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Society:ofC aribbean.Ornithol .gy
C 1989 VOLUME2.N1BER 1-"
El Pitirre is the bimonthly newsletter of
the Society for the Study of Caribbean
El Pittirre es el boletininformativo de la
Sociedad parael Estudio de laOritologia
EDITOR: James W. Wiley, 1863 Ciprian
Avenue, Camarillo, California 93010.
News, comments or requests should be
mailed to the editor for inclusion in the
Noticias, comentarios o peticiones deben
ser envfadas al editor para inclusion en el
The Society for the Study of Caribbean Ornithologyis a non-profit organization
whosegoais am pomnote si isdcnUtific stdy and conservaticatn lfC.rteat biti
and theirhabitats, toprovidealink among islandornithologists andthoseels ewhier;,
toprovidea written forum fo researchersin theregion (refereedjournal-Ornitologfa
Caribefa, published in conjunctionwith thePuertoRic Omithological Society) and
to provide data or technical aid to conservation groups in the Caribbean.
La Sociedad para elEstudio de la Ornitologfa Caribena es una organizacidn sin fines
de lucro cuyas metas son promover el studio cientlfico y la conservaci6n de la
avifauna caribena, anspiciar un simposio annual sobre la ornitologfa caribefia,
publicar una revista professional Uamada Oritologfa Caribenfa (publicada en con-
junto con la Sociedad Ornitoltgica de Puerto Rico), ser una fuente de corunicacidn
entire ornitlogos caribefos y en otras areas y proveerayuda ttcnica o datos a grupos
de conservacidn en el caribe.
James Bond (1900-1989) ........................... .....2
Tudy Dod Retires ......................... ....... .......... .. 2
1989 Meeting of the Society of Caribbean Orithology ..2
Optimism Grows for Plain Pigeon Recovery ....... 2
Genetics and Bird Conservation ..................................
Wildlife Legislation for Montserrat and Antigua ............ 4
Request for Assistance.....................................................
Announcements .......................................... ........... ...4
Publications Available ...............................................4
New Journal ....................................... ... .......... .. 4
News of Caribean Omithologists ................................4
Meeting of Interest ..................................... .............. 4
Pitine, Gray Kingbird, Pestrige. Pechary I
James Bond (1900-1989)
James Bond, the leading expert on West Indian
avifauna and the author of "Birds of the West Indies," died
on 14 February 1989. Bond, in his long association with
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, first
came to the West Indies in 1926, and from that trip began
a series of life-long expeditions that took him to almost
every island in the West Indies and established him as the
authority on the region's avifauna,
Bond's "Checklist of Birds of the West Indies"
(1940. 1950, 1956) and annual supplements (which he
continued to publish through his later years) are among the
most important references on the avifauna in the Carib-
Annabelle Stockton de Dod Retires
Annabelle "Tudy" Stockton de Dod recently re-
tired with her husband, Don Dod, to Berkeley, California.
Don, a specialist in West Indian orchid biology, andTudy
lived in the West Indies since 1946, whenthey directed the
project named "Centro de Servicio Cristiano" in Puerto
Rico. In 1964; the Dods moved to the Dominican Repub-
lic, where Tudy became that country's leading expert on
the local avifauna. Don and Tudy were instrumental in
establishing the fine bird collections at the new Museo
Nacional de Historia Natural, as well as developing the
Museo's excellent public displays.Tudy was employed as
the Museo's ornithologist for nine yearsbefore a threeyear
stint with Parques Nacionales. Tudy was active in local
conservationissues, and once she identified a problem, she
untiringlylabored to correct the situation withbulldog-like
tenacity. Herrole in egulatingtheformerly extensive bird
trade in the Dominican Republic is legendary. The Dods
produced a regular column in the local newspaper Caribe,
entitled "Viajes en elPais," which stimulated considerable
interest in local conservation issues. In later years, Tudy
published extensively on the avifauna of the Dominican
Republic, including scientific papers and popular articles.
Her books, "Las Aves de la Repdblic Dominicana," and
"Guia las Aves de laRepdblica Dominicana," contain the
most up-to-date information on that country's birds.
Tudy and Don were made members of the Orderof
Cristobal Colon, Heraldica with the rank of Knight, by the
President of the Dominican Republic in recognition for
their contribution to the country's conservation program.
Their energy and dedication will be missed by all us who
have worked with the Dods for conservation of West
Third Annual Meeting:of Society to be held in
The Society of Caribbean Ornithology will hostits
third annual meeting in Santo Domingo, Donmnican Re-
public, August 16-19. 1989: In addition, to t.e general
sessions, three symposia will be featured Ecology and
Evolution of Introduced Birds inthe Caribbean, Bird-Plant
Interactions in the Caribbean, and Legislation and Educa-
tion in the Caribbean. Field trips will follow the meeting,
Discount airfares and hotel rates are available. For further
Information, contact Jorge A. Moreno, ScientificResearch
Area, Department of Natural Resources, Apartado 5887,
Puerta de Tierra, Puerto Rico 00906.
