• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Copyright
 Main
 Back Matter
 Back Cover






Group Title: journal of Caribbean ornithology
Title: The Journal of Caribbean ornithology
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100142/00003
 Material Information
Title: The Journal of Caribbean ornithology
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds
Publisher: Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds / Sociedad para la Conservatción Y Estudio de Las Aves Caribeñas/Société pour la Conservation et L'Etude de Caraïbe
Place of Publication: Ridgewood, NY
Publication Date: 2005
Frequency: three issues a year
three times a year
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Ornithology -- Periodicals -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Conservation -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Conservation -- Periodicals -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, French and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 16, no. 1 (Spring 2004)-
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100142
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 52094634
lccn - 2003212636
issn - 1544-4953
 Related Items
Preceded by: Pitirre

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 2 MBs ) ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text










THE JOURNAL OF


CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVATION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
ASSOCIATION POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L' ETUDE DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE

2005 Vol. 18, No. 1
(ISSN 1527-7151)
Formerly EL PITIRRE


CONTENTS

RECUPERACION DE AVES MIGRATORIAS NEARTICAS DEL ORDEN ANSERIFORMES EN CUBA. Pedro Blanco y Barbara
S d n ch ez ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1
INVENTARIO DE LA AVIFAUNA DE TOPES DE COLLANTES, SANCTI SPIRITUS, CUBA. Barbara Sdnchez ........................ 7
NUEVO REGISTRO Y COMENTARIOS ADICIONALES SOBRE LA AVOCETA (RECURVIROSTRA AMERICANA) EN CUBA. Omar
Labrada, Pedro Blanco, Elizabet S. Delgado, y Jarreton P. Rivero.......................................................... .................. 13
AVES DE CAYO CARENAS, CIENAGA DE BIRAMA, CUBA. Omar Labrada y Gabriel Cisneros ................................. 16
FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF Two TYRANT FLYCATCHERS IN TRINIDAD: THE GREAT KISKADEE (PITANGUS SULPHURATUS)
AND TROPICAL KINGBIRD (TYRANNUS MELANCHOLICUS). Nadira Mathura, Shawn 0 Garro, Diane Thompson, Floyd
E. Hayes, and Urmila S. Nandy.............................................................. ............... ........................ 18
APPARENT NESTING OF SOUTHERN LAPWING ON ARUBA. Steven G. Mlodinow........................................................... 22
ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE DE CAYO SABINAL, CUBA: Hiram Gonzalez, Eneider Perez, Patricia
R odriguez, y O m ilcar B arrio...................................... ............................................................................................ 24
PRIMER REGISTRO DE STERNA SANDVICENSIS EURYGNATHA PARA CUBA. Eneider Perez, Patricia Rodriguez, Daysi
Rodriguez, Alain Parada, Omilcar Barrios, y Edwin Ruiz...................................................................... ................... 29
BIRDS ON THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS. Michael W. Pienkowski, Ann E. Pienkowski, and
B ryan N M anco......................................................... .................................................................................................... 3 1
FIRST CONFIRMED BREEDING OF THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK AT ABACO, BAHAMAS. Kurt Radamaker and
C indy R adam aker ....................................... ..... ........................................................................... ..... 44
PRECISIONS SUR CINQ ESPECES D'OISEAUX DONT LA NIDIFICATION A ETE DECOUVERTE EN GUADELOUPE (ANTILLES
FRANCAISES) DEPUIS 1997. Anthony Levesque, Frantz Duzont, et Anasthase RamsahaT............................................. 45
ESTADO DE LA POBLACION DEL FRAILECILLO BLANCO (CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS) EN RIO MAXIMO, CUBA,
DURANTE EL PERIODO 2002-2003. Ariam Jimenez, Antonio Rodrfguez, Susana Aguilar, y Jose Morales................... 48
RECENT BIRD OBSERVATIONS FROM DOMINICA, WEST INDIES. Niels J. Larsen, Morten Heegaard, and Bertrand Jno
B ap tiste ............................................................. ......................................................................................... 5 2
MORFOMETRIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ (COLINUS VIRGINIANUS) EN DOS AREAS DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA.
M martin A costa e lanela G arcfa-Lau............................................................................................. ............................ 54
FIRST RECORDS OF WHITE-EYED VIREO, BLUE-WINGED WARBLER, AND BLUE-WINGED WARBLER X GOLDEN-WINGED
WARBLER HYBRID FOR ST. MARTIN. Adam C. Brown and Natalia Collier........................................... ................... 69
CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE HABITAT USE BY NORTHERN WATERTHRUSHES DURING THE NON-
BREEDING SEASON. Sherman L. Burson III, Leonard R. Reitsma, and Pamela D. Hunt........................................ 72
THE AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN (PELECANUS ERYTHRORHYNCHOS), A WINTER RESIDENT IN CUBA. Lourdes Mugica,
Martin Acosta, Ariam Jimenez, Antonio Morejon, and Javier Medina........................................ ............................ 77
Two OBSERVATIONS OF ALPINE SWIFT (APUS MELBA) ON BARBADOS. Martin D. Frost and R. Wayne Burke............... 79


Continued on back cover













THE JOURNAL OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

THE JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
LA REVISTA DE LA SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACI6N Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
LE JOURNAL DE L' ASSOCIATION POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L' ETUDE DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE


Editors in Chief
FLOYD E. HAYES, Department of Biology, Pacific Union College, 1 Angwin Ave., Angwin, CA 94508, USA; telephone:
707-965-6401;fax: 707-965-7577; e-mail: jco@puc.edu
JEROME A. JACKSON, Whitaker Center for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, Florida Gulf Coast Uni-
versity, 10501 FGCU Blvd. South, Ft. Myers, FL 33965-7193, USA; telephone: 941-590; fax: 941-590-7200; e-mail:
jjackson @fgcu.edu

Please note that all future communications should be sent to Floyd E. Hayes at the above address.

Associate Editors
WAYNE ARENDT, P. 0. Box 534, Luquillo PR 00773-0534, USA; e-mail: warendt@fs.fed.us.
P. A. BUCKLEY, 211 Meadowtree Farm Road, Saunderstown, RI 02874, USA; e-mail: pabuckley@uri.edu
DENNIS DENIS AVILA, Facultad de Biolog(a, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 e/J e I, Vedado, Ciudad Habana,
Cuba; e-mail: dda@fbio.uh.cu
ANDREW DOBSON, Warwick Academy, 117 Middle Rd., Warwick PGO1, Bermuda; e-mail: adobson@warwickacad.bm
PHILIPPE FELDMANN, Cirad, TA 179/04, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France; e-mail: feldmann@cirad.fr
RUUD VAN HALEWIJN, 14 Adelaarhof Utrecht, 3514 TZ, The Netherlands; e-mail: vanhale@wanadoo.nl
SUSAN KOENIG, Windsor Research Centre, Sherwood Content P.O., Trelawny, Jamaica; e-mail: windsor@cw-
jamaica.com
OLIVER KOMAR, SalvaNATURA, Colonia Flor Blanca, 33 Ave. Sur #640, San Salvador, El Salvador; e-mail: oko-
mar@salvanatura.org
LOURDES MUGICA VALDES, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 entre J e I, Vedado, Ciudad
Habana, Cuba; e-mail: lmugica@fbio.uh.cu
ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ SUAREZ, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 entre J e I, Vedado, Ciudad
Habana, Cuba; e-mail: arguez@fbio.uh.cu
JOSEPH WUNDERLE, International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 507, Palmer, Puerto
Rico 00721; e-mail: wunderle@coqui.net

Book Review Editor
STEVEN C. LATTA, PRBO Conservation Science, 4990 Shoreline Highway, Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA; e-mail:
slatta@prbo.org

Editorial Assistants
BRYCE CHUN, PATRICK FERGUSON, JANICE NAM, YVETTE RODRIGUEZ, MELISSA URQUHART-BITZER, AND TRAVIS
YOUNG; Department of Biology, Pacific Union College, 1 Angwin Ave., Angwin, CA 94508, USA; e-mail:
jco@puc.edu


Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds, 2005

The Society for Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds (SCSCB) is a non-profit organization under section 501(c)3 of
the United States Internal Revenue Code. All contributions are fully tax-deductible to the extent allowed by U. S. law. We
welcome private support from individuals, corporations, and foundations. Outright gifts and pledges may be made by con-
tacting the SCSCB Treasurer at ilothian@msn.com or by writing to PO Box 863208, Ridgewood, NY 11386, USA.

Typeset in Microsoft Office Publisher by Antonio Rodriguez Suarez. Printed by Preferred Images, Pacific Union College,
Angwin, CA, USA.


ISSN 1527-7151















THE JOURNAL OF

/ CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
ASSOCIATION POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L' ETUDE DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE
2005 VOL. 18, No. 1



J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:1-6, 2005

RECUPERACION DE AVES MIGRATORIAS NEARTICAS DEL ORDEN ANSERIFORMES EN CUBA

PEDRO BLANCO Y BARBARA SANCHEZ
Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Cuba;
e-mail: zoologfa.ies@ama.cu

Resumen.-Se expone la informaci6n de 1802 registros de aves acuaticas migratorias del orden Anseriformes,
anilladas en Am6rica del Norte y recuperadas en Cuba durante el period comprendido desde el afio 1930 hasta el
2002. Entre las especies recuperadas con mayor nfmero de registros se destacan: Anas discors, Anas americana y
Anas acuta. Los sitios de anillamiento de mayor importancia para las aves recuperadas en Cuba resultaron ser: Sas-
katchewan, Manitoba, Ontario y Dakota del Norte.
Palabras claves: Recuperacion, anillos, aves migratorias, Anseriformes, Cuba

Abstract.-BAND RECOVERIES OF NEARTIC MIGRATORY BIRDS OF THE ORDER ANSERIFORMES IN CUBA. We re-
port data for 1802 records of aquatic birds of the order Anseriformes, banded in North America and recovered in
Cuba during the period from 1930 to 2002. The species recovered with the greatest amount of records include: Anas
discors, Anas americana, and Anas acuta. The most important banding sites of the recovered birds were: Saskatche-
wan, Manitoba, Ontario, and North Dakota.
Key words: band recoveries, migratory birds, Anseriformes, Cuba


LA RECUPERACION DE BANDAS metalicas o anillos
colocados en las aves, ha contribuido de forma efi-
caz al desarrollo de innumerables investigaciones
ornitol6gicas relacionadas con el estudio de las mi-
graciones y la conservaci6n de la avifauna en dife-
rentes regiones del mundo (Bianki y Gerasimova
1960, Van Velzen 1971, Carvalho 1975, Candeias y
Castro 1982, Silva 1984, Lara-Rasende y Antas
1985, Dennis 1986, Ballesteros y Santaeufemia
1990, Silva y Castro 1991).
En Cuba, en los iltimos 70 aflos se ha obtenido
un considerable volumen de informaci6n relaciona-
do con la recuperaci6n de aves acu6ticas migratorias
procedentes de Am6rica del Norte, sin embargo, la
informaci6n presentada en congresos y revistas
cientificas relacionada con esta temitica, ha sido
muy limitada (Moreno 1991, Blanco 1993, Blanco y


Herrera 2000).
En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados
de la recuperaci6n de anillos en aves migratorias
neirticas del orden Anseriformes capturadas en el
Archipi6lago cubano durante el perfodo comprendi-
do entre los afios 1930 y 2002. Estos resultados
aportan nuevos elementos relacionados con la mi-
graci6n de estas aves a trav6s del Caribe, los que
pudieran contribuir al desarrollo de programas y
estrategias futuras dirigidas a la conservaci6n de
especies del orden y sus habitat naturales en el
hemisferio occidental.


MATERIALES Y METODOS
Los registros de recuperaci6n en diferentes regio-
nes de Cuba, se obtuvieron a trav6s de la colabora-









BLANCO Y SANCHEZ RECOBRADO DE ANSERIFORMES EN CUBA


ci6n de pescadores, estu-diantes, cazadores deporti-
vos y especialistas, en respuesta a un programa de
educaci6n ambiental elaborado y divulgado en todo
el pais por el Laboratorio de Aves Migratorias de
Cuba, perteneciente al Instituto de Ecologia y Siste-
mitica del Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Me-
dio Ambiente.
Los datos complementarios relacionados con el ani-
llamiento de las aves recuperadas en Cuba se obtu-
vieron con la colaboraci6n de los Centros de anilla-
miento de Fish and Wildlife Service de Estados
Unidos y Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS). Con
toda la informaci6n obtenida se elaboraron bases de
datos automatizadas. Para la clasificaci6n de las
aves y su categoria de permanencia en Cuba, se
tomaron en consideraci6n los criterios de Raffaele
et al. (1998) y Garrido y Kirkconnell (2000).

RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION
Hasta el afio 2002, se han recuperado en Cuba
1802 aves migratorias neirticas del Orden Anseri-
formes correspondientes a cuatro g6neros y 12 espe-
cies (Tabla 1), anilladas en territorios de Norteamd-
rica en el period comprendido entre los afios 1929
y 2002. Del nimero total de taxones capturados,
66.6 % correspondi6 a representantes del g6nero
Anas, destacindose con un mayor numero de indivi-
duos el Pato de la Florida (Anas discors), el Pato
Lavanco (Anas americana) y el Pato Pescuecilargo
(Anas acuta).
El numero de especies recuperadas durante el
period analizado constituye una muestra represen-
tativa equivalente a 41.37 % del total de taxones


migratorios del orden reportadas para Cuba y 38.70
% del total de patos, cisnes y gansos registrados en
la regi6n de las Antillas por Raffaele et al. (1998).
De las 15 regiones donde se produjeron las recu-
peraciones de aves en Cuba, Pinar del Rio, la Haba-
na, Sancti Spfritus y Ciego de Avila fueron las pro-
vincias con mayores valores de individuos captura-
dos (Tabla 2). En conjunto, el numero de aves regis-
tradas en estos cuatro territorios fue de 1017, lo que
represent6 56.4 % del ndmero total de las recupera-
ciones de este orden obtenidas en el pais durante el
periodo analizado.
Las especies A. discors, A. acuta, A. americana y
Aythya collaris presentaron los mayores valores de
recuperaci6n por provincias (Tabla 2), destacindose
las dos primeras con un mayor numero de indivi-
duos capturados y por su presencia en todas las pro-
vincias.
La informaci6n obtenida de los Centros de Ani-
llamiento revel6 que las aves capturadas en Cuba
proceden de 47 regiones de Am6rica del Norte des-
tacindose con una mayor contribuci6n de indivi-
duos anillados los estados canadienses: Saskatche-
wan, Manitoba y Ontario, asf como, Dakota del
Norte en los Estados Unidos (Tabla 3).
Del ndmero total de territorios de anillamiento de
las aves capturadas, 24 correspondieron a la regi6n
central de Norteam6rica (Tabla 3), lo que demuestra
la importancia del territorio cubano en la migraci6n
de las poblaciones de patos que utilizan la ruta del
Mississippi. En conjunto, el numero de aves recupe-
radas procedentes de esta region represent6 84,68 %
del total de recuperaciones obtenidas en el pais. Se
destacaron los estados de Manitoba, Ontario, Sas-


Tabla. 1. Relaci6n de especies y ndmero total de individuos del Orden Anseriformes
recuperados en Cuba durante el period desde el afio 1930 hasta el 2002.


Nombre Cientifico

Aix sponsa
Anas acuta
Anas americana
Anas bahamensis
Anas clypeata
Anas crecca
Anas cyanoptera
Anas discors
Anas strepera
Aythya affinis
Aythya collaris
Dendrocygna bicolor


Nombre Comiin

Huyuyo
Pato Pescuecilargo
Pato Lavanco
Pato de Bahamas
Pato Cuchareta
Pato Serrano
Pato Canelo
Pato de la Florida
Pato Gris
Pato Morisco
Pato Cabez6n
Yaguasin


Ndmero de Individuos


4
37
40
1
8
9
1
1644
1
13
14
30


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 2









BLANCO Y SANCHEZ RECOBRADO DE ANSERIFORMES EN CUBA


Tabla 2. Ndmero de individuos por especie del Orden Anseriformes recuperados en diferentes provincias de Cuba durante el
period desde 1930 hasta el 2002. IJ= Isla de la Juventud, PR= Pinar del Rio, H= Habana, CH= Ciudad de La Habana, MTZ=
Matanzas, Cfg= Cienfuegos, VC= Villa Clara, SSp= Sancti Spfritus, CAv= Ciego de Avila, Cam= CamagUiey, Tun= Las Tu-
nas, Hol= Holguin, Gra= Granma, Stgo= Santiago de Cuba y Gmo= Guantanamo.


IJ PR H CH Mtz Cfg VC


1 4
4

1 2


SSp CAv Cam Tun Hol Gra Stgo Gmo


1
2 1 4
3
1


379 246 66


1
2
1 9


90 50 45 201 121 94 57


1 3
2 1
1


87 89 24 27


1
1 1
10 2


katchewan, Dakota del Norte y del Sur, Iowa, Mi-
souri, Illinois, Michigan, Louisiana y Minnesota
con registros de aves en mis de 10 de las 15 provin-
cias de Cuba.
migraci6n de las poblaciones de patos que utilizan
la ruta del Mississippi. En conjunto, el nimero de
aves recuperadas procedentes de esta regi6n repre-
sent6 84,68 % del total de recuperaciones obtenidas
en el pais. Se destacaron los estados de Manitoba,
Ontario, Saskatchewan, Dakota del Norte y del Sur,
Iowa, Misouri, Illinois, Michigan, Louisiana y Min-
nesota con registros de aves en mis de 10 de las 15
provincias de Cuba.


En la regi6n del Atlintico, el numero de sitios de
anillamiento de las aves recapturadas en Cuba fue
tambidn importante (18 estados), sin embargo, el
numero de individuos recapturados en el pais s6lo
represent6 10,68 % de los individuos procedentes
del centro de Am6rica del Norte.
La dinimica de capturas durante el period estu-
diado (por meses), muestra que el mayor numero de
recuperaciones de aves se produjo durante las 6po-
cas residencia invernal e inicios de la migraci6n
primaveral (936 individuos) comprendidas entre los
meses de enero hasta marzo (Fig. 1). El valor mixi-
mo de capturas correspondiente a marzo (361 aves)


E F M A M J J A S O N D
Periodos (meses)

Fig. 1. Dinamica de recuperaci6n de individuos migratorios nearticos del Orden Anseriformes capturados en
Cuba por meses durante el period comprendido entre los afios 1930 y el 2002.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Especies


A. sponsa
A. acuta
A. americana
A. bahamensis
A. clypeata
A. crecca
A. cyanoptera
A. discors
A. strepera
A. affinis
A. collaris
D. bicolor


Page 3










BLANCO Y SANCHEZ RECOBRADO DE ANSERIFORMES EN CUBA


Tabla 3. Ndmero de individuos del Orden Anseriformes recuperados en diferentes territorios provinciales de Cuba durante el
period comprendido entre los anios 1930 y 2002 con sus correspondientes regiones de procedencia o anillamiento en el conti-
nente americano. Ver leyenda de nombres de las provincias en Tabla 2.


