunadamenic. cn el Caribe no
bay oiros carpintero de de tamato y porte, pero si los hay en el
continente adyacence.
La extinci 6n del Carpi ntero Real deheservimoscomorecordatorio
que Ia perdida de la biodiversidad en el Caribe no es an process del
pasado sino una amenaza real. Debemos admnitir que fue laI prdida
del habitat en el pasado lo que Ilevo a la extinci6n de estaespecie y
a contribuido ala reducci6nde muchas poblacionesdcnuescras ayes
amnenazadas o en peligro de extincidn en la region. En el present,
,slo un 21 %dcl rcade las islas del Caribe permnanece foresEada. Por
lotanio, muchas especiesde islas permanecen confinadasaespacios
aispersos ce habitat. Esto por supuesto restringe el tamaio de la
pohlacidn, hacienda a muchas de las species de islas aln mais
vulnerable a varies tipos de problems. In que no seria de mayor
preocupaci6n para poblaciones mayores. Por Io ianio. la posibilidad
de quedarextintas salhapara muchas de nueslrasespeics cari bcitas.
requiriendo de protecccin y constante vigiIancia para proteger y
ase urar su super ivencia.


JOSEPH M. WU\N' ERLE


El Pitirre 8(3)


Page 17








CONTENTS (CONTINUED FROM FIRST PAGE)

TROPICAL ORNIT HO LOG Y CO URSE ............................. ..................... ...... .... ...... ....... ..... ......................................... 12
THE REGIONAL WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM FOR MESOAMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN ................ 13
PROPOSED CHANGE FOR SOCIETY OF CARIBI BEAN ORNITHOLOGY CONSTITUTION ............................ ................ 13
SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY ANNUAL MEETING ....................-. ........ ............................................ 14
ANN O UNCEM ENTS .............................................................................. ........ .. ... .......................... .. .................. 14
M EETINGS OF INTEREST ................................. .................. ........................ ........ ... .......... ....................... ...... ........ 15
PUBLICATION AVAILABLE ................................. .... .. ...... ............................. ................ 15













From: Dr. James W. Wiley
2201 Ahliland St.
Ruston, Louisiana 71270. U.S.A.


FIRST CLASS
PRINTED MATTER


El Pitirrc 8(3)




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