Optimism Grows for Recovery of Puerto Rican Plain
Optimism for the recovery of the endangered
Puerto Rican PlainPigeon (ColwubaT inorata wetnre),
orPaloma Sabanera, has considerably increased within the
past year, as the result of several successes in the program
atthe UniversityofPueto Rico, OnApril22, 1988, a plain
pigeon squab ("Gulliver") hatched frm' aneggjincubated
bya4-year-old pai.Theparents were also allowedtoraise
the squab through fledging. This was a first, as all other
captive-produced plain pigeonl-hicks have been hand-
raised by biologists or hatched and foster-raised bydoiies-
tic ringed doves (Streptopelia risoria). Raul A. Perez-
RiveraDirectorofthe CaptiveProgram, and his associates
believe this is major achievementin the recoveryof the
race, since parent-reared birds are more desirable cadi-
dates for release into the wild than humian- or surrogate-
raised chicks, which are subject to imprinting on these
inappropriate "parents." Anothermilestone intheprogram
was the captive production of second-generation plain
pigeons in 1988. Perez-Rivera feels these breakthroughs
will now allow mass production of plain pigeons suitable
for reintroduction into the wild
Perez-Rivera's breeding program began in 1983
rnder a cooperative agreement among the University of
Puerto Rico,Puerto Rico Department of Natural Resources.
and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The first captive-
produced squab hatchedin 1984. Atotalof47plainpigeon
squabs have beenproduced by the captive flock since then
The program has been so successful that the number of
plain pigeons has outgrown the original aviary facility and
a new, more modem facility will soon replaceit. An
additional aviary, at the Rio Abajo Forest release site in
E1Pitirre Vol.2, No. 1
Plain Pigeon (Continued)
northwestern Puerto Rico, is near completion. The first
releases into the wild will occur once these facilities are
finished and a sufficient number of birds is available for
Genetics and Bird Conservation
by Kelly Brock, Department of Biology, Queen's
University, Kingston, Ontario K7L 3N6
Population declines, such as those suffered his-
torically by the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona viuata),
have predictable biological consequences on the genetic.
diversity of species. Random genetic drift, inbreeding, and
population bottlenecks result in dramatic reductions in
genetic variability and fitness correlates. Phenotypic
manifestations of reduced genetic diversity and inbreeding
depression in small populations include decreased fertility
and fecundity, poor parental care, increased juvenile
mortality, and vulnerability to disease. With this in mind,
recombinant DNA technology is being used in a new
approach to the Puerto Rican Parrot conservation program.
With the use of "DNA fingerprints," it will be possible to
determine the degree of relatedness among individual
parrots. These molecular profiles can be used to design a
more effective captive breedingprogram, and they can also
be used to assess the genetic structure of the wild flock.
Genetic variation in the Puerto Rican Parrots will also be
evaluated using other "DNA probes." such as the major
histocompatibiity complex (MHC), highly variable gene
complex involved in the immune system, and Restriction
Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLPs).. With insights
into some underlying mechanisms involved in population
biology of thePuerto RicanParrot, such as a the molecular
level, itwill be possible to address management questions
from a whole new perspective. As a result, it is hoped that
a genetic managementplan can be generated that will boost
the recovery of the species.
Additionalbenefits can be reaped when molecular
techniques are applied to conservation. For instance, DNA
fingerprints and RFLPs can be maintained in a species data
management system, such that molecular "tags" can be
used to trace the origin of individuals, as well as conduct
pedigree analyses. These applications of recombinant
DNA technology may have significant impact on wildlife
Draft Forestry and Wildlife Legislation for
Monsterrat and Antigua
Legislation has been drafted for forestry and
wildlife for both Monsterrat and Antigua under the tenms
of reference.of aFood and Agriculture Organization of the
United Nations Project Thislegislationmay be of interest
to other Cadbbean countries. Further information can be
obtainedby contacting the author, Thomas LP. McHenry,
444 South Flower Street, Fifth Floor, Los Angeles, Cali-
fornia 90071, U.S.A. (telephone 213-623-2322).
Requests for Assistance
One aspect of the molecular study of the Puerto Rican
Parot involves an investigation of the phylogenetic rela-
tionship of the Greater Antillean parrots. Small blood
samples are needed from the Jamaican Black-billed
(Amazona agitis) and Yellow-billed (A. collaria) parrots
and the Yellow-lored Parrot (A. xantholora). If anyone
has, or knows of, individuals of these species in captivity
and is willing to cooperate in this project, please contact
Kelly Brock, Department of Biology, Queen's University,
Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6 (telephone: 613-545-
As part of an ongoing conservation project on the endan-
gered Bahama Parrot on Abaco Island, Baham as, informa-
tion is needed on feral cat control programs on islands.