Regiones


IJ PR H CH Mtz Cfg VC SSp CAv Cam Tun Hol Gra Stgo Gmo


Alberta
British Columbia
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delawere
Florida
Georgia
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Kansas
Kentucki
Louisiana
Mackenzie
Maine
Manitoba
Maryland


38 13
1

1

1 1 2
1 10 1
1 2 1


13 11
3 1
14 12
3 3
1
10 10
1


4 3 5 6
1

1


2 1
1
1
3 6 3 1


2 4
1
1
2 1


1
4 74 57 15 26 7 2
3 1 1


Massachusetts
Michigan 2 2 1 3 2 1
Minnesota 2 21 8 6 4 2 2
Mississippi 1
Misouri 13 4 1 4 4
Montana 1 3 2 1
Nebrasca 1 5 1
New Brunswick 1 1 1 1
New York 1 9 1 4 1
North Carolina 1
North Dakota 1 26 15 10 6 5 5
New Scotia 1 3 1 1
Ohio 2 1 1
Oklahoma 1 1
Ontario 11 14 4 3 2 6
Pensilvania
Prince Edward 1 1 1
Quebec 3 2 1
Saskatchewan 3 106 53 10 17 18 9
San P. et Miguelon
South Carolina 1 1
South Dakota 1 22 9 3 1 5
Tennesse 1 1 1
Texas 1
Vermont 1
Virginia 1
Wisconsin 11 8 4 1 1


11 5
1
1


1

10 3 2


1 4
1
2 1
1 2


4 1 1
1

53 29 18
1 1

2 1 1
4 3 3


2 2
1
1
2
8


1 1
9 7

1 3

8 13


1 2 1
1
81 49 21
2 2 1
2
5 5 7
2


1
1
1 2


1 3 1 2




1
1 1


1 1 4 2
1
1 4 1
1 1


3 2 1 1
1
1
6 7 19 5
3 2

3 2
4 9 11 1

4 2 5
1
2
1 1
1 4 4


2 5 2 3
1 1
2 3
1 1
7 13 14 4


1
20 23 15 5

1
5 3 9
1 2 1 1


1

2 2 2


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 4









SRECOBRADO DE ANSERIFORMES EN CUBA


Periodos (anos)


Fig. 2. Recuperaci6n de aves neirticas migratorias del Orden Anseriformes en Cuba por d6cadas,
durante el perfodo comprendido entre los afios 1930 y el 2002.


Fig. 3. Distribuci6n de las localidades de recuperaci6n mas importantes de aves migratorias del
Orden Anseriformes en Cuba desde 1930 hasta el 2002.


refleja la existencia en este mes de una mayor con-
centraci6n de individuos del Orden en Cuba. Estos
resultados pueden estar asociados con el inicio de
los desplazamientos migratorios de primavera a
trav6s del Caribe, los que pueden extenderse hasta
finales de abril.
Se estima que las recuperaciones obtenidas en los
meses de verano (junio, julio y agosto) pueden estar
determinadas por la presencia de individuos enfer-
mos o muertos a consecuencia de infecciones pro-
vocadas por endopirasitos (McNeil et al. 1996).
El an6lisis de capturas por d6cadas (Fig. 2), mues-
tra un aumento en el ndmero de individuos (499) en
el period comprendido entre 1990 y 1999. Este
resultado se atribuye a un incremento en la colabo-
raci6n por parte de la poblaci6n en tareas de recupe-



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


raci6n de anillos, logrado a partir de los afios 90 con
la puesta en pr6ctica de un Programa Nacional de
Educaci6n Ambiental y conservaci6n de la avifauna
migratoria, dirigido por el Laboratorio Cubano de
Aves Migratorias y BirdLife International.
Entre las aves capturadas, 823 correspondieron a
individuos entre tres meses y un afio de edad. Los
registros de captura de aves con mayor ndmero de
afios correspondieron a la especie A. discors con un
ave de 38 afios de edad anillado en Dakota del Nor-
te en mayo de 1938 y recuperado en la provincia de
Cienfuegos en enero de 1976. Este dato supera el
registro de longevidad de A. discors de 16 ailos,
referido por Garrido y Garcia (1975) para Cuba.
Los registros de recuperaci6n de aves durante los
periodos de migraci6n y residencia invernal mues-


Page 5


g 200 3 1O.


BLANCO Y SANCHEZ









BLANCO Y SANCHEZ RECOBRADO DE ANSERIFORMES EN CUBA


tran la presencia de las aves asociadas a cuerpos de
agua interiores del pais, entre los que figuran por su
importancia en abundancia de individuos captura-
dos: la Presa Zaza, la Laguna de la Leche, las Arro-
ceras del Jibaro y la Laguna de Ariguanabo, lo que
demuestra la importancia de estos humedales para
la supervivencia invernal de un considerable nime-
ro de especies migratorias neirticas del Orden An-
seriformes en el Caribe.
De las 255 localidades donde se produjeron las
recuperaciones en el pais, 11 correspondieron a las
areas mis importantes en nimero de individuos
capturados (Fig. 3), entre las que se destacan: la
regi6n subcostera de las arroceras del Jibaro y la
presa Zaza, en la provincia de Sancti Spiritus con
177 registros; el sector costero sur pr6ximo a los
Palacios y la localidad San Vicente en Pinar del Rio
con 96 recuperaciones y la Laguna de Ariguanabo
en la provincia de la Habana con 57 individuos cap-
turados.

LITERATURA CITADA
BALLESTEROS, T., Y F. J. SANTAEUFEMIA. 1990.
Recapturas del Chorlitejo Patinegro (Charadrius
alexandrinus) en el delta de Llobregat (Barcelona,
N. E Spain). Bull. GCA 7:43-44.
BIANKI, V. V., Y T. D. GERASIMOVA. 1960. Results
of bird ringing between (1936 and 1958): Trudy
Kandalakshkogo Gosudarst-bennogo Zapobedni-
ka. Publication III: 199-262.
BLANCO, P. 1993. Aves migratorias acuiticas del
Orden Charadrii-formes anilladas en Am6rica del
Norte y recuperadas en Cuba 1925-1990. P. 47 en
Res6menes VI Reuni6n de la Sociedad Ornitol6-
gica del Caribe. Ci6naga de Zapata, Cuba.
BLANCO, P., Y A. HERRERA. 2000. Recuperaci6n de
anillas extranjeras en aves acuiticas del Orden
Charadriiformes en Cuba, durante el period des-
de 1925-1999. P. 23 en Res6menes XIII Reuni6n
de la Sociedad de Ornitologia del Caribe, Topes


de Collantes, Cuba.
CANDEIAS, D. R., Y M. F. C. CASTRO. 1982. Aves
corn Anilhas extrangeiras capturadas em Portugal
ate final de 1981, Lisboa: CEMPA.
CARVALHO, M. B. 1975. Anilhas recuperadas em
Portugal Con-tineltal e Insular entre 1968/72 de
aves anilhadas na Eu-ropa. Lisboa: CEMPA.
DENNIS, J. V. 1986. European encounters of birds
ringed in North America. Dutch Birding 8:41-44.
GARRIDO, 0. H., Y F. GARCIA. 1975. Catilogo de
las aves de Cuba. Editorial Academia.
GARRIDO, 0. H, Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
Univ. Press.
LARA-RASENDE, S. DE M., AND P. DE T. ANTAS.
1985. Aves anilladas em 1981 e recuperaoes de
anilhas desde 1980. Rev. Brasil. Zool. 3:51-59.
MCNEIL, R., M. T. DIAZ, B. CASANOVA, A. VILLE-
NUEVE, AND M. THIBAULT. 1996. Trematode
infestation as a factor of Shorebirds oversummer-
ing: A case study of Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa
melanoleuca). Bull. Scand. Soc. Parasitol. 6:114-
117.
MORENO, A. 1991. Aves anilladas en Norteam6rica
capturadas en Cuba. Pitirre 4(2):8.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ.
Press.
SILVA, F. 1984. Recuperacao de aves aquaticas anil-
hadas no Rio Grande do Sul. Resumos XI Congre-
so Brasileiro de Zoologia Belem. 327-328
SILVA, M. A., Y F. M. C. CASTRO. 1991. Recupera-
gao de aves com anilhas extrangeiras em Portugal
e com anilha CEMPA no extrangeiro (1997-
1998). Estudos de Biologia e Conservagao de Na-
tureza 3, Lisboa. SNPRCN.
VAN VELZEN, W. T. 1971. Recoveries of Royal
Terns banded in the Carolinas. Chat 35:64-66.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 6












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:7-12, 2005


INVENTARIO DE LA AVIFAUNA DE TOPES DE COLLANTES, SANCTI SPIRITUS, CUBA


BARBARA SANCHEZ

Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnologia y Medio Ambiente, Cuba;
e-mail: zoologia.ies@ama.cu

Resumen.-Se realizaron observaciones de aves en tres formaciones vegetales boscosas representativas de Topes
de Collantes durante el periodo de febrero de 1995, julio del 2001 y junio del 2002. Un total de 75 especies fueron
registradas para el area de estudio, las que incluyen 12 end6micos y cuatro especies globalmente amenazadas. Entre
las especies mas comunes se encontraron: el Bien te Veo (Vireo altiloquus), el Zorzal Real (Turdus plumbeus), el
Chichinguaco (Quiscalus niger), el Tocororo (Priotelus temnurus), la Cartacuba (Todus multicolor), el Tomeguin de
la Tierra (Tiaris olivaceus) y el Carpintero Verde (Xiphidiopicus percussus), siendo el bosque semideciduo de Javira
el que present6 un mayor ndmero de taxas. Se incluyen ademas 15 nuevos registros para el area de estudio y se reali-
zan comentarios relacionados con la distribuci6n y abundancia de algunas especies.
Palabras claves: Inventario de aves, nuevos reportes, Topes de Collantes, Cuba

Abstract.-BIRD SURVEY IN TOPES DE COLLANTES, SANCTI SPIRITUS, CUBA. Bird observations were carried out in
three vegetation formations representative of Topes de Collantes, in Central Cuba, during the period of February
1995, July 2001, and June 2002. A total of 75 species were detected in the study area, including 12 endemics and
four globally threatened birds. The Black-whiskered Vireo (Vireo altiloquus), Red-legged Thrush (Turdus plum-
beus), Greater Antillean Grackle (Quiscalus niger), Cuban Trogon (Priotelus temnurus), Cuban Tody (Todus multi-
color), Yellow-faced Grassquit (Tiaris olivaceus), and Cuban Green Woodpecker (Xiphidiopicus percussus) were
the most common species. The semideciduos forest of Javira was the locality with the greatest species richness. Six-
teen new reports for the study area are included with comments on the distribution and abundance of some species.
Key words: Bird survey, new reports, Topes de Collantes, Cuba


LA REGION DE TOPES DE COLLANTES se localiza
en el Macizo de Guamuhaya, provincia de Sancti
Spfritus; en la actualidad, forma parte del conjunto
de sitios bajo protecci6n propuestos por el Sistema
Nacional de Areas Protegidas de Cuba, incluida en
la categorfa de manejo de Paisaje Natural Protegido,
con una extensi6n territorial de 29 425 Km2 (CNAP,
2002).
Su avifauna ha sido poco estudiada, a pesar de la
importancia que representa su conocimiento para la
propuesta de estrategias conservacionistas, proyec-
tos investigativos y el desarrollo de planes de mane-
jo de los recursos naturales existentes en el irea.
Hasta el presente se conoce el trabajo de Ayala
(1989), quien reporta 63 especies de aves y los de
Kirkconnell et al. (1989) y Kirkconnell et al.
(1999), que abordan aspectos de la alimentaci6n del
Carpintero Verde (Xiphidiopicus percussus) y la
distribuci6n de la Siguapa (Asio stygius), respectiva-
mente.
En el presente trabajo se estudia la composici6n
taxon6mica de la avifauna existente en Topes de
Collantes y se ofrecen comentarios sobre la abun-
dancia y distribuci6n de las aves registradas en dife-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


rentes localidades de este importante grupo monta-
fioso. La informaci6n reflejada forma parte de los
resultados obtenidos en dos proyectos de investiga-
ci6n desarrollados por el Instituto de Ecologia y
Sistemitica y la Facultad Agropecuaria de Montafna
del Escambray relacionados con el estudio de la
biodiversidad de Cuba.


MATERIALES Y MtTODOS
Topes de Collantes pertenece a la regi6n fisico-
geogr6fica Montafias de Trinidad (Mateo y Acevedo
1989) y desde el punto de vista fitogeogr6fico esti
incluida en el Sector Cuba Central, sub-sector Cen-
tro-Oriental y particularmente en el Distrito Escam-
bray (Guamuhaya), Subdistrito "Lomas de Trini-
dad", el que presenta relaciones estrechas con la
region montaflosa de la Sierra Maestra (Samek
1973).
Las localidades de estudio fueron seleccionadas
teniendo en cuenta la diferenciaci6n ambiental del
irea como consecuencia de factores altitudinales y
litol6gicos, la representaci6n de las formaciones
vegetales, la accesibilidad a las ireas y el grado de


Page7









SANCHEZ AVIFAUNA DE TOPES DE COLLANTES


naturalidad (M. del Carmen Marqueti y Pedro
Herrera, com. pers.). A continuaci6n se relacionan
las dreas de estudio, su ubicaci6n geogr6fica, altitud
y formaci6n vegetal: 1. Caburni, (21 56'N, 80 00'W,
650 m.s.n.m., Bosque siempreverde), 2. Castillito
(21 55'N 80 01W, 720 m.s.n.m., Pinar), 3. Codina
(21 53'N 80 02'W, 800 m.s.n.m., Bosque siempre-
verde) y 4. Javira (21 51'N, 8001'W, 270 m.s.n.m.,
Bosque semideciduo).
La composici6n de la avifauna del area de estudio
se determin6 con la utilizaci6n del m6todo de con-
teos por transecto lineal (Blondel, 1969) en horarios
comprendidos entre las 7:00 y 12:00 horas, funda-
mentalmente durante los periodos de residencia
invernal, que corresponde con la presencia de las
aves migratorias del norte (febrero de 1995) y el de
residencia de verano o etapa de reproducci6n de la
mayoria de las especies que nidifican en Cuba (julio
del 2001 y junio del 2002).
En los conteos se anotaron todas las aves vistas u
ofdas y como medida de abundancia cualitativa se
utilizaron los criterios de Garrido y Kirkconnell
(2000). Para la detecci6n de algunas especies poco
abundantes o raras, asi como, de otras registradas
para la regi6n, pero no observadas en los muestreos,
se reprodujo su canto con una grabadora de casset-
tes (Marca Radio Shack 14-1156) a fin de corrobo-
rar su presencia.
La clasificaci6n sistemitica de las aves, el estado
de permanencia en Cuba y la relaci6n de end6micos
se realiz6 seg6n Raffaele et al. (1998) y Garrido y
Kirkconnell (2000). Esta informaci6n fue actuali-
zada con los criterios de American Ornithologists'
Union (2000) y Banks et al. (2002, 2003, 2004).
Entre los endemismos se incluyeron ademis, taxas
recientemente elevadas a especies end6micas, de
acuerdo a lo considerado por Garrido y Reynard
(1998), Garrido et al. 2002, Garrido et al. (en
prensa) para el Guabairo (Caprimulgus cubanensis),
el Camao (Geotrygon caniceps) y el Solibio (Icterus
melanopsis), respectivamente.


RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION
En el periodo de estudio se registraron en el Area
75 especies (Tabla 1), correspondientes a 14 6rde-
nes y 29 familias, lo que representa 20,3% del nd-
mero total de especies vivientes reportadas para
Cuba (Llanes et al. 2002). La mayoria de las espe-
cies observadas correspondieron a aves terrestres,
por prevalecer en el Area formaciones vegetales
boscosas; solo una especie acu6tica se registr6 en
rios y arroyos de algunas localidades.


Page 8


Entre las familias mejor representadas estin Psit-
tacidae, Columbidae y Picidae (Tabla 2); la primera
con las dos especies vivientes registradas para Cuba
y las otras con 76,9% y 66,6% de sus taxa, respecti-
vamente. Las familias Aramidae, Tytonidae, Trogo-
nidae y Todidae, tambi6n estuvieron representadas
por el 100% de sus especies, aunque cada una est6
integrada por un solo taxon.
Del ndmero total de especies detectadas, 58 ya
habian sido registradas por Ayala (1989), las otras
son nuevos registros o adiciones a la avifauna de
Topes de Collantes (Tabla 1), entre los que se en-
cuentran: el Guareao (Aramus guarauna), el Barbi-
quejo (Geotrygon chrysia), el Boyero (Geotrygon
montana), la Golondrina Azul Cubana (Progne
cryptoleuca), la Golondrina de Arboles (Tachy-
cineta bicolor), el Cao Montero (Corvus nasicus), el
Tordo Pecoso (Hylocichla mustelina), el Vireo de
Pecho Amarillo (Vireo flavifrons), el Bien te Veo
(Vireo altiloquus), la Bijirita de Garganta Negra
(Dendroica virens), la Bijirita Comdn (Dendroica
palmarum), la Monjita (Wilsonia citrina), la Sefiori-
ta de Rio (Seiurus motacilla), la Sefiorita de Monte
(Seiurus aurocapilla), el Aparecido de San Diego
(Cyanerpes cyaneus) y el Tomeguin de la Tierra
(Tiaris olivaceus).
La presencia del Aparecido de San Diego y el
Cao Montero en Topes de Collantes es un resultado
importante, ya que esta regi6n no aparece incluida
en el irea de distribuci6n de estas especies en Cuba
(Garrido y Kirkconnell 2000). El Aparecido de San
Diego ha sido tambi6n encontrado recientemente en
otras localidades de Ciudad de La Habana (P6rez y
Ay6n 2002), lo que amplia el rango de su distribu-
ci6n en el pafs.
A pesar de que durante este estudio se realizaron
muestreos en diferentes periodos, habitats y locali-
dades, no fueron detectadas cinco de los taxa regis-
trados por Ayala (1989), entre los que figuran tres
especies end6micas: la Chillina (Teretistris fernan-
dinae), el Carpintero Churroso (Colaptes fernandi-
nae) y el Tomeguin del Pinar (Tiaris canorus). Por
otra parte, Garrido y Kirkconnell (2000) tampoco
incluyen a Topes de Collantes dentro del area de
distribuci6n de las dos primeras especies.
La avifauna registrada en el area estuvo represen-
tada fundamentalmente por especies residentes per-
manentes (45) y residentes de invierno (18), el resto
fue clasificado de la siguiente forma: seis residentes
bimodales, cinco residentes de verano y un transe-
6nte. La informaci6n referente a las aves migrato-
rias pudiera ser ampliada en futuras investigaciones


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005












durante los periodos de permanencia de esas aves en
territorio cubano.
Con relaci6n al endemismo, en Topes de Collan-
tes se registraron 12 de las 27 especies end6micas
presentes en Cuba, cifra que constituye 16% del
total de taxa observados en el area de estudio. Entre
ellos se encuentran: el Gavil6n Colilargo (Accipiter
gundlachi), el Camao (Geotrygon caniceps), el
Guabairo (Caprimulgus cubanensis), el Catey
(Aratinga euops), el Sijt Cotunto (Gymnoglaux
lawrencii), el Sijt Platanero (Glaucidium siju), el
Tocororo (Priotelus temnurus), la Cartacuba (Todus
multicolor), el Carpintero Verde, el Juan Chivi
(Vireo gundlachii) y el Toti (Dives atroviolaceus).
En el irea estin presente, ademais, cuatro especies
globalmente amenazadas, consideradas por Birdlife
International (2000) de la siguiente forma: el Gavi-
lin Colilargo categorizado en peligro (EN), el Ca-
mao (Geotrygon caniceps) y el Catey como vulne-
rables (VU) y la Cotorra (Amazona leucocephala)
en la categoria de bajo riesgo casi amenazada (LR /
NT). La familia Psiittacidae, a la que pertenecen las
dos iltimas especies, es entre las aves, una de las
que posee un mayor numero de taxa amenazados,
por lo que todo esfuerzo de conservaci6n dirigido a
la protecci6n a estas aves es de notable importancia.
De acuerdo con la frecuencia de observaci6n de
las aves durante los conteos en cada una de las for-
maciones vegetales muestreadas, se consideraron 43
especies comunes, 20 no comunes, ocho raras y
cuatro abundantes. Entre las especies mis frecuen-
tes y abundantes detectadas en las cuatro localida-
des estudiadas figuran: el Bien te Veo, el Zorzal
Real (Turdus plumbeus), el Chichinguaco
(Quiscalus niger), el Tocororo, la Cartacuba, el To-
meguin de la Tierra, el Carpintero Verde, entre
otros. Vale aclarar que, la Paloma Dom6stica
(Columba livia) solo fue observada en los asenta-
mientos humanos y no en estado silvestre.
A diferencia del resto de las localidades, Javira y
Codina fueron las que presentaron los mayores
valores de riqueza con 59 y 46 especies, respectiva-
mente (Tabla 1). Estos resultados se atribuyen fun-
damentalmente al notable numero de aves migrato-
rias neirticas observadas durante los conteos de
residencia invernal, en los que se detectaron 18 es-
pecies, lo que indica la importancia del irea protegi-
da de Topes de Collantes para la supervivencia in-
vernal de especies migratorias, particularmente del
orden Passeriformes.
Se estima, ademais, que el elevado valor de rique-
za de especies en Javira esti asociado con el mayor


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


SANCHEZ AVIFAUNA DE TOPES DE COLLANTES

grado de conservaci6n y complejidad estructural
de su vegetaci6n, lo que ofrece una alta diversi-
dad de habitats a las aves y garantiza con 6xito
actividades relacionadas con la alimentaci6n, la
reproducci6n y el refugio. Estos resultados corro-
boran lo planteado por MacArthur y MacArthur
(1966), quienes hacen referencia a la influencia
que ejercen la conservaci6n de los habitats y la
complejidad estructural de la vegetaci6n en la
diversidad y abundancia de la avifauna.
Hasta la fecha, en Topes de Collantes no habita
el Gorri6n Dom6stico (Passer domesticus). Esta
ave, de distribuci6n cosmopolita, de elevada ca-
pacidad reproductiva y asociada completamente
con el hombre, no ha logrado invadir esta impor-
tante region montafiosa del centro de Cuba, a pe-
sar de incluirse entre las areas con mayor grado
de transformaci6n de su vegetaci6n original
(CNAP, 2002). La ausencia de esta ave y la baja
abundancia del Sinsonte (Mimus polyglottos) en
Topes de Collantes, pudiera estar relacionada con
el hecho de que los asentamientos humanos y las
ireas abiertas presentes en esta region son relati-
vamente escasos y estin incluidos dentro del pai-
saje natural.
Dado el valor de endemismo y la presencia de
especies amenazadas en Topes de Collantes, asi
como, la condici6n de irea protegida que ostenta
esta regi6n, se considera importante dar segui-
miento a los estudios relacionados con la compo-
sici6n, distribuci6n y estado de conservaci6n de la
avifauna que permitan el adecuado manejo y con-
servaci6n futura de sus valores naturales.


