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Group Title: journal of Caribbean ornithology
Title: The Journal of Caribbean ornithology
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 Material Information
Title: The Journal of Caribbean ornithology
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds
Publisher: Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds / Sociedad para la Conservatción Y Estudio de Las Aves Caribeñas/Société pour la Conservation et L'Etude de Caraïbe
Place of Publication: Ridgewood, NY
Publication Date: 2006
Frequency: three issues a year
three times a year
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Ornithology -- Periodicals -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Conservation -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Conservation -- Periodicals -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
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Language: In English, French and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 16, no. 1 (Spring 2004)-
General Note: Title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100142
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 52094634
lccn - 2003212636
issn - 1544-4953
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text









STHE JOURNAL OF


CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
ASSOCIATION POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L' ETUDE DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE

2006 Vol. 19, No. 2
(ISSN 1544-4953)
Formerly EL PITIRRE


CONTENTS

TRANS-ATLANTIC VAGRANCY OF PALEARCTIC BIRDS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO. Martyn Kenefick and
F loy d E H ayes ... ..... ....... ... .... ..... ... ..... ... ... ...... ............................. ... .... .. .... ...... .... 6 1
CARACTERISTICAS DE LA MIGRACION OTONAL DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES EN VARIAS REGIONES DE
CUBA. Hiram Gonzalez, Alejandro Llanes, Barbara Sanchez, Daysi Rodriguez, Eneider Pdrez, y
Pedro Blanco ................................... ................................................. ....................... 73
RECENT BREEDING RECORDS AND STATUS REVIEW OF THE RUDDY DUCK (OXYURA JAMAICENSIS) ON
ST. CROIX, U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS. Douglas B. McNair, Lisa D. Yntema, Carol Cramer-Burke, and
Sheelagh L. F rom er ............................................. ..... .... ......... ... ...................... ............ 91
DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA LAS AVES ACUATICAS EN LOS CAMPOS INUNDADOS DE LA
ARROCERA SUR DEL JIBARO DURANTE EL CICLO DE CULTIVO DEL ARROZ. Lourdes Mugica, Martin
A costa, D ennis D enis, y A riam Jim ez ............................................................................. ..... ............. 97
CONDUCTA REPRODUCTIVA Y NIDIFICACION DEL SINSONTILLO (POLIOPTILA LEMBEYEI). Jarenton
Primelles Rivero y Karell Maure Garcia ............................. ............... 104
PREDATION OF A GOLDEN SWALLOW (TACHYCINETA EUCHRYSEA) NEST BY THE INDIAN MONGOOSE
(HERPESTES JAVANICUS) IN THE SIERRA DE BAHORUCO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Jason Townsend.......... 108
NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA LA AVIFAUNA DEL SECTOR CUPEYAL DEL NORTE, PARQUE ALEJANDRO DE
HUMBOLDT, CUBA. Hiram Gonzalez, Eneider Perez, Patricia Rodriguez, Gerardo Begud, y Emilio
A lfa ro .................. ... .... ................. ......................................... ......... ................. 1 10
THREE NEW MIGRATORY BIRD SPECIES REPORTED FROM HISPANIOLA. MiguelA. Landestoy, Pedro G.
R odriguez, and Steven C. Latta ........................ ...................................................... ........ ............... 113
BOOK REVIEWS
THE BIRDS OF ST. LUCIA, WEST INDIES: AN ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST. Natalia Collier andAdam C.
B ro w n ........................................ ................................................................ ..................................... 1 16
AVES ACUATICAS EN LOS HUMEDALES DE CUBA (WATERBIRDS IN THE WETLANDS OF CUBA).
Steven C Latta ........ .... ..... .................... .. ..... ... ..... ... .......................... .... ..... ..... 117
A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY IN THE WEST INDIES. Steven C. Latta ...................................... 118
D OM INICA 'S B IRDS. Steven C Latta ........................ ................ ................................................................. 119
R EVIEW ERS OF V OLUM E 19 ........................ ........... .............................................................. ............... 120












THE JOURNAL OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

THE JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
LA REVISTA DE LA SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
LE JOURNAL DE L' ASSOCIATION POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L' ETUDE DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE

Editors in Chief
FLOYD E. HAYES, Department of Biology, Pacific Union College, 1 Angwin Ave., Angwin, CA 94508, USA;
telephone: 707-965-6401;fax: 707-965-7577; e-mail: jco@puc.edu
MARTIN ACOSTA CRUZ, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 entre J e I, Vedado,
Ciudad Habana, Cuba; e-mail: macosta@fbio.uh.cu

Associate Editors
WAYNE ARENDT, P. O. Box 534, Luquillo PR 00773-0534, USA; e-mail: warendt@fs.fed.us
P. A. BUCKLEY, 211 Meadowtree Farm Road, Saunderstown, RI 02874, USA; e-mail: pabuckley@uri.edu
DENNIS DENIS AVILA, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 e/J e I, Vedado, Ciudad
Habana, Cuba; e-mail: dda@fbio.uh.cu
ANDREW DOBSON, Warwick Academy, 117 Middle Rd., Warwick PG01, Bermuda; e-mail: adobson@war-
wickacad. bm
PHILIPPE FELDMANN, Cirad, TA 179/04, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; e-mail: feldmann@cirad.fr
RUUD VAN HALEWIJN, 14 Adelaarhof Utrecht, 3514 TZ, The Netherlands; e-mail: vanhale@wanadoo.nl
SUSAN KOENIG, Windsor Research Centre, Sherwood Content P.O., Trelawny, Jamaica; e-mail: wind-
sor cw-jamaica.com
OLIVER KOMAR, SalvaNATURA, Colonia Flor Blanca, 33 Ave. Sur #640, San Salvador, El Salvador; e-
mail: okomar@salvanatura.org
LOURDES MUGICA VALDES, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 entre J e I, Vedado,
CiudadHabana, Cuba; e-mail: lmugica@fbio.uh.cu
ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ SUAREZ, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 entre J e I, Ve-
dado, CiudadHabana, Cuba; e-mail: arguez@fbio.uh.cu
JOSEPH WUNDERLE, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 507,
Palmer, Puerto Rico 00721; e-mail: wunderle@coqui.net

Book Review Editor
STEVEN C. LATTA, National Aviary, Allegheny Commons West, Pittsburgh, PA 15212; e-mail: steven.latta
@aviary. org

Editorial Assistants
STEPHANIE BECK, IRENA CABRERA, BRYCE CHUN, LILY CHUN, ANNA LEE, JANICE NAM, AND TRAVIS
YOUNG, Department of Biology, Pacific Union College, 1 Angwin Ave., Angwin, CA 94508, USA; e-mail:
jco puc.edu; JULIE A. CRAVES, Rouge River Bird Observatory, University of Michigan-Dearborn,
Dearborn, MI 48128, USA; e-mail: jcraves@umd.umich.edu

C Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds, 2006

The Society for Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds (SCSCB) is a non-profit organization under sec-
tion 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code. All contributions are fully tax-deductible to the ex-
tent allowed by U. S. law. We welcome private support from individuals, corporations, and foundations. Out-
right gifts and pledges may be made by contacting the SCSCB Treasurer at ilothian@msn.com or by writing to
4201 Wilson Blvd. #110-174, Arlington, VA 22203-1589, USA.

Typeset in Microsoft Office Publisher by Antonio Rodriguez Suarez and Floyd E. Hayes. Printed by Preferred
Images, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA, USA.


ISSN 1544-4953









J Carib. Ornithol. 19:61-72, 2006


TRANS-ATLANTIC VAGRANCY OF PALEARCTIC
BIRDS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

MARTYN KENEFICK1 AND FLOYD E. HAYES2
136 Newalloville Avenue, San Juan, Trinidad and Tobago; e-mail: martynkenefick@hotmail.com; 2Department of Life
Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago; current address: Department ofBiology,
Pacific Union College, 1 AngwinAve., Angwin, CA 94508, USA; e-mail: jhayes@puc.edu

Abstract: We summarize the status of 14 species of birds (pelagic seabirds excluded) breeding primarily in the Old
World and occurring as trans-Atlantic vagrants in Trinidad and Tobago. We report details for three species new to
Trinidad and Tobago: Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea), Eurasian Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and Curlew Sandpiper
(Calidrisferruginea). We also provide photographs for three species of birds previously undocumented by either a
specimen or photograph in South America: Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia), Wood Sandpiper (Tringa
glareola), and Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). In addition we summarize records of three species reported
from Trinidad and Tobago but considered by us to be inadequately documented, and records of two widespread bo-
real species derived from Palearctic populations.
Key words: bird migration, Caribbean, distributional records, Palearctic bird vagrants, South America, trans-
Atlantic vagrancy, Trinidad and Tobago

Resumen: AVES PALEARTICAS COMO TRANSEUNTES TRANSATLANTICOS EN TRINIDAD Y TOBAGO. Resumimos el
estado de 14 especies de aves (excluyendo las aves marinas pelagicas) que crian primariamente en el Viejo Mundo y
que aparecen como transeuntes transatlanticos en Trinidad y Tobago. Se brindan por primera vez, los detalles de tres
especies nuevas para Trinidad y Tobago: Ardea purpurea, Falco tinnunculus y Calidrisferruginea. Tambi6n se pub-
lican por primera vez las fotografias de tres especies de aves que no habian sido documentadas en Suramerica ni con
fotos ni con especimenes colectados: Platalea leucorodia, Tringa glareola y Larus ridibundus. Ademas resumimos
los registros de tres especies reconocidas en Trinidad y Tobago pero que se consideraban que estaban documentadas
inadecuadamente y dos registros de subespecies palearticas que pertenecen a especies boreales de amplia dis-
tribuci6n.
Palabras clave: aves transeuntes palearticas, migraci6n de aves, registros de distribuci6n, Suram6rica, transeuntes
trasatlanticos, Trinidad y Tobago

Resume : ERRATISME TRANSATLANTIQUE D'OISEAUX PALEARCTIQUES A TRINITY ET TOBAGO. Nous avons fait une
synthese du statut de 14 especes d'oiseaux (especes pelagiques exclues) nichant principalement dans l'Ancien Mon-
des observes en tant qu'erratiques transatlantiques a Trinit6 et Tobago. Des details sont donn6s pour 3 especes nou-
velles : Le Heron pourpre (Ardea purpurea), le Faucon cr6cerelle (Falco tinnunculus) et le Becasseau cocorli
(Calidris ferruginea). Nous fournissons des photographies de 3 autres especes pour lesquelles aucun specimen ou
photographie e sont disponibles pour l'Am6rique du sud : la Spatule d'Europe (Platalea leucorodia), le Chevalier
sylvain (Tringa glareola), et la Mouette rieuse (Larus ridibundus). Nous faisons 6galement une synthese des obser-
vations a Trinit6 et Tobago de 3 especes que nous consid6rons comme incorrectement document6es ainsi que des
observations pour les populations pal6arctiques de 2 especes bor6ales largement r6pandues
Mots cles : Am6rique du sud, Carafbe, erratisme transatlantique, migration, observation de distribution, oiseaux
pal6arctiques erratiques, Trinit6 et Tobago


VAGRANCY REFERS TO the long-distance dispersal
of individuals, herein referred to as vagrants, be-
yond their normal distribution or migratory path
(e.g., Thomson 1964, Veit 2000). A variety of Pale-
arctic vagrants routinely cross the tropical North
Atlantic Ocean with the assistance of easterly trade
winds and arrive in the Caribbean region, although
some may actually cross the northern North Atlantic
before arriving in the Caribbean (Bond 1956, Bull
1978, Ebels 2002, Buckley et al. 2007). Perched
upon the continental shelf of northeastern South
America, the continental islands of Trinidad and
Tobago are two of many islands in the eastern Car-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


ibbean that provide a convenient destination for
such vagrants.
In this paper we summarize the status of 14 spe-
cies of birds (pelagic seabirds excluded) breeding
primarily in the Old World and occurring as trans-
Atlantic vagrants in Trinidad and Tobago. We re-
port details for three species new to Trinidad and
Tobago: Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea), Eurasian
Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), and Curlew Sandpiper
(Calidris ferruginea). We also provide photographs
for three species of birds previously undocumented
by either a specimen or photograph in South Amer-
ica: Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia),









PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


Fig. 1. Immature Gray Heron (Ardea cinerea) at
Caroni, TRI, 28 August 2001. Photo by Courtenay
Rooks.


Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola), and Black-
headed Gull (Larus ridibundus). In addition we
summarize records of three species reported from
Trinidad and Tobago but considered to be inade-
quately documented, and records of two widespread
boreal species derived from Palearctic populations.

ACCEPTED PALEARCTIC SPECIES
The following 14 species of birds breeding exclu-
sively or almost exclusively in the Old World have
been accepted by the Trinidad and Tobago Rare
Bird Committee. Acronyms used in the following
accounts include: AMNH = American Museum of
Natural History; T&T = Trinidad and Tobago; TOB
= Tobago; TRI = Trinidad; TTRBC = Trinidad and
Tobago Rare Bird Committee.

GRAY HERON (ARDEA CINEREA)
A first-year immature shot at Fyzabad, TRI, on 27
August 1959, was banded as a nestling in France on
28 May 1958 (Baudouin-Bodin 1960), representing
the first record for T&T, South America, and the
New World. A first-year immature was seen and
well described at Bon Accord, TOB, during 15-17
January 1999 (Finch 2002, White and Hayes 2002,
ffrench and Kenefick 2003).


On 26 August 2001, a first-year immature was
found at Caroni, TRI, by Nigel Lallsingh, Keisha
Lallsingh, and F. E. Hayes. It was seen repeatedly
by many observers at Caroni until 28 November
2001 and was also seen about 8 km away at Trincity
on 27 September 2001 (Phil Davis et al.), 14 km
away at Waterloo on 29 November 2001 (Courtenay
Rooks), and 50 km away at Nariva Swamp on 20
November 2001 (C. Rooks). It was distinguished
from Great Blue Heron (A. herodias) and Cocoi
Heron (A. cocoi) by its shorter bill, neck, and legs,
grayish forecrown with a black hindcrown, and pure
white epaulettes and thighs. Several of these fea-
tures are visible in a distant photograph taken on 28
August 2001 by C. Rooks (Fig. 1).
On 27 January 2005, an adult was observed from
50 m at Trincity, TRI, by Ken Calderon and Wil-
liam L. Murphy. It appeared too small and too pale
for a Great Blue Heron. The crown, head, neck,
epaulettes, and thighs were white and the legs were
dull gray.
On 16 February 2005, a first-year immature was
observed from 200 m at the Aripo Livestock Sta-
tion, TRI, by M. Kenefick et al. It was identified by
its blackish crown with just a hint of white cen-
trally, pure white epaulettes and thighs, and gray
legs.
On 5 May 2006, a first-year immature was ob-
served from 200 m at Caroni, TRI, by M. Kenefick.
It appeared smaller than a nearby Great Egret (A.
alba). The crown was gray with a paler forecrown
and a black wedge on the hindcrown. The bill was
relatively short, the epaulette and thighs were pure
white, and the legs were pinkish-gray.
Elsewhere in the Caribbean there are records from
Montserrat, Martinique, and Barbados (e.g., Ebels
2002, Buckley et al. 2007). Up to six Gray Herons
have been continually resident on Barbados since
about 1997, with individuals coming and going and
a daily maximum of three (Buckley et al. 2007).
The only record from continental South America
was from Amazonian Brazil (Sick 1993).

PURPLE HERON (ARDEA PURPUREA)
On 24 September 2002, M. Kenefick found an
immature in a freshwater marsh at Caroni, TRI,
where it was relocated repeatedly by various ob-
servers and photographed by Graham White (Fig. 2)
until 10 October 2002. It appeared smaller and gen-
erally slighter than Great Blue Heron (A. herodias),
with a scrawny profile and an exaggerated S-shaped
neck when seen in flight. The bill was long and thin,
with the upper ridge of the upper mandible blackish


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


KENEFICK AND HAYES









KENEFICK AND HAYES PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


Fig. 2. Immature Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea),
compared with a Little Blue Heron (Egretta caeru-
lea) at right in lower photo, at Caroni, TRI, 28 Sep
2002. Photo by Graham White.


and the remainder of the bill orangey-yellow. The
iris was lemon-yellow. The crown was dark gray or
black. The face was bright buff-brown marked by a
darker moustachial stripe which extended from the
bill beneath the eye and almost reached the nape.
The lores were washed out and pale, definitely lack-
ing the bright buff of the cheeks. The chin was
white, the neck and chest were creamy-buff densely
marked with dark reddish-brown streaks, and the
lower breast and belly were biscuit-buff. The mantle
was brown, a shade darker than the scapulars, which
were a shade darker than the buff wing coverts. All
scapular and covert feathers were edged buffy-
white, indicative of an immature. The rump and
upper tail were gray. The upperwings were two-
toned with gray-black primaries and secondaries
and brown wing coverts. The underwings were
brownish, lacking contrast. The tibia were straw-
yellow and the tarsi were green/gray. This record


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


Fig. 3. Adult Little Egret (Egretta garzetta) with
Snowy Egrets (E. thula) at San Fernando, TRI, 25
April 2002. Photo by Brett D. Hayes.



provides the first for T&T and only the second for
South America.
The previous record for South America was of an
individual found at Fernando de Noronha, off the
coast of Brazil, in June 1986 (Teixeira et al. 1987).
An earlier report of a bird seen briefly only in flight
at Buccoo, TOB, on 2 September 1999, was rejected
by the TTRBC (White and Hayes 2002). Elsewhere
in the Caribbean, there are two records from Barba-
dos (Buckley et al. 2007).

LITTLE EGRET (EGRETTA GARZETTA)
An immature banded as a nestling at Dofiana,
Hueva Province, Spain, 24 July 1956, was recov-
ered at Caroni Swamp, TRI, on 13 January 1957
(Downs 1959; AMNH 325358), providing the first
record for T&T and South America. The species
was not recorded again until 17 November 1989,
when a bird was photographed in Port of Spain, TRI
(Murphy 1992). The first for TOB was photo-
graphed at Buccoo on 4 January 1990 (Murphy
1992; photo not examined by TTRBC). Hayes and
White (2001) summarized data for at least 33 re-
cords of the species for TRI and 17 for TOB up
through June 2001. It has been recorded during each
month of the year on each island, with no marked
seasonal variation, although the highest monthly
totals are from the first few months of the year.
Maximum daily counts include five for TRI (1999)
and two for TOB (1995). In addition to the speci-
men photographic documentation has been exten-
sive (e.g., Fig. 3).
Little Egret has been reported widely from else-
where in the Caribbean (e.g., Murphy 1992, Ebels
2002, Mlodinow et al. 2004). Since 1994, breeding
has occurred in nearby Barbados (Massiah 1996),
with ca. 15-25 pairs breeding annually (Buckley et









KENEFICK AND HAYES PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


Fig. 4. Immature Western Reef-Heron (Egretta gu-
laris) at Buccoo, TOB, 22 December 2000. Photos
by Floyd E. Hayes.


al. 2007). Breeding occurs year-round, but peaks
during the winter months, and numbers typically
decrease during the summer, suggesting off-island
dispersal (Buckley et al. 2007). The persistently
small numbers in T&T suggest that a breeding
population has not been established yet. Some indi-
viduals in T&T may represent strays from the
breeding population in Barbados rather than trans-
Atlantic vagrants from the Palearctic. There are
only a few records from northern South America in
Aruba (Mlodinow 2004, 2006), Guyana (Ryan
1997), Suriname (Haverschmidt 1983), and Brazil
(Bencke et al. 2005).


Fig. 5. Immature Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leu-
corodia) at Buccoo, TOB, 3 Nov 1986. Photos by
Wayne Scott.


WESTERN REEF-HERON (EGRETTA GULARIS)
A dark-morph individual found by William L.
Murphy and photographed by Winston Nanan at
Nariva, TRI, on 22 January 1986, provided the first
record for T&T and South America (Murphy and
Nanan 1987). On 16 December 2000, M. Kenefick
found a first-winter dark-morph immature at Buc-
coo, TOB. It was photographed by F. E. Hayes on
22 December 2000 (Fig. 4) and seen repeatedly in
the vicinity of Buccoo and nearby Bon Accord until
11 January 2002. The bill was dark gray-horn,
slightly paler on the basal half of the lower mandi-
ble, and noticeably broader based and slightly


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









KENEFICK AND HAYES PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


Fig. 6. Immature female Eurasian Kestrel (Falco
tinnunculus) at Carli Bay, Trinidad, 18 Dec 2003.
Photos by Roger Neckles.


thicker than that of Snowy Egret (E. thula), with
only a slightly downcurved culmen. The iris was
bright yellow. The body was dark powdery-gray
except for a clear-cut white rectangle embracing the
chin, throat and face below the eye. The thighs were
white and the ventral area pale gray. Most of the
coverts and tertials had a dusty-brown cast, indica-
tive of juvenal plumage, but by summer were re-
placed by fresh dark gray feathers. The legs were
dark, but not jet-black, and the feet were greenish-
yellow, contrasting sharply with the darker legs
without any projection up the legs. This record
represents the first for TOB and only the second for
T&T and South America.
Elsewhere in the Caribbean there are several re-
cords from St. Lucia (e.g., Murphy 1992, Ebels
2002, Mlodinow et al. 2004), one from St. Vincent


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


and the Grenadines (Paice 2006), and nine from
Barbados (Buckley et al. 2007). There are no re-
cords from elsewhere in South America.

EURASIAN SPOONBILL (PLATALEA LEUCORODIA)
An immature was photographed (Fig. 5) at Buc-
coo, TOB, on 3 November 1986, by Wayne Scott,
representing the first record for T&T, South Amer-
ica, and the New World (Murphy 1992). Adolphus
James (pers. comm. to W. Scott) reported that two
birds had been present, but no further details are
available. The TTRBC considered it a natural va-
grant rather than an escapee because it was a young
bird unlikely to have spent any time in captivity, the
legs were unbanded, no nearby zoos had kept the
species, and TOB is an unlikely destination for an
escapee, but a likely landfall for a trans-Atlantic
vagrant (Hayes and White 2000).
There are no records from elsewhere in the Carib-
bean but there was an unsubstantiated report of a
juvenile photographed on Fernando de Noronha,
Brazil, during January to February 1999 (Ebels
2002).

EURASIAN KESTREL (FALCO TINNUNCULUS)
On 17 December 2003, M. Kenefick found an
immature female at Carli Bay, TRI. It was photo-
graphed the following day by Roger Neckles (Fig.
6) and subsequently seen by many others until 1
January 2004. It was a medium-sized, chestnut-
brown, long-tailed falcon, with the wing tip ending
just short of the tail tip. The bill was rather small
and grayish with a darker tip, contrasting with a
yellow cere. The crown was pale chestnut-brown
and densely streaked darker, the face unstreaked
gray with a dark shadow surrounding the eye, the
iris blackish surrounded by a thin yellow orbital
ring, and the moustachial stripe was black and
rather thin. The base colour of the underparts was
buff-white with dense dark brown streaking on the
breast and upper belly with bold streaking on flanks,
but no streaking on vent. The under-tail was marked
by three broad, black subterminal bars plus two
fainter dark bars nearer the base. The nape, mantle,
wing coverts, rump, and tail were rich chestnut-
brown boldly barred with black, with the densest
barring on the nape. The flight feathers were con-
trastingly darker brown. The underwing, seen only
briefly, was whitish and heavily spotted dark. The
legs were yellow but with definite black claws.
Based on its large size it was identified as a female.
The larger size and lack of distinct facial markings
distinguish it from American Kestrel (F. sparverius)









PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


Fig. 7. Immature Wood Sandpiper (Tringa glareola)
at Buccoo, TOB, 30 December 1996. Photo by
Peggy Keller.


and the black claws distinguish it from the female
Lesser Kestrel (F. naumanni).
This is the first documented record of this species
for South America. Other South American records
include an undocumented sight record from French
Guiana (Tostain et al. 1992) and an immature sub-
sequently photographed in the Archipelago of Sao
Pedro and Sao Paulo, Brazil, 19-21 January 2005
(Bencke et al. 2005). The only other record from the
Caribbean was a specimen taken on Martinique on 9
December 1949 (Pinchon and Vaurie 1961).

SPOTTED REDSHANK (TRINGA ERYTHROPUS)
A basic plumaged bird was seen and well de-
scribed by David Fisher at Bon Accord Lagoon,
TOB, on 13 February 1983, representing the first
sight record for T&T and South America (Fisher
1998).
Elsewhere in the Caribbean there are single re-
cords from Puerto Rico and Guadeloupe, and four
from Barbados (Buckley et al. 2007). There are no
records from elsewhere in South America.

WOOD SANDPIPER (TRINGA GLAREOLA)
A basic plumaged immature was found by Doug
McRae et al. at Buccoo, TOB, on 30 December
1996 (Petersen and McRae 2002) and photographed
by Peggy Keller (Fig. 7), representing the first re-
cord for T&T and South America. It lingered until
at least 27 February 1997 (Hayes and White 2000).
Elsewhere in the Caribbean there is one record
from Guadeloupe and five records from Barbados
(Buckley et al. 2007).


TEREK SANDPIPER (XENUS CINEREUS)
An individual initially found by Peter Wild at
Waterloo, TRI, on 28 June 1999, provided the first
accepted sight record for T&T (Taylor 2001).
There is only one previous photographic record
from elsewhere in the Caribbean in Barbados
(Buckley et al. 2007), and two sight records for
South America in Argentina (Pugnali et al. 1988)
and Brazil (Mazar Barnett 1997).

BLACK-TAILED GODWIT (LIMOSA LIMOSA)
A basic-plumaged adult was seen by F. E. Hayes
and M. Kenefick et al. at Caroni, TRI, during 14-16
September 2000, and photographed 20 km away at
Orange Valley, TRI, on 17 September 2000 and 21
January 2001 (Hayes and Kenefick 2002), repre-
senting the first record for T&T and South America.
There is only one other record from elsewhere in
the Caribbean from St. Christopher (Steadman et al.
1997) and none from elsewhere in South America.