BahamaParrots are extremely vulnerable to nest predation
by feral cats because of the parrots subterranean nesting
habitat. In 1988,53% of the parrot nests in our study areas
suffered from feral cat predation. The Bahamas National
Trust chapter on Abaco is hoping to begin a feral car
controlprogramin 1989 and seeks logisticaladvice. Please
send information to Rosemarie Gnam, Department of
Ornithology, AmericanMuseumofNatural History, Central
Park West at 79th St, New York, NY 10024, U.SA.
Sound recordings are needed for a forthcoming cassette of
voices of New World pigeons and doves. Sounds of over
50 of the 70 species have been assembled, but a reconiing.
of vocalizations of the Antilles Quail-Dove (Georygon
martinica; island of Martinique) is needed. If you can
supply this recording, please write to John W. Hardy,
Florida Museum ofNatural History, University of Florida,
Gainesville, Florida 32611, U.S.A.
El Pitire VoL 2, No-.
Request for Assistance (Continued)
We are interested in locating al specimens of the Kirtland's
Warbler (Dendroica kirdandli) collected in the Bahamas.
Turks, and Caicos islands. If you curate a collection
containing Kirtland's Warblers taken in the West Indies,
please contact Paul W. Sykes, Fish and Wildlife Service,
School of Forest Resources, University of Georgia, Athens,
Georgia 30602, U.S.A. (telephone: 404-546-3216).
Manomet Bird Observatory has developed a computer
program for data entry of bird banding data (IBM XT/AT
and compatibles). It is designed for use in the laboratory
or field, and records can be opened for several birds
simultaneously. Band number, wing length, weight, and
several other variables are checked for accuracy on entry.
Thus, errors can be corrected before the bird is released.
Data can be exported to an ASCII file for analysis or
processing by the Bird Banding Lab schedule program..
For more information, write John M Hagen. Manomet
Bird Observatory, P.O. Box 936, Manomet, Massachusets
TropicalRainforests: Diversity and Conservation. Edited
by Frank Almeda and Catherine M. Pringle. Pacific
Division, AAAS -and California Academy of Sciences.
198 8. 320 pages. Cloth: $30 (+ $2.25 perorderforpostage
and handling). Make check payable to:.California Acad-
emy of Sciences. Address orders to: Pacific Division,
AAAS, California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate
Park, San Francisco, CA 94118 U.S.A.
The Conservation Directory 1989. Names, addresses.
phone numbers, and descriptions of the program areas of
governmental and private environmental organizations.
Cross-indexed. 313 pp. US$15.00 + $3.25 postage.
National Wildlife Federation, 1400 Sixteenth St., N.W.,
Washington, D.C. 20036-2266, U.S.A.
New Bird Journal
BirdPopulations, anewjoumal ofdynamic avianbiogeo-
graphy dedicated to fostering a global approach to studies
of changes in the numbers, distributions, and ecological
relationships of birds, is soliciting manuscripts. Bird
New Journal (Continued)
Populations plans to publish refereed papers of original
research, reports from arl the major avian biomonitoring
projects. around the world, and review, synthesis, and
commentary articles. The journal will be in English with
abstracts in several other languages. The annual journal
will begin publication in late 1990. Manuscripts (3 cop-
ies), requests for information, or comments should be Srit
to David F. DeSante, Editor, Bird Populations, P.O. Box
554, Inverness, California 94937, U.S.A.
News of Caribbean Ornithologists
David W. Johnston has taken position as SeniorEnviron-
mental Scientist at the National Academy of Sciences,
Fred C Schaffner has joined the Florida Bay Research
Group, National Audubon Society Research Department,
115 Indian Mound Trail, Tavernier, Florida 33070 (tele-
RobertL.Norton has accepted a position as Director of the
British Virgin Islands National Parks Trustin Road Town,
Tortola, BrtishVirgtinsslands (telephone 809-494-3904).
Joseph Wunderle spent three weeks in January examining
the effects.of Hurricane. Gilbert (September 198 8):on the
bird populations of Jamaica.
Meetings of Interest
5-8 June 1989 Internitional Symposium on Vertebrate
Biogeography and Systematicsin the Tropics, Bonn,West
Germany. (Gustav Peters, Vertebrate Symposium '89,
Zoologis.cs Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander
Koenig, Adenauerallee 150-164, D-5300 Bonn 1, West
11-17 June 1989 American Behavior Society, Northern
KentuckyUniversity, Highland Heights, Kentucky, U.S.A
14-16 June 1989 Association of Field Ornithologists,
Pinkham Notch, New Hampshire. Housing and mealswill
be at the Appalachian Mountain Club's Pinkham Notch
Camp at the foot of ML Washington. (Carol FossNew
Hampshire Audubon, P.O. Box 528b, Concord, NH 03301
U.S.A.). For information about the scientific program
El Pitirre Vol. 2, No. I
Meeing (otne)M ting Cni d
(including inquiries about paper/poster/ workshop sub-
mission), contact Peter F. Cannell. Division of Birds (NHB
mail stop 116), Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
15-16 June 1989 Caribbean Division, AAAS, Annual
Meeting, San Juan, Puerto Rico.