AGRADECIMIENTOS
Queremos agradecer a la Direcci6n de la Facul-
tad Agropecuaria de Montafia del Escambray
(FAME) y a sus trabajadores por el apoyo brinda-
do para la realizaci6n de esta investigaci6n, asi
como a la organizaci6n no gubernamental Optics
for Tropics por la donaci6n de equipamiento que
facilit6 la detecci6n de especies de aves raras o de
baja detectabilidad en el area de estudio.


LITERATURA CITADA
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 2000.
Forty-second supplement to the American Orni-
thologists' Union Check-list of North American
birds. Auk 117:847-858.
AYALA, N. 1989. Topes de Collantes. Vida sil-
vestre en el Escambray. Empresa Industrial de


Page 9









SANCHEZ AVIFAUNA DE TOPES DE COLLANTES


Comunicaciones, La Habana.
BANKS, R. C., C. CICERO, J. L. DUNN, A. W. KRAT-
TER, P. C. RASMUSSEN, J. V. REMSEN, JR., J. D.
RISING, Y D. F. STOTZ. 2002. Forty-third supple-
ment to the American Ornithologists' Union
Check-list of North American Birds. Auk 119:
897-906.
BANKS, R. C., C. CICERO, J. L. DUNN, A. W. KRAT-
TER, P. C. RASMUSSEN, J. V. REMSEN, JR., J. D.
RISING, Y D. F. STOTZ. 2003. Forty-fourth supple-
ment to the American Ornithologists' Union
Check-list of North American Birds. Auk
120:923-931.
BANKS, R. C., C. CICERO, J. L. DUNN, A. W. KRAT-
TER, P. C. RASMUSSEN, J. V. REMSEN, JR., J. D.
RISING, Y D. F. STOTZ. 2004. Forty-fifth supple-
ment to the American Ornithologists' Union
Check-List of North American Birds. Auk 121:
985-995.
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. 2000. Threatened birds
of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK:
Lynx Editions and Birdlife International.
BLONDEL, J. 1969. M6thode de nombrement des
populations d'oiseaux. Paris: Masson, Eds.
CNAP. 2002. Sistema nacional de ireas protegidas.
Cuba. Plan 2003-2008. Sevilla, Espafa: Escand6n
Impresores.
GARRIDO, 0. H., G. M. KIRWAN AND D. R. CAP-
PER. 2002. Species limits within Grey-headed
Quail-dove Geotrygon caniceps and implications
for the conservation of a globally threatened spe-
cies. Bird Conservancy International 12:169-187.
GARRIDO, 0. H., J. W. WILEY Y A. KIRKCONNELL.
En prensa. The genus Icterus (Aves:Icteridae) in
the West Indies. Ornithol. Neotropical.


GARRIDO, 0. H., Y G. B. REYNARD. 1998. Is the
Greater Antillean Nightjar, Caprimulgus cubanen-
sis (Aves: Caprimulgidae), a composite species?
Ornitol. Neotrop. 9:1-12.
GARRIDO, 0. H., Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
Guide of the birds in Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
Univ. Press.
KIRCONNELL, A., G. ALAYON, R. M. POSADA, Y A.
LLANES. 1989. Observaciones conductuales en
dos nidos de Xiphidiopicus percussus percussus
(Aves: Piciformes: Picidae). Poeyana 371:1-18.
KIRKCONNELL, A., D. WECHSLER, Y C. BUSH.
1999. Notes on the Stygian Owl (Asio stygius
siguapa) in Cuba. Pitirre 12:1-3.
LLANES, A., H. GONZALEZ, B. SANCHEZ, Y E.
PEREZ. 2002. Lista de las aves registradas para
Cuba. Pp. 147-155 en Aves de Cuba (H. Gonzi-
lez, ed.). Vaasa, Finlandia: UPC Print.
MACARTHUR, R. H., Y MACARTHUR, J. W. 1961.
On bird species diversity. Ecology 42:594-598.
MATEO, J., Y M. ACEVEDO. 1989. Regionalizaci6n
fisico-geogrifica, escala 1: 300 000. En Nuevo
Atlas Nacional de Cuba. Instituto de Geograffa,
ACC, Instituto Cubano de Geodesia y Cartograffa
e Instituto Geogrifico Nacional.
PEREZ, E., Y X. AYON. 2002. Las aves canoras y las
de bello plumaje. Pp. 84-91 en Aves de Cuba (H.
Gonzalez, ed.). UPC Print. Vaasa, Finlandia.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH, Y
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
SAMEK, V. 1973. Regiones fitogeogrificas de Cuba.
Acad. Cien. Cuba, Ser. Forestal 15:1-60.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 10










SANCHEZ AVIFAUNA DE TOPES DE COLLANTES


Tabla 1. Lista taxon6mica y abundancia cualitativa de las aves observadas en diferentes localidades de Topes de Collantes.
+ = Nuevos reportes para el area de estudio. ** = Genero end6mico, = Especie end6mica. X = Presencia. RB= Residente
Bimodal, RP= Residente Permanente, RV= Residente de Verano, RI= Residente Invernal, T= Transe6nte. A = Abundante,
C = Comin, NC = No Comun, R = Raro.


Caburni Castillito Codina Javira
Especies BSV Pinar BSV BSD


Areas Estado de
antr6picas residencia


Garcita Bueyera (Bubulcus ibis)
Aguaitacaiman (Butorides virescens)
Aura Tinosa (Cathartes aura)
Gavilancito (Accipiter striatus)
Gavildn Colilargo (Accipiter gundlachi )*
Gavildn de Monte (Buteo jamaicensis)
Cernicalo (Falco sparverius)
Codorniz (Colinus virginianus)
Guareao (Aramus guarauna) +
Torcaza Cuellimorada (Patagioenas squamosa)
Torcaza Cabeciblanca (Patagioenas leucocephala)
Paloma Aliblanca (Zenaida asiatica)
Guanaro (Zenaida aurita)
Paloma Rabiche (Zenaida macroura)
Tojosa (Columbina passerina)
Barbiquejo (Geotrygon chrysia)+
Camao (Geotrygon caniceps) *
Boyero (Geotrygon montana )+
Paloma Domestica (Columba livia)
Catey (Aratinga euops)*
Cotorra (Amazona leucocephala)
Arriero (Saurothera merlini)
Judio (Crotophaga ani)
Lechuza (Tyto alba)
Sij6 Cotunto (Gymnoglaux lawrencii) *
Sij6 Platanero (Glaucidium siju) *
Siguapa (Asio stygius)
Querequete (Chordeiles gundlachii)
Guabairo (Caprimulgus cubanensis) **
Vencejo de Collar (Streptoprocne zonaris)
Zunz6n (Chlorostilbon ricordii)
Tocororo (Priotelus temnurus) *
Cartacuba (Todus multicolor) *
Carpintero Jabado (Melanerpes superciliaris)
Carpintero Verde (Xiphidiopicus percussus) **
Carpintero Escapulario (Colaptes auratus)
Carpintero de Paso (Sphyrapicus varius)
Bobito Chico (Contopus caribaeus)
Bobito Grande (Myiarchus sagrae)
Pitirre Guatibere (Tyrannus caudifasciatus)
Pitirre Abejero (Tyrannus dominicensis)
Golondrina Azul Cubana (Progne cryptoleuca) +
Golondrina de Cueva (Petrochelidonfulva)
Golondrina de Arboles (Tachycineta bicolor) +
Cao Montero (Corvus nasicus) +
Rabuita (Polioptila caerulea)
Zorzal Real (Turdus plumbeus)
Tordo Pecoso (Hylocichla mustelina) +
Sinsonte (Mimus polyglottos)
Zorzal Gato (Dumetella carolinensis)



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


X X X
S
x


S
X X X


X X X X
X
X


X X
S
X X X
X X
x
X X
X X


X
x
X X
X X X X
X
X
X X


Abundancia
en Topes


X RB
RB
RP
RB
RP
RP
RP
X RB
X RP
RP
RB
RP
RP
X RB
X RP
RP
RP
RP
X RP
RP
RP
RP
X RP
RP
RP
RP
X RP
RV
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
X RI
RP
RP
RP
RV
RV
RV
RI
RP
RI
RP
T
RP
RI


Page 11










SANCHEZ AVIFAUNA DE TOPES DE COLLANTES


Tabla 1. (Continuaci6n)


Caburni Castillito Codina Javira
Especies BSV Pinar BSV BSD


Areas Estado de
antr6picas residencia


Zorzal Gato (Dumetella carolinensis)
Juan Chivi (Vireo gundlachii) *
Bien te Veo (Vireo altiloquus) +
Vireo de Pecho Amarillo (Vireoflavifrons) +
Bijirita Atigrada (Dendroica tigrina)
Bijirita de Garganta Negra (Dendroica virens) +
Bijirita Comfn (Dendroica palmarum) +
Bijirita Azul de G. Negra (Dendroica caerulescens)
Mariposa Galana (Dendroica discolor)
Bijirita Chica (Parula americana)
Bijirita Trepadora (Mniotilta varia)
Candelita (Setophaga ruticilla)
Caretica (Geothlypis trichas)
Monjita (Wilsonia citrina) +
Senorita de Monte (Seiurus aurocapilla) +
Senorita de Rio (Seiurus motacilla) +
Aparecido de San Diego (Cyanerpes cyaneus) +
Cabrero (Spindalis zena)
Azulejo (Passerina cyanea)
Negrito (Melopyrrha nigra)
Tomeguin de la Tierra (Tiaris olivaceus) +
Mayito (Agelaius humeralis)
Sabanerro (Sturnella magna)
Toti (Dives atroviolaceus) *
Chichinguaco (Quiscalus niger)
Solibio (Icterus dominicensis) *


x

x x
x
x
x


x
x
x

x


x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x x
x
x
x
x
x x x x
x
x x x x
Sx x x
X X X


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Abundancia
en Topes


RI
RP
RV
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RP
RP
RI
RP
X RP
RP
X RP
RP
RP
RP


Page 12












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:13-15, 2005


NUEVO REGISTRO Y COMENTARIOS ADICIONALES
SOBRE LA AVOCETA (RECURVIROSTRA AMERICANA) EN CUBA

OMAR LABRADA1, PEDRO BLANCO 2, ELIZABET S. DELGADO3, Y JARRETON P. RIVER4
1Refugio de Fauna Delta del Cauto, Empresa para la Proteccion de la Flora y la Fauna, Cienaga de Birama,
Las Tunas, Cuba; 2Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica CITMA. Carretera de Varona Km 3.5, Boyeros, C.
Habana, Cuba; 3Delegaci6n Provincial del CITMA, Las Tunas, Cuba; 4Empresa para la Proteccion de la
Flora y la Fauna, Nuevitas, Camagiiey, Cuba

Resumen.-Presentamos informaci6n sobre tres nuevos registros de la Avoceta (Recurvirostra americana) en
Cuba con algunos comentarios adicionales acerca de la regular presencia de esta especie en diferentes localidades
del pafs durante el periodo desde 1995 hasta el 2004.
Palabras claves: Avoceta, Cuba, nuevos registros, Recurvirostra americana

Abstract.-NEW RECORDS AND ADDITIONAL COMMENTS FOR THE AMERICAN AVOCET IN CUBA. We present
information on three new records of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana) in Cuba with some additional
comments about the regular presence of this species in different sites of the country during 1995-2004.
Key words: American Avocet, Cuba, new records, Recurvirostra americana


LA AVOCETA (Recurvirostra americana), consti-
tuye una de las aves acu6ticas coloniales mis repre-
sentativas en tamafio y colorido de las 142 formas
que componen el orden Charadriiformes en el conti-
nente americano (National Geographic Society
1987). Su poblaci6n global estimada en unos 450
000 individuos (Morrison et al. 2000), se encuentra
distribuida en algunas regiones del oeste y el centro
de Am6rica del Norte las que incluyen territorios
del sur de Canada, de Estados Unidos y M6xico
donde se reproduce cada aflo (Hayman et al. 1986).
Sus areas de invierno, se localizan al Sur de la
Peninsula de la Florida y zonas de la costa del Golfo
de M6xico. Durante el otofio, la Avoceta realiza sus
desplazamientos migratorios rumbo al Sur desde el
occidente del continente americano hasta Costa Ri-
ca, atravesando territorios costeros de M6xico, Gua-
temala, Honduras y Nicaragua, en donde es posible
que resida durante el invierno mas del 36 % de la
poblaci6n global estimada para la especie segin
resultados de censos a6reos obtenidos por Morrison
et al. (1993) y Morrison et al. (1994).
En Cuba y en otras islas del Caribe tales como:
Jamaica, Puerto Rico, islas Virgenes, Cayman, An-
tigua, Barbados, Tobago y Bonaire, la Avoceta est6
considerada como una especie accidental observada
en limitadas ocasiones (Raffaele et al. 1998, Hay-
man et al. 1986, Garrido y Kirkconnell 2000), sin
embargo, existe informaci6n reciente que demuestra
que esta ave visita con mayor frecuencia el territorio
cubano, lo que resulta un hecho interesante a inte-
grar en el desarrollo de estudios de distribuci6n que


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


se realizan en la actualidad en el pais con especies
del orden Charadriiformes.


RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION
La obtenci6n en el territorio cubano, de nuevos
registros de observaci6n de la Recurvirostra ameri-
cana (4 individuos) en la localidad de la laguna el
Remate en la Ci6naga de Birama, provincia de
Granma durante los dias 24 y 29 de abril del 2001,
18 de noviembre del 2003 y 18 de enero del 2004,
resulta un hecho interesante que muestra diferencias
entre la informaci6n obtenida sobre esta especie en
Cuba con relaci6n al resto de los territorios insula-
res del Caribe donde es considerada una especie
rara o accidental.
Con estos nuevos registros suman 11 las observa-
ciones obtenidas hasta la fecha, acerca de la presen-
cia de la Avoceta en localidades costeras cubanas
(Blanco et al. 1996, Garrido y Kirkconnell 2000,
P6rez y Blanco 2002), entre las que se destaca el
aporte reflejado por J. Gundlach (Gundlach 1863)
desde mediados del siglo XIX (Tabla 1).
La informaci6n obtenida durante el periodo 1995-
2002 expuesta en la tabla 1, muestra que la catego-
rfa de ave migratoria accidental en el territorio cu-
bano conferida a esta especie por Garrido y Kirk-
connell (2000), no se corresponde con los datos de
observaci6n de la misma, la que aparece registrada
tanto en periodos de migraci6n como en 6pocas de
residencia en siete localidades correspondientes a
seis provincias del pais.


Page 13









VEGA ETAL. REGISTRO DE AVOCETA EN CUBA


Tabla 1. Registros de observaci6n de la Avoceta (Recurvirostra americana) en Cuba durante el period
comprendido entre los afios 1863 y el 2002.


Localidades


Provincias


Fecha


No Ind.


1 Casilda
2 Arroceras del Jibaro
3 Peninsula de Guanahacabibes
4 Cayo Coco
5 Peninsula de Hicacos
6 Peninsula de Hicacos
7 Peninsula de Hicacos
8 Ci6naga de Birama
9 Playa Bag6
10 Ci6naga de Birama
11 Ci6naga de Birama


Sancti Spiritus
Sancti Spiritus
Pinar del Rio
Ciego de Avila
Matanzas
Matanzas
Matanzas
Granma
CamagUey
Granma
Granma


Noviembre 1863
Junio 1995
Octubre 1997
Enero 1999
Noviembre 2000
Octubre 2001
Diciembre 2002
Abril 2001
Noviembre 2002
Noviembre 2003
Enero 2004


No obstante al ndmero de registros obtenido, se
considera que adn los resultados son insuficientes
para proponer un cambio de categoria de permanen-
cia de la especie en Cuba, pues proponer la catego-
rfa de residente invernal para la Avoceta, resulta
inadecuado ante la ausencia de observaciones que
avalen la continua estancia de la especie durante el
invierno en habitats cubanos.
De igual forma, el empleo del termino transe6nte,
no resulta apropiado ante la existencia de mis de 80
fuentes bibliogr6ficas publicadas (Wiley 2000), que
avalan la categoria de rara o accidental para esta ave
en la regi6n de las Antillas sin hacer referencia al-
guna a la existencia de transito regular o sitios de
invierno establecidos por la especie en la regi6n del
Caribe y Sudam6rica
Aunque la presencia de la Avoceta en Cuba puede
resultar 16gica dada la proximidad existente entre
las costas del pais con otras zonas costeras del con-
tinente americano como son las peninsulas de la.
Florida y de Yucatan, las que constituyen en la ac-
tualidad importantes sitios para el transito migrato-
rio y permanencia invernal con registros superiores
a los 5 000 individuos durante el invierno (Morrison
et al. 1993, Morrison et al. 2000), resulta interesan-
te el bajo numero de observaciones de la especie en
el pais en periodos anteriores a 1994 a pesar del
desarrollo de multiples investigaciones ornitol6gi-
cas y actividades de colectas cientificas realizadas
en mis de 60 localidades del archipi6lago cubano.
Se recomienda en afios futuros intensificar las
observaciones en las localidades de la Ci6naga de
Birama, en la provincia de Granma, las salinas de


Page 14


Hicacos en Matanzas y la peninsula de Guanahaca-
bibes en Pinar del Rio, donde se ha reportado la
presencia de la Avoceta con mayor frecuencia du-
rante los periodos de migraci6n y residencia de
invierno comprendidos entre los afios 1997 y el
2004 con el fin de corroborar la residencia invernal
y las causas que originan su presencia en el pafs.