CURLEW SANDPIPER (CALIDRISFERRUGINEA)
On 1 May 2002, M. Kenefick found an adult half
molted into alternate plumage at Caroni, TRI. It was
subsequently seen by other observers including F.
E. Hayes, Brett D. Hayes and Graham White, and
was last seen by M. Kenefick on 5 May. It was a
fairly small shorebird rather attenuated in shape,
with a long, black, rather decurved bill, especially
near the tip. The crown and face were buff brown
with a white comma over the eye, an ill-defined
whitish loral area and lower forehead, and dense
dark streaking on the crown. The throat, side of the
neck and upper breast were reddish-orange with
very faint vermiculations on the sides of the neck.
The lower breast and belly were grayish-white with
heavy dark brick-red blotches, especially on the fore
flanks. The rear flanks and ventral area were gray-
ish-white. The mantle and fore-scapular feathers
were gray with black centers and pale fringes; the
rear scapulars were coppery-ginger with black cen-
ters but contrastingly white fringes, and the coverts
and tertials were gray with paler fringes. The under-
wing was white. Both faint white wing bars and an
obvious white rump patch were noted while the bird
was in flight. This sight record is the first for T&T.
Although there are several records from else-
where in the Caribbean, including at least 12 from
Barbados (Buckley et al. 2007), there are only two
previous records from South America in Ecuador
(Ridgely and Greenfield 2001) and Peru (Graves
and Plenge 1978).


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


KENEFICK AND HAYES









SPALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


Fig. 8. Immature male (left) Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) at Orange Grove, TRI, 8 December 2000, and imma-
ture female (right) at Lowlands, TOB, 22 December 2000. Photos by Floyd E. Hayes.


RUFF (PHILOMACHUS PUGNAX)
An alternate plumaged adult male seen and pho-
tographed by Michael Gochfeld at Laventille, TRI,
from 30 April to 12 May 1965, provided the first
record for TRI (Gochfeld 1973; unpublished photo-
graph not seen by TTRBC). The first record for
TOB was of an individual of unreported age or sex


seen by M. Archer et al. at Buccoo on 27-30 August
1974 (ffrench 1977). We have compiled a total of
19 records from T&T, including 12 records of sin-
gle birds from TRI and seven records including two
records of two birds each from TOB (Table 1). Sev-
eral have been photographed (e.g., Fig. 8). All but
two records appear to be of fall transients or winter-


Table 1. Records of Ruff (Philomachus pugnax) in Trinidad and Tobago.


Location(s) Date(s) Details Record Source
TRINIDAD
Laventille 30 Apr 12 May 1965 1 ad. photo Gochfeld 1973
St. Augustine 4 Oct 1971 1 sight R. G. Gibbs; ffrench 1973
Caroni 1 May 1982 1 7? sight ffrench and Manolis 1993
Port of Spain 14 Dec 1990 1 sight B. Soderstrom et al.; ffrench 1993
Caroni 25-27 Aug 2000 1 ad. S sight M. Kenefick et al.
Caroni 30 Sep 1 Oct 2000 1 ad. $ sight F. E. Hayes, B. D. Hayes
Caroni / Orange Grove 7-14 Dec 2000 1 imm. S photo F. E. Hayes, B. D. Hayes
Caroni 23-28 Sep 2001 1 imm. $ photo F. E. Hayes et al.
Caroni 14 Oct 2001 1 ad. S sight M. Kenefick
Caroni 19 Oct 2001 1 imm. S sight M. Kenefick
Caroni 28 Dec 2002 25 Jan 2003 1 imm. $ sight M. Kenefick
Caroni 9 Dec 2005 1 ad. Y photo J. Dunn and B. Prescott
TOBAGO
Buccoo 27-30 Aug 1974 1 sight M. Archer et al.; ffrench 1977
Buccoo 1-10 Dec 1981 2 sight J. M. Wunderle; ffrench 1983
Buccoo 28 Jan 1982 ? sight ffrench 1993
Buccoo mid-Jan 1989 ? sight ffrench 1993
Buccoo 11-14 Aug 1990 2 imm. photo G. White; Hayes and White 2000
Lowlands 22 Dec 2000 1 imm. $ photo F. E. Hayes et al.
Lowlands 23 Oct 2003 1 $ sight N. Hacking


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


KENEFICK AND HAYES









PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


Fig. 9. Adult Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus)
at Store Bay, TOB, 4 July 1994. Photo by Floyd E.
Hayes.


ing birds, ranging from 11 August (G. White in
Hayes and White 2000) to 28 January (ffrench
1993). Two records are clearly of spring transients,
ranging from 30 April to 12 May (Gochfeld 1973;
Table 1). Seven of 12 individuals identified to sex
were female and six of 11 identified by age were
immature (Table 1).
This species frequently occurs as a vagrant else-
where in the Caribbean (e.g., Ebels 2002, Buckley
et al. 2007). Although a trade specimen has been
taken from South America, its location from
"Bogota," Colombia (Hellmayr and Conover 1948),
is questionable, although it is almost certainly from
northern South America. There are sight records
from elsewhere in South America in Peru (Oatman
et al. 1980), Venezuela (Altman and Parrish 1978),
and Brazil (Pacheco 2000).


BLACK-HEADED GULL (LARUS RIDIBUNDUS)
Two individuals of unreported age or sex were
found by David Fisher et al. at Pointe-a-Pierre, TRI,
on 3 October 1976 (ffrench 1977), providing the
first record for TRI and South America. The first for
TOB was an immature seen at Turtle Beach on 28
January 1978 (Bull 1978). We have compiled 11
records including eight records of up to two birds
from TRI and three records of single birds from
TOB (Table 2). The only photographic record is of
a worn alternate plumaged adult at Pigeon Point,
TOB, 4-14 July 1994 (Fig. 9; Hayes 1996, Hayes
and White 2000). All but two records appear to be
of migrants or wintering birds between the dates of
3 October (ffrench 1977) and 18 May (Table 2).
Two records appear to be of summering individuals
ranging from 4 July to 13 August (Hayes 1996,
Hayes and White 2000; Table 2). Five of nine indi-
viduals identified to age were adult (Table 2). We
are aware of other reports for which details have not
been submitted to the TTRBC and we encourage
submission of such details.
This species frequently occurs as a vagrant else-
where in the Caribbean (e.g., Ebels 2002, Buckley
et al. 2007). Although reported previously from
Suriname (Davis 1979), Bonaire (Voous 1983,
1985; unpublished photograph examined by Vo-
ous), and French Guiana (Tostain et al. 1992), there
are no previously published photographic records
from South America.

LESSER BLACK-BACKED GULL (LARUS FUSCUS)
An adult seen by Bill Clark et al. at Claxton Bay,
TRI, 25 August to 9 September 1978, provided the
first record for South America (ffrench 1979). The


Table 2. Records of Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) in Trinidad and Tobago.


Location Date(s) Details Record Source
TRINIDAD
Pointe-a-Pierre 3-26 Oct 1976 2 sight ffrench 1977
Pointe-a-Pierre May 1978 ? sight ffrench 1988
Port of Spain < 1988 ? sight ffrench 1988
Port of Spain 13 Aug 1992 1 ad. sight W. L. Murphy
Waterloo 12 Feb 11 May 2000 2 imm. sight G. L. White, F. E. Hayes
Waterloo 1 Mar 18 May 2000 1 ad. sight G. L. White, M. Kenefick
Waterloo 3-17 Feb 2001 1 ad. sight N. Lallsingh et al.
Waterloo 26 Feb 2003 1 ad. sight N. Lallsingh
TOBAGO
Turtle Beach 28 Jan 1978 1 imm. sight Bull 1978
Pigeon Point 4-14 Jul 1994 1 ad. photo Hayes 1996
Bon Accord 21 Nov 2003 1 imm. sight E. Garcia


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


KENEFICK AND HAYES









KENEFCK AND HAYES PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


first for TOB was an adult seen by David Fisher at
Buccoo on 14 January 1988 (ffrench 1991). Hayes
et al. (2002) summarized data for 35 records of an
estimated 49 individuals (71.4% immature, 28.6%
adult) in western TRI (45 individuals) and south-
western TOB (four individuals) up through April
2002. Although most records were from the winter
months, especially January-February, four lingered
in TRI throughout the summer of 2000. A few indi-
viduals that first appeared in March-April may have
been northbound migrants wintering farther south.
Up to 13 different individuals occurred during au-
tumn-spring in TRI and up to two in TOB. Maxi-
mum daily counts included eight for TRI and two
for TOB. All T&T records pertain to the southern
subspecies L. f graellsii, the most common form
occurring in the New World (Post and Lewis 1995).
This species is often reported from elsewhere in
the Caribbean (e.g., Post and Lewis 1995, Ebels
2002, Buckley et al. 2007), but there are few re-
cords from elsewhere in South America, including
the Netherlands Antilles (Voous 1983), Venezuela
(Hilty 2003), and Ecuador (Ridgely and Greenfield
2001), plus a specimen from Argentina whose iden-
tification has been queried (Post and Lewis 1995).

HYPOTHETICAL PALEARCTIC SPECIES
Three additional species of birds breeding primar-
ily in the Palearctic have been reported from T&T,
but although the reports are highly credible, they
have not been sufficiently documented to our satis-
faction.

COMMON RINGED PLOVER (CHARADRIUS HIATICULA)
One captured by Richard ffrench et al. at Pointe-
a-Pierre, TRI, on 31 October 1962, was examined in
hand and subsequently released. It was adjudged to
be this species rather than the abundant Semipal-
mated Plover (C. semipalmatus) by "the compara-
tive absence of webbing between the toes" (ffrench
1973:141), which was apparently thought to be the
only criterion for separating the two taxa. Another
captured on 4 September 1960 was also suspected
of being this species (ffrench 1973). Given the suite
of subtle morphological and vocal differences be-
tween the two taxa (Hayman et al. 1986) and the
absence of a photograph or a specimen, we consider
these records to be insufficiently documented.
The only other record of this species from the
Caribbean was an extant specimen taken from Bar-
bados in 1888 (Buckley et al. 2007). There are no
records from elsewhere in South America.


COMMON GREENSHANK (TRINGA NEBULARIA)
One was well described and apparently photo-
graphed by John Bull and others at Buccoo, TOB,
on 7 July 1977 (Bull 1978); however, no photos
have been examined by the TTRBC and a search for
it among the AMNH photographic archives failed to
find it (Paul Sweet pers. comm.). Another Common
Greenshank was reportedly seen at Waller Field,
TRI, in early 1987 by Jogie Ramlal et al. (ffrench
1988), but no further details have ever been re-
ceived. We request further information from any-
body who has first-hand knowledge of these records
or who has access to the photograph(s).
Elsewhere in the Caribbean this species has been
recorded once in Puerto Rico and five times in Bar-
bados (Buckley et al. 2007). There are no records
from elsewhere in South America.

WHITE WAGTAIL (AMOTACILLA ALBA)
One was seen by many observers and photo-
graphed at Waller Field, TRI, from 26 December to
2 January 1988 (Frank Oatman in ffrench 1991).
Alstrbm and Mild (2003) regarded the bird as be-
longing to the northeastern Palearctic race ocularis.
However, no photos have been examined by the
TTRBC and efforts to contact Frank Oatman, who
may have taken the photos, have been unsuccessful.
We request further information from anybody who
has first-hand knowledge of these records or who
has access to the photograph(s). Although ffrench
(1991) accepted this record and the TTRBC later
adopted this decision (Hayes and White 2000), we
feel the record should be treated in the same manner
as that of the Common Greenshank (see above).
An individual in Barbados in January 1987 was
thought to belong to the nominate race alba of the
western Palearctic rather than either ocularis or
Black-backed Wagtail (A. lugens), both recorded in
eastern North America only from North Carolina
(Buckley et al. 2007). There are no other records
from elsewhere in the region.

PALEARCTIC BREEDING POPULATIONS
OF WIDESPREAD SPECIES
Individuals derived from Palearctic breeding
populations of two widespread boreal species have
also been recorded from T&T. Such individuals of
these and other widespread species probably visit
T&T more frequently than the few records suggest,
but they are either indistinguishable from Nearctic
populations or differ so slightly that they are gener-
ally overlooked.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









KENEFICK AND HAYES PALEARCTIC VAGRANTS IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


WHIMBREL (NUMENIUS P. PHAEOPUS)
The three Palearctic subspecies of Whimbrel are
phenotypically distinct from the Nearctic subspecies
hudsonicus (a common migrant in T&T), and are
sometimes considered to be a distinct species (e.g.,
Hayman et al. 1986, Zink et al. 1995).
The three previously published sight records from
T&T presumably belong to the nominate race of the
western Palearctic. Three were seen by J. D. Dan-
zenbaker et al. at Caroni, TRI, on 6 July 1975
(ffrench 1977), one was seen by John Bull at Buc-
coo, TOB, on 30 December 1975 (Bull 1978), and
one (or more?) was seen by R. Forster at Caroni,
TRI, on 14 February 1984 (ffrench 1991).
On 8 October 2001, an unusually washed out in-
dividual was scrutinized for 20 min at Turtle Beach,
TOB, by Newton George, F. E. Hayes, M. Kene-
fick, and William L. Murphy. Although paler than
nearby individuals of hudsonicus, it was identical in
size and shape but had a clean white rump patch
extending as a wedge up onto the back, and clean
white underwing linings. Subsequent efforts to relo-
cate this individual were unsuccessful.
There are several previous records from else-
where in the Caribbean, with up to eight in Barba-
dos (Buckley et al. 2007). In South America there
are several records from Venezuela (Hilty 2003)
and one from French Guiana (Ingels et al. 2003).

COMMON TERN (STERNA H. HIRUNDO)
The nominate race breeds on both sides of the
Atlantic (Nisbet 2002); thus, individuals breeding
on opposite sides of the Atlantic are phenotypically
indistinguishable and can be identified only by band
recoveries.
An individual banded as a chick at Trutgrund,
Korpo, Finland, on 2 July 1968 was recovered by
Joseph Nandalal at Chaguanas, TRI, on 8 February
1970 (ffrench 1975).
The only other record of trans-Atlantic vagrancy
from populations breeding in the Palearctic is the
recovery in Brazil of four birds banded as chicks in
the Azores (Hays et al. 1999).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank P. A. Buckley, W. L. Murphy, and J. V.
Remsen, Jr., for reviewing the manuscript. Many
colleagues shared our birding adventures in T&T,
especially Newton George, Brett D. Hayes, Nigel
Lallsingh, William L. Murphy, Roger Neckles,
Courtenay Rooks, and Graham White. We also
thank the many individuals who have submitted
reports to the TTRBC, various individuals and or-


ganizations who have funded birding tours by M.
Kenefick or field research by F. E. Hayes, and the
many individuals who have assisted us over the
years in providing or pointing out pertinent litera-
ture.

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Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









J Carib. Ornithol. 19:73-90, 2006


CARACTERISTICAS DE LA MIGRACION OTONAL
DE LAS AVES TERRESTRES EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA

HIRAM GONZALEZ1'2, ALEJANDRO LLANES', BARBARA SANCHEZ', DAYSI RODRIGUEZ1,
ENEIDER PEREZ1, Y PEDRO BLANCO1
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA, Carretera de Varona, Km. 32,
A.P. 8010, C.P. 10800, Boyeros, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba; 2email: hiramglez@ecologia.cu

Resumen: Se analiza la informaci6n obtenida durante la migraci6n otofial de las aves terrestres en 16 localidades de
Cuba desde 1989 hasta el 2002. Se emplearon los m6todos de conteos por parcelas circulares y captura con redes
ornitol6gicas. Se determine que las localidades ubicadas en las regiones de Guanahacabibes, peninsula de Hicacos,
cayo Santa Maria, cayo Coco y Gibara reciben cada afio durante la migraci6n otofial la mayor diversidad de especies
migratorias nearticas neotropicales y la mayor cantidad de individuos. Se determinaron las especies migratorias mas
abundantes en cada una de las regiones estudiadas.
Palabras clave: aves terrestres, Cuba, migraci6n otofial

Abstract: CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTUMN LANDBIRD MIGRATION IN VARIOUS REGIONS OF CUBA. We analyzed
information obtained during autumn landbird migration in 16 localities of Cuba from 1989-2002. Using circular plot
counts and capture by mist-net methods, we determined that the regions of Guanahacabibes, Peninsula de Hicacos,
Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Coco, and Gibara had the greatest diversity of migrant Nearctic-Neotropical species and the
greatest number of individuals. The abundance of the most abundant species is presented for each of the regions
studied.
Key words: autumn migration, Cuba, landbirds

Resumrn : CARACTERISTIQUES DE LA MIGRATION AUTOMNALE DES OISEAUX TERRESTRES DANS PLUSIEURS RE-
GIONS DE CUBA. Nous avons analyst des donn6es de la migration automnale des oiseaux terrestres dans 16 localities
de Cuba de 1989 a 2002. A l'aide de m6thodes de comptages ponctuels et de captures au filets, nous avons trouv6
que les regions de Guanahacabibes, Peninsula de Hicacos, Cayo Santa Maria, Cayo Coco et Gibara pr6sentent la
plus grande diversity d'especes migratrices n6arctiques-neotropicales et les plus forts effectifs. Les effectifs des es-
peces les plus abondantes sont pr6sentes pour chaque region 6tudi6e.
Mots cls : Cuba, migration automnale, oiseaux terrestres


LA MIGRACION DE LAS AVES es uno de los even-
tos mas impresionantes de la naturaleza, particular-
mente, durante la migracion otofial. Esto responde a
la necesidad de encontrar refugio y alimentacion
ante los cambios estacionales que se producen en
las diferentes regiones del mundo.
La ubicacion del archipielago cubano en el Caribe
Insular, hacen que sea una de las areas mas impor-
tantes dentro del sistema de migracion neartico-
neotropical, siendo el grupo insular que mas espe-
cies de aves migratorias recibe (Rappole et al. 1983,
Raffaele et al. 1998). Dentro de este sistema, las
rutas migratorias de la costa Atlantica y del Missis-
sippi son las que mas inciden en el Caribe Insular y,
particularmente, en Cuba (Garrett 1983).
La riqueza de especies de aves durante la migra-
cion otofial es mayor con respecto al periodo de
residencia inveral porque, en el momento que arri-
ban las aves migratorias a territorio cubano, se pue-
den detectar, ademas, las poblaciones consideradas
como transetuntes, que usan a Cuba para hacer esca-



Joumal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


la y continuar sus migraciones hacia otras islas del
Caribe o Suramerica. Por otra parte, algu-nas de las
especies residentes invemales utilizan determinadas
localidades para su arribo y despues continuan su
migracion a otras areas de Cuba o el Caribe donde
encuentran mejores condiciones de refugio y ali-
mentacion.
Bruner (1938a, b, 1939) es el primer autor que
escribio sobre las migraciones de aves en Cuba y,
no solo relaciono las fechas de arribo y salida de
cada una de las especies migratorias, sino tambien
establecio las categorias de las aves conocidas hasta
el momento de acuerdo con su residencia en Cuba.
Con posterioridad, otros autores afiadieron nuevos
registros de aves a las localidades ya estudiadas,
fundamentalmente, especies de aves migratorias
nearticas neotropicales (Garrido y Garcia 1965,
1967, 1968, Garrido 1976, 1980, Garrido y Gonza-
lez 1980, Llanes et al. 1987a, Morales 1987, Torres
1987, Torres y Rams 1987, Kirkconnell y Posada
1988, Gonzalez et al. 1992a, b, Sanchez et al.









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


1992a, b).
Aunque en la mayoria de estos casos se precisa-
ron las fechas de estos nuevos registros, hubo dife-
rentes trabajos que se concretaron a precisar cam-
bios en las fechas que se habian deter-minado hasta
el momento (Llanes et al. 1987b, Garcia y Rodri-
guez 1988, Garcia y Babb 1989).
La mayor parte de estos trabajos tuvieron como
referencia el Catalogo de las Aves de Cuba
(Garrido y Garcia 1975). Garrido (1988) enriqueci6
esta informaci6n, al precisar fechas de arribo, locali-
dades y al asignar una categoria a cada especie de
acuerdo con su permanencia en Cuba.
En los trabajos mencionados con anterioridad no
se hacen analisis cuantitativos de las poblaciones de
aves y solo en algunos casos se refieren a criterios
cualitativos sobre sus abundancias.
El objetivo del presente trabajo fue conocer la
composici6n y abundancia de las comunidades de
aves terrestres migratorias y residentes durante el
periodo de migraci6n otofial en diferentes regiones
de Cuba y determinar las de mayor relevancia.

AREA DE ESTUDIO Y METODOLOGIA
El trabajo se desarroll6 en 16 localidades de siete
regiones de Cuba (Fig. 1): (1) El Veral, Cabo Co-
rrientes, Las Tumbas y el faro Roncali en la penin-
sula de Guanahacabibes; (2) El Cayo y Sierra de
Cajalbana en Mil Cumbres; (3) Punta Frances en la
Peninsula de Hicacos; (4) Las Caletas, Pelo de Oro
y Camino del Medio en cayo Santa Maria; (5) Vere-
da de los Marquez, Playa Dorada y La Petrolera en


cayo Coco; (6) Caletones en Gibara; y (7) La Cari-
dad y Mensura II en la Altiplanicie de Nipe.
Los afios en que se muestrearon cada una de las
localidades se muestra en el Anexo.

PENINSULA DE GUANAHACABIBES
El Veral.-Existe un bosque semideciduo, un
bosque medio de cienaga y un matorral secundario
Cabo Corrientes: En esta area se detectaron dos
tipos de formaciones boscosas: el bosque siempre-
verde micr6filo y el matorral xeromorfo.
Las Tumbas.-Existe un bosque semideciduo y
un uveral.
Faro Roncali.-Esta enclavado en un area abier-
ta, rodeada de un bosque semideciduo.

MIL CUMBRES
El Cayo.-Esta area comprende un pinar adulto
degradado.
Sierra de Cajdlbana.-Esta zona comprende un
area de ecotono entre un pinar y el matorral espino-
so sobre serpentina (Cuabal).

PENINSULA DE HICACOS
Punta Frances.-Se caracteriza por un matorral
xeromorfo costero y subcostero (Manigua costera),
el cual se mezcla con el bosque siempreverde mi-
cr6filo.

CAYO SANTA MARIA
Las Caletas.-Bosque siempreverde micr6filo
bajo subcostero.


Camino del Medio Pelo de Oro


Dorada
?s Marquez


Lastumb& .-"- ": i^

Faro RoncaliCabo Corriente


--~9 Mensura
La Caridad


Fig. 1. Sitios donde se realizaron los muestreos durante la migraci6n otofial en 16 localidades de Cuba,
1989-2002.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Pelo de Oro.-Bosque siempreverde microfilo.
Camino del Medio.-Matorral xeromorfo costero
y subcostero.

CAYO COCO
Vereda de los Mdrquez.-Bosque semideciduo.
Playa Dorada.-Matorral xeromorfo costero.
La Petrolera.-Bosque de mangle con bosques
mixtos altos.

ALTIPLANICIE DE NIPE
Mensura II.-La vegetacion dominante es pinar,
con pequefas franjas de bosques de galeria.
La Caridad.-La vegetacion predominante es
matorral xeromorfo subespinoso sobre serpentina
(Charrascal), dividida por una franja de vegetacion
secundaria que se localiza a ambos lados del camino
que secciona en dos el area estudiada.

GIBARA
Caletones.-La vegetacion caracteristica es bos-
que siempreverde microfilo, precedido por un mato-
rral xeromorfo costero y subcostero.

METODOLOGIA
Para los muestreos de aves se utilizaron los meto-
dos de conteos en parcelas circulares y las capturas
con redes omitologicas (Hutto et al. 1986, Ralph et
al. 1993). El uso de ambos metodos complementa
las ventajas y desventajas de cada uno en particular.
El metodo de conteo en parcelas circulares ha
sido desarrollado por Reynolds et al. (1980). En
este trabajo, cada conteo se efectuo durante 10 min
en una parcela de 25 m de radio, los cuales se reali-
zaron desde el amanecer hasta las 10:00 hr como
maximo, anotandose todas las aves vistas u oidas
dentro y fuera de los 25 m de radio. Estos se efec-
tuaron en condiciones ambientales adecuadas y por
los mismos observadores.
Para determinar la abundancia relativa (AR) se
tuvo en cuenta el numero promedio de aves detecta-
das dentro de los 25 m de radio, y se calculo en
aves/conteo, mientras que para determinar la diver-
sidad se tuvo en cuenta todas las especies detecta-
das. Se seleccionaron ocho parcelas circulares de
conteos de forma alterna con los puntos de redes,
por lo que estaban separadas a 200 m una de otra.
Para la captura de las aves se utilizaron redes or-
nitologicas de 9 m de largo, 2,5 m de alto y 30 mm
de paso de malla. Cada ave capturada fue identifica-
da y marcada con un anillo enumerado suministrado
por el Servicio de Pesca y Vida Silvestre (US Fish
and Wildlife Service).


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


En la mayoria de las areas de muestreo se utilize
el disefo planteado por Wallace (ms no publicado)
y modificado, posteriormente por los autores de este
trabajo. Se colocaron 15 puntos con dos redes en
cada uno, separados a 100 m de distancia y se calcu-
16 la abundancia relativa por el indice o tasa de cap-
tura (aves / 100 hr-red). En los casos del faro de
Roncali en Guanahacabibes y en peninsula de Hica-
cos se colocaron menos redes debido al pequeno
tamafo de las areas y aunque el esfuerzo de mues-
treo fue diferente en las areas (Tabla 1), el numero
de hr-red en cada una fue suficiente para que los
resultados se consideraran validos. Se empleo un
total de 11,249 hr-red. Cada punto de red fue nume-
rado y las aves capturadas se registraron en planillas
disenadas con los datos del individuo, el numero de
anillo, fecha, hora, red, bolsa y area.