22-26 June 1989 59th Annual Meeting of the Cooper
Ornithological Society, University of Idaho, Moscow,
Idaho. A symposium titled "Long-term ecological studies
of birds" will be held. (Dr. J. Michael Scott, USFWS,
Department of Fish & Wildlife, College of Forestry, Wild-
life & Range Sciences, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID
18-22 July 1989 Fifth National Bird-Banders Meeting,
Brasilia, Brazil. The scientific program will emphasize
migration, banding, and neotropical ornithology. (Roberto
B. Cavalcanti, Depto. de Biologia Animal, Universidade
de Brasilia, 70910, Brasilia, Brazil).
23-28 July 1989 Society for the Preservation of Natural
History Collections, fourth Annual Meeting, co-hosted by
Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, Drumheller, and Bio-
logical Sciences Department, University of Calgary, Al-
berta, Canada. (SPNHC Conference Secretary, Tyrrell
Museum of Palaeontology, P.O. Box 7500, Dmrmheller,
Alberta TOJ OYO, Canada. Fax 403-823-7131).
6-10 August 1989 Ecological Society of America, An-
nual Meeting, University of Toronto. In association with
the Organization for Tropical Studies, Association of
Tropical Biology, and Society for Conservation Biology.
A symposium entitled, "Nutrient dynamics in streams
draining Caribbean rain forests," has been organized by
Catherine Pringle and Allen Covich,
7-10 August 1989- American Ornithologists' Union, 107th
Stated Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. (Kenneth C.
Parkes and Robert Raikow, co-chairs of Local Commit-
7-0 August 1989 -The Society for Conservation Biology,
Toronto, Ontario, Canada. (For information on local ar-
rangements, consult the spring issue of Conservation
Biology or contact: Valanne Glooschenko, Ministry of
Natural Resources [Wildlife], Whitney Block, Queen's
Park [Room 4640], Toronto, Ontario M7A 1W3, Canada;
telephone: 416-965-7641. For general program informa-
tion, contact Larry Harris, Department of Wildlife and
Range Sciences, 118 Newins-Ziegler Hall, University of
Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-0301, U.S.A.; telephone:
9-17 August 1989 -XXI International Ethological Confer-
ence, Utrecht, Netherlands. (XXI International Ethologi-
cal Conference, c/o QLT Convention Services, Keizersgra-
cht 792, 1017 EC Amsterdam, Netherlands).
16-19 August 1989 The Society of Caribbean Omithol-
ogy,Third Annual Conference, Santo Domingo, Reptblica
Dominicana. (Jorge A. Moreno, Depto. de Recursos
Naurales, P.O. Box 5887, Puerta de Tierra, Puerto Rico
8-14 October 1989 Joint meeting of the Raptor Research
Foundation, Inc., and the ICBP World Working Group of
Birds of Prey, Hotel Mocambo, Veracniz City, Veracruz,
Mexico. Majortheme willbe Biology and Conservation of
Tropical Raptors. Approximate costs will be USS420 for
single and US$300 for double occupancy, including break-
fast and dinner. (Romeo Dominguez Barradas, Local
Arrangements Committee, RRF/WWGBP Meeting, P.O.
Box 63; Xalapa, Veracruz, 91000 Mexico).
25-29 October 1989 The Colonial Waterbird Society,
Key Largo, Florida. (John Ogden, Local Chairman, South
Florida Research Center, Everglades National Park, P.O.
Box 279, Homestead. FL 33030, U.S.A. Herbert W. Kale,
Program Chairman, Florida Audubon Society, 1101
Audubon Way, Maitland, FL 32751, U.S.A.).
7-9 December 1989 Ecology and Conservation of
Neotropical Migrant Landbirds, Massachusetts. The
symposium will focus on breeding, wintering, and migra-
tion ecology and population trends in North American
migrant land birds. The purpose is to update knowledge
since the 1977 Smithsonian symposium. Invited and
contributed papers will be presented. Abstracts am due 1
Feb. 1989. (John M. Hagan, Manomet Bird Observatory,
P.O. Box 936, Manomet, MA 02345 U.SA. Telephone:
10-17 December 1989 Primero Congreso Latino Ameri-
cano de Ecologia, Montevideo, Uruguay. (Sr. Eduardo
Gudynas, ler CLAE Coordinator, Grupo Ambiente y
Desarrollo, CIPFE, Casilla Correo 13125, Montevideo,
El Pitirre Vol 2, No. 1
15-18 March 1990 National Wildlife Federation Annual
Meeting, Denver, Colorado, U.SA.