LITERATURA CITADA
ACOSTA, M. 1982. Indice para el estudio del nicho
tr6fico. Cs. Biol. 7:125-126.
BLANCO, P., M. ACOSTA, L. MUGICA, Y D. DENNIS.
1996. Nuevo registro de Avoceta Recurvirostra
americana (Aves: Charadriidae) en Cuba. Pitirre
9:3.
GARRIDO, 0. H., Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
Guide of the Birds of Cuba. Comell Univ Press.
Ithaca, New York. 253 pp.
GUNDLACH, J. 1873. Cathlogo de aves cubanas.
Anal. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat., 2: 81-191.
HAYMAN, P., J. MARCHANT, AND T. PRATER. 1986.
Shorebirds. An identification guide to the waders
of the world. Croom Helm Ltd., Backenham,
Kent, U.K. 412 pp.
MORRISON, R. I. G., R. K. ROSS, P. J. GUZMAN, Y
A. ESTRADA. 1993. Aerial surveys of Neartic
shorebirds wintering in Mexico: Preliminary re-
sults of surveys on the Gulf of Mexico and Carib-
bean coasts. Can. Wildl. Serv. Progr. Not. 206:1-
14.
MORRISON, R. I. G., R. K. ROSS, AND P. J.
GUZMAN. 1994. Aerial surveys of Neartic Shore-



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005












birds wintering in Mexico: Preliminary results of
surveys on the southern half of the Pacific coast,
Chiapas to Sinaloa. Can. Wildl. Serv. Progr. Not.
209:1-21.
MORRISON, R. I. G., R. E. GILL, JR., B. A. HAR-
RINGTON, S. SKAGEN., G. W. PAGE., C. L.
GRATTO-TREVOR, Y. AUBRY, R. W. BUTLER, G.
W. BEYERSBERGEN, G. M. DONALDSON, C. L.
GRATTO-TREVOR AND S. M. HAIG. 2000. Esti-
mates of shorebird populations in North America.
Occ. Pap. Can. Wildl. Serv. 1:1-64.
NATIONAL GEOGRAFIC SOCIETY. 1987. Field guide
to the birds of North America. Washington, DC:


VEGA ETAL. REGISTRO DE AVOCETA EN CUBA

National Geographic Society.
PEREZ, C. Y P. BLANCO. 2002. Nuevos registros de
aves acu6ticas para el humedal costero de la lagu-
na El Mang6n. Peninsula de Hicacos, Matanzas,
Cuba. Pitirre 15:134.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. H. GARRIDO, A. KEITH
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ.
Press.
WILEY, W. J. 2000. A bibliography of ornitholoy in
the West Indies. Proc. West. Found. Vert. Zool.
7:1-817.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 15












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:16-17, 2005


AVES DE CAYO CARENAS, CIINAGA DE BIRAMA, CUBA

OMAR LABRADA Y GABRIEL CISNEROS
Refugio de Fauna "Delta del Cauto ", Empresa para la Proteccion de la Flora y la Fauna,
Cienaga de Birama, Las Tunas, Cuba

Resumen.-Se da a conocer el listado de aves de Cayo Carenas en la Cienaga de Biramas, Cuba, a trav6s de in-
ventarios realizados durante los anos 1992 y 2001.
Palabras claves: Cayo Carenas, Cuba, listado de aves,

Abstract.-BIRDS OF CAYO CARENAS, CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS, CUBA. We provide a list of the birds of Key
Carenas in the Marsh of Biramas, Cuba, based on surveys carried out during the years 1992 and 2001.
Key words: bird survey, Cayo Carenas, Cuba


CAYO CARENAS, situado al SE de la desemboca-
dura del rio Cauto se ubica geogrificamente en los
20032'34"N, 77008'15"O y forma parte de la Cid-
naga de Birama, uno de los principales humedales
de Cuba, donde habitan numerosas especies de aves
tanto acuiticas como terrestres. Presenta un irea de
22 km2y una extension de 6 km; siendo su parte
mis ancha el Hoyo de Viro- Los Lirios con 4,5 km
y la mis estrecha el Alto de Carenas (1,5 km).
En el cayo predomina la vegetaci6n de manglar
con sus especies tipicas: mangle rojo (Rhizophora
mangle), mangle prieto (Avicennia germinans) y
pataban (Laguncularia racemosa). El suelo es cena-
goso e inundado casi todo el afio y presenta s6lo una
porci6n de suelos negros profundos donde se desar-
rolla la vegetaci6n de costa, que se caracteriza por
la presencia de especies de plantas como: brasil,
ateje, aroma, rabo de perico, rodocactus y algunas
herbiceas como la hierba de guinea.
Para conocer la diversidad de especies de aves
que habitan, pernoctan, nidifican o invernan, se re-
alizaron diferentes viajes de investigaci6n al cayo
durante los afios 1992 y 2001, donde se recorrieron
las formaciones vegetales antes mencionadas y el
complejo de lagunas y esteros presentes en esta
area.
Para la clasificaci6n sistemitica de las aves, se
siguieron los criterios de Raffaele et al. (1998) y
Garrido y Kirkconnell (2000). Esta informaci6n fue
actualizada con los criterios de American Ornitholo-
gists' Union (2000) y Banks et al. (2002, 2003,
2004). Como medida de abundancia relativa se uti-
lizaron los siguientes criterios: muy rara (1 indi-


viduo), rara (2-5 individuos), escasa (6-10 indi-
viduos) y comin (mas de 10 individuos).


LITERATURA CITADA
AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 2000. Forty-
second supplement to the American Ornitholo-
gists' Union Check-list of North American birds.
Auk 117:847-858.
BANKS, R. C., C. CICERO, J. L. DUNN, A. W. KRAT-
TER, P. C. RASMUSSEN, J. V. REMSEN, JR., J. D.
RISING, Y D. F. STOTZ. 2002. Forty-third supple-
ment to the American Ornithologists' Union
Check-list of North American Birds. Auk
119:897-906.
BANKS, R. C., C. CICERO, J. L. DUNN, A. W. KRAT-
TER, P. C. RASMUSSEN, J. V. REMSEN, JR., J. D.
RISING, Y D. F. STOTZ. 2003. Forty-fourth supple-
ment to the American Ornithologists' Union
Check-list of North American Birds. Auk
120:923-931.
BANKS, R. C., C. CICERO, J. L. DUNN, A. W. KRAT-
TER, P. C. RASMUSSEN, J. V. REMSEN, JR., J. D.
RISING, Y D. F. STOTZ. 2004. Forty-fifth supple-
ment to the American Ornithologists' Union
Check-list of North American Birds. Auk
121:985-995.
GARRIDO, 0. H., Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
Guide of the birds in Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
Univ. Press.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH, Y
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 16










VEGA Y CISNEROS- AVIFAUNA CAYO CARENAS


RELACION DE ESPECIES

Pelecanus occidentalis (Pelicano), comun en las costas.
Phalacrocorax auritus (Cor6a de Mar), comdn y nidifica en el cayo.
Anhinga anhinga (Marbella), es escasa, pero se observan algunos nidos en 6poca de cria.
Fregata magnificens (Rabihorcado), es escasa, se observa en las costas.
Ardea alba (Garz6n), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Egretta rufescens (Garza Rojiza), comdn, sus poblaciones se han incrementado en los 61timos afios en el
area de estudio. Nidifica en el cayo.
Egretta caerulea (Garza Azul), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Egretta tricolor (Garza de Vientre Blanco), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Egretta thula (Garza Blanca), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Butorides virescens (Aguaitacaimin), comdn.
Nycticorax nycticorax (Guanabi de la Florida), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Eudocimus albus (Coco Blanco), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Platalea ajaja (Sevilla), es escasa, pero nidifica en el irea.
Cathartes aura (Aura Tifiosa), comdn en el cayo, fundamentalmente en la 6poca de reproducci6n.
Phoenicopterus ruber (Flamenco), comdn, nidifica en el cayo. En ocasiones la colonia nidificante posee
mis de 3 200 nidos.
Anas discors (Pato de la Florida), especie residente invernal comdn en el cayo.
Anas bahamensis (Pato de Bahamas), comdn.
Pandion haliaetus (Guincho), escaso, se observaron pocos individuos.
Rallus longirostris (Gallinuela de Manglar), no es muy abundante, aunque se han localizado nidos en el
cayo.
Pluvialis squatarola (Pluvial), comun en lagunas interiores.
Charadrius wilsonia (Titere Playero), comun en la etapa invernal.
Himantopus mexicanus (Cachiporra), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Tringa melanoleuca (Zarapico Patiamarillo Grande), comun en lagunas interiores.
Tringaflavipes (Zarapico Patiamarillo Chico), comdn.
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus (Zarapico Real), raro se han observado en pocas ocasiones.
Calidris minutilla (Zarapiquito), comdn en playazos y lagunas interiores.
Larus atricilla (Galleguito), comdn en playazos y lagunas interiores.
Sterna mdxima (Gaviota Real), comun fundamentalmente en la costa sur.
Sterna antillarum (Gaviotica), comun en zonas costeras.
Zenaida macroura (Paloma Rabiche), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Zenaida asidtica (Paloma Aliblanca), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Patagioenas leucocephala (Torcaza Cabeciblanca), escasa, aunque se han observado tres o cuatro nidos.
Columbina passerina (Tojosa),escasa, se observaron entre cuatro y seis individuos.
Saurothera merlini (Arriero), escaso, se han observado en la parte alta del cayo.
Chlorostilbon ricordii (Zunz6n), raro, se han observado pocos individuos.
Ceryle alcyon (Martin Pescador), raro, se han observado hasta cuatro individuos.
Xiphidiopicus percussus (Carpintero Verde), se observan en las zonas de manglares altos, donde es comdn.
Tyrannus dominicensis (Pitirre Abejero), comdn.
Contopus caribaeus (Bobito chico), comdn en manglares.
Dendroica petechia (Canario de Manglar), comdn, nidifica en el cayo.
Dendroica dominica (Bijirita de Garganta Amarilla), comdn en invierno.
Dendroica palmarum (Bijirita Comdn),es una de las especies mis comunes.
Setophaga ruticilla (Candelita),escasa, se han observado en 6poca invernal.
Seiurus noveboracensis (Sefiorita de Manglar), escasa, se han observado hasta 12 individuos.
Melopyrrha nigra (Negrito), comdn en algunos meses como marzo, abril y mayo.
Quiscalus niger (Chichinguaco), comdn en el cayo, fundamentalmente en invierno.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 17












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:18-21, 2005


FORAGING BEHAVIOR OF TWO TYRANT FLYCATCHERS IN TRINIDAD:
THE GREAT KISKADEE (PITANGUS SULPHURATUS) AND
TROPICAL KINGBIRD (TYRANNUS MELANCHOLICUS)

NADIRA MATHURA'2 SHAWN O'GARRO3, DIANE THOMPSON3'4, FLOYD E. HAYES15,
AND URMILA S. NANDY1'6
'Department of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago;
2e-mail: nadsmathura@yahoo.com; 3Department of Biology, Caribbean Union College, P. 0. Box 175,
Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago; current address: 1 1/2 mm Maracas Royal Road, Maracas, St.
Joseph, Trinidad and Tobago; e-mail: dyeanthompson@hotmail.com; current address: Department of
Biology, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA 94508, USA; e-mail: floydhayes@hotmail.com; current
address: Anglican Central Educational Society, Nassau, NP, Bahamas; e-mail: buntyjuhi@hotmail.com

Abstract.-We compared the foraging behavior of two large, sympatric flycatchers, the Great Kiskadee
(Pitangus sulphuratus) and Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus), in Trinidad. For each observation of
foraging, we recorded or estimated the type of substrate, height class above ground at which foraging occurred,
size class of food item captured, and type of prey. The kiskadee foraged more often on the ground and less often in
the air than the kingbird, which rarely foraged on the ground. The kiskadee foraged at significantly lower levels
than the kingbird. Both species foraged mostly on animal prey with roughly equal frequency. Although a variety of
prey sizes were taken, both species foraged primarily on prey < 1 cm long, with no significant difference between
the species.
Key words: foraging behavior, Pitangus sulphuratus, Trinidad, Tyrannidae, Tyrannus melancholicus

Resumen.-COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO DE DOS TIRANIDOS ATRAPAMOSCAS: EL CRISTOFU (PITANGUS
SULPHURATUS) Y EL PITIRRE CHICHARRERO (TYRANNUS MELANOCHOLICUS). Comparamos el comportamiento de
forajeo de dos especies grandes de atrapamoscas, el Cristofu6 (Pitangus sulphuratus) y el Pitirre Chicharrero
(Tyrannus melanocholicus), en Trinidad. Para cada observaci6n de forrajeo, registramos o estimamos el tipo de
sustrato, clase de altura por encima del suelo en la cual se aliment6, la clase de tamano de alimento capturado, y el
tipo de alimento. El Crisofu6 se aliment6 mas frecuentemente en el suelo y menos frecuentemente en el aire que el
Pitirre Chicharrero, el cual raramente se aliment6 en el suelo. El Cristofu6 se aliment6 a alturas significativamente
mis menores que el Pitirre Chicharrero. Ambas especies se alimentaron principalmente de presas animales con
frecuencia casi igual. Aunque incluyeron alimentos de tamano variable, ambas especies consumieron principal-
mente insectos de < 1 cm de longitud, sin una diferencia significativa entre las especies.
Palabras claves: conducta de forrajeo, Pitangus sulphuratus, Trinidad, Tyrannidae, Tyrannus melancholicus


AS A LARGE AND DIVERSE FAMILY of New World
birds, flycatchers of the family Tyrannidae exhibit a
wide variety of foraging strategies (Fitzpatrick
1980). The Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus)
and Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus)
are large, ubiquitous inhabitants of relatively open
country that occur sympatrically in much of their
Neotropical range (Stouffer and Chesser 1998,
Brush and Fitzpatrick 2002), including Trinidad, a
large island on the continental shelf of northeastern
South America (ffrench 1991). The Great Kiskadee
is heavier and has a longer bill (body mass, 47.5-
68.5 g; bill length, 23-31 mm; wing length, 106-118
mm) than the Tropical Kingbird (body mass, 31.5-
44.5 g; bill length, 20-25 mm; wing length, 107-120
mm; data from Trinidad based on ffrench [19911, S.


Page 18


A. White and F. E. Hayes unpubl. data.).
Few studies have quantified the foraging behavior
of the Great Kiskadee (Fitzpatrick 1980, 1981,
Gorena 1995, 1997, Cintra 1997, Latino and Beltzer
1999, Brush and Fitzpatrick 2002) and Tropical
Kingbird (Fitzpatrick 1980, 1981, Pearson 1971,
Rosenberg 1990, Cintra 1997). Here we compare
the niche partitioning of foraging behavior between
the two species in Trinidad. Because interspecific
competition generally precludes two similar species
from occupying the same niche at the same time in
the same place, we predicted that the two species
would differ in their foraging behavior, and that the
kiskadee would feed upon larger food items because
of its larger bill and body mass.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005













METHODS
From February-May 2002 (dry season), we stud-
ied the foraging behavior of unmarked individuals
of each species at elevations < 100 m above sea
level in Maracas Valley and St. Augustine, north-
central Trinidad. The study sites were relatively
open urban or campus areas in close proximity to
buildings, electrical wires, grass lawns, and trees
often exceeding 20 m in height.
Binoculars (7-8x) were used to observe the be-
havior of focal birds. For each observation of forag-
ing, we attempted to determine or estimate the fol-
lowing variables: type of substrate from which for-
aging was attempted (ground, vegetation, and air);
height above ground at which foraging occurred (<
2 m, 2-4 m, 4-6 m, and > 6 m); size of food item
captured (< 0.5 cm, 0.5-1.0 cm, 1.0-1.5 cm, and >
1.5 cm, as estimated against bill length); and type of
prey (plant or animal). No more than ten observa-
tions were taken from a given individual.
Each foraging attempt was assumed to be an inde-


MATHURA ETAL. FORAGING BEHAVIOR IN FLYCATCHERS


pendent event. Two-sample chi-square tests (X2
statistic) were used to compare the proportions of
foraging attempts on different substrates and food
types between the two species. Mann-Whitney U
tests (z statistic) were used to compare the foraging
heights above ground and the relative sizes of food
between each species. Each statistical test and its
assumptions are described by Zar (1984). All tests
were computed with Statistix 7 software (Anony-
mous 2000). Because multiple observations were
taken from the same individual bird, caution is war-
ranted in interpreting the results of these statistical
tests.


RESULTS
The two species differed significantly in their use
of foraging substrate; the kiskadee foraged more
often on the ground (44.6%) and less often in the air
(21.8%) than the kingbird, which foraged primarily
in the air (56.0%) and only rarely on the ground


Table 1. Frequency of foraging attempts by the Great Kiskadee and Tropical Kingbird on
prey with respect to substrate type, height of prey capture above ground, size of prey, and
type of prey.


Variable


Great Kiskadee


Substratea
Ground
Vegetation
Air

Height above groundb
<2 m
2-4 m
4-6 m
>6 m

Food type
Animal
Plant

Food sized
<0.5 cm
0.5-1 cm
1-1.5 cm
>1.5 cm


Tropical Kingbird



1
36
47


18
29
25
12


65
15


37
26
16
4


aX2 = 50.06, df = 2, P < 0.001
bz = 6.42, P < 0.001
c 2 = 0.06, df = 1, P = 0.81
dz = 0.21, P = 0.83


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 19









MATHURA ETAL. FORAGING BEHAVIOR IN FLYCATCHERS


(1.2%; Table 1). The kiskadee foraged at signifi-
cantly lower levels (69.8% of time < 2 m) than the
kingbird (78.6% of time > 2 m; Table 1). Both spe-
cies foraged mostly on animal prey with roughly
equal frequency (kiskadee, 84.0%; kingbird, 81.3%;
Table 1), but both often foraged on fruits. Although
a variety of prey sizes were taken, both species for-
aged primarily on prey < 1 cm long (kiskadee,
75.7%; kingbird, 75.9%) with no significant differ-
ences between the species (Table 1).


DISCUSSION
Fitzpatrick (1980) regarded the Great Kiskadee as
a "supreme generalist... uniquely variable in its for-
aging behavior" (p. 49), and Tyrannus kingbirds
(including Tropical Kingbird) as "Aerial Hawking
specialists" (p. 54). Our results were consistent with
these generalizations and were similar to those of
previous studies on the foraging behavior of these
species.
Although the kiskadee often uses aerial hawking
to capture prey, a diversity of foraging methods and
substrates have been documented in Texas and
Peru, including perch-gleaning, sally-gleaning,
hover-gleaning in vegetation, shallow plunge-diving
and wading up to belly in water, and scavenging on
the ground (Gorena 1997, Brush and Fitzpatrick
2002). In contrast, the kingbird was among the most
specialized foragers of flycatchers in Peru and Bra-
zil, where it foraged predominantly (> 75%) by ae-
rial hawking (Fitzpatrick 1980, Rosenberg 1990,
Cintra 1997, Stouffer and Chesser 1998); however,
aerial hawking in our study was just 56%. Intras-
pecific kleptoparasitism has been observed in both
species (Bentley 1991, Hayes 1992, 2000) but no
instances were observed during this study, provid-
ing further evidence of its rarity.
The kiskadee forages from any height but usually
hunts close to the ground, averaging 2.5 m above
the ground in Texas (Gorena 1997), 6.5 m in forest
edge and 3.4 m in nearby savanna in Brazil (Cintra
1997), and was 0-2 m above ground 69% of the
time (nearly identical to our study) in Peru (Brush
and Fitzpatrick 2002). In contrast, the Tropical
Kingbird is a canopy specialist that typically hunts
from the highest perches available, 76% of the time
> 25 m and 24% from 12-25 m high in the canopy
of dry forest in Peru (Pearson 1971), averaging 7.3
m in forest edge and 4.6 m in savanna in Brazil
(Cintra 1997), and averaging about 6 m in 10 m
scrub on Amazonian River islands in Peru
(Rosenberg 1990). The kingbird only rarely de-


Page 20


scends to the ground or into low vegetation (Skutch
1954, 1960).
The kiskadee forages on a variety of fruits, in-
sects, and small vertebrates (see review by Brush
and Fitzpatrick 2002). Animal prey were taken
more frequently than fruits by kiskadees in Texas
(56% of diet; Gorena 1995, 1997) and Peru (63%;
Brush and Fitzpatrick 2002), but in lower propor-
tions than in our study (84%); in contrast, animal
prey comprised only 40% of items in the stomachs
of kiskadees in Argentina (Latino and Beltzer
1999). The kingbird consumes a wide variety of
plant and animal prey (see review by Stouffer and
Chesser 1998), but the relative contributions of each
has not been documented previously.
The relative sizes of food items consumed has not
been studied previously in the kiskadee and king-
bird (Stouffer and Chesser 1998, Brush and Fitz-
patrick 2002). Because the kiskadee possesses a
larger bill and body, we predicted it would prey on
larger food items on average. However, our data
failed to support this prediction. Nevertheless, the
kiskadee appears to be more predisposed for at-
tempting to prey upon larger items of food, even if
only rarely. In Trinidad, kiskadees have been ob-
served feeding or attempting to feed on a variety of
vertebrate prey including fish (Chadee et al. 1991),
lizards (ffrench 1991, this study), nestling Ba-
nanaquits (Coereba flaveola; ffrench 1991, F. E.
Hayes and N. A. Trimm pers. obs.), and mice
(Bentley 1991, ffrench 1991). In contrast, the king-
bird has been reported foraging on vertebrate prey
only once, on a small frog in Central America
(Skutch 1954, Stouffer and Chesser 1998).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank T. Brush for providing pertinent litera-
ture and reviewing the manuscript, S. A. White for
sharing morphometric data, and 0. Komar and J.
Wunderle for reviewing the manuscript. This study
was conducted in partial fulfillment for the course
Research Project by Mathura at the University of
the West Indies, and for the course Vertebrate Zool-
ogy by O'Garro and Thompson at Caribbean Union
College. We thank both institutions for their support
with binoculars and computers.