RESULTADOS Y DISCUSSION
Los resultados obtenidos en 16 localidades de
siete regiones de Cuba demuestran que por las loca-
lidades de Guanahacabibes, peninsula de Hicacos,
cayo Santa Maria y cayo Coco pasan o permanecen
en las mismas 64 especies migratorias terrestres
nearticas neotropicales (Tabla 1, Anexo). Por otra
parte, no existen corredores migratorios definidos,
ya que por la mayor parte del archipielago cubano
entran las aves migratorias durante la migraci6n
otofal.
Al hacer un analisis por localidad de la riqueza de
especies migratorias, las areas del Faro Roncali (46)
y las Tumbas (36) se destacan por el gran numero
de especies migratorias neartica neotropicales y en
particular transeuntes (Tabla 1). Dentro de la penin-
sula de Guanahacabibes se detect6 un aumento del
numero de transeuntes desde la porcion oriental
(Cabo Corrientes con ausencia de transeuntes) hacia
la porcion mas occidental. Esto puede deberse a que
las localidades mencionadas con anterioridad se
encuentran mas al Norte y occidente y la presencia
de un faro que les sirve de guia, lo cual hace que
arriben primero a dichas localidades y las que se
quedan en la peninsula se dispersan para llegar pos-
teriormente a El Veral y Cabo Corrientes.
La peninsula de Hicacos es tambien una de las
mas ricas en especies, ya que en los periodos estu-
diados se detectaron 16 especies residentes perma-
nentes (38,1 %) y pasan o permanecen 19 residentes
invernales (45,2 %) y siete transeuntes (16,7 %)
(Gonzalez et al., 2000), al igual que las tres areas de
Cayo Santa Maria: Las Caletas con 15 residentes
permanentes (40,5 %), 18 residentes invernales
(48,6 %) y cuatro transeuntes (10,8 %); Pelo de Oro









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Tabla 1. Abundancia relativa (aves/conteo), tasa de captura (aves/100 horas-red [h-r]) y numero de especies
por localidad y aflo para las especies migratorias (M) y residentes permanentes (RP) durante la migracion oto-
fial, Cuba, 1989-2001. Datos de Faro Roncali son tomados de Perez et al. (en preparacion).


Abundancia Numero de
Relativa Tasa de Captura Especies
Localidad y aflo M RP h-r RP M Total M RP

El Veral (1996) 1,37 5,25 450 5,55 8,00 13,55 11 20
C. Corrientes (1996) 1,87 2,62 450 5,71 13,93 19,64 11 29
Las Tumbas (1997) 1,12 4,06 840 5,71 13,92 19,63 36 29
Las Tumbas (1998) 2,37 5,00 900 4,44 7,11 11,55 21 17
Faro Roncali (1998) 98 14,28 147,92 162,20 27 8
Faro Roncali (1999) 249 7,60 70,21 77,81 23 8
Faro Roncali (2000) 528 10,31 94,31 104,62 31 17
El Cayo (1994) 2,38 10,15 420 27,86 9,52 37,48 13 28
Sierra de Cajalbana (1994) 1,30 7,63 420 16,90 1,67 18,57 6 25
Peninsula de Hicacos (1989) 7,81 3,51 401,6 16,68 45,12 61,80 20 14
Peninsula de Hicacos (1990) 8,69 4,01 420,5 12,39 50,48 62,87 23 15
Las Caletas, Cayo Sta. Maria (1994) 5,17 3,58 660 13,68 83,33 97,0 22 18
Pelo de Oro, Cayo Sta. Maria (2001) 5,69 2,31 390 18,99 73,31 92,3 22 17
Camino del Medio, Cayo Sta. Maria
(2001) 3,25 5,94 360 12,51 84,19 96,7 25 14
Vereda Marquez (1992) 5,80 14,50 144 25,69 42,33 68,02 13 11
Vereda Marquez (1993) 1,99 4,17 144 36,80 61,80 98,60 9 6
Playa Dorada (1992) 1,10 7,40 144 38,86 17,05 55,91 14 16
Playa Dorada (1993) 0 0,30 144 57,63 28,46 86,11 11 14
Petrolera (1992) 4,80 17,20 128 53,12 60,93 114,06 13 14
Petrolera (1993) 0,33 2,51 144 48,61 68,05 116,67 12 9
Caletones (1989) 1,77 2,45 692 12,86 33,96 46,82 17 16
Caletones (1990) 1,63 2,74 480 13,96 16,67 30,63 18 20
Caletones (1997) 1,38 4,13 720 22,38 17,78 40,16 17 23
La Caridad (1996) 3,93 9,86 422 37,86 26,20 64,05 9 17
La Caridad (1997) 2,56 10,81 510 33,33 16,86 50,20 9 17
Mensura II(1996) 2,19 4,31 540 5,37 3,33 8,70 8 9
Mensura II(1997) 2,31 6,56 450 6,22 3,78 10,00 8 13


con 19 residentes permanentes (48,7 %), 17 residen-
tes invernales (43,6 %) y tres transeuntes (7,7 %);
Camino del Medio con 18 residentes permanentes
(46,1 %), 16 residentes invernales (41 %) y cinco
transeuntes (12,8 %) (Anexo).
Sanchez et al. (1994) inventariaron 31 especies
migratorias y 18 residentes permanentes para los
cayos Paredon Grande y Coco, mientras que Rodri-
guez et al. (1994) detectaron en Gibara 24 y 19, res-
pectivamente. Ambos trabajos se realizaron durante
dos periodos de migracion otofial consecutivos.
Al analizar la diversidad de aves para todas las
regiones estudiadas, podemos comprobar que en
Peninsula de Guanahacabibes (faro Roncali y Las


Tumbas), peninsula de Hicacos, cayo Santa Maria y
cayo Coco, el numero de especies migratorias near-
ticas neotropicales es superior al de especies resi-
dentes permanentes, lo cual demuestra la importan-
cia de estas regiones para el refugio y la alimenta-
cion de las aves migratorias durante la migracion
otofial; aunque no se debe dejar de tener en cuenta a
Gibara porque la proporcion de aves migratorias en
esta localidad es similar a las aves residentes (31 RP
y 28 M).
Con respecto a la abundancia se pudo corroborar
que durante la migracion otofial los indices de abun-
dancia son superiores con relacion a la residencia
invernal como lo demostro Gonzalez (1996) para



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


diferentes areas. Sin embargo, los valores obtenidos
en este trabajo para tres localidades de Guanahaca-
bibes (El Veral, Cabo Corrientes y Las Tumbas), asi
como el Cayo y Sierra de Cajalbana en Mil Cum-
bres son, relativamente bajos con respecto al resto
(Tabla 1). Esto se pudiera deber a lo planteado con
anterioridad sobre el proceso de dispersion de las
aves cuando llegan, lo que implica que en areas mis
lejanas de las costas disminuye la riqueza y abun-
dancia de las especies migratorias.
En dos de los tres ahos muestreados en el faro
Roncali se obtuvieron las tasas de captura mis altas
de todas las localidades muestreadas, lo que indica
que esta es una de las localidades de Cuba mis im-
portante durante la migracion otoial por la alta di-
versidad y abundancia de especies dicho periodo.
En los muestreos realizados en la peninsula de
Hicacos en los dos periodos muestreados se obtu-
vieron tasas de captura altas para un promedio gene-
ral de 62,4 aves / 100 hr-red. donde se destacan las
aves migratorias con 48,1 aves / 100 hr-red (Tabla
1). El mayor numero de capturas correspondieron a
residentes invemales y transeuntes en los dos perio-
dos muestreados (1989: 73,0 %; 1990: 80,3 %).
En Las Caletas se obtuvo una de las mayores tasa
de captura promedio donde tambien se destacan las
aves migratorias (83,33 aves / 100 hr-red; Tabla 1),
al igual que para las otras dos areas de Cayo Santa
Maria, ya que en Pelo de Oro la tasa de captura
para las aves migratorias fue 73,3 aves / 100 hr-red
y para Camino del Medio fue 84,2 aves / 100 hr-red.
En el bosque semideciduo de Vereda Marquez y
el bosque de mangle de La Petrolera en Cayo Coco,
las tasas de captura fueron muy altas, donde predo-
min6 la abundancia de las aves migratorias (Tabla
1). Sin embargo, en el matorral xeromorfo costero
de Playa Dorada los valores de tasa de captura son
inferiores y la mayor abundancia de la comunidad la
aportaron las aves residentes.
En el resto de las localidades muestreadas, los
valores de tasa de captura son, notablemente infe-
riores.
Los valores de la abundancia relativa variaron
entre ocho y 14 aves por conteo y se caracterizaron
al igual que la tasa de captura, por una mayor abun-
dancia de las aves migratorias en las areas de pe-
ninsula de Hicacos y cayo Santa Maria (Tabla 1).
La ubicacion geografica y las caracteristicas de
los ecosistemas, determinan la composicion y abun-
dancia de la avifauna, como lo demostro Gonzalez
(1996), pero ademas, la diferencia entre ahos para
una misma region pudiera estar dada por las fluctua-
ciones normales que ocurren anualmente y los cam-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


bios climaticos (Bellrose 1978). No obstante, estos
resultados demuestran que cayo Santa Maria, penin-
sula de Hicacos, El faro de Roncali y cayo Coco
estan entre las regiones mis importantes para las
aves migratorias terrestres durante la migracion
otoial, no solo por el numero de especies, sino tam-
bien por la abundancia de sus poblaciones.
Si tenemos en cuenta las tasas de captura de cada
especie por localidad y el porcentaje que represen-
tan sus capturas con respecto al total, podemos com-
probar que en el Veral (Tabla 2) se destacaron Seiu-
rus aurocapilla (16,9 %), Setophaga ruticilla (16,9
%) y la Bijirita Azul de Garganta Negra (Dendroica
caerulescens) (6,8 %), mientras que en Cabo Co-
rrientes, la tasa de captura de las especies migrato-
rias fue muy baja y solamente se destaco la Bijirita
Comun (Dendroica palmarum) (10,4 %).
Para el area de Las Tumbas, las especies migrato-
rias mis capturadas en los dos periodos de muestreo
(Tabla 2) fueron la Senorita de Monte (Seiurus au-
rocapilla) (11,3 %), la Monjita (Wilsonia citrina)
(7,5 %), la Candelita (Setophaga ruticilla) (6,6 %),
la Caretica (Geothlypis trichas) (6,5 %) y la Senori-
ta de Manglar (Seiurus noveboracensis) (5,9 %).
Las residentes permanentes mis capturadas fueron
la Chillina (Teretistris fernandinae) (7,6 %) y el
Zorzal Real (Turdus plumbeus) (5,7 %).
De acuerdo con el numero de aves capturadas por
especie para la peninsula de Hicacos en los periodos
muestreados (Tabla 3), pudimos determinar que
ocho de las especies migratorias son las que se des-
tacan en la utilizacion de esta localidad al arribar a
Cuba durante su migracion. Si tenemos en cuenta
ambos periodos, de las especies migratorias, las mis
detectadas fueron la Caretica (Geothlypis trichas)
(21,3 %), la Bijirita Comun (Dendroica palmarum)
(11,5 %) y la Candelita (Setophaga ruticilla) (12,9
%), mientras que dentro de las residentes perma-
nentes sobresalieron el Juan Chivi (Vireo gundla-
chii) (40,0 %), la Tojosa (Columbina passerina)
(24,7 %) y la Chillina (Teretistris fernandinae) (3,8
%) (Gonzalez et al. 2000).
Se capturaron individuos de cuatro especies tran-
seintes consideradas raras para Cuba (Garrido y
Garcia, 1975): el Tordo de Espalda Olivacea
(Catharus ustulatus), el Tordo Acanelado (Catharus
fuscescens), el Azulejon (Passerina caerulea) y el
Vireo de Filadelfia (Vireo philadelphicus).
Al igual que en la peninsula de Hicacos, en Las
Caletas el mayor porcentaje en especies y tasa de
captura correspondio a las aves migratorias con 55,0
% y 85.9 %, respectivamente (Tabla 3). Entre ellas
se destacan la Bijirita Azul de Garganta Negra (30,3









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Tabla 2. Tasa de captura (aves/100 horas-red) por especie, localidad y afio durante la migracion otofial en la
peninsula de Guanahacabibes y Gibara, Cuba, 1989-1998.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r) por Localidad y Afio

C. Corri-
Veral entes Tumbas Gibara

Especie 1996 1996 1997 1998 1989 1990 1997


Accipiter striatus
Zenaida aurita
Columbina passerina
Geotrygon chrysia
Geotrygon montana
Coccyzus americanus
Coccyzus minor
Saurothera merlin
Glaucidium situ
Chlorostilbon ricordii
Todus multicolor
Xiphidiopicus percussus
Tyrannus caudifasciatus
Empidonax virescens
AMyiarchus sagrae
Contopus virens
Contopus caribaeus
Catharus minimus
Catharus ustulatus
Hylocichla mustelina
Turdus plumbeus
Dumetella carolinensis
Mimus polyglottos
Vireo griseus
Vireo gundlachii
Vireo flavifrons
Vireo olivaceus
Vireo altiloquus
Vermivora pinus
Vermivora peregrina
Parula americana
Dendroica pensylvanica
Dendroica magnolia
Dendroica tigrina
Dendroica caerulescens
Dendroicafusca
Dendroica discolor
Dendroica palmarum
Dendroica striata
Mniotilta varia
Setophaga rutinilla
Protonotaria citrea
Helmitherus vermivorum
Limnothlypis swainsonii


0,22


0,22

0,44


0,22



0,44



2,22
0,44



0.22


0,89


0,44


2,22


0,24



0,71
0,89
0,89
0,24
0,71

0,71

1,19


0,24
2,86
0,71

0,48
1,43


0,48

0,24


2,38

0,71


0,12

0,12
0,36


1,73 2,50 4,31


1,01 0,21
- 0,21


0,24 0,11
0,60 0,30
0,48 0,11

0,36 0,22
0,48
0,12
- 0,11
0,36 0,33
0,24 0,11
0,12 0,33
- 0,22
0,95 0,8
0,60 0,3

0,60
0,12 0,11

0,36 0,11

0,12
- 0,22

0,12
0,95 0,33

- 0,55
0,12
0,24
0,71

- 0,11
0,83 1,22
0,12
0,24 0,22
0,24 0,11


0,14


0,14 0,56
- 0,97
0,14 0,63 0,14
- 0,21 0,83
0,72 0,83 0,56

0,42 0,14



0,14

2,46 3,75 3,06
- 0,63 0,14
0,72 0,42 1,11


1,88 2,08
- 0,21
0,29 1,04

0,14


3,47


0,28


7,37 0,42 0,97


- 0,14
0,42 2,22
2,08 7,22


0,43 0,83 0,69
- 0,63 0,69
4,77 0,14
2,75 2,50 0,83
7,51 3,96 0,83
0,43 0,21 0,28
0,58 0,21 0,42
0,14 -


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Tabla 2 continuada.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r) por Localidad y Afio
C. Corri-
Veral entes Tumbas Gibara
Especie 1996 1996 1997 1998 1989 1990 1997

Seiurus aurocapilla 0,22 0,48 2,38 2,38 3,47 2,08 2,78
Seiurus noveboracensis 0,44 1,19 1,19 0,42 -
Seiurus motacilla 0,44 -
Geothlypis trichas 1,79 0,22 0,21 0,14
Teretistrisfernandinae 1,55 2,86 0,60 1,77 -
Teretistrisfornsi 1,88 1,88 2,64
Wilsonia citrina 0,22 1,43 0,88 0,29 0,83 -
Spindalis zena 1,19 1,88 0,21 0,83
Passerina cyanea 0,24 0,83 0,11 -
Melopyrrha nigra 0,22 1,43 1,19 0,14 0,21 -
Tiaris canorus 0,21 1,25
Tiaris olivaceus -1,19 0,12 0,14 0,21 1,53
Quiscalus niger 0,69
Icterus melanopsis 0,22 0,24 -
Icterus galbula 0,14


%), la Sefiorita de Monte (11,58 %), la Caretica
(8,63 %) y el Zorzal Gato (Dumetella carolinensis)
(8,42 %), mientras que las residentes permanentes
mas abundantes fueron el Juan Chivi (32,05 %), el
Zorzal Real (15.38 %) y el Cabrero (Spindalis zena)
(12,82 %) (Tabla 3).
En el bosque siempreverde microfilo de Pelo de
Oro, las especies migratorias mas capturadas fueron
Dendroica caerulescens (19,7 %), S. ruticilla (24,2
%) y S. aurocapilla (10,3 %), mientras que en el
matorral xeromorfo costero de Camino del Medio
fueron tambien las mismas especies: S. ruticilla
(17,2 %), Dendroica caerulescens (12,9 %) y S.
aurocapilla (6,9 %), aunque hay que incorporar a
las poblaciones de Geothlypis trichas (8,3 %) (Tabla
4).
De todas las especies migratorias, la Bijirita de
Coronilla Anaranjada (Vermivora celata), el Cham-
berguito (Ammodramus savannarum) y el Cardenal
de Alas Negras (Piranga olivacea) pueden conside-
rarse entre las especies raras para Cuba capturadas
en esta localidad.
En las localidades de la region de Cayo Coco, las
especies migratorias con mayor numero de indivi-
duos capturados en el matorral xeromorfo costero
fueron Dendroica tigrina (9,3 %), Setophaga rutici-
Ila (4,4 %) y G. trichas (3,5 %). En el manglar S.
noveboracensis (22,04 %) y S. ruticilla (13,6 %),


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


mientras que en el bosque semideciduo bajo fueron
Dendroica caerulescens (12,9 %), S. ruticilla (10,89
%) y S. aurocapilla (10,2 %) (Tabla 4).
En Gibara las especies mas capturadas fueron S.
ruticilla en 1989 (16,04 %) y 1990 (12,9 %), D. cae-
rulescens en 1990 (6,8 %) y 1997 (17,9 %), S. auro-
capilla en 1989 (7,4 %) y 1997 (6,9 %), D. tigrina
en 1989 (6,8 %) y 1997 (5,5%) y Parula americana
en 1989 (15,7 %) (Tabla 2) (Rodriguez et al. 1994).
Esto significa que estas areas, durante los periodos
de migracion otofial, son muy importantes para las
aves migratorias nearticas porque sostienen un gran
numero de especies y de individuos.
En el pinar que hay en la localidad El Cayo en Mil
Cumbres, las aves migratorias fueron menos abun-
dantes (25,4%) que las residentes permanentes y
solo se destaca la Sefiorita de Monte con un valor
relativamente alto (Tabla 5). En el caso de la Sierra
de Cajalbana, la abundancia relativa de las aves mi-
gratorias fue la mas pobre, al igual que la riqueza de
especies.
Si analizamos los valores de tasa de captura y
abundancia relativa de las especies para todas las
localidades (Tablas 2-5), podemos determinar que
las especie migratorias mas abundantes fueron Den-
droica caerulescens, D. palmarum, Setophaga ruti-
cilla, Seiurus aurocapilla y Geothlypis trichas,
mientras que Turdus plumbeus, Vireo gundlachii y









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Tabla 3. Tasa de captura (aves/100 horas-red) por especie, area de muestreo y afio durante la migracion oto-
fial en la peninsula de Hicacos y cayo Santa Maria, Cuba, 1989-2001. BSVM = bosque siempreverde micro-
filo; MXC = matorral xeromorfo costero.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r)

Cayo Santa Maria
Peninsula de Hicacos BSVM MXC

Especie 1989 1990 1994 2001 2001

Patagioenas leucocephala 0,26 -
Zenaida aurita 0,15 0,28
Columbina passerina 4,55 2,72 0,30 0,26 -
Geotrygon chrysia 0,77 -
Saurothera merlini 0,38 0,30 0,30 0,28
Coccyzus americanus 1,67
Chlorostilbon ricordii 0,38 0,15 1,03 -
Xiphidiopicus percussus 0,38 0,91 0,30 0,26 1,11
Tyrannus caudifasciatus 0,76 1,79 0,28
Myiarchus sagrae 1,52 0,30 0,76 3,33 1,67
Contopus virens 0,45 -
Contopus caribaeus 0,38 -0,45 1,54 0,56
Empidonx minimus 0,26 0,00
Polioptila caerulea 0,38 0,60 -
Catharusfuscescens 0,91 0,28
Catharus minimus 0,26 0,56
Catharus ustulatus 0,56
Turdus plumbeus 1,82 1,54 1,11
Dumetella carolinensis 0,76 7,56 6,06 0.77 4,44
Mimus polyglottos 1,14 0,30 0,15 -
Vireo philadelphicus 0,30 -
Vireo gundlachii 5,31 6,05 3,79 4,10 1,67
Vireo griseus 0,38 0,91 0,76 0,26 0,28
Vireo flavifrons 0,28
Vireo olivaceus 0,38 -0,15 0,77 0,56
Vermivora celata 0,15 -
Parula americana 0,38 0,91 3,33 3,08 4,44
Dendroica pensylvanica 0,26 0,00
Dendroica magnolia 1,52 0,91 0,45 0,77 2,22
Dendroica tigrina 4,09 0,77 3,61
Dendroica caerulescens 2,65 3,63 21,82 17,44 12,22
Dendroicafusca 0,15 -
Dendroica striata 0,83
Dendroica discolor 5,69 2,72 2,58 3,33 2,50
Dendroica palmarum 7,96 3,33 2,73 0,51 5,28
Dendroica cerulea 0,96 -
Mniotilta varia 5,69 2,72 2,58 5,38 5,56
Setophaga ruticilla 6,07 6,35 5,91 19,74 16,11
Helmitherus vermivorum 0,30 1,67 1,79 3,06
Limnothlypis swainsonii 0,76 1,79 0,83
Seiurus aurocapilla 4,17 2,72 8,33 8,72 6,11
Seiurus noveboracensis 1,21 0,51 1,11


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Tabla 3 continuada.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r)

Cayo Santa Maria
Peninsula de Hicacos BSVM MXC

Especie 1989 1990 1994 2001 2001

Geothlypis trichas 8,34 11,79 6,21 1,03 8,06
Teretistrisfernandinae 0,38 1,51 -
Wilsonia citrina 1,03 0,83
Passerina cyanea 2,42 1,36 -
Passerina ciris -0,60 1,97 -0,83


Tabla 4. Tasa de captura (aves/100 horas-red) durante la migracion otofial en Cayo Coco, Cuba (1993 y
1994), en el bosque semideciduo (BSD) de Vereda Marquez, el matorral xeromorfo costero (MXC) de Pla-
ya Dorada, y el bosque de mangle mixto (BMM) de la Petrolera.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r) por Habitat

Especie BSD MXC BMM

Xiphidiopicus percussus 1,39 2,08 1,04
Coccyzus minor 0,39
Columbina passerina 0,69 2,43 -
Todus multicolor 0,35 0,69 0,78
Chlorostilbon ricordii 1,39 -
Turdus plumbeus 17,71 4,51 2,69
Mimus polyglottos 1,04 0,74
Mimus gundlachii 0,35 -
Polioptila lembeyei 0,69 -
Tyrannus caudifasciatus 2,08 2,08 2,21
Contopus caribaeus 0,69 1,52
Myiarchus sagrae 0,35 0,39
Vireo gundlachii 1,04 4,17 0,39\
Vireo griseus 0,35 -
Vireo gilvus 0,39
Dumetella carolinensis 6,94 1,74 0,74
Helmitheros vermivorum 2,08 1,04 0,35
Limnothlypis swainsonii 2,78 0,78
Dendroica caerulescens 16,32 0,35 2,13
Dendroica tigrina 1,39 14,20 0,69
Dendroica discolor 1,74 0,78
Dendroica palmarum 0,35 0,69 13,00
Dendroica magnolia 0,35 0,69
Dendroica dominica -0,35 -
Vermivora peregrina 0,35 -
Mniotilta varia 2,08 1,74 2,86
Parula americana 0,35 1,17
Wilsonia citrina 0,35 -
Setophaga ruticilla 9,72 1,74 9,16


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Tabla 4 continuada.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r) por Habitat
Especie BSD MXC BMM

Protonotaria citrea 0,35 -
Teretistrisfornsi 3,13 2,78 1,48
Seiurus aurocapilla 6,94 1,74 2,17
Seiurus noveboracensis 23,60
Geothlypis trichas 0,69 0,69 5,16
Torreornis inexpectata 0,35 0,69 -
Spindalis zena 2,08 5,56 2,56
Melopyrrha nigra 1,39 6,60 17,80
Tiaris olivaceus 0,35 4,51 1,56
Passerina cyanea 1,39 1,39 0,35
Passerina ciris 0,69 -
Ammodramus savannarum 0,34 -
Quiscalus niger -4,43



Tabla 5. Tasa de captura (aves/100 horas-red) por especie y localidad durante la migracion otofial en Mil
Cumbres y Pinares de Mayari, Cuba 1994-1998.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r), Localidad y Afio

Mil Cumbres Pinares de Mayari

El Cayo Cajalbana La Caridad La Caridad Mensura II Mensura II

Especie 1994 1994 1996 1997 1996 1997

Falco sparverius 0,24 -
Columbina passerina 3,10 1,57 -0,22
Glaucidium siju 0,24 0,48 -
Chlorostilbon ricordii 1,67 0,24 1,43 3,14 0,93 0.67
Priotelus temnurus 0,24 -
Todus multicolor 0,71 1,43 0,71 0,20 -0,67
Xiphidiopicus percussus 0,48 0,48 -
Sphyrapicus varius 0,24 -
Tyrannus caudifasciatus 0,71 -- 0,39 0,19
Myiarchus sagrae 0,39 0,19 -
Contopus caribaeus 0,24 0,48 0,48 0,20 0,19 0,44
Turdus plumbeus 1,43 1,19 3,10 1,57 0,93 0,22
Dumetella carolinensis 1,67 -
Mimus polyglottos 1,43 0,39 -
Vireo gundlachii 0,24 1,19 0,71 0,59 -
Parula americana 0,24 0,24 -
Dendroica magnolia 0,71 -
Dendroica tigrina 3,10 2,55 -
Dendroica caerulescens 0,48 17,62 9,02 0,74 2,00
Dendroica striata 0,20 -
Dendroica pityophila 0,48 1,43 2,41 3,11
Dendroica discolor 0,71 0,39 0,22


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Tabla 5 continuada.