16-21 March 1990 55th North American Wildlife and
Natural Resources Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA.
31 May-3 lnme 1990 The Wilson Orithological Society
and The Association of Field Ornithologists, joint meet-
ing, Wheaton College, Norton. Massachussetts, U.S.A.
10-15 June 1990 Animal Behavior Society, State Univer-
sity of New York, Binghamton, New York, U.S.A.
25 June-1 July 1990 Joint meeting of the American
Ornithologists Union and the Cooper Ornithological
Society, Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.
1-7 July 1990 ICSEB-IV, International Congress on
Systematics and Evolutionary Biology, University of
Maryland, College Park, Maryland, U.S.A. Theme: The
unity of evolutionary biology." (Congress Secretary,
ICSEB-IV, Dept of Microbiology, University of Mary-
land, College Park, MD 20742, U.S.A.),
21-27 November 1990 20th World Conference of the
International Council for Bird Preservation, Hamilton,
2-9 December 1990 XX Ornithological Congress,
Christchurch, New Zealand.. (Dr. Ben D. Bell, Secretary-
General, XX Congressus Inteationalis Ornithologicus,
Department of Zoology, Victoria University, Private Bag,
Wellington, New Zealand
1991 IV Neotropical Ornithology Congress, Quito,
Ecuaqdor. (Humberto Alvarez-Lopez, President; Nancy
Hilgertde Benavides, Local Arrangements Committee).
Research, Teaching, Thesis Advisor Two full-time posi-
tions available in June 1989 in Latin American Wildlife
Graduate Program. Ph.D. or M.S. in wildlife ecology or
equivalent. Fluency inSpanish; experience in Neotropics,
in ornithology, and/or mammalogy. Send credentials to:
Christopher Vaughan, Dir., PMVS/UNA, Heredia, Costa
Rica (telephone: 506-37-70-39).
THE SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN
President: Jorge A. Moreno, Department of EPO
Biology, University of Colorado, Campus
Box B-334, Boulder, CO 80309
(Temporary address during fieldwork:
Scientific Research Area, Department of
Natural Resources, Apartado 5887, Puerta de
Tierra, PR 00721)
Secretary: Alexander Cruz, Department of EPO
Biology, University of Colorado, Campus
Box B-334, Boulder, CO 80309
Treasurer: Allan Keith, P.O. Box 325, New
Vernon, New Jersey 07976
Board of Governors:
James Wiley, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Southwest Research Group, 2140 Eastman
Ave., Suite 100, Ventura, CA 93003
Fred Sladen, P.O. Box 4106, Christiansted, St.
Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 00820
Ronald Wauer, P.O. Box 2145, Kingshill, St
Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands 00850
TomAs Vargas Mora, Secretarfa de Agriculturm
Seccidnde Vida Silvestre, Santo Domingo,
Anne Haynes-Sutton, Marshall's Pen, P.O. Box 58,
Jose Col6n, P.O. Box 23163, UPR Staion, Rio
Piedras. Puerto Rico 00931
Paul Butler, P.O. Box 1277, Kingstown, St.
Vincent, West Indies
El Pitire Vol. 2, No. 1
Supplement to El Pitirre, V. 2 (1), 1989, Newsletter of the Society of Caribbean Ornithology.
Paul Butler, P.O. Box 1277, Kingstown, St. Vincent. West Indies
LOCATION: 13"55'N 60059'W, between Martinique (30 km north) and Saint Vincent (30 km south)
AREA: 616 sq km POPULATION: 120,300 (census 1980) CAPITAL: Castries
Climate is tropical with two distinct seasons: a dry season from January to April, and a wet
season from June to November. Annual rainfall varies seasonally and with altitude in the range 1,500 -
3,500 mm, mean temperature is 27C. The island is subject to hurricanes; the most recent (Hurricane
Allen 1980) caused widespread damage to housing, agriculture, forests and reefs.
St. Lucia supports most of the major vegetational associations found in the: Lesser Antilles; there
are small areas of cloud forest on the summits, rainforest on the lower slopes, dry woodland on the lower
ground near the coast, cactus scrub in the north, and extensive littoral woodland vegetation on the east
coast. Few good stands of mangrove remain.
AGENCY RESPONSIBLE FOR WILDLIFE: Forest and Lands Department
Ministry of Agriculture
Castries, St. Lucia
809 45 23231
Chief forest Officer: Gabriel Charles
LEGISLATIVE PROTECTION FOR WILDLIFE: Avifauna protected under 1980 "Wildlife Protection Act"
St. Lucia is a signatory of CITES.