LITERATURED CITED
ANONYMOUS. 2000. Statistix 7 user's manual. Ana-
lytical Software, Tallahassee, FL.
BENTLEY, L. 1991. Great Kiskadee preying on

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005












mouse. Living World, J. Trin. Tob. Field Nat.
Club 1991-1992:43.
BRUSH, T., AND J. W. FITZPATRICK. 2002. Great
Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus). Birds N. Amer.
622:1-19.
CHADEE, D. D., R. GANESH, AND R.C. PERSAD.
1991. Feeding behaviour of the Great Kiskadee,
Pitangus sulphuratus, on fish in Trinidad, West
Indies. Living World, J. Trin. Tob. Field Nat.
Club 1991-1992:42-43.
CINTRA, R. 1997. Spatial distribution and foraging
tactics of tyrant flycatchers in two habitats in the
Brazilian Amazon. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ.
52:17-27.
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago. 2nd ed. Cornell University Press,
Ithaca, NY.
FITZPATRICK, J. W. 1980. Foraging behavior of
Neotropical tyrant flycatchers. Condor 82:43-57.
FITZPATRICK, J. W. 1981. Search strategies of tyrant
flycatchers. Anim. Behav. 29:810-821.
GORENA, R. L. 1995. Feeding and nesting ecology
of the Great Kiskadee, Pitangus sulphuratus tex-
anus (Passeriformes: Tyrannidae) in the lower Rio
Grande Valley, Texas. Unpubl. M. S. thesis, Uni-
versity of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, TX.
GORENA, R. L. 1997. Notes on the feeding habits
and prey of adult Great Kiskadees. Bull. Texas


MATHURA ETAL. FORAGING BEHAVIOR IN FLYCATCHERS

Ornithol. Soc. 30:18-19.
HAYES, F. E. 1992. Intraspecific kleptoparasitism in
the Great Kiskadee (Pitangus sulphuratus).
Hornero 13:234-235.
HAYES, F. E. 2000. Intraspecific kleptoparasitism in
the Tropical Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus).
Pitirre 13:7.
LATINO, S., AND A. BELTZER. 1999. Ecologia
tr6fica del Benteveo Pitangus sulphuratus (Aves:
Tyrannidae) en el valle de inundaci6n del rio
Paran6, Argentina. Orsis 14:69-78.
MURPHY, M. T. 1987. The impact of weather on
kingbird foraging behavior. Condor 89:721-730.
PEARSON, D. L. 1971. Vertical stratification of birds
in a tropical dry forest. Condor 73:46-55.
ROSENBERG, G. H. 1990. Habitat specialization and
foraging behavior by birds of Amazonian river
islands in northeastern Peru. Condor 92:427-443.
SKUTCH, A. F. 1954. Life history of the Tropical
Kingbird. Proc. Linn. Soc. New York 63-65:21-
38.
SKUTCH, A. F. 1960. Life histories of Central
American birds II. Pac. Coast Avifauna 34.
STOUFFER, P. C., AND R. T. CHESSER. 1998. Tropi-
cal Kingbird (Tyrannus melancholicus). Birds N.
Amer. 358:1-18.
ZAR, J. H. 1984. Biostatistical analysis. 2nd ed.
Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, NJ.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 21












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:22-23, 2005


APPARENT NESTING OF SOUTHERN LAPWING ON ARUBA

STEVEN G. MLODINOW
4819 Gardner Avenue, Everett, WA 98203, USA; e-mail: SGMlod@aol.com

Abstract.-During late March and early April 2004, a pair of Southern Lapwings (Vanellus chilensis) on Aruba
behaved in a manner that strongly suggested active nesting. This species was not previously known to nest on any
Caribbean island outside of Trinidad and Tobago.
Key words: apparent nesting, Aruba, Southern Lapwing, Vanellus chilensis

Resumen.-NIDIFICACION APARENTE DEL ALCARAVAN EN ARUBA. A finales de marzo y comienzos de abril del
anio 2004, una pareja de Alcaravan (Vanellus chilensis) en Aruba se comportaron de forma tal que sugiri6 fuerte-
mente una nidificaci6n activa. No se conocia previamente de intentos de crfa de esta especie en cualquier isla
caribefia fuera de Trinidad y Tobago.
Palabras claves: Alcaravdn, Aruba, nidificacion aparente, Vanellus chilensis


THE SOUTHERN LAPWING (Vanellus chilensis) is
a widespread and common species of open pastures
and short grasslands in South America (Hayman et
al. 1986). It has recently increased in numbers and
expanded its range in South America (Delaney and
Scott 2002). It spread into western Panamai during
the 1980s (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989), and there
has been a subsequent increase in Costa Rican re-
cords (Jones 2003). In the Caribbean, Southern Lap-
wings were first recorded on Trinidad in 1961 and
on Tobago in 1974, and by 1990 they were well
established as a resident species on these islands
(ffrench 1991). Elsewhere in the Caribbean there
are three previous records from Aruba on 6 June
1979 (Voous 1983), 30 May 2001 (Norton and
White 2001), and 30 March 2003 (Mlodinow 2004),
and one from Barbados on 29 July 1998 (Buckley et
al. in press).
On 30 March 2003, Casey Beachell and I located
two Southern Lapwings at the Tierra del Sol Golf
Course, Aruba (Mlodinow 2004). These birds were
placid upon encountering us. On 26 March 2004,
we returned to the Tierra del Sol Golf Course and
were surprised to find a pair of Southern Lapwings,
roughly at the same place we found them a year
before. Unlike 2003, however, these birds took im-
mediate interest in our presence calling loudly and
flying aggressively towards us. At times, they
passed within 1.5 m. Furthermore, they pursued us
until we moved more than 100 m from the original
point of interaction. This encounter was repeated on
three later visits, despite our efforts to avoid agitat-
ing the birds. We last saw them on 3 April, the day
we left the island. The pair's behavior suggested the


Page 22


presence of young or eggs nearby, and we did not
press them for fear of disturbing them further. On
27 March 2004 we encountered a lone bird else-
where on the golf course, and it seemed rather un-
perturbed by our presence, much like the birds we
found the year before. Local residents suggested
that several Southern Lapwings inhabited the golf
course as a whole.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Many thanks to Alvaro Jaramillo for reviewing and
improving this manuscript. Also, thanks to the Bu-
cuti Beach Resort and the people of Aruba for mak-
ing us feel welcome and to the Tierra del Sol Golf
Course for allowing us to enjoy their special place.


LITERATURE CITED
BUCKLEY, P. A., M. B. HUTT, E. B. MASSIAH, F.
G. BUCKLEY, AND H. F. HUTT. In press. The
birds of Barbados, West Indies. B. 0. U. Check-
list. London: British Ornithologists' Union.
DELANEY, S., AND D. SCOTT (eds). 2002. Water-
bird population estimates, 3rd ed. Wageningen,
The Netherlands: Wetlands International.
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago, 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Comstock Pub-
lishing Ass.
HAYMAN, P., J. MARCHANT, AND T. PRATER. 1986.
Shorebirds: an identification guide to the waders
of the world. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Co.
JONES, H.L. 2003. The fall migration: Central



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005










MLODINOW APPARENT NESTING OF SOUTHERN LAPWING ON ARUBA


America region. N. Amer. Birds 57:129-130.
MLODINOW, S. G. 2004. First records of Little
Egret, Green-winged Teal, Swallow-tailed Kite,
Tennessee Warbler, and Red-breasted Blackbird
from Aruba. N. Amer. Birds 57:559-561.
NORTON, R. L., AND A. WHITE. 2001. Regional


reports: West Indies. N. Am. Birds 55:370-372.
RIDGELY, R. S., AND J. A. GWYNNE, JR. 1989. A
Guide to the birds of Panama, 2nd ed. Princeton,
NJ: Princeton University Press.
Voous, K. H. 1983. Birds of the Netherlands Antil-
les. Utrecht, The Netherlands: De Walburg Press.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 23












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:24-28, 2005


ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE DE CAYO SABINAL, CUBA

HIRAM GONZALEZ1, ENEIDER PEREZ1, PATRICIA RODRIGUEZ1, Y OMILCAR BARRIO2
lInstituto de Ecologfa y Sistemdtica, CITMA, Carretera de Varona Km 312, A.P. 8029 C.P. 10800,
Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba; e-mail: dania.lopez@infomed.sld.cu; 2Unidad Administrativa Nuevi-
tas, Empresa para la Proteccion de la Flora y la Fauna, Maceo no. 2, Nuevitas, Camagiiey, Cuba

Resumen.-Se realizaron inventarios en Cayo Sabinal en los meses de marzo y noviembre entre los anos 2000 y
2003. Se hallaron 8 nuevos registros para esta localidad, seis de los cuales pertenecen a especies migratorias nearti-
cas y otras dos a especies que crfan en Cuba. Incluimos la lista actualizada de las especies de aves de Cayo Sabinal.
Palabras claves: Cayo Sabinal, Cuba, inventarios, nuevos registros

Abstract.-ADDITIONS TO THE LANDBIRD FAUNA OF CAYO SABINAL, CUBA. We made surveys in Cayo Sabinal in
March and November between the years 2000 and 2003. We found 8 new records for this locality, six of them be-
long to migrant neartic species and other two to breeding species. We include the actual list of bird species to Cayo
Sabinal.
Key words: Cayo Sabinal, Cuba, new records, surveys


POR LA CARACTERISTICA DE SER CUBA un ar-
chipi6lago, sus ecosistemas poseen una alta fragi-
lidad, lo cual es mas significativo en los peque-
fios cayos donde existen aun mayores peligros
causados por la naturaleza y el hombre; por lo
que las investigaciones sobre su flora y fauna son
muy importantes para conocer sus valores y los
riesgos de perder los mismos.
Cayo Sabinal esti ubicado en la posici6n mais
oriental del Archipi6lago Sabana-Camagiuey con
una extension de 335 km2. Limita al Norte con el
Canal Viejo de Bahamas, al Sur con la Ensenada
Sabinal y la Ensenada de Mayanabo, al Este con
el Canal de acceso a la Bahia de Nuevitas y la
propia bahia y al Oeste con el Canal de Carabelas,
que lo separa de Cayo Guajaba. Ademris, este
cayo se encuentra comunicado a la isla de Cuba
por medio de un pedrapl6n de 2 km, construido en
1974.
Con anterioridad a nuestras investigaciones
Morales y Garrido (1996) identificaron 141 espe-
cies de aves en observaciones de campo que reali-
zaron entre 1981 y los primeros afios de la d6cada
de los noventa. Barrio et al (2003) aport6 nuevos
registros de aves acuiticas durante sus investiga-
ciones.
El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar a conocer
nuevos registros de aves terrestres a la avifauna
de Cayo Sabinal y actualizar la lista de especies
de esta localidad.


Page 24


MATERIALES Y MtTODOS
Se realizaron siete expediciones durante los me-
ses de marzo de los afios 2000 y 2002 y los meses
de noviembre de los afios 2000 y 2003. Para los
muestreos de aves terrestres se utilizaron los m6to-
dos de conteos en parcelas circulares y las capturas
con redes ornitol6gicas (Hutto et al. 1986, Ralph et
al. 2004). Para la captura de las aves se utilizaron
redes ornitol6gicas de 9 m de largo, 2,5 m de alto y
de 30 mm de paso de malla. Cada ave capturada era
identificada y anillada con un anillo enumerado del
Servicio de Pesca y Vida Silvestre (U.S. Fish and
Wildlife Service).
La formaci6n vegetal predominante de acuerdo a
su extensi6n es el bosque siempreverde micr6filo y
semideciduo mes6filo, abarcando gran parte de la
llanura cirsica central. Otra formaci6n vegetal con
importancia en el cayo la conforma el bosque de
mangle en sus diferentes variedades, ocupando
zonas bajas pantanosas, bordes de lagunas litorales,
esteros, etc.
El complejo de vegetaci6n de costa arenosa ocupa
una franja sobre playas y dunas arenosas. Otros
tipos de vegetaci6n representados son el bosque de
ci6naga, el matorral xeromorfo costero y subcostero
y las comunidades hal6fitas.


RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION
Durante los conteos y las capturas, asi como las
observaciones de campo se pudieron determinar
ocho nuevos registros de especies de aves terrestres


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









GONZALEZ ETAL.


para Cayo Sabinal. Dentro de ellas se detectaron 6
bijiritas migratorias neirtica neotropicales: la Bijiri-
ta Gusanera (Helmitherus vermivorum), la Caretica
(Geothlypis trichas), la Monjita (Wilsonia citrina),
la Bijirita de Swainson (Limnothlypis swainsonii), la
Bijirita de Garganta Negra (Dendroica virens) y la
Bijirita de Alas Azules (Vermivora pinus). Llama la
atenci6n que no se hayan registrado con anteriori-
dad dos especies que crian en Cuba como son el
Boyero (Geotrygon montana) y el Guabairo
(Caprimulgus cubanensis) (Anexo I). La primera
fue vista y capturada en el bosque semideciduo y la
segunda especie fue observada en los caminos que
hay en el cayo.
Despu6s de este trabajo y los realizados por Mo-
rales y Garrido (1996) y Barrio et al (2003), Cayo
Sabinal tiene 157 especies de aves, de las cuales 67
son residentes permanentes, 24 son residentes bimo-
dales, 7 residentes de verano y 59 corresponden a
especies migratorias neirticas (Anexo I). Dentro de
las residentes bimodales se consider6 a la Gaviota
de Pico Corto (Sterna nilotica) por el registro de
nidificaci6n de esta especie dado por Barrio (2001).
Estos resultados nos indican que este cayo del
Archipielago Sabana Camagiuey es uno de los mas


ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE DE CAYO SABINAL

importantes en diversidad de aves de la region y
como tal debe ser manejado para conservar estos
recursos naturales


LITERATURA CITADA
BARRIO, 0. 2001. Ecologia de las aves acu6ticas de
la Ensenada del Jato, Cayo Sabinal. XIII Reuni6n
de la Sociedad Ornitol6gica del Caribe. Pitirre
14:141-142.
BARRIO, 0., P. BLANCO, Y R. SORIANO. 2003.
Nuevos registros de aves acuiticas en Cayo Sa-
binal, Camaguiey, Cuba. J. Carib. Ornithol. 16:22-
23.
MORALES, J., Y 0. GARRIDO. 1996. Aves y reptiles
de Cayo Sabinal, Archipi6lago de Sabana Cama-
giley, Cuba. Pitirre 9:9-11.
HUTTO, R., S. M. PLETSCHET, Y P. HENDRICKS.
1986. A fixed radius point count method for non-
breeding and breeding season use. Auk 103:593-
602.
RALPH, C. J. and E. H. DUNN. 2004. Monitoring
bird populations using mist nets. Stud. Avian Biol.
29: 1-211.


Anexo I. Lista de aves de Cayo Sabinal. Estado: RP = residente permanente; RB = residente bimodal; RV
= residente de verano; RI = residente invernal; T = transednte; A = accidental.


Nombre Cientifico

Tachybaptus dominicus
Podilymbus podiceps
Phaethon lepturus
Pelecanus occidentalis
Phalacrocorax auritus
Phalacrocorax brasilianus
Anhinga anhinga
Fregata magnificens
Ardea herodias
Ardea alba
Egretta thula
Egretta caerulea
Egretta tricolor
Egretta rufescens
Bubulcus ibis
Butorides virescens
Nycticorax nycticorax
Eudocimus albus
Plegadisfalcinellus
Platalea ajaja


Nombre en espafiol

Zaramagullon chico
Zaramagullon grande
Contramaestre
Alcatraz
Corua de mar
Corua de agua dulce
Marbella
Rabihorcado
Gracilote
Garzon
Garza real
Garza azul
Garza de vientre blanco
Garza morada
Garcita bueyera
Aguaitacaiman
Guanaba de la florida
Coco blanco
Coco prieto
Sevilla


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Estado

RP
RP
RV
RB
RB
RP
RB
RP
RB
RB
RB
RB
RB
RB
RP
RB
RB
RP
RP
RP


Page 25









GONZALEZ ETAL ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE DE CAYO SABINAL


Anexo I. (Continuaci6n)


Nombre Cientifico

Mycteria americana
Cathartes aura
Phoenicopterus ruber
Dendrocygna bicolor
Dendrocygna arborea
Aix sponsa
Anas bahamensis
Anas acuta
Anas discors
Anas clypeata
Anas americana
Aythya collaris
Aythya affinis
Oxyura jamaicensis
Pandion haliaetus
Rostrhamus sociabilis
Accipiter striatus
Buteogallus gundlachii
Buteo platypterus
Buteo jamaicensis
Caracara cheriway
Falco sparverius
Falco columbarius
Falco peregrinus
Colinus virginianus
Rallus longirostris
Gallinula chloropus
Fulica americana
Aramus guarauna
Pluvialis squatarola
Charadrius alexandrinus
Charadrius wilsonia
Charadrius semipalmatus
Charadrius melodus
Charadrius vociferus
Himantopus mexicanus
Jacana spinosa
Tringa melanoleuca
Tringa flavipes
Catoptrophorus semipalmatus
Actitis macularius
Numenius phaeopus
Arenaria interpres
Calidris canutus
Calidris pusilla
Calidris alba
Calidris minutilla
Limnodromus griseus
Gallinago gallinago
Catharacta maccormicki


Nombre en espafiol

Cayama
Aura tifiosa
Flamenco
Yaguasin
Yaguasa
Pato huyuyo
Pato de Bahamas
Pato pescuesilargo
Pato de la florida
Pato cuchareta
Pato lavanco
Pato cabezon
Pato morisco
Pato chorizo
Guincho
Gavil6n caracolero
Gavilancito
Gavil6n batista
Gavil6n bobo
Gavil6n de monte
Caraira
Cernicalo
Halconcito de palomas
Halcon de patos
Codorniz
Gallinuela de manglar
Gallareta de pico colorado
Gallareta de pico blanco
Guareao
Pluvial
Frailecillo blanco
Titere playero
Frailecillo semipalmeado
Frailecillo silbador
Titere sabanero
Cachiporra
Gallito de rio
Zarapico patiamarillo grande
Zarapico patiamarillo chico
Zarapico real
Zarapico manchado
Zarapico grande
Revuelvepiedras
Zapapico de pecho rojo
Zarapico semipalmeado
Zarapico blanco
Zarapiquito
Zarapico becasina
Becasina
Skia del polo sur


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Estado

RP
RP
RB
RP
RP
RP
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RP
RB
RP
RB
RP
RB
RP
RP
RB
RI
RI
RP
RP
RP
RB
RP
RI
RB
RP
RI
RI
RP
RP
RP
RI
RI
RP
RI
RI
RI
T
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
A


Page 26









GONZALEZ ETAL. ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE DE CAYO SABINAL


Anexo I. (Continuaci6n)