Tasa de Captura (Aves/100 h-r), Localidad y Afio
Mil Cumbres Pinares de Mayari

El Cayo Cajalbana La Caridad La Caridad Mensura II Mensura II
Especie 1994 1994 1996 1997 1996 1997

Dendroica palmarum 0,24 0,48 2,14 1,37 0,93 0,67
Mniotilta varia 0,48 0,48 0,39 0,56 0,22
Setophaga ruticilla 1,19 1,43 2,35 0,19 0,22
Helmitherus vermivorum 0,48 -0,24 0,20 -
Limnothlypis swainsonii 0,24 -
Seiurus aurocapilla 2,86 0,48 0,48 0,39 0,93 0,44
Geothlypis trichas 0,48 0,24 -
Teretistrisfernandinae 9,52 2,38 -
Teretistris fornsi 2,38 1.76 -0,67
Wilsonia citrina 0,48 -
Cyanerpes cyaneus 0,95 -
Spindalis zena 1,90 0,48 12,86 7,65 -
Melopyrrha nigra 4,76 3,33 7,38 10,20 -
Tiaris canora 0,95 1,67 0,71 0,59 -
Tiaris olivacea 3,33 1,90 3,57 4,71 0,56 0,22


Tiaris olivaceus fueron las residentes permanentes
que mas individuos aportaron a la comunidad. Las
bijiritas endemicas Chillina (T. fernandinae) en la
region occidental y Pechero (T. fornsi) en la oriental
estuvieron entre las mas abundantes tambien.
La determinacion de los porcentajes en riqueza de
especies, tasa de captura y abundancia relativa para
migratorias y residentes por area, en las zonas coste-
ras de peninsula de Hicacos y cayo Santa Maria dio
por resul-tado que los mayores valores fueron para
las aves migratorias, mientras que la riqueza y abun-
dancia de aves residentes es menor en dichas areas,
a diferencia de los pinares de El Cayo y Sierra de
Cajalbana, donde predominan las especies residen-
tes permanentes con una abundancia mayor de las
endemicas. En el bosque siempreverde microfilo, el
matorral xeromorfo costero y la vegetacion secun-
daria se registry la mayor riqueza y abundancia de
aves migratorias.
Aunque algunas de estas areas presentan valores
relativamente bajos de tasa de captura durante la
residencia invernal, como son los casos de las Cale-
tas (cayo Santa Maria) y Gibara (Gonzalez et al.
1999), en el periodo de migracion otofial las aves
migratorias nearticas neotropicales constituyen alre-
dedor del 50 % de las especies y entre el 50 y el 75
% de las aves capturadas.
Las areas del interior del pais mostraron valores


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


mas altos en riqueza y abundancia durante la migra-
ci6n otofial que durante la residencia invernal, pero
fueron menores que las de las zonas costeras. Esto
indica que las aves migratorias arriban a las costas
de Cuba y despues se van dispersando por los dife-
rentes habitat del archipielago donde se desarrollan
tambien movimientos migracionales, aunque en
menor grado.
En la region de Guanahacabibes, las poblaciones
de Monjita (Wilsonia citrina) fueron relativamente
abundantes, mientras que en la region centro-
oriental (desde cayo Santa Maria hasta Gibara), las
poblaciones de la Bijirita Atigrada (Dendroica tigri-
na) mostraron altos valores de tasa de captura
(Tablas 2 y 3). Rodriguez y Sanchez (1995) comen-
taron sobre esta ultima especie que solo se habia
capturado en los cayos del Archipielago Sabana-
Camagiley y Gibara, al comparar sus resultados con
anillamientos hechos hasta ese momento en Guana-
hacabibes e Hicacos, pero en este trabajo se captura-
ron individuos de esta especie en el faro Roncali en
el afio 2000 (Anexo) (Perez et al., en preparacion),
peninsula de Guanahacabibes.
Con respecto a la Bijirita de Cabeza Negra
(Dendroica striata), Rodriguez y Sanchez (1995)
expusieron que esta especie pasa, fundamentalmen-
te, por la region centro-este de Cuba. Por los resul-
tados obtenidos en este trabajo, al parecer tambien









GONZALEZ ETAL. -MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


utiliza el corredor que pasa por la region mas occi-
dental del archipielago cubano, porque fue capturada
en el area del faro Roncali en Guanahacabibes
(Gonzalez et al., 1999).
La Bijirita Azul de Garganta Negra (Dendroica
caerulescens) es una especie que se localiza en todas
las regiones de Cuba, sin embargo, durante este tra-
bajo se pudo determinar que las poblaciones mas
abundantes se localizan en las localidades del centro
y oriente del archipielago cubano (Tablas 2, 3 y 4).
Aunque el Zorzal Gato (Dumetella carolinensis)
esta registrado para la mayoria de las localidades
estudiadas, los mayores valores de tasa de captura se
obtuvieron en la region central del pais (Tablas 2, 3
y 4), por lo que al parecer utiliza, fundamentalmen-
te, la ruta migratoria de la Costa Atlantica y, mas
especificamente el corredor de la region central de
Cuba.
Existieron especies que solo se detectaron en el
occidente y centro de Cuba como son los casos del
Tordo Pecoso (Hylocichla mustelina), el Tordo de
Mejillas Grises (Catharus minimus), la Bijirita de
Kentucky (Oporornis formosus), la Bijirita de Wil-
son (Wilsonia pusilla), la Monja Tricolor (Lonchura
malacca), el Tordo Colorado (Catharus fuscescens)
y el Vireo de Filadelfia (Vireo philadelphicus). La
Bijirita de Coronilla Anaranjada (Vermivora celata)
fue registrada por Kirkconnell et al. (1997) para el
occidente del pais y en este trabajo la encontramos


en el centro, mientras que la Reinita (Coereba fla-
veola) solo se registry para el centro del pais. Raf-
faelle et al. (1998) sefialaron que Catharus minimus
y Wilsonia pusilla se distribuyen en el occidente y
centro de nuestro archipielago y en todos los casos
las valoran como raras y/o vagrantes, lo cual se con-
firmo en nuestro trabajo.
Estos resultados nos indican que existen especies
que utilizan exclusivamente o en mayor medida un
corredor migratorio que otro.
Si analizamos los valores de la tasa de captura por
dia de muestreo en las areas de la peninsula de Gua-
nahacabibes, se pudo determinar que en El Veral y
Cabo Corrientes se mantuvieron bastante estables
(Fig. 2). En Las Tumbas (1997), la tasa de captura
aumento a partir del cuarto dia debido a la entrada,
la noche anterior, de una fuerte migracion de aves
que arribaron delante de un frente frio.
Estos resultados nos indican que existen especies
que utilizan exclusivamente o en mayor medida un
corredor migratorio que otro.
Si analizamos los valores de la tasa de captura por
dia de muestreo en las areas de la peninsula de Gua-
nahacabibes, se pudo determinar que en El Veral y
Cabo Corrientes se mantuvieron bastante estables
(Fig. 2). En Las Tumbas (1997), la tasa de captura
aumento a partir del cuarto dia debido a la entrada,
la noche anterior, de una fuerte migracion de aves
que arribaron delante de un frente frio.


Fig. 2. Tasa de captura (aves/100 h-r) por dia de muestreo en la migracion otofial para las localidades de las
regiones peninsula de Guanahacabibes, Cordillera de Guaniguanico, peninsula de Hicacos y cayo Santa Ma-
ria.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


Z 155 -- Hicacos 89 --- Hicacos 90
-o -- Caletas 94 Cayo 94
S135 -- Cajalbana 94 El Veral 96
\ -- C. Corrientes 96 Las Tumbas 97
5 -*- Las Tumbas 98
115

S95

- 75

5 55

35 -

15 -

-5
Iro. 2do. 3er. 4to. 5to.
Dias de muestreo









GONZALEZ ETAL. -MIGRACION TOTAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


-- Charrascal 96
- Pinar 96
--Charrascal 97
-- Pinar 97


I 30

20

10

0


2
Dias de muestreo


Fig. 3. Tasa de captura (aves/100 h-r) por dia de muestreo en las localidades de la Altiplanicie de Nipe durante
la migracion otofial.


Los valores de la Tasa de captura por dia de mues-
treo se comportaron de forma similar para las areas
de peninsula de Hicacos, Las Caletas y Las Tumbas
(Fig. 2). En estos casos disminuyo en el segundo
dia, para aumentar ligeramente en el tercer dia y
volver a disminuir en el cuarto. En el Cayo y Sierra
de Cajalbana se mantu-vieron estables durante los
tres dias de muestreo. En la Altiplanicie de Nipe
(Fig. 3) en algunos casos los valores se mantuvieron
estables, pero en otros como en el charrascal en
1997, fluctuo de forma considerable.
Estas fluctuaciones de la tasa de captura por dia se
deben a la entrada de las aves migratorias a las areas
de muestreo. Si analizamos los datos de tasa de cap-
tura de las especies migratorias mas abundantes en
la peninsula de Hicacos, se pudo determinar que los
mayores valores en los primeros dos dias de 1989
correspondieron a S. ruticilla, D. discolor y D. pal-
marum. En el tercer dia hubo un aumento debido a
la entrada de una gran cantidad de aves de G. tri-
chas. Del cuarto al sexto dia hubo un fuerte arribo
de D. palmarum, M. varia, S. ruticilla y D. caerules-
cens (Gonzalez et al. 2000).
En los cuatro primeros dias de 1990 las mayores
capturas correspondieron a D. caerulescens, S. ruti-
cilla, G. trichas y D. carolinensis. En el quinto dia,
la mayor migracion fue de G. trichas y D. caerules-
cens.
Esto nos indica que durante la migracion, cada dia
predominan diferentes especies que realizan su tra-
vesia en grupos, lo cual debe ser un mecanismo de
proteccion de sus poblaciones ante los depredadores
y otros factores que pudieran afectarlas.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


CONCLUSIONES
Dentro de los corredores migratorios existen re-
giones con caracteristicas muy importantes para el
refugio y alimentacion de las aves migratorias du-
rante la migracion otofial como son los casos de la
peninsula de Guanahacabibes, peninsula de Hica-
cos, los cayos Santa Maria y Coco y Gibara.
Existen diferencias en la utilizacion de las dife-
rentes regiones de Cuba por parte de algunas espe-
cies nearticas neotropicales.
El archipielago cubano es una region de gran im-
portancia para la proteccion de las aves migratorias
nearticas neotropicales.

RECOMENDACION
Los resultados obtenidos deben ser utilizados para
los planes de manejo de dichas localidades y deben
tener en cuenta estos aspectos para la conservacion
de areas que sirvan para estos propositos. Esto se
pudiera cumplimentar mediante la proteccion estric-
ta de las localidades mas importantes para las aves
migratorias y mejorar los habitat de las mismas con
un manejo adecuado de los diferentes tipos de vege-
tacion presentes.

AGRADECIMIENTOS
Queremos dejar constancia de nuestro agradeci-
miento a los especialistas y tecnicos de ECOVIDA,
de la Unidad de Mil Cumbres perteneciente a la
Empresa para la Proteccion de la Flora y la Fauna,
Parque Varhicacos, Centro de Investigaciones de
Ecosistemas Costeros de cayo Coco y Unidad de
Medio Ambiente de Holguin por la colaboracion en


70

60

50

40


/*s


i


~c~c~









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONTAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


el trabajo de campo. Al especialista Arturo Hernan-
dez por la confeccion del mapa y al Dr. James Wi-
ley por la revision del manuscrito.

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Gibara, Provincia de Holguin. Garciana 3:1.


Anexo. Lista de las especies detectadas en las 16 localidades muestreadas por capturas y conteos durante la
migracion otoial en Cuba, 1998-2003.


Estado de Localidadb
Especie Residenciaa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Cathartes aura RP X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Accipiter striatus RB X X----
Accipiter gundlachi RP X X--
Buteojamaicensis RP X- X -- X
Buteoplatypterus RB X X X X X X
Buteogallus anthracinus RP X X -- X
Circus cyaneus RI -- X-- --
Falco sparverius RB X X X X X X X X
Falcoperegrinus RI X -X- ---
Falco columbarius RI X -X X -X X X
Caracara cheriway RP X
Patagioenas leucocephala RB X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Patagioenas squamosa RP X X -- X
Zenaida macroura RB X X X X X X X X X X
Zenaida asiatica RP X X XX X X X-
Zenaida aurita RP X X X X X X X
Columbina passerina RP X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Geotrygon caniceps RP X- -----
Geotrygon chrysie RP X X X X X X X X X
Geotrygon montana RP X X X X X -- X
Starnoenas cyanocephala RP X X
Amazona leucocephala RP X X X
Coccyzus americanus RV X X X X X
Coccyzus minor RP -
Saurothera merlini RP X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
Crotophaga ani RP X X X X X X X X X X
Gymnoglaux lawrencii RP --- X X X
Glaucidium siju RP X X X X X X X
Asiostygius RP X


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006











GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Anexo continuado.


Estado de Localidadb

Especie Residenciaa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


Caprimulgus carolinensis
Caprimulgus cubanensis
Chordeiles gundlachi
Tachornis phoenicobia
Chaetura pelagica
Chlorostilbon ricordii
Mellisuga helenae
Priotelus temnurus
Todus multicolor
Colaptes auratus
Melanerpes superciliaris
Sphyrapicus varius
Xiphidiopicus percussus
Tyrannus caudifasciatus
Myiarchus sagrae
Contopus virens
Contopus caribaeus
Empidonax virescens
Empidonax traillii
Tachycineta bicolor
Stelgidopteryx serripennis
Hirundo rustica
Petrochelidon pyrrhonota
Petrochelidonfulva
Corvus nasicus
Polioptila lembeyei
Polioptila caerulea
Myadestes elisabeth
Catharus fuscescens
Catharus ustulatus
Catharus minimus
Hylocichla mustelina
Turdus plumbeus
Dumetella carolinensis
Mimus polyglottos
Bombycilla cedrorum
Vireo griseus
Vireo gundlachii
Vireoflavifrons
Vireo philadelphicus
Vireo gilvus
Vireo olivaceus
Vermivora pinus
Vermivora peregrina
Vermivora ruficapilla
Vermivora celata
Parula americana
Dendroica pensylvanica
Dendroica petechia
Dendroica magnolia
Dendroica tigrina
Dendroica caerulescens


X
X X
X


X X
-


X X x X
x x x x x
x
x x x x
x
X X x x
xxxxx
xxxx


-

X X X
- X


X


X X X X X X X X X X X X


X X X
X X X
X X X
- X
X X X


X X X


X X


X X X
X X X
X X


X- -
- x

x x


X X X X
X X
- - x
xxxX

XXXx


X X X
- X
X


- -X X

x x x x


X X X
X X X
- X


X
x
x
x
X
X
X


X X X X


X X
-


X
X
X X


X X

- - X
XXXx


X
X X
X
X


X
X X
X


X X
-


X X


X X X X


X
- - x




- X X X

XXXx


X X X X X X X


X
X
X X


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006











GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Anexo continuado.


Estado de Localidadb

Especie Residenciaa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16


Dendroica coronata
Dendroica virens
Dendroicafusca
Dendroica dominica
Dendroica pinus
Dendroica pityophila
Dendroica discolor
Dendroica castanea
Dendroica palmarum
Dendroica striata
Dendroica cerulea
Mniotilta varia
Setophaga ruticilla
Protonotaria citrea
Helmitherus vermivorum
Limnothlypis swainsonii
Seiurus aurocapilla
Seiurus noveboracensis
Seiurus motacilla
Oporornis formosus
Geothlypis trichas
Teretistris fernandinae
Teretistris fornsi
Wilsonia citrina
Wilsonia pusilla
Coerebaflaveola
Cyanerpes cyaneus
Spindalis zena
Piranga rubra
Piranga olivacea
Pheuticus ludovicianus
Passerina caerulea
Passerina cyanea
Passerina ciris
Melopyrrha nigra
Tiaris canorus
Tiaris olivaceus
Torreornis inexpectata
Spizella passerina
Spizella pallida
Chondestes grammacus
Passerculus sandwichensis
Melospiza lincolnii
Ammodramus savannarum
Agelaius humeralis
Sturnella magna
Dives atroviolaceus
Quiscalus niger
Icterus melanopsis
Icterus spurius
Icterus galbula


X
X X
X
X


X X

X X X X


X X X
X X X
-
x X
X
X X X
X X
x X
x x


-

x x


X x x x X X X X


X X X X X


- -x x x x
x x x x x x


X X
X X

S x x
- x x


- X X X X
X x X X X
x x x - -
X X X- -
- X - -


X X
X X
X
X
X
X X


-- X-
x x x x x


X X
X x


X X X X X
---X X


X X
X
X X
X


X


-
X X X


S-

X X


X X


X X
-


X X


X X
x xx x x x x


-

X X X
- X


-
X X


X X X X


X X X -

x
- - x

X X X -
xxxx

XXXX


X X


X X
X
X X


X X X X X

X -
x x


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL. MIGRACION OTONIAL EN VARIAS REGIONES DE CUBA


Anexo continuado.


aEstado de residencia: RP
de verano.
bLocalidad:


residente permanente; RI = residente invemal; T = transeinte; RV= residente


Regiones Localidades No. Tipo de vegetacion Afio de muestreo
Guanahacabibes El Veral 1 BSD, BC 1996
Cabo Corrientes 2 BSD, BSV 1996
Las Tumbas 3 BSD 1997-1998
Faro Roncali 4 1998-1999, 2000
Mil Cumbres Cajalbana 5 P-CUABAL 1994
El Cayo 6 P 1994

Peninsula de Hicacos Punta Frances 7 MXC,BSV 1989-1990
Cayo Santa Maria Caletas 8 BSV 1994
Pelo de Oro 9 BSVM 2002
Camino del Medio 10 MXC 2002

Cayo Coco Vereda Marquez 11 BSD 1992-1993
Playa Dorada 12 MXC 1992-1993
La Petrolera 13 BM 1992-1993

Gibara Caletones 14 BSV 1989-1990, 1997
Pinares de Mayari La Caridad 15 Ch 1996-1997
Mensura II 16 P 1996-1997
"Tipo de vegetacion: BSD = bosque semideciduo; BC = bosque de cienaga; BSV = bosque siempre-
verde; P = pinar; MXC = matorral xeromorfo costero; BSVM = bosque siempreverde microfilo; BM
= bosque de mangle; CH = charrascal.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









J Carib. Ornithol. 19:91-96, 2006


RECENT BREEDING RECORDS AND STATUS REVIEW OF THE RUDDY DUCK
(OXYURA JAMAICENSIS) ON ST. CROIX, U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS

DOUGLAS B. MCNAIR', LISA D. YNTEMA2, CAROL CRAMER-BURKE3, AND SHEELAGH L. FROMER4
1Division ofFish and Wildlife, Department ofPlanning and Natural Resources, 45 Mars Hill, Frederiksted, United
States Virgin Islands 00840, USA; current address: Sapphos Environmental, Inc., 133 Martin Alley, Pasadena, Cali-
fornia 91105, USA; e-mail: dmcnair@sapphosenvironmental.com; 2Post Office Box 1488, Frederiksted, United States
Virgin Islands 00841-1488, USA; 3St. Croix Environmental Association, Arawak Building, Suite #3, Christiansted,
United States Virgin Islands 00820, USA; 4Post Office Box 1600, Kingshill, United States Virgin Islands 00851-1600

Abstract: The Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) has previously nested once on St. Croix, United States Virgin
Islands, during the first half of the 20th century at Rust-op-Twist Salt Pond. We document recent breeding records
(2005-2006) of the Ruddy Duck on St. Croix, at Southgate Pond. These breeding records strengthen the argument
that Southgate Pond, and formerly Rust-op-Twist, are the two most productive seasonal salt ponds on St. Croix for
rare waterbirds.
Key words: breeding record, nests, non-breeding status, Oxyura jamaicensis, Ruddy Duck, St. Croix, salt pond,
Southgate Pond, subspecies, surveys, US Virgin Islands, waterbirds

Resumen: REGISTROS RECIENTES DE CRIA Y REVISION DEL ESTADO DE OXYURA JAMAICENSIS EN SAN CROIX, ISLAS
VIRGENES DE EEUU. El Pato Chorizo (Oxyurajamaicensis) ha nidificado una vez anteriormente en San Croix, Islas
Virgenes de EEUU, durante la primera mitad del siglo 20 en Rust-op-Twist Salt Pond. Documentamos registros
recientes de cria (2005-2006) del Pato Chorizo en Southgate Pond, San Croix. Estos registros apoyan fuertemente
que Southgate Pond, y anteriormente Rust-op-Twist, son dos de los humedales estacionales mas productivos en San
Croix para especies de aves acuaticas raras.
Palabras clave: aves acuaticas, estado no reproductivo, humedal, muestreos, nidos, Islas Virgenes de EEUU, Oxy-
urajamaicensis, registros de cria, San Croix, Southgate Pond, subespecie

Resume : OBSERVATIONS RECENTES DE NIDIHCATION DE L'ERISMATURE ROUSSE A ST. CROIX, ILES VIERGES
AMERICAINES. L'Erismature rousse (Oxyurajamaicensis) avait niche une seule fois a St. Croix, Iles Vierges Ameri-
caines, dans la premiere moiti6 du 20 bme siecle a Rust-op-Twist Salt Pond. Nous fournissons des donnees recentes
de nidification (2005-2006) de l'espece a St. Croix, Southgate Pond. Ces observations appuient l'hypothese que
Southgate Pond, et autrefois Rust-op-Twist, sont les deux salines temporaires les plus riches a St. Croix pour les
especes rares d'oiseaux d'eau.
Mots-clds : Erismature rousse, etudes, Iles Vierges americaines, nidification, nids, oiseaux d'eau, statut non ni-
cheur, Oxyurajamaicensis, St. Croix, saline, Southgate Pond, sous-espece


NEWTON AND NEWTON (1859; see Wetmore
1927) probably first reported Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura
jamaicensis; rather than the Masked Duck Nomonyx
dominicus) on St. Croix at Southgate Pond during
spring 1857 (9 March to 15 June), when in May as
many as 20-25 birds were seen, the largest number
reported in the United States Virgin Islands. Other
than at Rust-op-Twist Salt Pond, Seaman (1973,
1993) also stated that Ruddy Ducks were "fairly
common" at Southgate Pond in the 1920s. Ruddy
Ducks have regularly occurred at Southgate Pond
(Beatty 1930, Danforth 1935), although with only
three reports they were scarce there and at another
site (Granard South Pond, a man-made freshwater
pond) on St. Croix during the 1980s (Norton 1984,
1987, Sladen 1992, Sladen unpubl. data).
The Ruddy Duck (0. j. jamaicensis) has previ-



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


ously nested once on St. Croix, during the first half
of the 20th century at Rust-op-Twist Salt Pond
where Seaman (1973) stated it was "fairly common"
during the 1920s, probably when a nest with seven
very large eggs was discovered (Seaman 1993).
Ruddy Ducks also nested in "small numbers" from
1936-1943 in the northern U. S. Virgin Islands at
salt ponds on some of the cays, the St. Jameses cays
and Dog Island (Nichols 1943); Nichols observed
adults with dependent young on several occasions
and he reported second-hand information from fish-
ermen that as many as twelve eggs were laid in a
clutch.
We recently documented breeding records of rare
and uncommon waterbirds on St. Croix (McNair et
al. 2005, 2006). Of 24 species of waterbirds that
have nested at least once on St. Croix since the late









McNAIR ETAL. -RUDDY DUCK ON ST. CROIX, U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS


1850s (excluding three extirpated species), we failed
to confirm only one species since 2002, the Ruddy
Duck. Therefore, we document herein recent breed-
ing records (2005-2006) of the Ruddy Duck from St.
Croix at Southgate Pond, the first in the U. S. Virgin
Islands since the first half of the 20th century. This
information includes the first detailed description of
Ruddy Duck nests in the Caribbean. We also review
available taxonomic information, even though sub-
species designations are disputed, and provide addi-
tional information on their current non-breeding
status on St. Croix since 2002.

STUDY AREA AND METHODS
Southgate Pond (17045'29.6"N, 64039'45.9"W) is
the largest (17.9 ha) seasonal brackish pond on St.
Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands. Most manglars (islets of
one or more manglars without solid land) occur in
the eastern end of this mangrove-ringed pond, which
has little emergent herbaceous vegetation (see
McNair and Cramer-Burke 2006 for a detailed site
description). The water level decline was nearly
constant throughout the study period in 2005 (x =
0.58 cm/d; McNair and Cramer-Burke 2006). We
obtained monthly salinity measurements at South-
gate Pond by using a temperature-compensated re-
fractometer (accurate to within 1 ppt).
Bimonthly counts and nest surveys of Ruddy
Ducks in 2005 otherwise roughly followed protocols
for coots (Fulica spp.) in McNair and Cramer-Burke
(2006), but ground surveys in 2006 were less fre-
quent and more opportunistic. Ruddy Duck nests
were marked with numbered flagging and the loca-
tion of each nest was recorded with a global posi-
tioning system (GPS) unit. After adjusting for stead-
ily falling water levels, water depth below the nest
for nests in 2005 was adjusted to the estimated date
of clutch initiation. For abandoned nests that still
contained clutches, we crudely estimated dates of
clutch initiation by backdating from the time the
lowest eggs in the clutch must have been just above
water level, allowing for one egg laid per day and an
incubation period of 23-24 d (Brua 2002). Ruddy
Ducks require access to nests at or just above water
level because they are helpless on land (Brua 2002).
We also crudely estimated the date of clutch initia-
tion from the age of young, assuming juvenile plum-
age is complete at 8-9 wk and young first fly be-
tween 7.5-9.5 wk post-hatch (Hochbaum 1944, Sieg-
fried 1973, Joyner 1977a). For nests and broods in
2006 we simply present breeding information from
the dates of discovery.
The bright plumage of adult male ducks was tradi-


tionally considered to represent alternate plumage,
which is derived from the prealternate molt (e.g.,
Humphrey and Parkes 1959, Palmer 1972, 1976).
However, Pyle (2005) recently provided evidence
that bright male (and female) plumage is derived
from the prebasic rather than prealternate molt, and
should be considered to represent basic plumage.
Pyle (2005) noted that the Ruddy Duck is the one
exception where the bright plumage is the alternate
plumage; thus, our terms for molt are consistent with
both the traditional and alternative interpretations.

RESULTS
Ruddy Ducks were first observed at Southgate
Pond during autumn 2004 on 14 October, when
birds were in basic plumage, but by late November
birds were in alternate plumage (Table 1). In 2005,
we observed three flightless young accompanied by
an adult female along the west end of Southgate
Pond from 22 March to 9 April 2005, when the
young were mostly feathered (ca. 60% grown). We
discovered three abandoned clutches of seven, 10,
and 12 eggs (Fig. 1) nestled at the bottom of bowl-
shaped bases of dense "peg roots" (Jenik 1967) of
white mangroves (Laguncularia racemosa) from 30
March to 6 April. The approximate clutch initiation
dates for these three clutches were probably 1-25
February, when the salinity at Southgate Pond was
5-6%. The nests did not contain any nest materials
and were placed away from the shoreline in separate
areas of the largest clump of manglars (see McNair
and Cramer-Burke 2006), which had greater over-
head cover and reduced light infiltration compared
to other manglars at Southgate Pond. The mean
nearest internest distance was 6.49 m (range: 2.55-
8.53 m). Water depth (from the bottom of the lowest
eggs in each nest to the pond bottom) when egg-
laying was probably initiated was approximately 38,
25, and 23 cm for each nest. Up to 13 adult Ruddy
Ducks of both sexes (seven males, six females in-
cluding the adult with young) in full alternate plum-
age were present at Southgate Pond when the water
was turbid and submerged aquatic vegetation scarce.
The three young were not seen at Southgate Pond
after 9 April, but were soon located thereafter at
Granard South Pond. Some adults remained at
Southgate Pond through 6 July.
Ruddy Ducks were first observed at Southgate
Pond during autumn 2005 on 17 December, when
birds were in alternate plumage. We discovered four
abandoned nests with incomplete clutches in white
mangroves at Southgate Pond in 2006. The first nest
was discovered on 28 January in the same large


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006










McNAIR ETAL. -RUDDY DUCK ON ST. CROIX, U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS


Table 1. Occurrences of Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) on St. Croix, United States Virgin Islands, from
2002 to June 2006.