PROTECTED AREAS: In addition to the Government Forest Reserves which comprise 16,800 acres, a
further 22 areas have been set aside comprising mangrove and off shore islets important for seabirds.
NATURE TRAILS: Edmund Forest Mahaut (Rainforest)
Union (Dry Scrub Forest)
Pigeon Island National Park (Littoral Woodland, Seascapes)
AVIFAUNA: St. Lucia supports four single-island endemic species (Danforth 1935, Bond 1956, Johnson
1988, ICBP in press): St. Lucia Parrot Amazona versicolor (E = endangered), post-hurricane (1980)
population estimate 150 (Butler and Jeggo 1980) which had increased to estimated 200-250 birds by
1986 (Jeggo 1986); St. Lucia Black Finch Melanospiza rlchardsoni widely distributed in all habitats, but
uncommon everywhere (Trail and Baptista 1989) and regarded as threatened (Collar and Andrew 1988);
Semper's Warbler Leucopeza semperi (E) inhabits forest understory, probably nests on/near ground and
is therefore vulnerable to mongoose predation, only five recorded in last 40 years, and not located during
a systematic survey in 1987 (Woods 1987); St. Lucia Oriole Icterus laudabilis recorded recently as
generally distributed throughout most habitat types and in no immediate danger, provided habitats are
not destroyed (Faaborg and Arendt 1985). However, the Shiny Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis) that
arrived in St Lucia in 1931 (Danforth 1932) may pose a threat. In the Greater Antilles the Black-cowled
Oriole (fJcerus dominicensis) and the Troupial (Icterus iclerus) are frequently parasitized (Wiley 1985,
Perez-Rivera 1986, Cruz and Wiley 1989), and it is probable that other species of Icterus in the Antilles
are affected. While no direct information on parasitism rates of the St. Lucia Oriole is available, an adult
oriole was observed feeding two fledgling cowbirds at Vanard in July 1984 (Post 1984, Cruz and
Nakamura 1985, Post et al. Ms).
A total of eight species endemic to the Lesser Antilles occur on St. Lucia (AOU 1983, ICBP in
press); Lesser Antillean Swift Chaetura martinica (Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia, SL
Vincent and possibly Nevis); Purple-throated Carib Eulampis jugularis (Saba. St. Eustatius, St. Kitts,
Nevis, Montserrat, Antigua, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Lucia. St. Vincent); Lesser Antilles
Flycatcher Mylarchus oberi (St. Kitts, Nevis, Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St. Lucia);
Forest Thrush Cichtherminia Iherminieri (Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Dominica, St. Lucia); Trembler
Cinclocerthla ruficauda (Saba, St. Eustatius, St. Kitts; Nevis, Montserrat, Guadeloupe. Dominica,
Martinique, St. Lucia, St Vincent); White-breasted Thrasher Ramphocinclus brachyurus (Martinique, St..
Lucia); Scaly-breasted Thrasher Margarops fuscus (Saba, St. Eustatius, Barbuda, south of Grenada and
Barbados, possibly extirpated on Barbuda and Grenada); Lesser Antillean Bullfinch Loxiglla noctis
(Virgin Islands, Lesser Antilles from Anguilla and Saba south to St. Vincent and Barbados, also on
The following threatened birds are listed by King (1978-1979) in addition to the threatened
single-island endemic species given above: Tundra Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus tundrius (E); St.
Lucia Wren Troglodytes aedon mesoleucus (E), formerly believed to be restricted to the Grand Anse
Valley in the north-east, but recently found elsewhere at Caille Des, Louvet, Marquis, and Petite Anse,
although no longer present at Chastanet, Piton Flore or Edmond Forest where it was once widespread
(Woods 1987); St. Lucia White-breasted Thrasher Ramphocinclus brachyurus: sanctaeluclae (E),
population believed to be at most 75 pairs in 1971 confined to dry scrub in five valleys of the north-east
coast between Grand Anse and Louvet in an area 8 km by 1.5 km (King, 1978-1979), and estimated at 60
pairs (Woods 1987) of which 50% breed in the Ravine de la Chaloupe where suitable riverine vegetation
persists. St. Lucia Forest Thrush Cichlherminta Iherminieri sanctaeudcae (E); restricted to La Sorciere
and La Chaloupe ravines in the north-east, where it inhabits semi-arid forest, populations of the other
subspecies on Guadeloupe and Montserrat being thought to be more: plentiful (King, 1978-1979) while: the
density on Dominica is known to be 05-1.0 individuals per ha in closed canopy forest (Evans 1986). A
subspecies of the Rufous Nightjar Caprimulgus rufus otiosus, a South American species, ,occurs .only on
St. Lucia in the Caribbean. Woods (1987) located it in dry scrub woodland at Grand Anse, Caille Des,
Louvet, Maly bon and near Petite Anse River.