Nombre Cientifico

Larus atricilla
Larus argentatus
Larus marinus
Larus ridibundus
Larus delawarensis
Sterna nilotica
Sterna caspia
Sterna maxima
Sterna dougallii
Sterna hirundo
Sterna antillarum
Sterna fuscata
Rynchops niger
Patagioenas leucocephala
Patagioenas inornata
Zenaida asiatica
Zenaida aurita
Zenaida macroura
Columbina passerina
Geotrygon chrysia
Geotrygon montana
Coccyzus americanus
Coccyzus minor
Saurothera merlini
Crotophaga ani
Tyto alba
Gymnoglaux lawrencii
Glaucidium siju
Asio flameus
Chordeiles gundlachii
Caprimulgus cubanensis
Chlorostilbon ricordii
Priotelus temnurus
Todus multicolor
Ceryle alcyon
Melanerpes superciliaris
Sphyrapicus varius
Xiphidiopicus percussus
Colaptes auratus
Colaptesfernandinae
Contopus caribaeus
Myiarchus sagrae
Tyrannus caudifasciatus
Progne cryptoleuca
Tachycineta bicolor
Petrochelidon fulva
Corvus nasicus
Polioptila lembeyei
Catharus ustulatus


Nombre en espanol

Galleguito
Gallego
Galleg6n
Galleguito raro
Gallego real
Gaviota de pico corto
Gaviota real grande
Gaviota real
Gaviota rosada
Gaviota comdn
Gaviotita
Gaviota monja prieta
Gaviota pico de tijera
Torcaza cabeciblanca
Torcaza boba
Paloma aliblanca
Guanaro
Paloma rabiche
Tojosa
Barbiquejo
Boyero
Primavera
Arrierito
Arriero
Judio
Lechuza
Siju cotunto
Siju platanero
Carabo
Querequete
Guabairo
Zunzun
Tocororo
Pedorrera
Martin pescador
Carpintero jabado
Carpintero de paso
Carpintero verde
Carpintero escapulario
Carpintero churroso
Bobito chico
Bobito grande
Pitirre guatibrere
Golondrina azul
Golondrina de arboles
Golondrina de cuevas
Cao montero
Sinsontillo
Tordo de espalda olivada


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Estado

RB
RI
A
A
RI
RB
RI
RB
RV
RI
RP
RP
RI
RB
RP
RP
RP
RB
RP
RP
RP
RV
RI
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RI
RV
RP
RP
RP
RP
RI
RP
RI
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RV
RI
RV
RP
RP
RI


Page 27









GONZALEZ ETAL ADICIONES A LA AVIFAUNA TERRESTRE DE CAYO SABINAL


Anexo I. (Continuaci6n)


Nombre Cientifico

Turdus plumbeus
Dumetella carolinensis
Mimus polyglottos
Vireo griseus
Vireo gundlachii
Vireo altiloquus
Vermivora pinus
Parula americana
Dendroica petechia
Dendroica magnolia
Dendroica tigrina
Dendroica caerulescens
Dendroica virens
Dendroica dominica
Dendroica discolor
Dendroica palmarum
Mniotilta varia
Setophaga ruticilla
Helmitherus vermivorum
Limnothlypis swainsonii
Seiurus aurocapilla
Seiurus noveboracensis
Geothlypis trichas
Teretistrisfornsi
Wilsonia citrina
Spindalis zena
Passerina caerulea
Passerina cyanea
Passerina ciris
Melopyrrha nigra
Tiaris canorus
Tiaris olivaceus
Agelaius humeralis
Sturnella magna
Dives atroviolaceus
Quiscalus niger
Molothrus bonariensis
Icterus melanopsis


Nombre en espafiol

Zorzal real
Zorzal gato
Sinsonte
Vireo de ojo blanco
Juan chivi
Bien te veo
Bijiriat de alas azules
Bijirita chica
Canario de manglar
Bijirita magnolia
Bijirita atigrada
Bijirita azul de garganta negra
Bijiriat de garganta negra
Bijirita de garganta amarilla
Mariposa galana
Bijirita comin
Bijirita trepadora
Candelita
Bijirita gusanera
Bijirita de swainson
Sefiorita de monte
Sefiorita de manglar
Caretita
Pechero
Monjita
Cabrero
Azulej6n
Azulejo
Mariposa
Negrito
Tomeguin del pinar
Tomeguin de la tierra
Mayito
Sabanero
Toti
Chichinguaco
Pajaro vaquero
Solibio


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Estado

RP
RI
RP
RI
RP
RV
RI
RI
RB
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RI
RP
RI
RP
RI
RI
RI
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP
RP


Page 28












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:29-30, 2005


PRIMER REGISTRO DE STERNA SANDVICENSIS EURYGNATHA PARA CUBA

ENEIDER PEREZ1, PATRICIA RODRIGUEZ1, DAYSI RODRIGUEZ1,
ALAIN PARADA2, OMILCAR BARRIOS3, Y EDWIN RUIZ4
lInstituto de Ecologia y Sistemdtica, CITMA, Ciudad de la Habana, Cuba; 2Centro de Investigaciones de Eco-
sistemas Costeros, CITMA, Ciego de Avila, Cuba; 3Flora y Fauna, MINAGRI, Camaguey, Cuba; 4Centro de
Investigaciones y Servicios Ambientales, CITMA, Villa Clara, Cuba

Resumen.- En Cayo Felipe de Barlovento fue encontrado nidificando un individuo de Sterna sandvicensis euryg-
natha dentro de una colonia de S. s. aciflavida. Este hecho constituye el primer registro de la subespecie para Cuba y
su observaci6n mas al norte dentro de su rango de distribuci6n en el Caribe.
Palabras claves: Cuba, primer registro, Sterna sandvicensis eurygnatha

Abstract.- FIRST RECORD OF STERNA SANDVICENSIS EURYGNATHA FOR CUBA. We found a breeding individual of
Cayenne Tern (Sterna sandvicensis eurygnatha) associated with a nesting colony of Sandwich Terns (S. s. acu-
flavida) on Felipe de Barlovento Key. This represents the first report of the subspecies for Cuba and the northern-
most observation for the subspecies in the Caribbean.
Key words: Cuba, first record, Sterna sandvicensis eurygnatha


LA GAVIOTA DE SANDWICH (Sterna sandvicensis)
tiene tres subespecies: (1) S. s. sandvicensis se loca-
liza en Eurasia; (2) S. s. acuflavida se distribuye por
casi toda la costa atlantica de Am6rica, Bahamas,
Antillas Mayores y Menores (Harrison 1983, Shea-
ler 1999), y (3) S. s. eurygnatha, se encuentra distri-
buida por la costa este de Sur Am6rica y el Mar
Caribe (Harrison 1983, Shealer 1999, Norton 2000).
En el Mar Caribe, S. s. eurygnatha ha sido registra-
da nidificando en las Antillas Mayores de Puerto
Rico e Islas Virgenes, y en las Antillas Menores
(Norton 2000, Shealer 1999), donde se encuentran
parejas mixtas con S. s. acuflavida (Norton 1984,
Schaffner et al. 1986, Shealer 1999, Hayes 2004);
aunque existen algunos registros de S. s. eurygnatha
en la costa atlantica de Am6rica, fuera de su rango
de distribuci6n (Hayes 2004).
En Cuba la Gaviota de Sandwich fue registrada
desde 1893 (Gundlach 1893) y Garrido y Garcia
(1975) determinaron que la subespecie cubana era
S. s. acuflavidus. En la actualidad esta gaviota es
considerada como un comdn residente de verano y
transeinte (Garrido y Kirkconnell 2000).
En cayo Felipe de Barlovento localizado al norte
de Ciego de Avila en el Archipi6lago Sabana-
Camagiley (2236'41"N, 7837'27"W), el 25 de
junio de 2002 se observ6 y fotografi6 un individuo
de Gaviota de Sandwich mis corpulento con el pico
completamente amarillo, caracteristicas estas que
coinciden con la descripci6n de la subespecie eury-
gnatha (Fig. 1). Este avistamiento constituye el pri-



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


mer reporte de S. s. eurygnatha para Cuba y es el
registro de nidificaci6n mis al norte de su rango de
distribuci6n en el Caribe.
El individuo se encontraba nidificando con un
pequefio grupo de S. s. acuflavidus y S. maxima que
formaba parte de una colonia mixta que inclufa
otras especies de lridos como S. fuscata, S. anaet-
hetus, Anous stolidus y Larus atricilla. La presen-
cia de este individuo pudiera sugerirnos el estableci-
miento de una pareja reproductiva de S. s. euryg-
natha o una posible hibridaci6n entre ambas subes-
pecies como plantean otros observadores (Norton
1984, Schaffner et al. 1986, Shealer 1999, Hayes
2004), hecho que por falta de tiempo no pudimos
corroborar.


LITERATURA CITADA
GARRIDO, 0. H., Y F. GARCIA. 1975. Catilogo de
las aves de Cuba. Ed. Academia de Ciencias de
Cuba.
GARRIDO, 0. H., Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press.
GUNDLACH, J. 1893. Ornitologia Cubana. Habana,
Cuba: Impressa La Moderna.
HARRISON, P. 1983. Seabirds: an identification
guide. Houghton Mifflin Company Boston, Mas-
sachusetts.
HAYES, F. E. 2004. Variability and interbreeding of
Sandwich Terns and Cayenne Terns in the Virgin


Page 29








PEREZ ETAL- PRIMER REGISTRO DE STERNA SANDVICENSIS EURYGNATHA PARA CUBA


Islands, with comments on their systematic rela-
tionship. North Amer. Birds 57:566-572.
NORTON, R. L. 1984. Cayenne x Sandwich terns
nesting in the Virgin Islands, Greater Antilles. J.
Field Ornithol. 55:243-246.
NORTON, R. L. 2000. Status and conservation of
Sandwich and Cayenne terns in the West Indies.
Pp. 80-86 in Status and Conservation of West
Indian Seabirds (E. A. Schreiber and D. S. Lee,


eds.). Society of Caribbean Ornithology, Special
Publication #1.
SCHAFFNER, F. C., R. L. NORTON, AND J. TAYLOR
1986. Range extension of Cayenne Terns on the
Puerto Rico Bank. Wilson Bull. 98:317-318.
SHEALER, D. 1999. Sandwich Tern (Sterna sand-
vicensis). No. 405 in The Birds of North America
(A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.). Philadelphia, PA:
The Birds of North America, Inc.


1W *AK^



I i I
t^~H~LA


Fig. 1. Individuo de S. sandvicensis eurygnatha encontrado nidificando en Cayo Felipe de Barlovento, Cuba, dentro
de una colonia de S. s. acuflavida.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 30












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:31-43, 2005


BIRDS ON THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


MICHAEL W. PIENKOWSKI1, ANN E. PIENKOWSKI1, AND BRYAN N. MANCO2
1UK Overseas Territories Conservation Forum, 102 Broadway, Peterborough PE1 4DG, United Kingdom;
e-mail: pienkowski@cix.co.uk; Turks and Caicos National Trust, PO Box 540, Providenciales, Turks &
Caicos Islands, British West Indies; e-mail: tc.nattrust@tciway.tc

Abstract.-We surveyed outer cays of the Turks and Caicos in June 2002, and found large proportions of the
Caribbean breeding populations of Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus), Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus), and Sooty
Tern (Sterna fuscata). Numbers of the first two species are the greatest known from the Caribbean. Internationally
important numbers were found also of White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus), Magnificent Frigatebird
(Fregata magnificens), Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla), Royal Tern (Sterna maxima), Sandwich Tern (Sterna sand-
vicensis), Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii), and Least Tern (Sterna antillarum). Other bird species seen are noted.
Comments are made on conservation requirements.
Key words: bird records, breeding seabirds, conservation, Turks and Caicos Islands

Resumen.-LAS AVES DE LOS CAYOS EXTERIORES DE LAS ISLAS TURKS Y CAICOS. En Junio del 2002, hicimos
muestreos en los cayos mas externos de las islas Turks y Caicos y se encontraron elevados valores poblacionales de
Anous stolidus, Sterna anaethetus and Sterna fuscata con respecto a las poblaciones nidificantes en el Caribe. Los
valores de las dos primeras especies son los mayores conocidos para el Caribe. Ademas se encontraron valores
poblacionales importantes internacionalmente de Phaethon lepturus, Fregata magnificens, Larus atricilla, Sterna
maxima, Sterna sandvicensis, Sterna dougallii and Sterna antillarum. Tambi6n fueron observadas otras especies
de aves. Se hacen comentarios sobre las necesidades de conservaci6n.
Palabras claves: aves marinas nidificantes, conservacion, registro de aves, Islas Turks y Caicos


THE AVIFAUNA OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS Is-
lands (TCI) includes 204 recorded species, of which
57 are recorded as breeding and 110 as regularly
occurring non-breeding species (Bradley 1995, up-
dated by Pienkowski 2002 and additional records).
Surveys of the water- and land-birds of the main
islands have been conducted, largely to facilitate
conservation management (Ground 2001, Pi-
enkowski 2002).
The small cays of both the Caicos and the Turks
Banks, as well as some cliffs, stacks, and wetlands
of the main islands, are important breeding sites for
substantial numbers of seabirds (Buden 1987, Brad-
ley 1995, White 1998), but there has been no or
little documentation of numbers. Although the
Turks & Caicos Department of Environmental and
Coastal Resources (DECR) made facilities available
to student visitors to count seabirds in recent years,
this unfortunately did not result in data available for
conservation use. Both the need to have such data
available and also the preparation of an Important
Bird Areas analysis for Turks and Caicos
(Pienkowski 2005) necessitated a survey of the sea-
bird cays. In this paper we report results of a survey,
which took place in early June 2002.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


STUDY AREA
The Turks and Caicos Islands lie between the
Bahamas, Cuba, and Hispaniola. Together with
south Florida, the Bahamas and north Cuba, they
are part of a platform of rocks formed as limestone
deposited in shallow seas as the crust slowly sub-
sided. Rocks of the area, to a depth of several thou-
sand metres, are of marine origin, except for some
fossil soils and sand dune rock (aeolian limestone).
The region has had a marine environment from the
time of its formation until the present (Sealey 1994).
The Turks and Caicos Islands are on two shallow
banks (Turks Bank of 254 km2 and the larger Caicos
Bank at 5334 km2), with deep ocean between them.
The maximum altitude is about 50 m asl. There are
further shallow banks (Mouchoir, Silver, and Navi-
dad) to the southeast, but without islands; some of
these banks are within TCI territory. They are im-
portant for whales and probably for feeding sea-
birds. The Bahamas lie on separate banks to the
northwest, and share some aspects of the geography.
Substantial proportions of the submerged banks are
less than 2 m deep. There are also about 38,000 ha
of intertidal sand banks and mud flats. Of the 500
km2 (50,000 ha) total dry land (dry most of the
time) area of the Turks and Caicos Islands, 26,669


Page 31









PIENKOWSKI ETAL. BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


ha (>50% of the land area) are wetlands.
On the Caicos Bank, the largest islands lie
along the northern edge (Fig. 1). Several very
small cays important for breeding seabirds lie on
the south edge of the Caicos Bank (about 30 to 50
km south of the larger islands on the north edge
of the Bank). Providenciales, North, Middle, and
South Caicos are inhabited. The smaller Turks
Bank includes the inhabited islands of Grand
Turk and Salt Cay, and numerous smaller, unin-
habited cays, several of which are important for
seabirds.


METHODS
Small power boats were used to visit the cays.
All cays were viewed initially from the boat. In
the case of some small, rocky cays with few
birds, or with the birds essentially viewable on
sea cliffs or slopes, numbers were estimated from
the boat. In the case of larger cays, cays with
large bird populations, and those with birds on
land not viewable from the sea, landings were
made and ground surveys undertaken. In the case
of cays with few or moderate numbers of birds in
relatively open ground, direct estimates were gen-
erally easily made. In these cases, two or three
observers counted the same sections independ-
ently, and reached good agreement. The difficul-
ties in counting large seabird colonies in (usually
tropical) areas of ground cover are well known
(Bibby et al. 2000). A combination of the meth-
ods indicated by Bibby et al. (2000) were used.
These included:
(1) Direct counts of apparently occupied nests
(hereinafter called "AONs") were made of small
to medium colonies on open ground. The criteria
we used for AON are detailed by Bibby et al.
(2000) and essentially included occupied or re-
cently occupied nests, as evidenced by the pres-
ence of eggs, remains, chicks, or adults sitting
tight and apparently incubating eggs or brooding
chicks.
(2) Mapping and quadrat counts were used in
larger colonies. Nests in these colonies were usu-
ally under cover of vegetation, producing a severe
case of the conflict identified by Bibby et al.
(2000): keeping disturbance to less than half an
hour but obtaining enough data for useful esti-
mates. We mapped the distributions of different
apparent densities or markedly different habitats,
both in relation to published maps and charts, and
by using a portable Global Positioning System


Page 32


(GPS) device. Use of the maps and charts was made
easier because the nesting cays were small, and the
areas of colonies large in relation to the cays. Sam-
ple counts of nests were then made within the areas
of similar density. Because of low visibility through
vegetation under which birds were generally nest-
ing, quadrats were generally smaller than the exam-
ples given by Bibby et al. (2000).
(3) Flushing counts were used in some cases, gen-
erally in addition to one of the other methods. Bul-
lock and Gomersall (1981) and Bibby et al. (2000)
report a fairly reliable relationship, across several
species, showing that three flushed terns equate to
two breeding pairs. Observations during our study
suggest that this will under-estimate the number of
breeding pairs in the Turks and Caicos colonies
because many terns did not leave their nests even
when humans were a few metres away and many
terns were already in the air giving alarm calls. We
believe this was due to the density of the vegetation
under which many birds were nesting. Numbers
estimated are given to 1 or 2 significant figures, to
avoid giving misleading implications of higher pre-
cision.
The following areas were visited on the dates
indicated: 1 June 2002, cays in the vicinity of west-
ern Providenciales and West Caicos; 3 June 2002,
SE Caicos Bank, including Ambergris, Bush and
Seal Cays; 4 June 2002, SW Caicos Bank, including
Fish Cay, and further checks on West Caicos and
SW Providenciales; 5 June 2002, cays off northern
North and NW Middle Caicos; 7 June 2002, cays
south-east of Grand Turk, including Penniston Cay
from the sea; 8 June 2002, Big Sand Cay, and land-
ing on Penniston Cay.
Financial limitations precluded visits to all sea-
bird sites, notably several cays near South Caicos.
Priority was given to remote cays from which data
were most lacking and which are most difficult to
visit, as well as less remote cays known to be im-
portant. Totals given will consequently be underes-
timates for Turks and Caicos as a whole, although
less so for priority seabird species than for others.