No. of No. of
Site Habitat Year Date(s) months birds Sex Age Plumage
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2002 23 Feb 1 5 ? ? basic
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2002 24 Jun 1 1 M ad alternate
Granard South Pond Fresh 2002 13 Jul-2 Sep 2 1 F ? ?
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2003 13-28 Jan 1 1-2a M, F ad alternate
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2003 27 Apr 1 1 M ? ?
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2003 1 Jun 1 1 F ? ?
Southgate Pond Brackish 2004 25-31 Jan 1 1 F imm basic I
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2004 25 Feb-25 Mar 1 1 M ad alternate
Granard South Pond Fresh 2004 3 Apr-10 Jul 3 1-3b 3M, 1F ad alternate
Schuster Lower Pond Fresh 2004 5 Aug-2 Oct 2 1-2 M, F ad basic (M)
Southgate Pond Brackish 2004-2005 14 Oct-6 Jul 9 2-13 7M, 6F ad, ? alternate'
Diamond Pond Fresh 2004 19 Dec 1 1 M ad alternate
Granard South Pond Fresh 2004 30 Dec 1 1 M ad alternate
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2005 31 Jan 1 1 M ad alternate
Granard South Pond Fresh 2005 30 Mar-15 Sep 6 5-12 7M, 5F ad, imm alternate,
basic
Schuster Lower Pond Fresh 2005 12 Apr-14 May 1 1-6 2M, 4F ad alternate
Manning Bay East Brackish 2005 3 May 1 1 F ? ?
Schuster Lower Pond Fresh 2005 9 Jul-22 Sep 3 1-2 2M ad alternate
Schuster Lower Pond Fresh 2005 21 Jul-4 Aug 1 1-3 3F ad ?
Southgate Pond Brackish 2005-2006 17 Dec-17 Jun 7 1-15 8M, 7F ad alternate
Rust-op-Twist Brackish 2006 17 Jan 1 2 M, F ad alternatee
Fredensborg Pond Fresh 2006 30 Apr 1 1 F ad ?
Granard South Pond Fresh 2006 1 Jun 1 1 F ? ?
Schuster Upper Pond Fresh 2006 22 Jun 1 1 M ad basic
apair photographed on 13 January by F. E. Hayes.
bpair photographed on 6 April and two males photographed on 23 June; all photos by C. Cramer-Burke; the female disap-
peared after 23 June, when one more male appeared from 29 June to 1 July.
one male was in full alternate plumage on 3 November; all birds except possibly one male and several females were in full
alternate plumage by 27 November.
dup to seven males and five females were present; by 2 August, four males were still in full alternate plumage, and three
males were in basic plumage; the three fledged juveniles from the brood at Southgate Pond were also present on 19
April, when they appeared to be 80% grown, and remained until at least 23 June.
epair in full alternate plumage, male displaying.


clump of manglars where Ruddy Ducks nested in
2005. This nest had a clutch of 11 eggs; one young
ca. 20% grown was also present, but the fate of this
bird was unknown. The second nest was found on 8
March in a large manglar in the northeastern section
of the pond. It had a clutch of 10 eggs (five in the
nest, five outside the cup created by the crotch and
rootlets of white mangroves). The third and fourth
nests were found on 22 March in a row of manglars
along the south shore of Southgate Pond. These
nests had clutches of six and eight eggs, respec-
tively, with some eggs from each nest outside the
cup. By 6 April some eggs were still present in all
nests, but more were present in mangrove roots out-



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


side the nest cup or further out into the water. Five
young ca. 20% grown from a presumptive fifth nest
that was not located were seen on 19 April, whereas
four young were present from 21 April to 10 May.
The fate of these young was unknown. The mean
nearest internest distance was 78.7 m (range: 23.9-
113.7 m, n = 3). One to 15 adult Ruddy Ducks (up
to eight males and seven females) in full alternate
plumage were present on the above dates and re-
mained through at least 30 June 2006.
Since 2002 approximately 75% of all Ruddy
Duck observations on St. Croix have been of birds
in full alternate plumage (Table 1). Historically,
Ruddy Duck specimens collected at Southgate Pond









RUDDY DUCK ON ST. CROIX, U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS


Fig. 1. Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis) nest
(RD3) discovered on 30 March 2005 with an aban-
doned clutch of 12 eggs (one egg hidden in photo).
Note that the eggs are in layers. However, the con-
cavity of the nest site was probably too small to
have allowed the female to align all the eggs into
one layer, which typically occurs once incubation
begins (Low 1941; also see Joyner 1977b). Photo by
C. Cramer-Burke.


included (1) four birds (whereabouts unknown) from
a flock of ten on 5 October 1922 (Beatty 1930), (2)
adult male O. j. jamaicensis in alternate plumage on
28 August 1933 (USNM 353616; Danforth 1935),
and (3) a female O. j. jamaicensis in basic plumage
on 11 February 1956 (ANSP 169876). The only
specimen on St. Croix collected away from South-
gate Pond was nearby, on the road to Green Cay
Marina (formerly part of Southgate Pond), where an
adult female O. j. jamaicensis in full alternate plum-
age was found dead on 9 December 1983 (UMMZ
228331).
In addition to Southgate Pond, we detected Ruddy
Ducks at five man-made freshwater ponds
(Diamond Pond, Fredensborg Pond, Granard South
Pond, Schuster Lower Pond, Schuster Upper Pond)
and two other salt ponds (Manning Bay East and
Rust-op-Twist) on St. Croix since 2002 (Table 1; see
McNair 2005 and McNair et al. 2005 for site-
specific geographical coordinates). Although Ruddy
Ducks have been present on St. Croix during every
month of the year, observations across sites since
2002 have not overlapped except for short-term ob-
servations (< 2 months) at four freshwater ponds and
at Manning Bay East when Ruddy Ducks were pre-
sent at Southgate Pond from October 2004 to July
2005 and at three freshwater ponds when Ruddy
Ducks were present at Southgate Pond from Decem-


ber 2005 to June 2006. Otherwise, the longest time
Ruddy Ducks have been continually present at any
site was at Granard South Pond from March to Sep-
tember 2005. Ruddy Ducks did not breed at this site,
or at any other freshwater pond.

DISCUSSION
American Coot and Ruddy Duck densities tend to
be inversely related on the breeding grounds (Nudds
1981), especially around coot nests and after their
young hatch (Gullion 1953, Ryder 1959, Ryan and
Dinsmore 1979). Ruddy Ducks did not attempt to
breed at Southgate Pond in 2005 until after coots
had stopped nesting and coot young had vacated the
area, when water levels were lower and less favor-
able. Estimated water depths at two of the three
Ruddy Duck nests (23 and 25 cm) were less than
normal (in emergent vegetation; Low 1941, Sieg-
fried 1976, Brua 1999) and the mean nearest inter-
nest distance was less than the typical minimum of
10 m (Siegfried 1976), suggesting that suitable nest-
sites were limited. Ruddy Ducks probably aban-
doned these three nests because water levels receded
further (Low 1941, Joyner 1977b). In 2006, Ruddy
Ducks nested at Southgate Pond when coots were
breeding in the same areas (C. Cramer-Burke un-
publ. data). The reasons Ruddy Ducks abandoned
four nests in 2006 is unknown. Coots, even though
locally distributed and uncommon, are more numer-
ous than Ruddy Ducks on St. Croix, where South-
gate Pond is the best saline breeding site for coots
and Granard South Pond the best freshwater site
(McNair and Cramer-Burke 2006). Other than
Southgate Pond, Ruddy Ducks are probably most
likely to currently nest at Granard South Pond, al-
though they did not breed there in 2004 when coots
nested (McNair and Cramer-Burke 2006). Seaman
(1955) stated that he occasionally saw small Ruddy
Duck flocks on farm ponds, but presented no breed-
ing information.
Breeding records of Ruddy Ducks may be scarce
on St. Croix due to direct interference from coots,
which can be especially intense toward Ruddy
Ducks when in the same habitat (Gullion 1953, Ry-
der 1959, Ryan and Dinsmore 1979), scarcity of
alternative nesting areas even though Ruddy Duck
and coot nest-sites are different (McNair and
Cramer-Burke 2006, this study), or unfavorable eco-
logical conditions such as shallow water levels or
lack of suitable food. Unlike Seaman (1993), we did
not locate an active Ruddy Duck nest although we
did confirm Nichol's (1943) second-hand informa-
tion that as many as 12 eggs comprise a clutch in the


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


McNAIR ETAL.









MCNAIR ETAL. -RUDDY DUCK ON ST. CROIX, U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS


U. S. Virgin Islands; however, more than one fe-
male may have contributed to these larger clutch
sizes (Siegfried 1976).
The basis for subspecies-level taxonomy of
Ruddy Ducks is unclear (contra Raffaele et al.
1998, Brown and Collier 2004); most authorities
don't treat jamaicensis and rubida as separate sub-
species and genetic analyses have not been con-
ducted (Brua 2002, J. P. Dean and M. D. Sorenson
pers. comm.). Regardless, the majority of birds at
Southgate Pond and elsewhere on St. Croix appear
to be the nominate West Indian form (0. j. ja-
maicensis) in breeding condition or readiness, in-
cluding in winter when rubida could be expected to
be present.
Future surveys for nesting Ruddy Ducks on St.
Croix should continue to focus on Southgate Pond
because the species is a benthic invertebrate special-
ist, favoring chironomid larvae (Woodin and Swan-
son 1989, Alisauskas and Ankney 1994) which
thrive in turbid water. Rust-op-Twist Salt Pond may
no longer be a suitable breeding site, unless ecologi-
cal restoration activities occur, although one pair
briefly occupied this salt pond in 2006. Breeding at
these seasonal salt ponds would most likely occur
from autumn to spring, based on water levels from
the typical hydrological year, not from June through
August (also see Molinares 1981; contra Raffaele et
al. 1998) when water levels are generally low. De-
spite considerable field effort on St. Croix since
1857 (McNair et al. 2005) and documentation of
Ruddy Ducks at only eight sites (three salt ponds,
five freshwater ponds), further efforts are needed to
determine the true breeding status of Ruddy Ducks
at Southgate Pond and other sites on St. Croix.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was partially funded by a grant from
the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (Federal
Aid Program, Pittman-Robertson Wetlands Project,
W15). We thank G. T. Groner and F. E. Hayes for
contributing their observations, J. P. Dean
(Collections Manager, Division of Birds, Depart-
ment of Systematic Biology, Smithsonian Institu-
tion), J. Hinshaw (Collections Manager, Bird Divi-
sion, Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan),
and N. Rice (Ornithology Department, Academy of
Natural Sciences at Philadelphia) for providing in-
formation about specimens from their institutions,
A. C. Brown for reviewing a penultimate draft of
this manuscript and A. C. Brown, J. C. Eitniear, and
J. Taylor for reviewing the submitted manuscript. A
copy of one unpublished report cited below is avail-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


able from the senior author.

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McNAIR ETAL. -RUDDY DUCK ON ST. CROIX, U. S. VIRGIN ISLANDS


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Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006










J Carib. Ornithol. 19:97-103, 2006


DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA LAS AVES ACUATICAS
EN LOS CAMPOS INUNDADOS DE LA ARROCERA SUR DEL JIBARO
DURANTE EL CICLO DE CULTIVO DEL ARROZ

LOURDES MUGICA'2, MARTIN ACOSTA', DENNIS DENIS', Y ARIAM JIMENEZ'
'Facultad de Biologia, 25 e J e I Vedado, Ciudad Habana, Cuba; 2e- mail: lmugicaJfbio. uh. cu

Resumen: Se estudi6 la disponibilidad de recursos alimentarios en los campos inundados durante el ciclo de cultivo
del arroz, en la arrocera Sur del Jibaro, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. Los muestras (n= 55) se tomaron en el mes de junio y
se colectaron los ejemplares mediante la utilizaci6n de un salabre que se arrastr6 5 m, en los siguientes campos:
fangueado (24), arroz pequefo (4), arroz verde (8), arroz espigado (3), arroz maduro (8) y cortado anegado (8). Se
identificaron 15 articulos diferentes, de los cuales los peces, moluscos, crustaceos y cole6pteros fueron los de mayor
biomasa promedio. El mayor valor de biomasa para los peces se encontr6 en los campos con arroz maduro (99,4 kg/
ha), seguido del fangueo (10,9 kg/ha) mientras que los crustaceos predominaron en los campos fangueados, con
arroz verde y espigados, (con biomasas alrededor de 5 kg/ha). En general la mayor biomasa se detect6 en los campos
maduros, donde las presas van ganando en peso y desarrollo. En la etapa de fangueo, la mas breve de todo el ciclo, la
biomasa de presas y su peso promedio son bajos, sin embargo, el rapido aumento de la asequibilidad conlleva a que
sea de gran relevancia para las aves. Al parecer que la entrada de energia externa procedente del paso de las fanguea-
doras produce un aumento en la disponibilidad de presas, superior a la que existe en cualquier otra fase del ciclo, que
atrae una importante comunidad de aves, que usan esta fase del ciclo como sitio de alimentaci6n.
Palabras clave: arroz, aves acuaticas, biomasa, Cuba, recursos alimentarios

Abstract: PREY AVAILABILITY OF WATERBIRDS IN FLOODED FIELDS OF THE SUR DEL JIBARO RICE FIELDS DURING
THE RICE CULTIVATION CYCLE. We studied the availability of feeding resources in flooded fields during the rice
cycle of the Sur del Jibaro rice fields of Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. The samples (n = 55) were taken in June, using a col-
lecting net that was dragged 5 m in the following fields: preparing for sowing (24), small rice (4), green rice (8),
eared rice (3), matured rice (8), and harvested and flooded fields (8). Fifteen different items were identified, of
which fishes, molluscs, crustaceans, and beetles had the highest biomass. The fields with mature rice had the greatest
biomass value of fishes (99.4 kg / ha), followed by fields preparing for sowing (10.9 kg / ha), whereas crustaceans
were more important in fields preparing for sowing and those with green rice and eared rice (about 5 kg / ha). In
general the greatest biomass was found in mature rice fields where prey gained more weight and were more devel-
oped. The biomass and average mass of prey were low during field preparation, which was the shortest period of the
planting cycle, but prey were rapidly exposed during the process, which attracted birds. It appears that the external
energy from mechanical preparation of fields provides an increase in prey availability exceeding that of other phases
of the planting cycle, thus attracting large numbers of foraging birds.
Key words: biomass, Cuba, food resources, rice, waterbirds

Resume : DISPONIBILITE EN PROIES DANS LES CHAMPS INONDES DES RIZIERES DE SUR DEL JBARO PENDANT LE
CYCLE CULTURAL DU RIZ. Nous avons 6tudie les ressources alimentaires des champs inond6s pendant le cycle cultu-
ral du Riz dans les rizibres de Sur del Jibaro a Sancti Spiritus, Cuba. Les echantillons (n = 55) ont ete collects en
juin avec un filet tire sur 5 m dans les champs suivants : champ prepare pour le semis (24), riz jeune (4), riz vert (8),
riz a l'6piaison (3), riz mature (8), champs recolt6s et inond6s (8). 15 groupes diff6rents ont ete identifies, la bio-
masse principale provenant de poissons, de crustace et d'insectes. La plus grande biomasse due au poissons a ete
trouv6e dans les chants de riz a maturity (99.4 kg / ha), suivie par les champs prepares pour le semis (10.9 kg / ha),
alors que les crustaces 6taient plus abondants dans les champs prepares pour le semis et dans ceux a riz verts et a riz
a l'6piaison (environ 5 kg / ha). En general, la plus grande biomasse a ete trouv6e dans les champs de riz mature ou
les proies 6taient plus grosses et plus d6velopp6es. La biomasse et la masse moyenne des proies 6taient faibles pen-
dant la preparation des champs, qui est la p6riode la plus courte du cycle de culture mais les proies 6taient rapide-
ment exposes ce qui attiraient les oiseaux. L'energie externe apport6 par la preparation mecanique des champs per-
met une augmentation de la disponibilit6 des proies plus importante que dans d'autres phases du cycle de plantation
attirant ainsi un grand de nombre d'oiseaux venant s'alimenter.
Mots-clds : biomasse, Cuba, oiseaux d'eau, ressources alimentaires, riz


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









MUGICA ETAL. -DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA AVES ACUATICAS EN ARROCERA


LA ABUNDANCIA DEL ALIMENTO y su asequibili-
dad son los factores principales que gobieman la
selecci6n del habitat por parte de las aves, sin em-
bargo, esta informaci6n con mucha frecuencia se
infiere, y solo rara vez se mide directamente (Wiens
1989). Entre los aspectos a tener en cuenta en rela-
ci6n con el uso de los recursos estan, tanto su abun-
dancia y asequibilidad como el grado de utilizaci6n
que tienen por parte de las aves. Hasta el momento,
este ultimo aspecto ha sido el mas estudiado mien-
tras que los primeros resultan mas dificiles de deter-
minar en la naturaleza, aunque algunos trabajos rea-
lizados han demostrado interesantes patrones de uso.
McNeil et al. (1994) estudiaron la asequibilidad de
las presas en un lago tropical durante el dia y la no-
che. Sus resultados demostraron que peces, is6po-
dos, anfipodos y camarones eran entre 3 y 30 veces
mas abundantes en la noche que durante el dia; los
organismos superficiales tales como is6podos, anfi-
podos y poliquetos eran tambien 10 veces mas abun-
dantes durante la noche, sin embargo, otros inverte-
brados como cangrejos y pelecipodos se mantenian
igual o en mayor cantidad durante el dia. En conjun-
to, la cantidad de presas asequibles a las aves acuati-
cas era superior durante la noche con lo cual conclu-
ye que la alimentaci6n noctuma puede ser mas ven-
tajosa que la diuma.
Gonzalez-Solis et al. (1996) por su parte detecta-
ron modificaciones en las interacciones entre Larus
cachinnans y L. audouinii en dependencia de la ase-
quibilidad de peces, que se manifestaron, entre otras
conductas, en un aumento de las respuestas de L.
audouinii ante las intrusiones aereas cuando el ali-
mento estaba escaso.
Un estudio realizado sobre el efecto de la abun-
dancia de presas en la distribuci6n de Calidris pusi-
Ila en un lodazal en la Bahia de Fundy, Canada
(Wilson 1990), demostr6 que esta especie se alimen-
ta del anfipodo Corophium volutator, sin embargo,
se detect una relaci6n debil entre la densidad de la
presas y la densidad de las aves, al parecer cualquier
area entre mareas que exceda un umbral critico en la
densidad del crustaceo era aceptable para los playe-
ros.
Otros estudios de gran interes sobre la abundancia
de insectos acuaticos en los humedales han sido rea-
lizados por Fredrickson y Reid (1988) y Eldridge
(1990), en ellos se describen metodos de muestreo,
invertebrados de importancia para las aves acuaticas
y su respuesta ante el manejo de humedales, lo cual
resulta de gran importancia para la realizaci6n de
estudios similares.
En Cuba, las arroceras constituyen un sitio de


interes para la alimentaci6n de las aves acuaticas,
(Acosta et al. 1990), sin embargo, hasta el momento
no se han realizado estudios sobre la disponibilidad
de presas en este importante agroecosistema, por lo
cual el objetivo del presente trabajo es estudiar este
aspecto, durante el ciclo de cultivo, en los campos
inundados de las arroceras del Combinado Agroin-
dustrial Sur del Jibaro.

AREA DE ESTUDIO Y METODOLOGIA
El estudio se llevo a cabo en el Complejo Agroin-
dustrial Arrocero Sur del Jibaro, en la provincia
Sancti-Spiritus, Cuba (21035'-21045' N, 79005'-79
25' E) en el afo 1997.
Para conocer la disponibilidad de recursos se rea-
lizaron muestreos en los campos inundados (seis
tipos de campo) en el mes de junio mediante la utili-
zacion de un salabre de diametro 0,75 x 0,35 m y 1
mm de paso de malla. En cada uno de los campos el
salabre se arrastro durante 5 m para filtrar un volu-
men aproximado de 1,125 m3 de agua y lodo. En
total se tomaron 55 muestras en los siguientes cam-
pos: fangueado (24), arroz pequeflo (4), arroz verde
(8), arroz espigado (3), arroz maduro (8) y cortado
anegado (8). Los organismos colectados en el sala-
bre se conservaron en frascos rotulados con alcohol
al 95 % y se identificaron en el laboratorio mediante
el uso de un microscopio estereoscopico.
Para cada microhabitat se determine el numero de
individuos colectados, su biomasa y su contenido
calorico se obtuvo de Cumming y Wuycheck
(1971). Se correlacionaron el contenido calorico de
las presas y la densidad de aves depredadoras en
cada microhabitat (aves/ha), utilizando la correla-
ci6n de Pearson.
El analisis estadistico se realiz6 utilizando el pro-
grama Statistica, version 4.1.

RESULTADOS Y DISCUSSION
En total se colectaron 15 articulos diferentes (Fig.
1) de los cuales los peces, moluscos, crustaceos y
cole6pteros fueron los de mayor biomasa promedio.
Gonzalez-Solis y Ruiz (1996) y Gonzalez-Solis et
al (1996) tambien refieren que moluscos, peces,
insectos y anfibios son conspicuos componentes de
las arroceras en el delta del Ebro y pueden jugar un
papel clave en la transferencia de energia en este
ecosistema. Por otra parte Painter (1999) destaca la
presencia y el valor conservacionista de cole6pteros,
moluscos y odonatos en pantanos tradicionalmente
manejados, mientras que Semlitsch y Bodie (1998)
plantean que, dentro de los vertebrados, los anfibios
pueden aportar la mayor biomasa en algunos ecosis-


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DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA AVES ACUATICAS EN ARROCERA


S20



15



10



5



0



Recurso

Fig. 1. Biomasa promedio de los diferentes recursos alimentarios colectados en la arrocera Sur del Jibaro,
durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz.


temas de humedales.
El mayor valor de biomasa para los peces se en-
contr6 en los campos con arroz maduro (99,4 kg/
ha), seguido del fangueo (10,9 kg/ha), mientras que
en los demas campos, los valores estuvieron por
debajo de uno, aunque se debe tener en cuenta que
los bajos valores obtenidos para estos campos pue-
den estar relacionados con el metodo de muestreo
empleado, que dificulta mucho la colecta de estos
organismos en campos donde la vegetaci6n es abun-
dante, maxime si tienen una gran movilidad.
Los crustaceos predominaron en los campos fan-
gueados, con arroz verde y espigados, (con bioma-
sas de alrededor de 5 kg/ha).
La biomasa de presas por campo se expresa en la
figura 2, despues del fangueo los valores bajan, con
el proceso de drenaje y van aumentando paulatina-
mente, hasta alcanzar su maximo valor en los cam-
pos con arroz maduro, y al ser drenados estos cam-
pos, la biomasa sufre una brusca reducci6n.
Este resultado guarda una estrecha relaci6n con
las variaciones en el peso promedio de las presas a
lo largo del ciclo (Fig. 3). En las primeras fases, con
la entrada del agua llegan los organismos, muchos
de ellos con pequefio tamafio, ya que son los unicos
que pasan por la pequefia lamina de agua que poco a
poco va inundando los campos. A continuaci6n,
despues de la siembra, se drenan los campos, y se


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


alcanzan los valores mas bajos, a partir de aqui vie-
ne el periodo de inundaci6n mas largo del ciclo
(alrededor de 3 meses), periodo durante el cual las
presas van ganando en tamafio y peso, alcanzando
sus mayores tallas en los campos con arroz maduro.
Al realizarse un segundo proceso de drenaje en esta
fase, tanto la biomasa como el peso promedio de las
presas vuelve a reducirse, con valores similares a
los del inicio del ciclo.
La etapa de fangueo es la mas breve de todo el
ciclo, cuando ni la biomasa de presas ni su peso
promedio son elevados, sin embargo, dos factores
hacen que este proceso sea de gran relevancia para
las aves. En primer lugar, la entrada de energia ex-
tema procedente del paso de las fangueadoras pro-
duce un aumento en la disponibilidad de presas su-
perior a la que existe en cualquier otra fase del ci-
clo. Este efecto se observa al muestrear los mismos
campos a cada cierto intervalo, comenzando antes
de entrar la fangueadora, durante y despues de su
paso (Fig. 4), donde a pesar de ser los mismos cam-
pos y haber una diferencia de tres horas entre el
primer y ultimo muestreo, media hora despues del
paso de las maquinas la biomasa de presas asequi-
bles result6 ser 10 veces superior a la que se encon-
tr6 antes de comenzar el proceso. En segundo lugar
esta fase aunque breve, es continua mientras dura la
siembra (alrededor de 6 meses), lo que implica una


MUGICA ETAL.