Information On seabirds on St. Lucia is poor: Halewyn and Norton (1984) list the following
species as probably breeding: Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus; White-tailed Tropicbird P.
lepturus; Magnificent Frigatebird Fregaia magnificeins; Roseate Tern Sterna dougallli Bridled Tern S.
anaethetus; and Brown Noddy Anous stolidus.
AVIFAUNA RESEARCH IN THE PAST DECADES
St. Lucia Parrot
Butler. P. 1978. St. Lucia Research Report North East London Polytechnic. pp. 1-30.
Butler. P. 1980. St. Lucia Parrot its changing status and conservation. In Conservation of New
World Parrots. Proceedings of ICBP Parrot Working Group Meeting. St. Lucia, 1980.
Butler. P. 1987. St, Lucia Parrot, Amazona versicolor Recipe for Success. GOSL.
Jeggo. D., 1980. The effects of Hurricane Alien on the status of the St. Lucia Parrot. Jersey
Wildlife Preservation Trust Report 17.
Jeggo. D. A survey of the St. Lucia Parrot in 1982. Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Report 19
Purple-throated Carib Hummingbird
Schuchmana, K. L. and G. Schuchmann-Wegert, 1984, Notes on the displays and mounting
behavior in the Purple-throated Carib Hummingbird (Eulampis jugularis). Bonn. zool Beitr.
Antillean Crested Hummingbird (Orthorhvncus cristatus exilis
Schuchmann, K. L. 1979. Notes on the song, territorial behaviour and the display of the
Antillean Crested Hummingbird Orthorhvncus cristatus ezilis., Bull. Brit.
Omit. Soc. 99:30-32.
St. Lucia Wren. Rufous Nightlar. Semper's Warbler. St. Lucia Oriole. White-breastedThrasher
Woods, P. 1987. ICBP/Univ. of East Anglia St. Lucia Expedition 1987. Summary Report. Unpubl.
St. Lucia Black finch
Trail, P. W. and L F. Baptism 1989 The behavior, status, and relationships of the endemic St.
Lucia Black Finch. Nat. Geogr. Res. 5:82-97.
Lesser Antillean Bullfinch (Loxioasser noctisf
Bird, J. R. 1983. Behavioral and ecological comparisons of Lesser Antillean Bullfinches: A study
of the evolution of sexual dimorphism and monomorphism. Unpub. Ph. D. Diss. Univ. of Montana.
Bennett, D., Cruz, A. and T. K. Nakamura. 1986. Breeding biology and ecology of the Lesser
Antillean Bullfinch. Amer. Ass. for the Adv. of Science and the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of
The Shiny (Glosslv Cowhird
The Shiny Cowbird an avian brood parasite, is endemic to South America, Trindiad and Tobago,
but during the last 100 years the species has spread through the West Indies, reaching St. Lucia in 1931
(Danforth 1935; Post and Wiley 1977, Cruz et al. 1985, 1989). From 1982 to 1985, the biology of the
Shiny Cowbird and its interactions with potential host species in St. Lucia were studied by researchers
from the Univ. of Colorado and the Charleston Museum.
Post, W. 1984. Shiny Cowbird Project: Lesser Antilles (St. Lucia): Report submitted to the
government of St. Lucia, Ministdry of Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries. 8 pp.
Cruz, A. and T. K. Nakamura. 1985. The breeding biology of the Shiny Cowbird and host species
in St. Lucia 1984 breeding season. Report submitted to the government of St. Lucia, Ministry of
Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries. 18 pp.
Nakamura, T. K. and A. Cruz. 1986. The breeding biology of the Shiny Cowbird and host species
in St. Lucia 1985 field season. Report submitted to the government of St. Lucia, Ministry of
Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries. 20 pp.
Post, W., T. K. Nakamura, and A. Cruz. Ecology of the Shiny Cowbird in St. Lucia -
comparisons with other islands. Ms.
Faaborg. J.R. and W. 1. Arendt. 1985. Wildlife assessments in the Caribbean. Rio
Piedras, Puerto Rico, Institute of Tropical Forestry.
RESEARCH REOUIRED (AVIFAUNA): Research expeditions should be encouraged and special attention
The Forest Thrush
The Semper's Warbler
Bird banding work should be carried on a regular basis with special emphasis
placed upon the banding and study of our migratory birds.
American Ornithologists' Union. 1983. Checklist of North American birds. 6th edition. American
Ornithologists Union, Washington, D.C.
Bennett, D., Cruz, A. and T. K. Nakamura. 1986. Breeding biology and ecology of the Lesser Antillean
Bullfinch. Amer. Ass. for the Adv. of Science and the Colorado-Wyoming Academy of Science.
Bird, J. R. 1983. Behavioral and ecological comparisons of Lesser Antillean Bullfinches: A study of the
evolution of sexual dimorphism and monomorphism. Unpub. Ph. D. Diss. Univ. of Montana. 201
Bond, J. 1956. Check-list of Birds of the West Indies. Acad. Nat. Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Butler. P. 1978. St. Lucia Research Report North East London Polytechnic.