RESULTS
Appendix 1 summarizes results for those areas
visited and which held significant numbers of birds.
In addition, particular aspects of the coverage of
other areas are noted below.
West Caicos.-The whole coast was viewed
closely from the boat, and landings were made at
several locations along the east coast, conditions on

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005










PIENKOWSKI ETAL. BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


72ro0'0'


" NW Pnf


71"'3QfW


710'0'W


i Mouth


;Ca v--


North Atlantic Ocean


ive Cays
lalk Sound


Black Rock


French Cay


CAICOS BANK


Little Ambergris Cay
-op


Indian Cay
Wiite Cay .
The Seal Cays
o 5 10 20 30 40 5.., .. S lC

o 10 20 30


72'00'W


Grandku Gilbbs Cay
Turk ---Round Cay
Penniston 0Cy\ LongCay
Cotton./Cayo FPear Ca-,
Salt East Cay
Cay," ,- --
/TURKS BANK

/' Big Sand Cay
," -**c^


71"3ffWV


71'0'O'W


Fig. 1. Map of the Turks and Caicos Islands, showing Banks, main islands, and most of locations named in the text.


the west coast not being suitable. The interior of
the island was not examined. Five Black-bellied
Plovers (Pluvialis squatarola) were seen along
the east coast, two Royal Terns (Sterna maxima)
at the SW point, and a Laughing Gull (Lars
atricilla) at Company Point. Single Ospreys
(Pandion haliaetus) were seen along the east
coast, Company Point, and Logwood Point.
West Providenciales.-At sea between West
Caicos and Providenciales, eight Brown Noddies
(Anous stolidus) were seen, with a Laughing Gull,
a Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus) and ca 15
Brown Noddies on water and feeding west of
Providenciales.
Along the west-facing shore of Providenciales,
between North West Point and West Harbour, the
following were seen: six Short-billed Dowitchers
(Limnodromus griseus), six Royal Terns and sin-
gles of each of American Oystercatcher (Haema-
topus palliates), Laughing Gull and Brown Peli-
can (Pelecanus occidentalis). There was some
concentration at the mouth of the Frenchman's
Creek marsh complex, but sea conditions did not
allow entry into the extensive marsh area, where
numerous waterbirds were likely present.
Turtle Rock.-On this small rock lying about


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


2 km south of Providenciales, we saw one White-
tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus) and three Bri-
dled Terns (Sterna anaethetus) in hollows or ledges
and they were probably nesting. Numbers could be
somewhat higher. Landing was impracticable.
SW Providenciales.-From West Harbour east-
ward, along Froggin' Bay, Providenciales, 24
White-tailed Tropicbirds flew off cliffs, in situations
suggesting nest sites. We also saw one Laughing
Gull. Near the mouth of Silly Creek, we saw eight
White-tailed Tropicbirds, four Laughing Gulls, and
a Reddish Egret (Egretta rufescens), but saw no
birds in the main body of Chalk Sound, despite
passing close to the cays. We found eight White-
tailed Tropicbirds and a Laughing Gull along Little
Cay, Taylor Bay, and Sapodilla Bay, just west of
Five Cays.
Five Cays.-At this group of small rocky cays
lying near Providenciales, we saw the following:
William Dean Cay.-We found a pair of White-
tailed Tropicbirds and a young Laughing Gull.
Pusey Cay.-We found one Laughing Gull, and
one White-tailed Tropicbird. Sim Cay.-We saw
four White-tailed Tropicbirds, two Bridled Terns,
and one Laughing Gull. Bay Cay.-No birds were
visible. Middle Cay.-At least ten Bridled Terns on


Page 33


t TurtlE
taiCos
QCaicos


"









PIENKOWSKI ETAL. BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


ledges and one American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)
were seen.
Cooper Jack Bight and Rock.-We saw only
two White-tailed Tropicbirds. We did not survey the
other shores of Providenciales. However, visits on
other occasions suggest little likelihood of signifi-
cant numbers of breeding seabirds. The north shore,
in particular, is mainly sea-washed beach, now
much disturbed by people, and not a suitable habitat
even for nesting terns.
North of North and Middle Caicos.-The north
shore of North Caicos was viewed from a boat as
far east as Highas Cay, off Middle Caicos. Sea con-
ditions prevented visits farther east. We did not visit
other coasts of the main islands of North, Middle,
East, and South Caicos. Many of these have been
the subject of detailed work (Pienkowski 2002), and
major seabird colonies of the species on which this
paper centres are not expected, except for those
breeding in irregular marshlands.
We saw three Laughing Gulls at Sandy Point, an
Osprey at a nest on the middle of the Three Mary
Cays, small rocky cays, where we also saw a few
Bridled Terns. Two Least Terns (Sterna antillarum)
were at Pumpkin Bluff. An Osprey was at a nest
west of North Mouth.
In Bay Cay and East Bay Beach, we recorded
two Greater Flamingos (Phoeni-copterus rubber),
nine Brown Pelicans, three Laughing Gulls, two
Royal Terns, one Osprey, one Yellow-crowned
Night-Heron (Nyctanassa violacea), and small num-
bers of shorebirds too distant for identification.
On a rock off N of Highas Cay there were 20
AONs (as defined in Methods) of Bridled Terns and
10 AONs of Brown Noddies. At the north point of
Highas Cay there were ca 20 White-tailed Tropic-
birds in the air off and on cliffs, one Green Heron
(Butorides virescens), and one Brown Pelican.
South of North & Middle Caicos.-Man o'War
Bush, an islet of red mangrove (Rhizophora man-
gle) lying off the southern marsh of Middle Caicos,
is a traditional nesting site for Magnificent Frigate-
birds (Fregata magnificens). There were ca 35 nests
with young, mainly large but one small, with only
10 adults near. Black Rock, a low cay with a few
patches of mangrove in the shallow water several
km south of Middle Caicos, is probably too low to
afford a safe nesting site. Here we recorded three
Ospreys, ca 20 Laughing Gulls, and ca 100 Black-
bellied Plovers. Although several herons and terns
were resting, light and distance were too poor for
species identification. We saw a Royal Tern, two


Page 34


Brown Noddies, and 12 Laughing Gulls feeding at
various locations along our line of passage over the
Caicos Bank.
Long Cay.-We inspected only the SE cliff side
of Long Cay from the sea (near South Caicos, not to
be confused with the cay of the same name on
Turks Bank). At least 30 White-tailed Tropicbirds
flew from the cliffs, and we saw 2 Brown Noddies
at sea.
Fish Cays.-An Osprey was at the North end of
the main cay and an old nest site in the centre of the
cay, where we saw an American Kestrel and a pair
of American Oystercatchers, a Laughing Gull, a
juvenile Yellow-crowned Night-Heron and an adult
Little Blue Heron (Egretta caerulea). On the bare
rock slope on the east side of the cay we found a
colony of ca 200 AONs of Roseate Terns (Sterna
dougalii), with adults incubating. In dense vegeta-
tion north of the pool in the centre of the cay were
at least 100 AONs of Brown Noddies, and probably
rather more hidden in vegetation. At the southern
end of the cay were at least 3 AONs of Brown
Noddy, 25 AONs of Sooty Terns (Sterna fuscata),
and 25 AONs Bridled Terns. There were dog tracks
on the shore on the west side, indicative of a recent
landing by humans with a free-running dog. Vegeta-
tion was mostly of prickly pear (Opuntia stricta),
sand burr (Cenchrus tribuloides), railroad vine
(Ipomoea pes-caprae), and seven-year apple
(Casasia clusiifolia). A large part in the northeast-
ern side was unvegetated rock. There was little sign
of bird activity on the smaller SE Fish Cay, which
was essentially bare rock.
Little Ambergris Cay.-This cay consists of
several small cays surrounding a central lagoon, far
removed from the larger cays of the Caicos Bank.
An extremely long, shallow, submerged spit extends
west from the Cay over the Bank. Resting on a sand
spit were 30 Laughing Gulls, 30 Royal Terns, 200
Sandwich Terns (Sterna sandvicensis), and 300
Roseate Terns. Some terns, especially Sandwich,
were in pair displays on the ground and in the air. In
the same area we saw six Ruddy Turnstones
(Arenaria interpres) and three Common Ground-
Doves (Columbina passerine). Along the rest of the
outer south shore of Little Ambergris Cay we saw a
Brown Pelican and a Laughing Gull. We did not
inspect the inner lagoon and marshes. In August
1999, these held a colony of Laughing Gulls.
Rocks between Big Ambergris Cay and Bush
Cay.-There were no visible birds on these barren
rocks.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


Bush Cay.-Mangroves along southern shore,
which probably gave the cay its name, were black
mangrove (Avicennia germinans). Some button-
wood (Conocarpus erectus) were also present.
The cay itself was largely covered in saltwort
(Batis maritime), railroad vine (Ipomoea pes-
caprae), and prickly pear (Opuntia stricta).
Almost all of this roughly triangular, mainly
rocky cay, the longest axis of which is about 700
m, held ground-nesting terns of three species,
with additional Brown Noddies nesting in man-
grove bushes along part of the southern shore.
Quadrat sampling of the ground nesting birds
gave estimated AONs of 1750 Sooty Terns, 970
Bridled Terns, and 1750 Brown Noddies. A flush
count of a section of this area gave minimum esti-
mates of 1100, 670, and 1100. It was evident that
a high proportion of the birds were not flushed
from nests, so the quadrat-based estimate is
probably more accurate. A further 1000 Brown
Noddy AON were in the mangroves. Bridled
Terns nested mainly in rocky hollows and to-
wards edge of the cay. Sooty Terns and Brown
Noddies were more generally spread, usually un-
der some vegetation cover. Noddies also nested in
mangrove bushes. Also recorded were 20 Laugh-
ing Gulls, nesting Common Ground-Doves, a pair
of Gray Kingbirds (Tyrannus dominicensis), and
a Green-tailed Warbler (Microligea palustris).
Although this cay is a statutory sanctuary, with a
permit required for landing, there were tracks of
two dogs and one person on the beach probably
from earlier that day because they were fresh and
unwashed by rain or tide.
Seal Cays.-There are numerous small rocks in
the Seal Cays, which spread westwards from
Bush Cay, to White Cay. Those with vegetation
are dominated by prickly pear (Opuntia stricta)
and sea oats (Uniola paniculata). The only ones
on which significant numbers of birds were re-
corded (which tended to be the slightly larger,
over about 1 ha, vegetated ones) were: Pear
Cay.-There were 50 Brown Noddy AONs and a
pair of Ospreys. Shot Cay.-We saw one Osprey
on this small, bare rock. Indian Cay.-Landing
on this rocky cay is not easy and was not at-
tempted. However, much of it can be viewed well
from the sea, from which it could be seen that the
vegetation was essentially similar to White Cay
(see below), which is only a few m away. This
included correl (Casasie calcisifolia), wild guava,
prickly pear, sand coast sedge (Cyperus plani-
folius), and seven-year apple. Sample counts


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


from the boat suggested bird densities similar to
those on adjacent White Cay, giving estimated
AONs of 1200 for Sooty Tern and 2800 for Brown
Noddy. In addition, we saw an Osprey. White
Cay.-Sample counts estimated 1200 AON for
Sooty Tern and 2800 for Brown Noddy, equating to
a density of nearly 1 nest per 10 m2 for the latter.
Nesting birds were mainly on eggs, but a few had
young up to about 2 days old. In addition, we re-
corded: one Bridled Tern, six Laughing Gulls, two
Ruddy Turnstones, and one Osprey.
French Cay.-French Cay is a small sandy cay
of about 8 ha, about 50 km to the north-west of
White Cay along the southern edge of the Caicos
Bank. It is vegetated mostly by bay cedar (Suriana
maritime), Nash's tree cactus (Opuntia nashii), salt-
wort, railroad vine, bay tansy (Ambrosia hispida),
and sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum). The
bay on the western side of the cay held an Osprey,
16 Laughing Gulls and one Bridled Tern. At the
northern end of the cay were ca 200 Brown Noddies
on nests in bushes, 20 AONs of Sooty Terns, at
least 20 AONs of Laughing Gulls, together with one
flying pair of Bridled Tern, and 60 roosting indi-
viduals of each of Sooty Terns and Brown Noddies.
Along the northern part of the eastern beach were
five Brown Pelicans, five Laughing Gulls, one
Royal Tern, 80 Brown Noddies, and a Sooty Tern
roosting on the beach. An area of Bay Cedar bushes
along the eastern side of the island included ca 1000
AONs of Brown Noddies and 20 AONs of Sooty
Terns. A nearby area of Bay Lavender supported ca
1000 AONs of Brown Noddies, at a similar density.
Ground Doves, probably nesting, were also in the
open parts of this area. Derelict boats at the south-
ern part of the eastern beach provided loafing, rest-
ing, and roosting sites for three Ruddy Turnstones,
one Brown Pelican, a pair of Ospreys and several
thousand Brown Noddies. A total count was im-
practicable, but when the Ospreys flushed a small
proportion of these, we estimated there were about
2000 in the air. The southern end of the Cay was an
extensive bushy area, supporting an estimated 9000
AONs of Brown Noddies and 90 AONs of Sooty
Terns. The average density of Brown Noddies in the
nesting areas was about one AON per 2 m2. A
Green Heron was seen on shore rocks at the south-
west of the cay. Sooty Terns were seen feeding and
drinking offshore.
Gibbs Cay.-We saw three Cattle Egrets
(Bubulcus ibis), one American Kestrel, two Ospreys
with a nest on a rock on the eastern side, and two
Royal Terns flying over. This cay is frequently vis-


Page 35









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


ited by diving and picnicking parties.
Round Cay.-It was not practicable to land, but
we had good views of this dome-shaped cay from
the boat, with AONs totalling 100 for Brown Nod-
dies and 1 for Bridled Tern.
Rock off NE of Long Cay.-Two American
Oystercatchers were seen.
Long Cay.-This narrow cay is about 2 km long,
with a rocky, low cliff edge and flat, sandy top, with
some areas of scrub. At the northern end of the cay,
low bushes held ten AONs of Brown Noddies and
one AON of Bridled Tern, together with a Green
Heron. On the low eastern side, we found one Bri-
dled Tern AON and six Brown Noddy AONs. On
the western side there were 16 Brown Noddy AONs
in bushes. We found most nesting seabirds in an
area of bush about 750 m long by 60-100 m wide in
the south-west of the cay. This held Brown Noddy
nests at an average density of about 1 per 10 m2, a
total of 5960 AONs, with a much smaller number of
Bridled Terns (60 AONs).
Rock S of Long Cay.-No birds were present.
Pear Cay.-This is a sparsely vegetated cay,
about 500 m long, with a rocky edge and a sandy
northern end. We saw 50 Laughing Gulls flying east
of Pear Cay and one Royal Tern flying over, but no
breeding seabirds. A pair of American Oyster-
catchers was probably nesting, as was a Yellow-
crowned Night-Heron. There was an old Osprey
nest.
East (formerly Pinzon) Cay.-This is a roughly
triangular cay, about 1.5 km NW-SE, by about 800
m at the NW end. On a sandy spit at the NE point,
we saw ten Laughing Gulls and 12 Sandwich Terns.
Most of this cay is sandy, with cacti, low vegeta-
tion, and some scrub. A marshy inland area in the
north housed a Laughing Gull colony of at least 100
AONs. We recorded a further 50 AONs in another
area SE of the central ridge. At least 30 Least Terns
were nesting on the eastern shore. We saw also a
Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) and two Roseate Terns
flying by.
Penniston Cay.-This is a small cay about 700 m
long by up to about 100 m wide. It consists of very
sharp, uneven water-dissolved rock, with low scrub
in places. Landing is difficult. In the northern half
of the island we estimated 1200 Brown Noddy
AONs and 240 Bridled Tern AONs. Brown Noddy
average density was about 1 AON / 10 m2. At the
southern end of the cay we recorded a further 100
AONs of Brown Noddy and 1800 AONs of Bridled
Tern. A detached rock at the southern end held 40


Page 36


further Brown Noddy AONs, and three Brown Boo-
bies (Sula leucogaster) flew up from this area and
remained in the vicinity, suggesting that they were
nesting. Thirty Magnificent Frigatebirds took to the
air from the western side of the southern part of the
cay and remained over the cay throughout our visit.
There were no signs of active nests in the area that
they rose from, although this is apparently the tradi-
tional nesting area. We found here remains of at
least six dead frigatebirds, half of these looking
relatively recent (weeks, rather than months). There
was an old Osprey nest on the cay.
South of Grand Turk.-We saw two West In-
dian Whistling Ducks (Dendrocygna arborea) fly-
ing south towards Cotton Cay.
South of Salt Cay.-We saw two Audubon's
Shearwaters (Puffinus lherminieri) at sea.
Big Sand Cay.-This, the southernmost cay on
the Turks Bank and one of the most remote in the
country, is about 2.5 km north-south, and up to
about 400 m east-west. A wide sand shore lies along
the southern half of the west side. The northernmost
third of the cay, north of Beacon Hill, was covered
with low vegetation including prickly pear, and held
only small numbers of Brown Noddies and Sooty
Terns. There was an old Osprey nest on one of the
small old buildings associated with the former navi-
gation beacon. An area of bushes on the west side of
the central part of the cay held Sooty Terns at a high
nesting density of 1.25 AON per m2, giving a total
of 25000 AONs. We made a flush-count check
when about half the birds from 10% of this area
flew up; these 1200 birds equated to 1800 nests, or
36000 in the area of the 25000 estimated from quad-
rats. To the south of this area, three fairly distinct
sub-colonies, two in low bushes and one in 15 cm
high vegetation, totalled a further 1200 AONs, and
a loafing area of 200 birds was nearby. Farther
south an area of prickly pear cover held an esti-
mated 16000 AONs of Sooty Terns. South of this,
four further groups nesting in low vegetation to-
talled 1600 AONs, with a further 600 AONs on
rocky outcrops at the southern end of the cay.
Amongst the Sooty Terns, mainly at the rocky
edges, we estimated 240 Bridled Tern AONs and, at
the southern rocky outcrops, 20 Brown Noddy
AONs and six White-tailed Tropicbird AONs. On
the wide sandbank at the southwest of the cay were
at least 20 Least Terns AONs, mostly with young.
We found several Common Ground-dove nests. We
recorded also eight Laughing Gulls, one Roseate
Tern, a pair and one separate American Oyster-
catcher, one Ruddy Turnstone, and one Green


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


Heron. On our arrival in West Bay, a yacht was
already present, with a dinghy and people ashore;
these returned to the yacht as our boat ap-
proached. The statutory Sanctuary status of the
island was clearly not being observed.


DISCUSSION
Audubon's Shearwater (Puffinus lhermini-
eri).-Given the nature of the survey, these hole-
nesting birds which visit their nests at night, were
seen only at sea. There are breeding records for "a
small islet off Providenciales", Long Cay and
West Six Hill Cay, near South Caicos, and East
Cay (Buden 1987), and local reports suggest sig-
nificant breeding numbers on the small rocky
cays off northwestern Middle Caicos, East Six
Hill Cay, Middle Cay in the Five Cays, and NE
East Caicos (Walsh-McGehee et al. 1998, Pi-
enkowski 2002, 2005, 2006).
White-tailed Tropicbird (Phaethon leptu-
rus).-The numbers recorded of this species will
under-estimate totals for this species, because not
all cliff areas likely to be used were covered, and
because the survey method was not designed to
detect all birds in nest burrows. There is some
suggestion of distribution changes, as White
(1998) advised birders to visit East Cay to see
Tropicbirds, but we recorded none there.
Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster).-This spe-
cies has been recorded from Penniston Cay since
1930 (Buden 1987) and breeding has long been
suspected but not proved (Bradley 1995). The
three birds flushed by this survey were probably
nesting, but direct confirmation remains lacking.
This is the only site in the country regularly used
by this species.
Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis).-
Brown Pelicans were widely recorded, but the
numbers noted represent only a small proportion
of the country's total, most occurring in the wet-
land areas on the larger islands (Pienkowski 2002,
2005).
Magnificent Frigatebird (Fregata magnifi-
cens).-The Penniston Cay colony has been
known since a report of 25 pairs apparently
breeding in 1966 (Buden 1987). The larger col-
ony at Man o'War Bush on the south side of Mid-
dle Caicos was found (at least by ornithologists)
more recently. Local opinion is that numbers
there have been stable for many years. Our popu-
lation estimates in 2000 and 2001 were about 60
AONs, and Walsh-McGehee et al. (1998) re-

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


ported 100-200 pairs. However, the apparent de-
cline to 35 in the present survey may be seasonal, as
the earlier counts were in April, and the breeding
season is prolonged. The absence of nesting birds,
and the presence of dead bodies, at Penniston is
somewhat concerning, but no reason is apparent.
Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) and American Kes-
trel (Falco sparverius).-The wide distribution of
Ospreys throughout the cays is notable, as well as
the fairly wide distribution of Kestrels, not normally
associated with seabird cays.
Common Ground-Dove (Columbina passer-
ina).-We found these commonly on many cays,
and most were nesting, with nests with eggs found
on several cays.
American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palli-
ates).-Clearly territory-holding pairs were seen on
several of the small cays, and the breeding popula-
tion is evidently spread throughout the country.
Black-bellied Plover (Pluvialis squatarola) and
Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres).-
Summering, probably immature, birds of these arc-
tic-breeding species were notable, especially the
fairly large numbers of the Black-bellied Plover -
despite most of the suitable habitat not being in-
spected. Numerous other personal observations also
indicate high usage of shores throughout TCI by
this species, especially in the non-breeding season.
Laughing Gull (Larus atricilla).-Although seen
throughout the cays and islands, we found breeding
colonies only on East Cay (internationally important
at 2% of the Caribbean population; Anonymous
2003) and French Cay. A larger colony was found
in north-eastern Little Ambergris Cay in 1999 (pers.
obs.) but it was not possible to check this on this
occasion.
Royal Tern (Sterna maxima), Sandwich Tern
(Sterna sandvicensis), Gull-billed Tern (Sterna
nilotica), and Common Tern (Sterna hirundo).-
The first two species were recorded only in non-
breeding situations (although in some cases in pair-
ing displays) and the last two not at all. The breed-
ing of the first three is thought to be fairly irregular,
and in many cases using salt-pans and marshes on
the larger islands. The irregularity is especially the
case with the Gull-billed Tern (Pienkowski 2002,
2005). We found Little Ambergris Cay to be a rest-
ing area for internationally important proportions of
the Caribbean populations of Royal Tern (2%),
Sandwich Tern (4%) and Roseate Tern (3%;
Anonymous 2003). Common Tern is on the edge of
its breeding range but there have been frequent re-