MUGICA ETAL. -DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA AVES ACUATICAS EN ARROCERA


U

0


Fangueo Verde chico Verde anegado Espigado


-a


Maduro Cortado
Microhabitat


Fig. 2. Biomasa total de presas por microhabitat durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz en la arrocera Sur del
Jibaro.


opci6n estable al menos durante la mitad del aflo, y
que puede ser seleccionada por las aves como sitio
de forrajeo.
Al analizar la relaci6n entre la biomasa de presas
en los diferentes campos y la proporci6n de presas
consumidas en cada campo por Zancudas y Sondea-
dores Profundos (Mugica 2000) (Fig. 5) se confirma
lo expuesto anteriormente. El fangueo fue la fase del
ciclo donde se consumi6 una mayor proporci6n de
alimento en relacion con la biomasa presente, lo cual
debe estar condicionado por su alta asequibilidad, en


0,45

S0,4
S0,35

S0,3
0,25
0,2
0,15
0,1
0,05
0Fango Ve co Ve
Fangueo Verde chico Verde anegado


el arroz maduro, a pesar de presentarse la mayor
biomasa, s6lo un bajo porcentaje es consumido,
dada la interferencia que producen las plantas de
arroz durante esta fase. Por esto al representar el
consumo de presas de origen animal por parte de la
comunidad en cada campo (Fig. 6), el mayor con-
sumo a lo largo del aflo se llev6 a cabo en los cam-
pos fangueados.
Al determinar la proporci6n entre la biomasa de
presas animales ingeridas por la comunidad de aves
y la biomasa estimada de presas en las diferentes


Espigado


Maduro Cortado
Microhabitat


Fig. 2. Peso promedio de las presas en los diferentes microhabitats durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz en la
arrocera Sur del Jibaro.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006










MUGICA ETAL. -DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA AVES ACUATICAS EN ARROCERA


SI

Antes Durante 1/2 h 1 h


Fig. 4. Biomasa de presas durante el proceso del fangueo. Antes = lh antes; durante
paso de la fangueadora; 1/2 h y 1 h = despues del paso de la fangueadora.


fases del ciclo de cultivo se determine que las aves
extraen solamente 4,8 % de la biomasa presente lo
que debe estar determinado por la gran interferencia
para la obtenci6n de las presas, que se va incremen-
tando con el desarrollo de la plantacion.
La correlaci6n entre el contenido energetico de
las presas y la densidad de Zancudas y Sondeadores
Profundos fue alta y positiva (r = 0.93, P < 0.005;
Fig 7), con locuaz se corrobora que tanto los peque-
fios vertebrados como los invertebrados que alli


S0,3

0,25

0,2

0,15

0,1

0,05

0
Fangueo


- Proporci6n consul


coincidiendo con el


habitan constituyen eslabones fundamentales en la
transferencia de energia desde la arrocera hacia las
aves de estos dos gremios.
La alta concordancia entre los alimentos mas con-
sumidos en el aflo y la disponibilidad de presas
apoya el hecho de que en muchas ocasiones las
aves toman el alimento mas asequible y que el uso
del habitat estaba relacionado con su asequibilidad
(Narusue y Uchida 1993), pues el arroz, los peces,
moluscos y crustaceos estan incluidos entre los pri-



nida --- Biomas a 120

100

80

60

40

20


Verde chico Verde Espigado Maduro Cortado
anegado Microhabitat


Fig. 5. Relacion entre la biomasa de presas en los diferentes campos y la proporcion de esta que es consumida
por Zancudas y Sondeadores profundos en etapa reproductiva.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









MUGICA ETAL. -DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA AVES ACUATICAS EN ARROCERA


--Reproductiva -4-No reproductiva


Fangueado Verde chico Verde Espigado Maduro Cortado
anegado Microhibitat


Fig. 6. Consumo de presas durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz, por parte de la comunidad de aves, durante
las epocas reproductiva y no reproductiva.


meros lugares en ambas listas.
Evidentemente el subsidio de energia que reciben
estos tres microhabitats se refleja en una mayor ase-
quibilidad de alimento que rapidamente es detectada
por las aves y se traduce en un aumento notable de
su densidad.
Los resultados encontrados demuestran que las
aves, en las arroceras, pueden constituyen agentes de


- Contenido energ6tico total (kc;


control natural y apoyan a Kirk et al. (1996) cuan-
do plantean que la comunidad de aves puede redu-
cir los cuatro grupos fundamentales de plagas en
los cultivos. En este caso el control fundamental se
ejerceria sobre:
(1) Invertebrados, en particular crustaceos, que
constituyen un problema para el control del agua en
las terrazas (consumo anual 81,6 kg/ha).


al/ha) --Kg de depredadores/ha 60

A 50


Correlaci6n r-0,93; p<0,05


Fangueado Verde chico Verde
anegado


Espigado Maduro Cortado
Microhibitat


Fig. 7. Correlacion entre el contenido energetico total de las presas durante el ciclo de cultivo del arroz y la
biomasa de los gremios zancudas y sondeadores profundos en la arrocera Sur del Jibaro.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









MUGICA ETAL. -DISPONIBILIDAD DE PRESAS PARA AVES ACUATICAS EN ARROCERA


(2) Insectos que son abundantes en el cultivo
(consumo anual 196,5 kg/ha).
(3) Mamiferos, especialmente pequefios ratones,
que constituyen la plaga mas fuerte en la arrocera
(consumo anual 28,0 kg/ha).
(4) Malas hierbas, como el arroz jibaro, el arroci-
1lo (Echinochloa cruz-galli) y el metebravo (E. co-
lona) que establecen una fuerte competencia con la
planta de arroz (consumo anual de semillas 264 kg/
ha).
En general los resultados aqui expuestos de forma
cuantitativa cumplen con el modelo hipotetico en
relaci6n con las transiciones energeticas, abundan-
cia y disponibilidad de alimento planteado por
Acosta (1998) para el ciclo de cultivo del arroz,
confirmando que las etapas iniciales y finales del
ciclo son las de mayor flujo de energia y nutrientes
hacia la comunidad de aves, con una mayor inciden-
cia de los depredadores a principios del cultivo y de
los vegetarianos hacia el final del ciclo.

LITERATURE CITED
ACOSTA, M. 1998. Segregaci6n del nicho en la co-
munidad de aves acuaticas del agroecosistema
arrocero en Cuba. Tesis presentada en opci6n al
grado de Doctor en Ciencias Biol6gicas. Univer-
sidad de la Habana, Cuba. 110 pp.
ACOSTA, M., L. MUGICA, Y P. MARTINEZ. 1990.
Segregaci6n del subnicho tr6fico en seis especies
de ciconiformes cubanos. Ciencias Biol6gicas 23:
68-81.
CUMMING, K. W., Y J. WUYCHECK 1971. Caloric
equivalents for investigations in ecological ener-
getics. Internationale Vereinigung for Theore-
tische und Angewandte Limnologie Mitteilung
No 18. 158 pp.
ELDRIDGE, J. 1990. Aquatic invertebrates important
for waterfowl production. Waterfowl Manage-
ment Handbook, U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service,
Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.3.3:1-7.
FREDRICKSON, L. H., Y F. A. REID. 1988. Inverte-
brate response to wetland management. Water-


fowl Management Handbook, U. S. Fish and
Wildlife Service, Fish and Wildlife Leaflet
13.3.1:1-6.
GONZALEZ-SOLIS, J., Y X. RUIZ. 1996. Succession
and secondary production of gastropods in the
Ebro Delta ricefields. Hydrobiologia 337:85-92.
GONZALEZ-SOLIS, J., X. BERNARDI, Y X. RUIZ.
1996. Seasonal variation of waterbird prey in the
Ebro Delta rice fields. Colonial Waterbirds 19:
135-142.
KIRK, D.A., M. D. EVENDEN, Y P. MINEAU. 1996.
Past and current attempts to evaluate the role of
birds as predators of insects pests in temperate
agriculture. Pp. 175-269 in Current Ornithology,
vol. 13 (V. Nolan, Jr., and E. D. Ketterson, eds.).
Plenum Press, New York.
MCNEIL, R., M. T. DIAZ, Y A. VILLENEUVE. 1994.
The mystery of shorebird over-summering: a new
hypothesis. Ardea 82:143-152.
MUGICA, L. 2000. Estructura espacio temporal y
relaciones energeticas en la comunidad de aves de
la arrocera Sur del Jibaro, Sancti Spiritus, Cuba.
Tesis en opci6n al grado de Doctor en Ciencias
Biol6gicas. Habana, Cuba. 124 pp.
NARUSUE, M., Y H. UCHIDA. 1993. The effect of
structural changes of paddy fields on foraging
egrets. Strix 12:121-130.
PAINTER, D. 1999. Macroinvertebrate distribution
and the conservation value of aquatic Coleoptera,
Mollusca and Odonata in the ditches of tradition-
ally managed and grazing fen at Wicken Fen,
UK. Journal of Applied Ecology 36:33-48.
SEMLITSCH, R. D., Y J. R. BODIE. 1998. Are small
isolated wetlands expendable? Conservation Biol-
ogy 12:1129-1133.
WIENS, J. A. 1989. The ecology of bird communi-
ties. Vol. 1: Foundations and patterns. Cambridge
University Press, Cambridge. 539 pp.
WILSON, H. W. 1990. Relationship between prey
abundance and foraging site selection by Semi-
palmated Sandpiper on a Bay of Fundy mudflat.
Journal of Field Ornithology 61:9-19.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









J Carib. Ornithol. 19:104-107,2006


CONDUCTA REPRODUCTIVA Y NIDIFICACION DEL SINSONTILLO
(POLIOPTILA LEMBEYEI)

JARENTON PRIMELLES RIVERO1'2 Y KARELL MAURE GARCIA1
EEmpresa Nacional para la Protecci6n de la Flora y la Fauna.
Maceo No. 2 % Marti y Sdnchez Dolls, Nuevitas. 2e-mail: jany@finlay. cmw.sld.cu

Resumen: Se estudia la conducta reproductiva del Sinsontillo (Polioptila lembeyei) en Cayos Ballenatos y Mangla-
res de la Bahia de Nuevitas desde mayo hasta julio de 2005. Se brinda informaci6n sobre los patrones conductuales
relacionados con la construcci6n del nido, cortejo y copula, puesta e incubaci6n y alimentaci6n y cuidado de los
pichones. El tamaio de nidada promedio fue de tres huevos, los cuales fueron puestos con en dias consecutivos. El
tamaio promedio de los huevos fue 14,1 1,06 x 10,8 0,59 mm (n = 6). Las tres parejas produjeron 9 huevos y 8
pichones, de los cuales 5 sobrevivieron, para una tasa de 1,6 pichones por pareja.
Palabras clave: conducta reproductiva, Cuba, nidificaci6n, Polioptila lembeyei

Abstract: REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOUR AND NESTING OF THE CUBAN GNATCATCHER (POLIOPTYLA LEMBEYEI). From
May to July 2005 we studied the reproductive behavior of the Cuban Gnatcatcher (Polioptila lembeyei) in Cayos
Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahia de Nuevitas Faunal Refuge. We present data on nest building, courtship and
copulation, egg laying and incubation, territorial defense, and parental care. Clutches averaged three eggs with each
egg laid on consecutive days. Eggs averaged 14.1 1.06 x 10.8 0.59 mm (n = 6) in size. Of the 9 eggs produced at
three nests, eight hatched and five survived, for a fledging rate of 1.6 per pair.
Key words: Cuba, Polioptila lembeyei, nest, reproductive behavior

Resum : COMPORTEMENT REPRODUCTEUR ET NIDIHCATION DU GOBEMOUCHERON DE CUBA (POLIOPTYLA LEM-
BEYEI). Nous avons 6tudie le comportement reproducteur du Gobemoucheron de Cuba (Polioptila lembeyei) de mai a
juillet 2005 au Refuge faunistique de Cayos Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahia de Nuevitas. Des donnees de cons-
truction de nid, de parade et d'accouplement, de ponte et d'incubation, de defense territoriale et d'elevage des jeunes
sont pr6sent6es. Les pontes sont en moyenne de 3 oeufs, pondu en 3 jours consecutifs. Les dimensions des oeufs sont
en moyenne de 14.1 1.06 x 10.8 0.59 mm (n = 6). Sur 9 oeufs produits dans 3 nids, 8 ont eclos et 5 ont survecu,
ce qui donne un taux de success de 1,6 envol par couple.
Mots-clds : Cuba, comportement reproducteu, nid, Polioptila lembeyeir


EL SINSONTILLO (POLIOPTILA LEMBEYEI) es un ave
endemica de Cuba localizada en determinadas regio-
nes en el centro y oriente del pais (Garrido y Kirk-
connell 2000). Los estudios sobre su ecologia repro-
ductiva son escasos. En la literatura cientifica solo
se cuenta con los trabajos realizados por Garcia
(1992) y Garcia y Rojas (1997a). En estos se ofrecen
datos sobre la epoca de cria, los materiales de cons-
trucci6n del nido y sus dimensiones. La altura de los
nidos registrada por estos autores es de 0,85 a 1,20
m y el tamafio de las nidadas es de dos a tres huevos,
aunque Garrido y Kirkconnell (2000) plantean que
estas pueden alcanzar hasta 5 huevos.
En el presente trabajo se brinda informaci6n sobre
la conducta reproductiva y nidificaci6n de esta espe-
cie en el Refugio de Fauna Cayos Ballenatos y Man-
glares de la Bahia de Nuevitas.

AREA DE ESTUDIO Y METODOLOGIA
El estudio se realize en el Refugio de Fauna Ca-
yos Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahia de Nuevitas,


localizado en la costa NE de Cuba (Fig. 1). Se detec-
taron tres parejas. Las visitas a las areas de nidifica-
cion se efectuaron durante la mafiana, la tarde y al-
gunas noches, para describir los patrones conductua-
les relacionados con la construcci6n del nido, corte-
jo y c6pula, puesta e incubaci6n y alimentaci6n y
cuidado de los pichones. Las observaciones se hicie-
ron a simple vista y con ayuda de binoculares 8x30.
En las parejas #1 y #2 se observe la construcci6n del
nido, el cortejo, c6pula, defensa del territorio, asi
como el cuidado y protecci6n de los pichones. En la
pareja #2 se midi6 la frecuencia con que alimentaron
a los pichones, mientras que en la pareja #3 se regis-
tr6 la participaci6n de ambos padres en la construc-
ci6n del nido, la incubaci6n y alimentaci6n de los
pichones, sin medir la frecuencia de actividad de
cada miembro de la pareja.
La medici6n de los nidos se hizo con un pie de
rey, determinandose las variables: diametro extemo,
altura exterior y profundidad, y con una cinta metri-
ca, la altura del nido. A los huevos se les midi6 el


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









PRIMELLES Y MAURE. -REPRODUCCION DEL SINSONTILLO EN CUBA


Fig. 1. Area de estudio de la nidificaci6n del Sin-
sontillo (Poliptila lembeyei).


diametro mayor y menor y se calcul6 su volumen
utilizando la formula de Hoyt (1979): volumen
(cm3) = 0,509 x diametro mayor (cm) x diametro
menor2 (cm2).
Para el analisis de la vegetaci6n se siguieron los
metodos de evaluaci6n de habitat propuestos por
Ralph et al. (1996). Se determin6 el tipo de vegeta-
ci6n, las especies de arboles y arbustos que ocupan
mas de 10 % del area en orden de abundancia, la
altura media y la cobertura por estratos.

RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION

CARACTERIZACION DE LAS AREAS DE NIDIFICACION
Cada pareja nidific6 en formaciones vegetales
diferentes. La pareja #1 utiliz6 un matorral xero-
morfo espinoso subcostero con jucaro espinoso
(Bucida spinosa) y granadillo (Brya ebenus) como
especies dominantes, con una altura promedio de
2,4 m y un 30 % de cobertura del estrato arbustivo.
La pareja #2 us6 un yanal (Conocarpus erecta), con
una altura promedio de 4 m y una cobertura del es-
trato arb6reo del 25 %. La pareja #3 emple6 un ma-
torral secundario sobre un monticulo con una pen-
diente de 40 norte y sur y temporalmente inundado
por los alrededores. Las especies vegetales mas
abundantes fueron: Acacia farneciana y Dichrosta-
chis glomerata. La altura promedio del estrato ar-
bustivo fue de 2,5 m y su cobertura de un 20 %.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


CONSTRUCCION DEL NIDO
Durante la construcci6n del nido entretejen lana
vegetal en las ramas y adicionan nuevos materiales
sistematicamente. La pareja #1 desde las 08:45
hasta las 16:45 hr, efectuaron 272 viajes, 116 la
hembra y 156 el macho, realizando 14,5 incursiones
por horas la primera y 19,5 el segundo. El macho
acarre6 materiales 103 veces y lleg6 a permanecer
construyendo entre 5 s y 2 min 56 s, mientras que la
hembra llev6 materiales 73 veces y solo permaneci6
construyendo entre 4 s y 1 min 52 s. Todo lo cual
permite concluir que al parecer el macho tiene ma-
yor participaci6n durante esta etapa. Se observ6 que
despues de creada la base del nido, cada individuo
al llegar a este, entra y construye desde su interior,
usando el pico para acomodar los materiales en el
borde, y las patas, el vientre y el pecho para adosar-
los interiormente en el fondo y las paredes.

CARACTERISTICAS DE LOS NIDOS
Los nidos tienen forma de copa y estan construi-
dos de lana vegetal obtenida de las plantas: Tilland-
sia flexuosa, Tillandsia balbisiana, Cienfuegosia
yucatanenses y Pilocereus sp. Ademas incluyeron
plumas, pelos, hilos de telas de arafias, fibras de la
orquidea Encyclia phoenicia, pajas de las gramineas
Chloris virgata y Sporobolus virginicus, hojitas
secas y fragmentos de dos especies de liquenes no
identificadas. Algunos de estos materiales coinciden
con los hallados por Garcia (1992), en la Reserva
Baconao, Santiago de Cuba. Las plantas substrato
fueron: granadillo, jucaro espinoso, yana, chivo
(Zanthoxylum fagara), Prosopis juliflora y Cordia
laevigata. La altura promedio de los nidos sobre el
nivel del suelo (1,91 m) es mayor a la registrada por
Garcia (1992) para Siboney-Justisi (0,90 m), Santia-
go de Cuba, lo cual puede estar relacionado con la
altura de la vegetacion y los depredadores existentes
en cada area. Las dimensiones promedio del nido (n
= 3) fueron: diametro extemo 51,31 mm, altura ex-
terior 55,24 mm y profundidad 34,68 mm. El tama-
fio promedio de los huevos (n = 6) fue: diametro
mayor 14,10 mm, diametro menor 10,85 mm y
volumen 0,84 cm3.

CORTEJO Y COPULA
En la pareja # 1 se observe que recorren el territo-
rio registrando las ramas en busca de alimentos. El
macho regala a la hembra larvas de insectos. Se
posan en ramitas cercanas, erizan las plumas, entre-
abren las alas y adoptan una postura vertical para
acicalarse. Se situan uno al lado del otro. La hembra
dirige el pico hacia arriba y se inclina a un lado,









PRIMELLES Y MAURE. -REPRODUCCION DEL SINSONTILLO EN CUBA


momento que el macho la acicala alrededor del cue-
Ilo, la barbilla y el rostro. Se separan e intentan re-
iniciar la busqueda de alimentos, conducta que al
parecer desempefia un papel importante en el desen-
cadenamiento de la c6pula. Acto seguido el macho
canta y se dirige intranquilamente hacia la hembra
para efectuar el apareamiento.
Durante la c6pula se realizan movimientos rapidos
de la cola del macho por debajo de la cola de la
hembra. Este bate las alas para mantenerse equili-
brado y picotea las plumas de la cabeza de la hem-
bra, al parecer para estimularla mientras esta perma-
nece receptiva. Esta actividad se repite hasta tres
veces. Finalmente se separan reiniciando la busque-
da de imagos y sus larvas. La c6pula se registr6 has-
ta el inicio de la incubaci6n, lo que pudiera servir
para el mantenimiento de la pareja durante esta eta-
pa, coincidiendo esto con lo hallado por Van Tyne y
Berger (1976) para otras especies de paseriformes.
Todo el proceso trascurre de 3 a 13 min.

PUESTA E INCUBACION
Cada nidada tuvo tres huevos y el patron de puesta
fue diario. La incubaci6n es sincr6nica y los indivi-
duos se alteman varias veces en el dia efectuando
hasta 14 relevos en 10 hr. Solo la hembra incub6 por
la noche. Estos resultados coinciden con el patron de
incubaci6n encontrado por Skutch (1957) para la
familia Sylviidae en Norteamerica. No tienen horas
fijas para hacer los cambios y el tiempo de incuba-
ci6n es muy variable. En 6 dias de observaci6n de
esta conducta, el tiempo minimo que permaneci6 el
macho incubando fue de 7 min y el maximo de 75
min. La hembra lo hizo 4 min como minimo y 41
min como maximo. Por lo que al parecer existe una
tendencia a que el macho tenga mayor gasto ener-
getico que la hembra durante las horas luz del dia, lo
cual pudiera explicar la conducta de incubaci6n noc-
tuma manifestada por la hembra. En ocasiones aban-
donan el nido sin previo relevo.
Generalmente el macho canto para indicar a la
hembra la realizaci6n de los relevos. La hembra us6
la vocalizaci6n s6lo en seis ocasiones, emitiendo
notas muy cortas y agudas. En la incubaci6n se man-
tienen mirando los alrededores o con el cuello reco-
gido, la cabeza apoyada sobre el dorso y el pico diri-
gido hacia adelante o inclinado hacia arriba. Suelen
levantar el cuerpo e introducir la cabeza en el nido
para voltear los huevos. Tambien cambian de posi-
ci6n, erizan las plumas, sacuden el cuerpo y se aco-
modan sobre ellos moviendose suavemente de lado a
lado.


DEFENSA DEL TERRITORIO
El Sinsontillo tiene habitos territoriales durante la
etapa reproductiva. La defensa consiste en que el
macho ataca al intruso, vocaliza y vuela tras este
por encima del dosel de la vegetaci6n, lo expulsa del
area y luego regresa junto a la hembra. Asimismo
realiza patrullajes mientras se alimenta y canta de-
ntro del nido, en sus alrededores y a diferentes dis-
tancias, probablemente para marcar los limites de su
territorio. Esto coincide con Van Tyne y Berger
(1976), cuando plantean que la defensa del territorio
contra los intrusos puede ser mediante el ataque fisi-
co, el canto y aun por la propia presencia del ave
defensora, siendo uno de los fen6menos frecuente-
mente observados de conducta territorial, que las
aves defensoras sean mas agresivas que el intruso y
usualmente exitosa en el alejamiento de este.

ALIMENTACION Y CUIDADO DE LOS PICHONES
Ambos padres llevan la comida en el pico y ali-
mentan a los pichones. Entre las 08:00 y 16:00 hr,
los pichones de la pareja #2 fueron alimentados 45
veces en 70 viajes realizados. La hembra los alimen-
t6 27 veces y el macho 18. Los alimentos basicos lo
constituyen las pupas, larvas e imagos de lepid6pte-
ros heteroceros de pequeflo y mediano tamafio, asi
como grillos y pequefias arafias. Entre las activida-
des realizadas para el cuidado de los pichones estan
la protecci6n contra el excesivo calentamiento del
dia, la lluvia y defensa contra los intrusos. Al acer-
camos al nido con crias de la pareja #1 y #2, los
padres manifestaron una conducta de distracci6n,
batiendo continuamente las alas mientras se despla-
zaban de una rama a la otra, alejandose del nido.
Tambien mostraron una conducta agresiva contra las
siguientes especies: Canario de Manglar (Dendroica
petechia), Bienteveo (Vireo altiloquus), Sinsonte
(Mimus polyglottos), Pechero (Teretistris fornsi), y
chipojo verdeazul (Anolis alisoni).

CARACTERISTICAS DE LOS PICHONES
Los pichones nacen desnudos y con los ojos cerra-
dos. Su color es oscuro dorsalmente y rojizo por la
parte ventral. La comisura bucal es amarilla palida.
Las dimensiones promedio del pico y tarso de tres
pichones medidos al nacer, fueron de 2,83 y 6,05
mm respectivamente.
Entre los 10 y 13 dias de nacidos estan totalmente
plumados y se observan en el borde del nido ejerci-
tando el vuelo. El abandono de este se produce entre
los 13 y 15 dias, cuando la cola aun no ha crecido
completamente. A los diez dias de abandonado el
nido, tienen la cola completamente desarrollada y


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









PRIMELLES Y MAURE. -REPRODUCCION DEL SINSONTILLO EN CUBA


comen por si mismos, no obstante, los padres conti-
nuan protegiendolos, ensefiandoles a cantar y efec-
tuando actividades de persecuci6n, descanso y aci-
calamiento.

EXITO Y CAUSAS DE LOS FRACASOS
En el primer intento de nidificaci6n de la pareja
#1 sobre granadillo, eclosionaron todos los huevos,
desapareciendo los pichones a los cuatro dias de
nacidos, los que al parecer fueron depredados. Esta
pareja despues de dos horas y media de selecci6n
del substrato de nidificaci6n (Bucida spinosa), ini-
ciaron la construcci6n de un nido nuevo a unos 17
m del primero, que fue destruido por un Canario de
Manglar pasados 7 dias de incubaci6n, con una ni-
dada de tres huevos. La misma al parecer no volvi6
a nidificar en el area.
El primer nido de la pareja #2 construido sobre
yana fue destruido por un Canario de Manglar, el
que rob6 los materiales del nido y rompi6 sus hue-
vos. Al siguiente dia se encontr6 a la pareja constru-
yendo un nido nuevo sobre otra planta de yana, a
una distancia de 73,5 m. En este, eclosionaron dos
de los tres huevos, lograndose exitosamente los pi-
chones.
En la pareja #3 al siguiente dia de terminado el
primer nido sobre Prosopis juliflora, se observe
tapado con lana vegetal y a los adultos trasladando
los materiales de este, a uno segundo, construido
sobre chivo ubicado a unos 15 m del primero, con-
ducta que fue repetida luego de concluido el segun-
do, a un tercero (sobre Cordia laevigata ), en el cual


fueron puestos tres huevos que eclosionaron, volan-
do los pichones exitosamente.
En total, las tres parejas produjeron 15 huevos y
ocho pichones, de los cuales cinco sobrevivieron,
para una tasa de 1,6 pichones por pareja.