Butler. P. 1980. St. Lucia Parrot its changing status and conservatonrvationn onrvation of New World
Parrots. Proceedings of ICBP Parrot Working Group Meeting.. St. Lucia, 1980.
Butler. P.1987. St. Lucia Parrot, Amazona versicolor Recipe for Success. OOSL.
Collar, N. J. and P. Andrew. 1988. Birds to watch: the ICBP world checklist of threatened birds.
Cambridge: ICBP Techn. Publ. no. 8.
Cruz, A., T. Manolis, and J. W. Wiley. 1985. The Shiny Cowbird: a brood parasite expanding its range in.
the Caribbean region. E.. 607-620 In Neotropical Ornithology. P. A. Buckley, M. S. Foster, R. S.
Ridgley, and F. G. Buckley, (eds.) Ornithologial Monographs 36: American Ornithologists' Union,
Cruz, A. and T. K. Nakamura. 1985. The breeding biology of the Shiny Cowtird and host species in St.
Lucia 1984 breeding season. Report submitted to the government of St. Lucia, Ministry of
Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries. 18 pp.
Cruz, A. and J. W. Wiley. 1989. The decline of an adaptation in the absence of a presumed selection
pressure. Evolution 43:55-62.
Cruz, A., J. W. Wiley, T. K. Nakamura, and W. Post. 1989. The Shiny Cowbird Molothrus bonarlensis in
the West Indian Region biogeographical and ecological implications. In C. A. Woods (ed.),
Biogeography of the West Indies: past, present, and future. Bull. Flor. State Museum. In Press.
Danforth, S. T. 1932. The Dwarf Cowbird (Molothrus bonariensis minimus) in St Lucia. Auk 49:96-97.
Danforth, S. T. 1935. The Birds of Saint Lucia. Univ. of Puerto Rico. Monog., Series B. 129 pp.
Evans, P.G.H. 1986. Dominica multiple land use project. Ambio 15:82-89.
Faaborg. J.R. and WJ. Arendt 1985. Wildlife assessments in the Caribbean, Rio Piedras,.Puerto Rico,
Institute of Tropical Forestry.
Hnlewn, R. van and R. L. Norton. 1984. The status and conservation of seabirds in the Caribbean. Pp.
169-222 in J. P. Croxall, P.G. H. Evans and R. W. Schreiber (eds.). Status and conservation of the
world's seabirds. Cambridge, ICBP Techn. Publ. no. 2.
ICBP (in press). The ICBP list of single-island endemic birds. Cambridge, ICBP.
Jeggo. D., 1980. The effects of Hurricane 'Allen' on the status of the St. Lucia Parrot Jersey Wildlife
Preservation Trust Report 17.
Jeggo. D. A survey of the St. Lucia Parrot in 1982 Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust Report 19.
Johnson, T. H. 1988. Biodiversity and conservation in the Caribbean:: profiles of selected islands. ICBP
King, W. B. 1978-79. Red data book 2. Aves. 2nd edition. Merges, Swithzerland. IUCN.
Nakamura, T, K. and A. Cruz. 1986. The breeding biology of the Shiny Cowbird and host species in St.
Lucia 1985 field season. Report submitted to the government of St. Lucia, Ministry of
Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries. 20 pp.
Perez-Rivera, R. A. 1986. Parasitism by the Shiny Cowbird in the interior parts of Puerto Rico. J. Field
Post, W. 1984. Shiny Cowbird Project: Lesser Antilles (St. Lucia): Report submitted to the government
of St. Lucia, Ministdry of Agriculture, Lands, and Fisheries. 8 pp.
Post, W., and J. W. Wiley. 1977. The Shiny Cowbird in the West Indies. Condor 79:119-121.
Post, W, T. K. Nakamura. and A. Cruz. Ecology of the Shiny Cowbird in SL Lucia -- comparisons with other
islands. Manuscript. 26 pp.
Schuchmann, K. L. 1979. Notes on the song, territorial behaviour and the display of the Antillean
Crested Hummingbird Orthorhyncus cristatus exllts. Bull. Brit.Ornit. Soc. 99:30-32.
Schuchmann, K. L. and G. Schuchmann-Wegert. 1984. Notes on the displays and mounting behavior in the
Purple-throated Carib Hummingbird (Eulampis jugularls). Bonn. zool. Beitr. 5:327-334.
Trail, P. W. and L. F. Baptista. 1989 The behavior, status, and relationships of the endemic St. Lucia
Black Finch..Nat. Geogr. Res. 5:82-97.
Wiley, J. W. 1985. Shiny Cowbird parasitism in two avian communities in Puerto Rico. Condor 87:165-