LITERATURA CITADA
GARCIA, N. 1992. Reproduccion de algunas de las
aves que nidifican en el matorral xeromorfo cos-
tero del "Parque Baconao", Santiago de Cuba.
Ciencias Biol6gicas 24:67-80.
GARCIA SARMIENTO, N., Y M. ROJAS TITO. 1997.
Notas acerca de la nidificaci6n de las aves en la
"Reserva de la Biosfera Baconao" de la provincia
Santiago de Cuba, Cuba. Pitirre 10:53-54.
GARRIDO, O. H., Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. Cornell University
Press, Ithaca, NY.
HOYT, D. 1979. Practical methods of estimating
volume and fresh weight of bird eggs. Auk 103:
613-617.
RALPH, C. J., G. R. GEUPEL, P. PYLE, T. E. MAR-
LEN, D. F. DESANTE, Y B. MILA. 1996. Manual
de metodos de campo para el monitoreo de aves
terrestres. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GRT-159. Pa-
cific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service,
U. S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA.
SKUTCH, A. F. 1957. The incubation patterns of
birds. Ibis 99:69-93.
VAN TYNE, J. V., Y A. J. BERGER. 1976. Fundamen-
tals of ornithology. 2nd ed. Wiley and Sons, New
York.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









J Carib. Ornithol. 19:108-109,2006


PREDATION OF A GOLDEN SWALLOW (TACHYCINETA EUCHRYSEA) NEST
BY THE INDIAN MONGOOSE (HERPESTESJAVANICUS) IN THE
SIERRA DE BAHORUCO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

JASON TOWNSEND
Department of Environmental and Forest Biology, College of Environmental Science and Forestry,
State University of New York, Syracuse, NY 13210-2778; e-mail: jastown ll @yahoo.com

Abstract: Golden Swallows (Tachycineta euchrysea) have recently been observed nesting on or near the ground. In
May 2004 I observed an introduced Indian mongoose (Herpestes javanicus) enter a recently depredated Golden
Swallow nest cavity located 2 m above the ground in the Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic. Deforestation of
high elevation pine forests may force the Golden Swallow to nest in sub-optimal habitat where it is more vulnerable
to mongoose predation.
Key words: Dominican Republic, Golden Swallow, Herpestesjavanicus, Indian mongoose, predation, Tachycineta
euchrysea

Resumen: DEPREDACION DE UN NIDO DE LA GOLONDRINA VERDE (TACHYCINETA EUCHRYSEA) POR UNA MANGOSTA
(HERPESTES JAVANICUS) EN LA SIERRA DE BAHORUCO, REPUBLICAN DOMINICANA. Las golondrinas doradas
(Tachycineta euchrysea) han sido observadas recientemente nidificando en o cerca del suelo. En mayo del 2004
observe una mangosta introducida (Herpestes javanicus) entrando a una cavidad de nidificaci6n de Golondrina Do-
rada recientemente depredada, que estaba localizada a una altura de 2 m en la Sierra de Bahoruco, Republica
Dominicana. La deforestaci6n de los pinares ubicados a grandes alturas pueden forzar a la Golondrina Dorada a
nidificar en habitat sub-6ptimos donde es mas vulnerable a la depredaci6n por mangostas.
Palabras clave: depredaci6n, Golondrina Verde, Herpestes javanicus, mangosta, Republica Dominicana, Tachy-
cineta euchrysea

Resume : PREDATION D'UN NID D' HIRONDELLE DOREE (TACHYCINETA EUCHRYSEA) PAR LA PETITE MANGOUSTE
INDIENNE (HERPESTESJAVANICUS) A LA SIERRA DE BAHORUCO, REPUBLIQUE DOMINICAINE. Des Hirondelles dorees
(Tachycineta euchrysea) ont ete observes recemment nichant au sol ou a proximity. J'ai observe en mai 2004 une
Petite Mangouste indienne (Herpestes javanicus), espece introduite, penetrant une cavity de nidification recemment
pr6dat6e d'Hirondelle doree situee 2 m au dessus du sol dans la Sierra de Bahoruco, Republique Dominicaine. La
deforestation de la fort d'altitude de pins pourrait obliger l'Hirondelle dor6e a nicher dans un habitat sub-optimal ou
elle devient plus vulnerable a la predation par la mangouste.
Mots-clds : Herpestes javanicus, Hirondelle dor6e, Petite Mangouste indienne, predation, Republique Dominicaine,
Tachycineta euchrysea


DURING THE PAST HALF CENTURY the Golden
Swallow (Tachycineta euchrysea) has experienced
serious population declines across its small range of
Jamaica and Hispaniola, leading to its placement on
the IUCN red list of threatened species (Bird Life
International 2000). The last confirmed report of the
Golden Swallow on Jamaica was in 1989, and since
then the species has likely been extirpated (Raffaele
et al. 1998). On Hispaniola the species persists as a
locally common but increasingly rare resident, and
is considered to be steadily declining (Dod 1992,
Keith et al. 2003).
The causes of this species's decline are poorly
documented. Several authors have implicated habitat
destruction, specifically the cutting of high elevation
pine forests (Raffaele et al. 1998, Keith et al. 2003).
An additional contributing factor may be the intro-


duction of mammalian nest predators. Golden Swal-
lows have recently been observed utilizing aban-
doned bauxite mines where nests have been built on
and within 5 m of the ground (pers. obs., Fernandez
and Keith 2003). Such placement leaves Golden
Swallow nests particularly vulnerable to predation
by rats (Rattus sp.) and the introduced Indian mon-
goose (Herpestes javanicus).
On 8 May 2004, I discovered an active Golden
Swallow nest built 2 m above the ground. The nest
was located in an abandoned bauxite mine in the
Sierra de Bahoruco, Dominican Republic, at 1092 m
elevation, 1812'15" N, 71059'96" W. On this date,
I observed the nest for 136 min during which time
the female incubated for a total of 82 min and was
away from the nest for 54 min. On 9 May, I returned
to continue observations of the nest and observed a


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









TOWSEND -PREDATION OF GOLDEN SWALLOW NEST BY MONGOOSE


mongoose enter the cavity for approximately 45 s,
then emerge with nothing visible in its mouth. The
mongoose continued investigating around the nest
cavity for approximately 1 min, then left the area.
Subsequent close inspection of the nest revealed a
torn nest cup, egg-shell fragments, an intact egg
containing a 2-3 d old embryo, and multiple body
and wing feathers, presumably of the incubating
female. A solitary Golden Swallow, presumably the
attending male, circled overhead as I inspected the
cavity. The nest cavity was situated between boul-
ders with a depth of 17 cm, a width of 15 cm, and a
height of 8 cm. The entrance hole to the cavity was
a triangular opening 3 cm on each side.
The Indian mongoose I observed on 9 May was
the presumed predator of this nest. Its observed en-
trance into the nest cavity probably represented a
return visit and an attempt to extract the final egg
that remained in the deepest section of the cavity. I
was later able to retrieve this egg, and the 2-3 day
old embryo it contained is preserved in formalin.
The female was likely killed during the initial nest
predation event.
I suggest that the introduction and naturalization
of the Indian mongoose on Hispaniola and Jamaica
could be a significant factor contributing to local
extinction and overall population declines of the
Golden Swallow. The first established populations
of Indian mongoose in the West Indies occurred on
Jamaica in 1872 (Horst et al. 2001). The Jamaican
population expanded rapidly and has since served as
the source for introduction to 29 other islands, in-
cluding Hispaniola, where mongoose populations
are currently expanding in range and increasing in
density (Horst et al. 2001). It is possible that defor-
estation of high elevation pine forests has pushed
Golden Swallows to nest in sub-optimal habitat
where they are more vulnerable to this nest preda-
tor. Further research is needed to determine popula-
tion densities of the Indian Mongoose, and to de-


lineate where populations of this nest predator over-
lap with ground and near-ground nesting Golden
Swallows.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I am grateful for funding support from Chris Rim-
mer and the Vermont Institute of Natural Science.
Logistical support and permission to conduct re-
search in the Dominican Republic was generously
provided by the Subsecretaria de Areas Protegidas y
Biodiversidad and the Fundacion Moscoso Puello.
The manuscript was reviewed by S. Latta, G. Wal-
lace, and J. Wunderle.

LITERATURE CITED
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. 2000. Threatened birds
of the world. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife Interna-
tional, Barcelona and Cambridge, UK.
DOD, A. S. 1992. Endangered and endemic birds of
the Dominican Republic. Cypress House Press,
Fort Bragg, CA.
FERNANDEZ, E. M., AND A. R. KEITH. 2003. Three
unusual bird nests from the Dominican Republic.
Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 16:73-74.
HORST, G. R., D. B. HOAGLAND, AND C. W.
KILPATRICK. 2001. The mongoose in the West
Indies: the biogeography and population biology
of an introduced species. Pp. 409-424 in Biogeog-
raphy of the West Indies: patterns and perspec-
tives (C. A. Woods and F. E. Sergile, eds.). CRC
Press, Boca Raton, FL.
KEITH, A. R., J. W. WILEY, S. C. LATTA, AND J. A.
OTTENWALDER. 2003. The birds of Hispaniola:
an annotated checklist. British Ornithologists'
Union and British Ornithologists' Club, Tring,
Herts, UK.
RAFFAELE, H. A., J. W. WILEY, O. H. GARRIDO, A.
R. KEITH, AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the
birds of the West Indies. Princeton University
Press, Princeton, NJ.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









J Carib. Ornithol. 19:110-112,2006


NUEVOS REGISTROS PARA LA AVIFAUNA DEL SECTOR CUPEYAL DEL NORTE,
PARQUE ALEJANDRO DE HUMBOLDT, CUBA

HIRAM GONZALEZ', ENEIDER PEREZ1, PATRICIA RODRIGUEZ1, GERARDO BEGUE2, Y EMILIO ALFARO3
'Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMIA, Carretera de Varona, Km. 3', A.P. 8010, C.P. 10800, Boyeros,
Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba; email: hiramglez@ecologia.cu; 2Unidad de Servicios Ambientales, Abogados no. 14
e/ 12 y 13 Norte, CP 95200, Guantanamo 2, Cuba; 3Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Obispo no. 61,
Habana Vieja, Cuba

Resumen: Se realizaron inventarios y conteos de aves en el Sector de Cupeyal del Norte dentro del Parque Alejan-
dro de Humboldt en Enero y Marzo 2005. Se hallaron 24 nuevos registros para esta localidad, ocho de los cuales
pertenecen a especies migratorias nearticas y otras 16 a especies que crian en Cuba. Incluimos la lista actualizada de
las especies de aves de Cupeyal del Norte.
Palabras claves: avifauna, Cuba, Cupeyal del Norte, Parque Alejandro de Humboldt, registros nuevos

Abstract: NEW RECORDS FOR THE AVIFAUNA OF THE NORTHERN CUPEYAL SECTOR, PARQUE ALEJANDRO DE HUM-
BOLDT, CUBA. We carried out inventories and bird counts in the Northern Cupeyal sector of Alejandro de Humboldt
Park in January and March 2005. We found 24 new bird species for this locality, eight of which were Nearctic mi-
grant species migratory and the other 16 which breed in Cuba. We include an up-to-date list of the species of birds of
Northern Cupeyal.
Key words: avifauna, Cuba, Cupeyal del Norte, new records, Parque Alejandro de Humboldt

Resume : NOUVELLES OBSERVATIONS POUR L'AVIFAUNE DU SECTEUR NORD DE CUPEYAL, PARQUE ALEJANDRO
DE HUMBOLDT, CUBA. Nous avons effectu6s des inventaires et des comptages d'oiseaux dans le secteur nord de
Cupeyal dans le Pare Alejandro de Humboldt en en janvier et en mars 2005. Nous avons observe 24 especes d'oi-
seaux nouvelles pour cette locality, huit d'entre elles 6tant des especes migratrices n6arctiques alors que les 16 autres
sont nicheuses a Cuba. Une liste a jour des oiseaux du nord Cupeyal est fournie.
Mots-clds : avifaune, Cuba, Cupeyal del Norte,nouvelles observations, Parque Alejandro de Humboldt


CON ANTERIORIDAD A ESTE TRABAJO, solo Ala-
yon (1987) habia realizado un inventario de la zona,
donde registry 51 especies de aves.
Dado la importancia del Sector Cupeyal del Norte
dentro del Parque Alejandro de Humbolt, el colecti-
vo de omitologos del Instituto de Ecologia y Siste-
matica se propuso desarrollar inventarios de las aves
en diferentes localidades del Sector Cupeyal del
Norte dentro del Parque Alejandro de Humbolt.
El Sector presenta una gran diversidad de comuni-
dades vegetales, estan presentes en el sector 7 de las
formaciones vegetales descritas para Cuba, siendo
los tipos principales: el pinar de Pinus cubensis, la
pluvisilva de baja altitud y los matorrales xeromor-
fos subespinoso sobre serpentinita (charrascal); ade-
mas de la pluvisilva de montafia, el siempreverde
mesofilo, el bosque semideciduo y el matorral xero-
morfo espinoso sobre serpentinita (cuabal). Los in-
ventarios de aves se realizaron en el pinar, la pluvi-
silva y el charrascal.
Se realizaron dos expediciones durante los meses
de enero y marzo del aflo 2005. Para los muestreos
de aves terrestres se utilizaron los metodos de con-


teos en parcelas circulares y las capturas con redes
omitologicas (Hutto et al. 1986, Ralph y Duna
2004). Para la captura de las aves se utilizaron redes
omitologicas de 9 m de largo, 2,5 m de alto y de 30
mm de paso de malla, las cuales fueron colocadas en
diferentes puntos del area donde se marcaron las
parcelas de conteo.
Se inventariaron 75 especies de aves residentes y
migratorias, lo que indica que se agregan 24 espe-
cies a las registradas por Alayon (1987). Entre ellas
se relacionan 13 especies endemicas, 4 especies que
se encuentran amenazadas y 21 especies neartica
neotropicales, lo cual le aporta una gran importancia
desde el punto de vista de la riqueza a este sector del
Parque Alejandro de Humboldt.
A continuacion en lel Anexo le relacionamos las
especies de aves registradas para Cupeyal del Norte.

LITERATURA CITADA
ALAYON GARCIA, G. 1987. Lista de las aves obser-
vadas en la Reserva Natural de Cupeyal, Provincia
de Guantanamo, Cuba. Miscelanea Zoologica No.
31:1-2.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL.. -NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES PARA ALEJANDRO DE HUMBOLDT


HUTTO, R., S. M. PLETSCHET, Y P. HENDRICKS. RALPH, C. J., Y E. H. DUNN (EDS). 2004. Monitoring
1986. A fixed-radius point count method for non- bird populations using mist nets. Studies in Avian
breeding and breeding season use. Auk 103:593- Biology 29:1-211.
602.


Anexo. Lista de las especies de Aves de Cupeyal del Norte en el Parque Alejandro de Humboldt. Las especies
nuevas son indicadas con un asterisco.


Localidades Muestreadas

Especie Alayon (1987) Pinar Pluvisilva Charrascal

Cathartes aura X X X X
Accipiter striatus* X -
Accipiter gundlachi X X -
Buteo platypterus X X X
Buteo jamaicensis X X X
Falco sparverius X X X
Patagioenas squamosa* X
Patagioenas leucocephala* X X X
Zenaida asiatica* X
Zenaida aurita* X
Zenaida macroura X X -
Columbina passerina -X X X
Aratinga euops X -
Amazona leucocephala X X X X
Saurothera merlini X X X X
Crotophaga ani X X X X
Tyto alba X -
Gymnoglaux lawrencii* X -
Glaucidium siju X X X X
Asio stygius X -
Caprimulgus cubanensis X X -
Cypseloides niger X -
Streptoprocne zonaris X -
Chlorostilbon ricordii X X X X
Mellisuga helenae X X X
Priotelus temnurus X X X X
Todus multicolor X X X X
Melanerpes superciliaris* X
Sphyrapicus varius X X -
Xiphidiopicus percussus X X X X
Colaptes auratus X X -
Contopus caribaeus X X X X
Myiarchus sagrae X X X X
Tyrannus dominicensis* -X X X
Tyrannus caudifasciatus X X X X
Stelgidopteryx serripennis* X -
Petrochelidonfulva X -
Hirundo rustica* X
Corvus nasicus X X X
Polioptila caerulea* X -


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









GONZALEZ ETAL.. -NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES PARA ALEJANDRO DE HUMBOLDT


Anexo continuado.


Localidades Muestreadas

Especie Alayon (1987) Pinar Pluvisilva Charrascal

Myadestes elisabeth X X X X
Turdus plumbeus X X X X
Dumetella carolinensis*
Mimus polyglottos X X X X
Vireo gundlachii X X X X
Vireo altiloquus X X X
Parula americana X X X X
Dendroica magnolia* X -
Dendroica tigrina X X -
Dendroica virens X -
Dendroica dominica X X -
Dendroica pityophila X X X
Dendroica pinus X -
Dendroica discolor X X -
Dendroica palmarum X X X X
Mniotilta varia X X X X
Setophaga ruticilla X X X X
Protonotaria citrea X -
Seiurus aurocapilla* X -
Geothlypis trichas X X X X
Teretistrisfornsi X X X X
Spindalis zena X X X X
Piranga rubra X -
Melopyrrha nigra X X X X
Tiaris olivaceus X X X X
Passerculus sandwichensis X -
Melospiza lincolnii* X -
Agelaius humeralis* X
Sturnella magna X -
Dives atroviolaceus* X X
Quiscalus niger* X X
Icterus melanopsis X -

Especies Total 51 56 35 42


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









J Carib. Ornithol. 19:113-115,2006


THREE NEW MIGRATORY BIRD SPECIES REPORTED FROM HISPANIOLA

MIGUEL A. LANDESTOY1, PEDRO G. RODRIGUEZ1, AND STEVEN C. LATTA1' 2
aSociedad Ornitol6gica de la Hispaniola, Ave. Maximo Gomez, esq. San Martin, Santo Domingo, Domini-
can Republic; 2Point Reyes Bird Observatory, 3820 Cypress Dr., Petaluma, California 94924; current
address: National Aviary, Allegheny Commons West, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15212; e-mail:
steve. latta@aviary. org

Abstract: We report the occurrence of three species of migratory birds new to the island of Hispaniola, including
Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea), and Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus
virens). All were seen and photographed during the fall migration period in southwestern Dominican Republic.
Other vagrants seen during the same time period are also mentioned.
Key words: Catharus ustulatus, Contopus virens, Dominican Republic, Eastern Wood-Pewee, Hispaniola, Piranga
olivacea, Scarlet Tanager, Swainson's Thrush

Resumen: TRES ESPECIES DE AVES MIGRATORIAS REGISTRADAS EN LA HISPANIOLA. Divulgamos sobre la
ocurrencia de tres especies de aves migratorias nuevas a la isla de la Hispaniola, incluyendo Catharus ustulatus,
Piranga olivacea, y Contopus virens. Todas fueron vistas y fotografiadas durante el periodo de la migraci6n de
otofo en el sudoeste de la Republica Dominicana. Mencionamos otras especies raras tambien que vimos durante el
mismo periodo.
Palabras clave: Catharus ustulatus, Contopus virens, Hispaniola, Piranga olivacea, Republica Dominicana

Resumc : OBSERVATION DE TROIS NOUVELLES ESPECES D'OISEAUX MIGRATEURS A HISPANIOLA. Nous rapportons
la presence de 3 nouvelles especes d'oiseaux migrateurs pour l'ile d'Hispaniola : la Grive a dos olive (Catharus
ustulatus), le Tangara 6carlate (Piranga olivacea) et le Pioui de l'Est (Contopus virens). Elles ont toutes 6taient ob-
serv6es et photographiee pendant la migration d'automne au sud-ouest de la Republique Dominicaine. D'autres es-
pbces accidentelles observes a la meme 6poque sont mentionnees.
Mots-clds : Catharus ustulatus, Contopus virens, Grive a dos olive, Pioui de l'Est, Hispaniola, Piranga olivacea,
Republique Dominicaine, Tangara 6carlate


HISPANIOLA OCCUPIES a central location among
landmasses in the West Indies and is thus a major
crossroads of migration (Keith et al. 2003). Numer-
ous migratory birds pass through the island or over-
winter in the Dominican Republic and Haiti
(Raffaele et al. 1998, Latta et al. 2006). Nonethe-
less, a number of migratory species have been re-
corded on Cuba, Jamaica, and other Caribbean is-
lands that are perhaps more intensively explored by
birdwatchers, so new records are still to be expected
from Hispaniola. Here we report details for three
new species for Hispaniola and several other va-
grants, all in the Dominican Republic.

NEW SPECIES

SWAINSON'S THRUSH (CATHARUS USTULATUS)
At about 11:00 hr on 16 October 2005, Landestoy
observed a thrush fly into mesquite scrub at Las
Calderas Naval Base near Las Salinas de Bani,
Peravia Province, Dominican Republic. At this
coastal site, habitat patches include salt lagoons,
commercial salt ponds, open mangroves, dry scrub
with cactus and mesquite, and residential gardens. It


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


was identified as a Swainson's Thrush by its uni-
formly olive brown upperparts, white underparts
with sides of face, throat and breast washed pale
buffy, and dark spotting on the sides of the throat
and breast (Fig. 1). A distinct buffy eye-ring and
lores were unmistakable. Most thrushes on His-
paniola are vagrants or occur at higher elevations
(Keith et al. 2003). For example, the superficially
similar Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) is an
uncommon to rare winter resident found primarily
in montane broadleaf forest (but see Arendt et al.
2004), but the eye-ring and lores are grayer. The
only common thrush on Hispaniola, the Red-legged
Thrush (Turdus plumbeus), has slaty gray upper-
parts, reddish legs, bill, and eye-ring, and conspicu-
ous white tail tips (Latta et al. 2006). Swainson's
Thrush was reported once previously in the Domini-
can Republic based on a "light eye ring" (Bond
1980), but few other details were provided and this
species was subsequently treated as hypothetical
(Keith et al. 2003). This species has also been re-
ported from Cuba, Jamaica, the Cayman Islands,
and the Bahamas (Raffaele et al. 1998), so its occur-
rence on Hispaniola is not entirely unexpected.









NEW MIGRATORY SPECIES FROM HISPANIOLA


Fig. 1. Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus) near
Las Salinas de Bani, Peravia Province, Dominican
Republic, on 16 October 2005. Photo by Miguel A.
Landestoy


SCARLET TANAGER (PIRANGA OLIVACEA)
On 11 November 2005, a first-year male Scarlet
Tanager was photographed by Miguel Landestoy at
Rabo de Gato on the north side of Sierra de Baho-
ruco National Park, Dominican Republic. This con-
stitutes the first verified record of this species on
Hispaniola. The tanager was recognized by the stout,
pointed, horn-colored bill, yellowish-olive uppers,
yellow underparts, and dark wings with distinctive
black lesser, median, and greater coverts (Fig. 2).
The bird was first seen perched in a golden shower
tree (Cassia sp.), and later it perched in a
"guayacan" tree (Guaiacum sp.) with many Palm-
chats (Dulus dominicus). Although this tree bore
many fruit, the tanager was not seen eating these
fruit, but it did sally from the tree to catch an insect.
The Scarlet Tanager has been recorded elsewhere on
many of the Caribbean islands (Raffaele et al.
1998).

EASTERN WOOD-PEWEE (CONTOPUS VIRENS)
Also on 16 October 2005 at the Bahia de las Cal-
deras, Landestoy noticed a small flycatcher perched
on a stump near the Natural Monument office. This
bird appeared to be a Contopus pewee and similar to
the endemic Hispaniolan Pewee (Contopus his-
paniolensis), but the latter species occurs most com-
monly in pine forests in the mountains and foothills
(Keith et al. 2003). The bird at Las Salinas appeared
olive-gray above and pale below, with a light dusky


Fig. 2. First-year male Scarlet Tanager (Piranga
olivacea) at Rabo de Gato on the north side of Sierra
de Bahoruco National Park, Dominican Republic, on
11 November 2005. Photo by Miguel A. Landestoy.



wash on the breast and sides, two broad whitish
wing-bars, and a partial light-colored eye-ring. The
bill was dark above, but the lower mandible was
extensively yellowish at its base. This bird was read-
ily discernable from the Hispaniolan Pewee which
has darker underparts that are gray with an olive-
yellow or brown wash, usually lacks or has very
inconspicuous buffy wing bars, and the bill is usu-
ally darker and pinkish at the base of the lower man-
dible (Latta et al. 2006). A series of excellent photo-
graphs was taken by Rodriguez (Fig. 3). Although
the Eastern Wood-Pewee and the very similar West-
ern Wood-Pewee (C. sordidulus) are most reliably
separated by voice (McCarty 1996, Bemis and Ris-
ing 1999), and the individual seen at Bahia de las
Calderas was unfortunately silent, we identified this
bird as a hatching year Eastern Wood-Pewee. Con-
sistent with C. virens, this bird had a relatively pale
chest with the dusky color of the chest band not ex-
tending down the flanks, the back appeared gray
tinged with green and contrasted with the more
brownish-olive head, and the edgings to the wings
were bright and the wingbars equally distinct, char-
acteristics that are all much more consistent with C.
virens than C. sordidulus. The distance between the
tips of the uppertail coverts and the tip of the tail
also appeared longer than is found in most Westerns,
which also is a good characteristic (P. Pyle pers.
comm.). The extent of black on the tip of the lower
mandible indicated a hatching year bird, as younger
birds have more black here than do adults, species
by species. In addition, while C. sordidulus has been
recorded as a vagrant on Cuba and Jamaica
(Raffaele et al. 1998), the normal migratory route of
C. virens would make this species's occurrence in
the Dominican Republic far more likely than that of
C. sordidulus, and it has been previously reported


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


LANDESTOY ETAL.









LANDESTOY ETAL. -NEW MIGRATORY SPECIES FROM HISPANIOLA


Fig. 3. Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens) near
Las Salinas de Bani, Peravia Province, Dominican
Republic, on 16 October 2005. Photo by Pedro G.
Rodriguez.


from many islands of the West Indies (Raffaele et
al. 1998). A similar individual was seen later that
same day near the parking lot of the Natural Monu-
ment in mixed vegetation of mesquite, mangrove,
and sea grape (Coccoloba uvifera), and may have
been a second individual.

OTHER BIRD VAGRANTS
Other birds considered vagrant on Hispaniola by
Keith et al. (2003) were also recorded at Salinas de
Bani on 16 October 2005. These included a Red-
eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus), previously reported
five times on migration; Chestnut-sided Warbler
(Dendroica pensylvanica), reported four times pre-
viously during migration; Blackburnian Warbler
(Dendroica fusca), reported only four times in the
past; and Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica),
only the second record since three birds were col-
lected in 1930. More than a week later, on 24 Octo-
ber, Landestoy found single individuals of a Conto-
pus sp. and Swainson's Thrush at this same site, but
it is unknown if these were the same individuals
remaining through an extended stopover, or newly-


arrived migrants. Also unusual at Rabo de Gato on
11 November were two Baltimore Orioles (Icterus
galbula), a rare non-breeding visitor with a dozen
previous records from Hispaniola (Keith et al.
2003).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We appreciate the comments provided by Wayne
Arendt, Steven Mlodinow, Chris Rimmer, and an
anonymous reviewer on an earlier draft of this pa-
per, and we especially thank Steve N. G. Howell
and Peter Pyle for comments on photographs of the
Contopus.

LITERATURE CITED
ARENDT, W. J., J. FAABORG, G. E. WALLACE, AND
O. H. GARRIDO. 2004. Biometrics of birds
throughout the Greater Caribbean basin. Proceed-
ings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate
Zoology 8:1-33.
BEMIS, C., AND J. D. RISING. 1999. Western Wood-
Pewee (Contopus sordidulus). In The birds of
North America, no. 451 (A. Poole and F. Gill,
eds.). The Birds of North America, Inc., Philadel-
phia, PA.
BOND, J. 1980. Twenty-third supplement to the
Check-list of the birds of the West Indies (1956).
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia.
KEITH, A., J. WILEY, S. LATTA, AND J. OTTENWAL-
DER. 2003. The birds of Hispaniola: Haiti and the
Dominican Republic. British Ornithologists' Un-
ion, Tring, UK. 293 pp.
LATTA, S. C., C. C. RIMMER, A. R. KEITH, J. W.
WILEY, H. A. RAFFAELE, K. P. MCFARLAND,
AND E. M. FERNANDEZ. 2006. Birds of the Do-
minican Republic and Haiti. Princeton University
Press, Princeton, NJ.
MCCARTY, J. P. 1996. Eastern Wood-Pewee
(Contopus virens). In The birds of North Amer-
ica, no. 245 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). The
Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA,
and the American Ornithologists' Union, Wash-
ington, DC.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton University Press,
Princeton, NJ.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









BOOK REVIEWS


BOOK REVIEWS


THE BIRDS OF ST. LUCIA, WEST INDIES: AN
ANNOTATED CHECK-LIST.-Allan R. Keith.
1997. British Ornithologists Union Check-list No.
15. Dorset Press, Dorchester, Dorset, UK. 176 pp.
ISBN 0-907446-19-1. $45.00.

What a relief it would be to arrive at an island
with a complete background of the avifauna in one
volume. How nice it would be to avoid months or
years just trying to figure out what is known and
unknown about the island's birds. Well, for those
visiting St. Lucia, you are in luck. If only there were
a guide as comprehensive as The Birds of St. Lucia
for each island in the West Indies. This book does
not presume to be an identification guide; there are
only a handful of bird plates, but instead it focuses
on providing the reader with a complete introduction
to the island's 162 recorded species. It is small
enough to fit in a backpack and the sturdy binding
appears ready to withstand field use.
There is a brief but thorough introduction to the
political history, geology and geography, climate,
and vegetation. In addition, the author has compiled
a very useful list of ornithological exploration, in-
cluding data from diverse sources, such as brief vis-
its by tourists and testimonies of life-long residents.
The final 57 pages of the introduction include de-
scriptions of migration, breeding, zoogeography,
and conservation on St. Lucia. The migration section
also includes theories on species dispersion. The
zoogeography, or biogeography, section is an ex-
haustive account of the possible origins of each resi-
dent species and may not appeal to all readers. The
numerous accompanying tables and maps provide
excellent detail and perspective.
The systematic list includes the English, scientific,
and, when available, St. Lucian name for each spe-
cies based on the 1983 American Ornithologists'
Union check-list. Six categories of abundance are
used. Most accounts also outline a species's distri-
bution in North America and within the West Indies.
Some species accounts contain interesting data from
Dominica, Martinique, and Barbados in order to
provide context. When possible, descriptions of
nests and eggs are provided. The number of col-
lected specimens is also given.
For those who are wondering why Bufflehead
(Bucephala albeola) or some other species is not
included in the check-list, an appendix provides ac-
counts for species of uncertain occurrence, wherein
the author explains why specific records were not


accepted. Other appendices list the number of St.
Lucian specimens housed at each collection and
recoveries of banded birds in St. Lucia. The fourth
appendix provides an excellent account of each of
the three endemic species and three subspecies, in-
cluding distribution, population, ecology, threats,
and conservation measures.
There are 40 color photo plates which represent
habitats, topography, and points of interest very
well. There are also photos of the St. Lucia Black
Finch (Melanospiza richardsoni) and Lesser Antil-
lean Bullfinch (Loxigilla noctis) on facing pages for
comparison. The St. Lucia White-breasted Thrasher
(Ramphocinclus brachyurus sanctaeluciae) and St.
Lucia Oriole (Icterus laudabilis) photos are pro-
vided as well. It's not clear why a photo of the re-
gionally distributed and very common Bananquit
(Coereba flaveola) was chosen for inclusion, when
perhaps a plate of the possibly-extinct Semper's
Warbler (Leucopeza semperi) might have been more
appropriate.
There are separate indices for common and scien-
tific names, but unfortunately not for local names.
An impressive and apparently complete 314 refer-
ences are listed, especially useful as it relates to St.
Lucia's endemic species.
Because it was printed almost a decade ago, it is
to be expected that information has since been up-
dated. For example, Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus
occidentalis) are described as having only one
breeding site in the Lesser Antilles (Antigua). We
found several misspellings and punctuation errors.
Despite repeated searches through the list of abbre-
viations and sections of the introduction, it was not
clear what C/2 meant in the breeding section of cer-
tain accounts. Also, the acronym JWPT appeared to
be without explanation. A listing of the known
predators of St. Lucia, separated into native and
non-native, would be useful as would a simple refer-
ence list of bird species and their abundance.
However, despite these small shortcomings, the
careful attention to detail given to each subject can-
not be overlooked. The author's obvious concern for
and devotion to the welfare of the island's avifauna
is clear. The Birds of St. Lucia is highly recom-
mended for both recreational birders and academic
ornithologists with an interest in the West Indies.-
NATALIA COLLIER AND ADAM C. BROWN, Environ-
mental Protection In the Caribbean, 200 Dr. M.L.
King Jr. Blvd., Riviera Beach, FL 33404; e-mail:
info@epicislands.org.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









BOOK REVIEWS


AVES ACUATICAS EN LOS HUMEDALES DE
CUBA (WATERBIRDS IN THE WETLANDS OF
CUBA).-Lourdes Mugica Valdes, Dennis Denis
Avila, Martin Acosta Cruz, Ariam Jimenez Reyes,
and Antonio Rodriguez Suarez. 2006. Editorial
Cientifico-Tecnica, La Habana, Cuba. 193 pp.
ISBN: 959-05-0407-8. $30.00; Available from
Natural History Book Service (www.nhbs.com).

Caribbean wetlands are vitally important habitats,
providing food, water and shelter to many resident
and migratory birds and other biodiversity, and es-
sential resources and ecosystem services (e.g., les-
sening flood damage) to human populations. Unfor-
tunately, and of grave concern, wetlands are also
one of our region's most endangered habitats.
Threatened by agriculture, filling and dredging,
coastal developments, and a variety of pollutants,
wetlands are under widespread attack. In what
promises to be a new generation of bird-themed
books, a quintet of Cuban authors led by Lourdes
Mugica offer us a beautiful book on the birds of the
wetlands of Cuba. While most recent bird books
from the Caribbean have been field guides dedi-
cated to the veteran birdwatcher, or introductions to
common birds for schoolchildren and other begin-
ners, this book is an in-depth treatment of the ecol-
ogy and conservation of wetland birds. Presumably
intended for upper level students and conservation
professionals, the book does an admirable job of
summarizing the state of knowledge on the ecology
of wetland birds, the threats that they face in Cuba,
and the opportunities for conservation of the birds
and their wetlands.
Written in Spanish, Aves Acudticas en los Hum-
edales de Cuba begins with an overview of wet-
lands, their value and function, and the different
types of wetlands in Cuba. Following is a descrip-
tion of the key species of plants and animals in wet-
land ecosystems, and a survey of wetland birds,
their adaptations to allow a life in aquatic habitats,
and a summary of their importance in maintaining
the ecosystems. The heart of the book is devoted to
birds in each of the principle wetland habitats of
Cuba: diverse coastal wetlands, mangroves, fresh-
water wetlands, and rice fields. Each of these chap-
ters elaborates on the ecology and behavior of the
birds occurring in these habitats, often including
notes from the most recent research in Cuba on rela-
tive abundance, habitat partitioning, morphological
adaptations, reproductive behavior, reproductive
success, growth rates of nestlings, the role of migra-
tory birds in wetland communities, and both posi-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


tive and negative interactions with humans.
Perhaps most interesting to me was the extensive
treatment of bird use of rice fields. More than any-
one else, the Cubans have spearheaded studies to
understand the importance of rice fields to birds,
and have promoted their value in the conservation
of aquatic birds. In Aves Acudticas en los Hum-
edales de Cuba, the importance of rice fields as
alternative habitat for a wide variety of birds is
made clear through a description of the rice cultiva-
tion cycle, the variation in the bird community using
the rice fields throughout the annual cycle, food
sources for birds and the aquatic animal communi-
ties that occur in rice fields, and a consideration of
the impact of birds on the rice harvest. Clearly the
Cubans understand the importance of finding ways
to allow agriculture and birds to coexist, and this
chapter on rice production highlights that issue
nicely. One question that remained in my mind
though was that of the role of pesticides in rice cul-
ture. Perhaps I am misinformed or perhaps Cuba is
unique, but I had always understood rice cultivation
to be extremely dependent on chemical inputs, and
thus a detriment and a danger to aquatic birds. A
note on this issue would fill out the chapter nicely.
Finally, the book concludes with considerations
on the conservation of aquatic birds and wetland
habitats. The list of threats to wetlands is long and
familiar, but of interest here is the in-depth analysis
of the situation in Cuba. Included are data on intro-
duced species that threaten wetland ecosystems, egg
collection, illegal hunting, and habitat conversion.
Groups that are actively involved or support wet-
land conservation are highlighted here, and while
the West Indian Whistling-Duck Working Group is
highlighted, I was surprised that there is little men-
tion of the SCSCB. The book concludes with a
checklist of species, a comprehensive index, glos-
sary, and an appendix of removable pages that can
be collated to form a 12-page pocket guide to
aquatic birds of Cuban wetlands, and 4 full-page
posters by the renowned Cuban artists Nils Navarro
and Rolando Rodriguez that might be used to pro-
mote the conservation of these birds and their habi-
tats. These are both unique and creative additions to
the book, but I have to wonder who would damage
such a beautiful book by removing these plates, as
lovely as they are?
Not only is the treatment of ecological questions
representative of a new generation of bird books for
the Caribbean, but it is also reflected in the layout of
Aves Acudticas en los Humedales de Cuba. Full of
colorful graphics, photographs, graphs, and infor-









BOOK REVIEWS


mative sidebars and boxes, the book invites perusal.
On nearly every page the browser will find an invit-
ing note of interest. Each page is topped with a
prominent header that instantly sets the reader into
the subject of the chapter, but even more surprising
is that each chapter is printed on a different colored,
high-quality paper, from light lilac, to lemon yellow,
to a warm light blue. This technique adds to the
beauty of the book, but also makes locating a par-
ticular chapter remarkably easy. While I admit some
initial unease in the overall pattern of the layout,
which somehow resembles a webpage design, once
accustomed to its feel, I found it very useful and
inviting. But I also think that it will instantly appeal
more to the youngest generation of conservationists
who have been raised on the internet and textbooks-
which also seem to be populated by sidebars and
boxes rather than the long chapters and minimal
graphics of previous generations.


I have very few negative criticisms of this book.
As it is packed with information, at times the side-
bars or boxes can have such small fonts that they
really are a strain to see. In particular, throughout
the book are scattered small, species identification
cards which have unfortunately been overly reduced.
Although bibliographies are included in each chap-
ter, they are limited in scope and could be broadened
to allow readers to access more detailed original
data. But other than these minor flaws, I think the
Cuban team of ornithologists is to be commended
for producing such a beautiful and informative book.
It should serve as a model for other such efforts to
help translate research results into conservation
practice, and to inform and inspire a new generation
of avian conservation biologists.-STEVEN C.
LATTA, Department of Conservation and Field Re-
search, National Aviary, Allegheny Commons West,
Pittsburgh, PA 15212, USA; e-mail: steven.latta@
aviary.org.


A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ORNITHOLOGY IN THE
WEST INDIES.-James W. Wiley. 2000. Proceed-
ings of the Western Foundation of Vertebrate Zool-
ogy, Volume 7. 817 pp. ISSN: 0511-7550. $42.50;
available from the Western Foundation of Verte-
brate Zoology, 439 Calle San Pablo, Camarillo, CA
93012, USA.

Occasionally a book appears that one instantly
understands is a landmark achievement. This Bibli-
ography of Ornithology in the West Indies is not a
page turner, nor even particularly attractive, but it is
monumental in scope and will impact the work of
ornithologists and conservationists in the West In-
dies for decades to come. Jim Wiley has assembled
here a staggering 11,648 entries of published papers,
reports-including considerable numbers of publica-
tions considered "gray literature," theses, newspaper
stories, and proposals, 97.3% of which were seen
personally by Wiley. Even obscure titles that only
the historian and collector would find of value are
listed. Each entry is followed by a short description
of the contents of the paper, and sometimes a quite
extended abstract is presented for the more impor-
tant works.
This tremendous collection of citations is comple-
mented and made far more useful by the provision
of cross-referenced indices. Index 1 is a list of all


bibliographic references according to taxonomic
names of all bird species mentioned in the bibliogra-
phy, so that one might find, for example, all publica-
tions which mention Amazona ventralis. Index 2 is a
list of all bibliographic references divided by geo-
graphic names so that one might locate, for example,
all works relevant to the Dominican Republic. An
index of references sorted by key words is included,
but this should be used in conjunction with a follow-
ing appendix that lists subject key words stratified
by categories and subcategories, as some of the lists
of references can become quite lengthy and the de-
sired subject may be better addressed in one of the
many subcategories. The bibliography concludes
with a list of serial or journal titles, a list of serials or
journals organized by country of publication, a taxo-
nomic list of species with common and Latin names,
a key to geographic place names organized by island
group, and a list of libraries and other key sources of
information incorporated into the bibliography.
While the frontispiece seems to caution the re-
viewer with this note attributed to a G. F. Mees,
"Bibliography is a most unrewarding occupation,
because one tends to get blamed for what one has
overlooked, rather than praised for what one has
accomplished," as a reviewer I felt obligated to find
at least one missed citation. It took five years of use,
but I finally did it-or rather Storrs Olson did it for


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006









BOOK REVIEWS


me. In a review of evidence for the existence of the
Hispaniolan Macaw (Ara tricolor), Olson (2005)
refers to "...an obscure reference that was long
overlooked, Armas (1888)..." Lo and behold, that
was it-a missing reference from Wiley's bibliogra-
phy!
But really, there is little need to criticize this
work. I can only begin to imagine what it took to
track down, collate, and index this massive quantity
of material. Personally, I would have liked to see
the bibliography include more recent works beyond
1994, but of course a deadline needs to be estab-
lished at some point. As it stands, this accomplish-
ment should be widely hailed, and this bibliography
should be found in the libraries and collections of
all who have an interest in Caribbean ornithology
and conservation. It is indispensable. The Western
Foundation of Vertebrate Zoology should be saluted
for publishing this work, and of course, Jim Wiley
should be thanked for the years of work that must


have been involved in its production. The publica-
tion of this bibliography really is a service to all of
us who continue to build on the studies listed here,
as we benefit from the experience of those who pre-
ceded us and who are represented in Wiley's out-
standing bibliography.-STEVEN C. LATTA, Depart-
ment of Conservation and Field Research, National
Aviary, Allegheny Commons West, Pittsburgh, PA
15212, USA; e-mail: steven.latta@ aviary.org.

LITERATURE CITED
ARMAS, J. I. 1888. La zoologia de Colon y de los
primeros exploradores de America. Habana: Es-
tablicimiento Tipografico, Imp. Militar de la
Viuda de Soler y Compafiia.
OLSON, S. L. 2005. Refutation of the historical evi-
dence for a Hispaniolan Macaw (Aves: Psittaci-
dae: Ara). Caribbean Journal of Science 41:319-
323.


DOMINICA'S BIRDS.-Arlington James, Stephen
Durand, and Bertrand Jno. Baptiste. 2005. Forestry,
Wildlife and Parks Division, Dominica. 136 pp.
ISBN: None

From Dominica comes another delightful intro-
duction to island birds! Continuing the outstanding
contributions made by United States Fish and Wild-
life Service's Division of International Conserva-
tion, and with the donation of the plates from Herb
Raffaele and co-author's A guide to the birds of the
West Indies (Princeton University Press), this guide
to 65 common birds of Dominica breaks new ground
with its wonderful use of history and culture in pre-
senting the island's birds.
Following introductory notes on the interaction of
birds and humans, an historical overview of orni-
thologists on Dominica, and a brief summary of
legislation to protect birds on the island, the reader
reaches some of the more innovative chapters of the
book. The authors have scoured the island and inter-
viewed many people to assemble a list of place
names, plants, club and group names, and children's
games which reflect the importance of birds to soci-
ety. Even more impressive and entertaining is a list
of proverbs, expressions, and metaphors that refer to
birds. For example, one Creole expression translates
as, "It is imperative that one sleeps among the chick-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006


ens in a fowl house to know how fowls snore," sug-
gesting that it is best to experience a situation to
know how best to deal with its recurrence. Another
expression is a reminder that every situation and
person must be judged on merit: the literal transla-
tion of the Creole is, "All birds are birds, but a Gray
Kingbird [Tyrannus dominicensis] is not a Scaly-
naped Pigeon [Patagioenas squamosa]."
The heart of the book though is the species ac-
counts which feature more than 5 dozen commonly
seen or culturally important birds of Dominica, in-
cluding endemic species, other permanent residents,
and over-wintering migrants. Each account features
local names, a physical description for identification
of the species, and notes on habitat and nesting. For
some species there is also a discussion of the pre-
sent conservation status of the bird on the island,
and a sometimes long section on how that species is
viewed in Dominica's rich folkloric tradition. Here
again is where this book really shines, providing the
reader with abundant examples of how prominent
birds are in oral traditions and how ingrained in the
fabric of life birds and other wildlife can be. For
example, in this small book we learn that flocks of
frigatebirds over land indicate that very heavy rains
are expected; the kestrel calling or the kingfisher's
rattle while flying over a community are signs that a
woman has just become pregnant; eating humming-









BOOK REVIEWS


birds will drive a person mad; and the presence of
the House Wren (Troglodytes aedon) indicates a
boa constrictor (Constrictor constrictor) is nearby.
Finally, each species is illustrated with a figure from
the Raffaele guide, although a few species accounts
are supplemented with a photograph of the bird or
other artwork. The book concludes with complete
indices of English, scientific, and local names; ap-
pendices of plant names mentioned in the text; local
(Creole) words pertaining to birds; a short English-
Creole dictionary of bird terms; and a short list of
references of Dominican ornithological works.
I have few criticisms of this informative and en-
tertaining book. I found the species accounts to be
somewhat inconsistent, with some species given
only the most basic identification points and de-
scriptions of habitat and nest characteristics, while
other species were awarded much longer and more
detailed accounts topped off by significant folkloric
histories. A few accounts even added sections on
symbols and legends associated with the species. I
thought some of the bird images could have been
reproduced in a larger format, as some are quite


small and there often appeared to be a fair amount
of wasted white space on the page. For some reason
the image of the beautiful Rufous-throated Solitaire
(Myadestes genibarbis) is missing entirely, and
some of the photographs are reproduced in a
slightly inferior way. I found no spelling or typo-
graphic errors, except that a few of the subheadings
in the species accounts were not in bold-face type.
But these are really minor problems. The book's
value is really in providing a sterling example of
how ornithologists and conservationists can draw on
rich cultural traditions to help bring people to better
appreciate birds, and to support more fervently ef-
forts to conserve birds and their habitats. Building a
conservation ethic is sometimes the first and great-
est battle in protecting our natural resources, and
this fine book from Dominica shows us a wonderful
example of one way to move forward in the good
fight.-STEVEN C. LATTA, Department of Conser-
vation and Field Research, National Aviary, Alle-
gheny Commons West, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
15212; e-mail: steve.latta@aaviary.org


REVIEWERS OF VOLUME 19


We thank the following individuals for reviewing
manuscripts (more than one indicated in parenthe-
ses) for volume 19: Wayne J. Arendt (4), Adam C.
Brown, P. A. Buckley (2), Dennis Denis (4), Jack C.
Eitniear, Hiram Gonzalez (2), Susan M. Haig, Ruud
von Halewijn (2), William K. Hayes (2), Ariam
Jimenez, Susan E. Koenig, Oliver Komar (4), James
Kushlan, Steven C. Latta (3), Catherine Levy,


Douglas B. McNair, Leopoldo Miranda-Castro,
Steven G. Mlodinow (2), Lourdes Mugica (2), Wil-
liam L. Murphy (2), Erica Nol, Robert L. Norton,
Robert B. Payne, Tineke G. Prins (2), James V.
Remsen, Jr. (3), Frank Rivera (2), Antonio Rodri-
guez, Daysi Rodriguez, Jeremy Taylor, George E.
Wallace (2), Nils Warnock, and Joseph M.
Wunderle (3).


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 19(2), 2006












INFORMATION FOR CONTRIBUTORS


The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology welcomes submission of articles, notes, commentaries, book re-
views, and announcements on all aspects of avian biology within the Greater Caribbean region, including
Bermuda, the Bahamas, and all islands within the Caribbean basin.
Language.-Contributions may be submitted in English, Spanish, or French. An abstract in at least one of
the other two languages is required but is unnecessary for submission (the editorial board will assist with
translation).
Form of Submission.-All manuscripts and materials must be submitted electronically, preferably as a
Word, WordPerfect, jpg or gif file attachment, to the editor, Floyd Hayes, at jco@puc.edu. Cuban authors
should submit manuscripts directly to the new editor in chief, Martin Acosta, at macosta fbio.uh.cu. Each
research manuscript will be reviewed by at least two referees who will judge its suitability for publication.
Format.-Conform to the style of the most recent issue:
Font: Times New Roman, 10 point.
Spacing: single spaced throughout, with one space after a period and an extra space between sections.
Title: all caps and centered, no longer than 20 words; include scientific name(s) for any species.
Authors: small caps and centered; use superscript numbers for multiple addresses.
Addresses: italicized and centered; if multiple authors, use superscripted numbers.
Abstract: include in all research papers, including short notes; <5% of manuscript's length; heading
indented and italicized, followed by a colon.
Key words: up to 10 in alphabetic order and separated by commas; heading indented and italicized,
followed by a colon.
Section headings: small caps and centered.
Subsection headings: small caps and left justified.
Bird names: vernacular name followed by scientific name in parenthesis, with only vernacular name
used thereafter; vernacular name optional for French and Spanish manuscripts.
Text citations: author(s) and year (e.g., Smith 1990, Smith and Jones 1991, Smith et al. 1992); multi-
ple citations listed chronologically.
Measurements: metric units (e.g., km, m, ha, g, 1).
Dates and times: continental dating (e.g., 5 March 2005) and 24-hour clock (e.g., 08:35 hr).
Acknowledgments: precedes Literature Cited.
Literature Cited: cite only publicly available sources; please avoid citing unpublished manuscripts
and cite websites only when necessary.
Journal
Frost, M. D., and E. B. Massiah. 2003. Observations of rare and unusual birds on Grenada. Journal
of Caribbean Ornithology 16:63-65.
Book or report
Bond, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. 5th ed. Collins, London.
Chapter in book
Saliva, J. E. 2000. Status of Sooty Terns in the West Indies. Pp. 102-108 in Status and conservation
of West Indian seabirds (E. A. Schreiber and David S. Lee, eds.). Society of Caribbean Ornithol-
ogy, Ruston, LA.
Tables: insert on separate pages after Literature Cited; each numbered (e.g., Table 1) with a short
heading at the top; footnotes alphabetic rather than numeric.
Figures: each must be electronic and preferably embedded within the manuscript; insert on a separate
page after Literature Cited; each numbered (e.g., Fig. 1) with short headings; photos should include
photographer's name; only black and white figures will be published in the print version unless the
extra costs of printing in color are paid by the author, but color will be available in pdf files.
Appendices: insert each on separate pages after Literature Cited; each numbered (e.g., Appendix 1)
with a short heading at the top; footnotes must be alphabetic rather than numeric.





















2006


THE JOURNAL OF


CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
ASSOCIATION POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L' ETUDE DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE

Vol. 19, No. 2


SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS

The Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds (SCSCB) is the largest single regional organiza-
tion committed to the conservation of wild birds and their habitats in the Greater Caribbean region, including Ber-
muda, the Bahamas, and all islands within the Caribbean basin. The overarching objective of the SCSCB is to in-
crease the ability of Caribbean ornithologists, resource managers, conservation organizations, institutions, and lo-
cal citizens to conserve the birds of the Caribbean and their habitats. We aim to achieve this by 1) developing re-
gional conservation projects, activities, and materials that facilitate local conservation, management, and research,
and 2) building networks and partnerships with local, national and international NGOs that share our bird conser-
vation goals. Further information about the society, including news and announcements, is available at the socie-
ty's website: http://www.scscb.org.

MEMBERSHIP
Annual membership dues are US$20.00 for individuals, US$50.00 for institutions based in the Caribbean, and
US$120 for institutions based elsewhere. Life memberships are available for US$300.00, payable in three annual
installments. Send check or money order in US funds with complete name and address to: Dr. Rosemarie Gnam,
4201 Wilson Blvd. #110-174, Arlington, VA 22203-1589, USA; e-mail: ilothian@msn.com.

JOURNAL
The SCSCB publishes The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology, a refereed journal publishing articles, notes, com-
mentaries, book reviews, and announcements on all aspects of avian biology within the Caribbean region. Contri-
butions are welcome in either English, Spanish, or French. Since the journal's humble inception as El Pitirre, the
society's newsletter, in 1988, James W. Wiley single-handedly edited 17 volumes of the journal, which gradually
increased in quantity and quality over the years as it transformed into a reputable scientific journal. In 2003
(volume 16) the journal's name changed to The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology to better reflect the journal's
content. Information for contributors is provided on the inside back cover. Further information about the journal,
including more detailed information for contributors, archives of volumes 1-15, contents and abstracts, sample pdf
files of a recent issue, and information for advertisers, is available at the society's website: http://www.scscb.org.

SOCIETY OFFICERS
President: Mr. Andrew Dobson Journal Editor: Dr. Floyd Hayes
Vice-President: Dr. Lisa Sorenson Members at Large: Mr. Jeremy Madeiros
Secretary: Dr. Ann Haynes Sutton Dr. Lourdes Mugica
Treasurer: Dr. Rosemarie Gnam Dr. Adrianne Tossas
Past-President: Mr. Eric Carey Mrs. Carolyn Wardle


h
nS




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