Page 37









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


cords in TCI for many years, probably resulting
from the breeding colony found on East Caicos in
2004 (Pienkowski 2006).
Roseate Tern (Sterna dougallii).-The only
breeding colony found was on Fish Cay, interna-
tionally important at 4% of the Caribbean breeding
population (Anonymous 2003). White (1998) re-
ported breeding on rocks south of Salt Cay.
Least Tern (Sterna antillarum).-We found two
colonies on cays, but larger colonies occur on some
of the larger islands (Pienkowski 2006).
Bridled Tern (Sterna anaethetus), Sooty Tern
(Sterna fuscata), and Brown Noddy (Anous
stolidus).-The general distribution of these three
species in the area has been known for some time
(e.g. Buden 1987), but a striking feature of the pre-
sent survey was the number of the birds, as well as
the differences between cays. For all three species,
the numbers represented significant proportions of
the Caribbean population. For Bridled Tern and
Brown Noddy, the breeding numbers were of global
significance and represented large proportions of
the recorded Caribbean populations (Anonymous
2003).
Penniston Cay supported internationally impor-
tant breeding numbers of Bridled Terns (1% of
global and 33% of BirdLife International's estimate
of Caribbean populations), with smaller, but still
internationally important, numbers on other cays,
primarily Bush Cay with some notably on Big Sand,
Long, and Fish Cays.
Big Sand Cay's breeding Sooty Terns comprised
an internationally important proportion of the Carib-
bean population (18% of the BirdLife figures),
whereas Bush and Seal Cays (with smaller numbers
on the other cays) held 2% of the Caribbean breed-
ing population of Sooty Terns.
The cays held 5% of the global population of the
Brown Noddy, with French Cay and Long Cay
holding globally important numbers in their own
rights. Internationally important breeding propor-
tions, when viewed against the Caribbean popula-
tion, were supported also on Penniston Cay and the
Bush/Seal Cay group (particularly Indian and White
Cays within the latter). The overall total was actu-
ally larger than BirdLife's estimate of the Caribbean
breeding population, which therefore requires ad-
justment. On this basis, therefore, these Cays consti-
tute numerically the most important breeding area
for this species reported in the Caribbean.
Some nesting habitat differences between the
species were evident. Bridled Terns favoured rocky


Page 38


hollows, normally found in the cliffs around cays.
However, there are wider bands of this habitat on
some cays such as Bush Cay, and almost the whole
of Penniston Cay consists of this habitat, accounting
for the exceptional numbers there. All three species
nested on the ground, usually under cover of some
sort, usually vegetation for Sooty Tern and Brown
Noddy. In addition, Brown Noddies nested abun-
dantly in bushes. The densities of nests tended to
vary considerably between cays but rather little
within a habitat type on any one cay. Average den-
sities of Brown Noddy nests ranged from 0.01-0.5
per m2, with most around 0.1 per m2. Those of
Sooty Tern ranged from 0.01-1.25 per m2. All these
figures are thought to be under-estimates, because
of the difficult nature of the terrain and vegetation.
The Sooty Tern colony on Ascension Island in the
mid-Atlantic stood at 194,000 pairs in 1997, at an
average density of 2.12 per m2 (Rowlands 2001).
Variability.-The annual variability in nesting
for several species has been noted above. It is not
known how much this relates to the other species.
Dean (1999) reported thousands of Sooty Terns on
French Cay and hundreds of Brown Noddies sitting
on eggs. This is the reverse of the relative propor-
tions of species surveyed there by us. However,
Dean's survey was in early March and ours in early
June. It is not known, therefore, whether this re-
flects a difference between years, or sampling of a
regular annual pattern at different seasons in differ-
ent years, or some other difference. The breeding
cycle of Sooty Terns at Ascension Island in mid-
Atlantic famously averages a 9.6-monthly, rather
than annual, cycle (Ashmole 1963); this is probably
as rapid a cycle as is possible in this fairly season-
less environment. At St Helena, 1300 km south of
Ascension, the same species has an annual cycle
(Rowlands et al. 1998). Clearly, more information
is required on the biology of these species in the
Turks and Caicos Islands before a formal monitor-
ing programme could be developed.
Conservation.-The importance to the conserva-
tion of these birds of these cays is not in doubt. On
the Caicos Bank, Bush, Seal, and French Cays con-
stitute a statutory Sanctuary, while Little Ambergris
and Fish Cays are a nature reserve of the Turks and
Caicos National Trust, a not-for-profit membership-
based conservation organisation established by stat-
ute. On the Turks Bank, Big Sand Cay, and Long
Cay are statutory sanctuaries. Other small cays near
Grand Turk constitute Grand Turk Cays Land and
Sea National Park (a recreational category); Pennis-
ton Cay and East Cay need transferring from this to


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


sanctuary status. The sanctuary status is not
widely realised, and there are many unauthorised
landings from yachts, and probably boats carrying
illegal immigrants, etc. More signage, public in-
formation, and enforcement are needed to make
the protection effective.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
For help in boat access to these difficult sites,
we thank Captains Alessio Girotti and Allen-Ray
Smith, and able crew Phillip Garneau. The coop-
eration of the Department of Environmental Re-
sources, in particular Michelle Fulford-Gardiner,
Judith Garland-Campbell, and Rob Wild, is ap-
preciated in several regards, including the provi-
sion of permits to survey the statutory sanctuaries
and nature reserves. The advice and guidance
throughout of the Turks & Caicos National Trust
and Executive Director, Ethlyn Gibbs-Williams,
are greatly appreciated. For discussion and com-
ment on many points, we thank Richard and Dace
Ground, Patricia Bradley, and Tony White. We
are grateful for additional information made
available by local residents, notably Cardinal Ar-
thur, Alton Higgs, and Telford Outton, particu-
larly in the community meetings undertaken dur-
ing research and conservation work by the Turks
and Caicos National Trust and the UK Overseas
Territories Conservation Forum. Some informa-
tion has been gathered incidentally to work partly
supported by the UK Foreign & Commonwealth
Office's Environment Fund for Overseas Territo-
ries, the UK Overseas Territories Conservation
Forum, RSPB, and WWF-UK.


LITERATURE CITED
ANONYMOUS. 2003. Caribbean Important bird
Areas resource Book. Cambridge, UK: BirdLife
International.
ASHMOLE, N. P. 1963. The biology of the Wide-
awake or Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata on Ascen-
sion Island. Ibis 103b: 297-364.
BIBBY, C. J., N. D. BURGESS, D. A. HILL, AND S.
MUSTOE. 2000. Bird census techniques, 2nd ed.
London, UK: Academic Press.
BRADLEY, P. E. 1995. The birds of the Turks and
Caicos Islands: the official checklist. Providen-
ciales, Turks and Caicos: Turks and Caicos Na-


tional Trust.
BUDEN, D. W. 1987. The birds of the Southern Ba-
hamas: an annotated check-list. (B.O.U. Check-
list No. 8) London, UK: British Ornithologists'
Union.
BULLOCK, I. D., AND C. H. GOMERSALL. 1981. The
breeding population of terns in Orkney and Shet-
land in 1980. Bird Study 28: 187-200.
DEAN, T. 1999. Bird sightings recorded by members
of Quest Nature Tour Group February 24 March
7, 1999. Unpublished notes in Turks & Caicos
National Trust files.
GROUND, R. 2001. The Birds of the Turks and Cai-
cos. Providenciales, Turks and Caicos: Turks &
Caicos National Trust.
PIENKOWSKI, M. (ed.) 2002. Plan for biodiversity
management and sustainable development around
Turks & Caicos Ramsar Site. www.ukotcf.org
PIENKOWSKI, M. W. 2005 (in press). The Turks and
Caicos Islands. In Important Bird Areas in the
U.K. Overseas Territories. Sandy, UK: Royal So-
ciety for the Protection of Birds.
PIENKOWSKI, M. W. 2006 (in press). The Turks and
Caicos Islands. In Island account of breeding sea-
birds of the Caribbean (West Indies) (P. E. Brad-
ley and R. L. Norton, eds.).
ROWLANDS, B. W. 2001. St Helena and the De-
pendencies of Ascension Island and Tristan da
Cunha, including Gough Island. Pp. 711-725 in
Important Bird Areas in Africa and associated
Islands: Priorities for Conservation (L.D.C. Fish-
pool and M.I. Evans, eds.). BirdLife Conservation
Series no. 11. Newbury, UK: Pisces Publications.
ROWLANDS, B. W., T. TRUEMAN, S. L. OLSON, M.
N. MCCULLOCH, AND R. K. BROOKE. 1998. The
Birds of St Helena (BOU Checklist No. 16).
Tring, UK: British Ornithologists' Union,
SEALEY, N. E. 1994. Bahamian landscapes: an in-
troduction to the geography of the Bahamas. 2nd
ed. Nassau, Bahamas: Media Publishing.
WALSH-MCGEHEE, M., D. S. LEE, AND J. M.
WUNDERLE. 1998. A report of aquatic birds en-
countered in December from the Caicos Islands.
Bahamas J. Sci. 6: 28-33.
WHITE, A. W. 1998. A birder's guide to the Bahama
Islands (including Turks and Caicos). Colorado
Springs, USA: American Birding Association.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 39









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


Appendix 1. Numbers of main species of birds found in main area. AON = Apparently Occupied Nest; AOT = Appar-
ently Occupied Territory; other numbers = individuals.

White-tailed Magnificent Black-bellied American Laughing
Cay Tropicbird Frigatebird Osprey Plover Oystercatcher Gull

WEST CAICOS shores 3 5 1

PROVIDENCIALES

West shore 1 1

Turtle Rock 1 AON

Froggin' Bay 24 AON

Silly Creek 8 AON 4

Taylor & Sapodilla Bays 8 AON 1

Five Cays

William Dean Cay 1 AON 1

Pusey Cay 1 AON 1

Sim Cay 4 AON 1

Middle Cay
Cooper Jack Bight and 2
Rock
N OF NORTH & MIDDLE
CAICOS

Three Mary Cays 1 AON

N shore of North Caicos 1 AON 3

Bay Cay & East Bay Beach 1 3

Rock N of Highas Cay

N pt of Highas Cay 20 AON

S OF NORTH & MIDDLE
CAICOS

Man o'War Bush 35 AON

Black Rock 3 100 20

Long Cay, S Caicos 30 AON

CAICOS BANK OUTER
CAYS

Fish Cay 1 1 AOT 1

Little Ambergris Cay W 30
end

Bush & Seal Cays

Bush Cay 20

Pear Cay 1 AON

Shot Cay 1


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 40









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


Appendix 1. (Continued)


Cay Royal Sandwich Roseate Least Bridled Sooty Brown
Tern Tern Tern Tern Tern Tern Noddy

WEST CAICOS shores

PROVIDENCIALES 2

West shore

Turtle Rock

Froggin' Bay 6

Silly Creek 3 AON

Taylor & Sapodilla Bays

Five Cays

William Dean Cay

Pusey Cay

Sim Cay

Middle Cay

Cooper Jack Bight and 2 AON
Rock
N OF NORTH & MIDDLE 10 AON
CAICOS

Three Mary Cays

N shore of North Caicos

Bay Cay & East Bay Beach

Rock N of Highas Cay

N pt of Highas Cay 2

S OF NORTH & MIDDLE
CAICOS

Man o'War Bush 20 AON 10 AON

Black Rock

Long Cay, S Caicos

CAICOS BANK OUTER
CAYS

Fish Cay

Little Ambergris Cay W
end

Bush & Seal Cays

Bush Cay

Pear Cay

Shot Cay


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 41









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


Appendix 1. (Continued)


Cay White-tailed Magnificent Osprey Black-bellied American Laughing
Cay Tropicbird Frigatebird Osprey Plover Oystercatcher Gull

Indian Cay 1
White Cay 1 6
French Cay 1 AOT 20 AON
TURKS BANK CAYS
Gibbs Cay 1 AOT
Round Cay
Long Cay 1 AOT
Pear Cay 1 AOT
East Cay 150 AON
Peniston Cay 30
Big Sand Cay 6 AON 2 AOT 8


TOTAL AON/AOT 103 35 5 4 170



TOTAL individuals
(counting AON/AOT as 2), 110 100 21 110 11 430
rounded to 2 significant figures


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 42









PIENKOWSKI ETAL BIRDS OF THE OUTER CAYS OF THE TURKS AND CAICOS ISLANDS


Appendix 1. (Continued)


Cay Royal Sandwich Roseate Least Bridled Sooty Brown
Tern Tern Tern Tern Tern Tern Noddy

Indian Cay 200 AON 25 AON 25 AON 100 AON
White Cay 1 1200 AON 2800 AON

French Cay 1 1 AON 130 AON 11000
AON

TURKS BANK CAYS 2

Gibbs Cay 1 AON 100 AON

Round Cay 60 AON 6000 AON

Long Cay 1

Pear Cay 12 2 30 AON

East Cay 2000 AON 1300 AON

Peniston Cay 1 20 AON 240 AON 44000 20 AON
AON

Big Sand Cay


TOTAL AON/AOT 44 200 50 3332 48305 26930



TOTAL individuals
(counting AON/AOT as 2), 44 210 700 100 6700 97000 54000
rounded to 2 significant figures


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 43












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:44, 2005


FIRST CONFIRMED BREEDING OF THE WEST INDIAN WHISTLING-DUCK
AT ABACO, BAHAMAS

KURT RADAMAKER AND CINDY RADAMAKER
16313 East Crystal Point Drive. Fountain Hills, AZ 85268, USA; e-mail: kurtrad@att.net

Abstract.-A pair of West Indian Whistling-Ducks (Dendrocygna arborea) with three chicks were found near
Crossing Rock, Abaco, Bahamas, on 6 January 2001, providing the first confirmed breeding record for Abaco.
Key words: Abaco, Bahamas, breeding, Dendrocygna arborea, West Indian Whistling-Duck

Resumen.-CONFIRMADA POR PRIMERA VEZ LA CRIA DE LA YAGUASA EN ABACO, BAHAMAS. Se observ6 una
pareja de yaguasas (Dendrocygna arborea) con tres crias cerca de Crossing Rock, Abaco, Bahamas, el 6 enero del
2001, lo que constituye el primer registro de nidificaci6n para Abaco.
Palabras claves: Abaco, Bahamas, Dendrocygna arborea, nidificacion, Yaguasa


DURING A VISIT TO CROSSING ROCK, ABACO,
Bahamas in the early morning of 6 January 2001,
we saw two men wading in a brackish marsh adja-
cent to a road. They were looking for the carcass of
a West Indian Whistling-Duck (Dendrocygna arbo-
rea) that was killed by a vehicle the previous eve-
ning while crossing the road with its mate and three
chicks. Shortly afterward, one of the men retrieved
the bird, which was decapitated. We learned that the
other adult and chicks, stunned by the collision, had
been captured and placed in a cage. We asked if we
could see the other birds, and the man agreed to
show them to us.
He explained that the ducks belonged to another
man, who intended to eat them. Aware of the rarity
of West Indian Whistling-Ducks in the Bahamas,
we offered to buy them for $40. This offer was ac-
cepted, so we transported the ducks back to the
marsh, and released them.
The adult immediately fled into the marsh and
began to call to its chicks. As we released the
chicks, two headed quickly toward the adult, but the
third was disoriented and weaker than its siblings.
We were uncertain whether the third chick would
survive.
The West Indian Whistling-Duck occurs widely
in the Caribbean and is found in the Bahamas, the


Greater Antilles, Antigua, and Barbuda. Despite its
large range, the status of the West Indian Whistling-
Duck is "precarious" (Collar et. al. 1992) and popu-
lations are declining (Raffaele et al. 1998) due to
widespread poaching, pesticide use, and habitat
destruction. In the Bahamas, West Indian Whis-
tling-Ducks now are "rare or very rare" throughout
(Collar et al. 1992). Our observation seems to be the
first that confirms breeding at Abaco (Collar et al.
1992, W. Bracey pers. comm.). Copies of our pho-
tographs have been archived at The Bahama Avian
Records Committee, Bahamas National Trust, Nas-
sau.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Woody Bracey for supplying informa-
tion, Bill Pranty for editorial help, and Tony White
for improving the manuscript.


LITERATURE CITED
COLLAR, N. J., L. P. GONZAGA, N. KRABBE, A.
MADRONO NIETO, L. G. NARANJO, T. A.
PARKER, D. C. WEGE. 1992. Threatened birds of
the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book.
Cambridge, UK: International Council for Bird
Preservation.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 44












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:45-47, 2005


PRECISIONS SUR CINQ ESPECES D'OISEAUX DONT LA NIDIFICATION A ETE DECOU-
VERTE EN GUADELOUPE (ANTILLES FRANCAISES) DEPUIS 1997

ANTHONY LEVESQUE1'2, FRANTZ DUZONT1'2, ET ANASTHASE RAMSAHAI3
1AEVA, c/o C. Pavis, Hauteurs Lizarde, F-97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe, F.W.I.;
e-mail: anthony.levesque@wanadoo.fr; 2AMAZONA. Impasse Maraudiere, Labrousse, F-97130 Le
Gosier, Guadeloupe, F.W.I.; 30NCFS. Rue des Bougainvillees, F-97100 Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, F.W.I.

Resume.-Des informations sont fournies sur 5 especes nouvellement nicheuses en Guadeloupe. L'Erismature
rousse (Oxyura jamaicensis) trouv6e nicheuse en 2003 (au moins 3 couples) et en 2004. Un couple de Foulque
d'Am6rique (Fulica americana) a &6t trouv6 en 2001 et deux en 2004. Un a quatre couples de Gravelot de Wilson
(Charadrius wilsonia) nichent r6gulierement depuis 1998. L'Engoulevent piramidig (Chordeiles gundlachii) est
observe annuellement depuis l'an 2000 et le premier nid a 6t& d6couvert en 2003. Le Merle a lunettes (Turdus nudi-
genis) a &6t not6 nicheur en 1997 et plusieurs couples sont presents depuis.
Mots-clds: Charadrius wilsonia, Chordeiles gundlachii, Fulica americana, Guadeloupe, nidification, Oxyura ja-
maicensis, Turdus nudigenis

Abstract.-INFORMATION ON FIVE NEW BREEDING BIRD SPECIES DISCOVERED IN GUADELOUPE (FRENCH AN-
TILLES) SINCE 1997. Information is given on five new breeding species in Guadeloupe, French West Indies. The
Ruddy Duck (Oxyurajamaicensis) has been found breeding in 2003 (at least 3 pairs) and 2004. One pair of Ameri-
can Coot (Fulica americana) was found in 2001 and two in 2004. One to four pairs of Wilson's Plover (Charadrius
wilsonia) have been breeding annually since 1998. The Antillean Nighthawk (Chordeiles gundlachii) has been
recorded annually since 2000 and the first nest was discovered in 2003. The Bare-eyed Robin ( Turdus nudigenis )
was found breeding in 1997, and a few pairs have been present ever since.
Key words: Charadrius wilsonia, Chordeiles gundlachii, Fulica americana, Guadeloupe, new nesting species,
Oxyura jamaicensis, Turdus nudigenis


EN 1995, LA LISTE DES OISEAUX de Guadeloupe
(Feldmann et al. 1996) ne mentionnait aucune des
espbces cities ci-dessous en tant que nicheuses.
Une mise a jour de cette liste (Feldmann, 1998)
faisait apparaitre le Merle a lunettes Turdus nudi-
genis et le Gravelot de Wilson Charadrius wilso-
nia, mais sans fournir de detail sur leur nouveau
statut. Depuis cette date, I'avifaune nicheuse de
Guadeloupe s'est encore enrichie de trois nouvel-
les especes: l'Erismature rousse Oxyura jamai-
censis, la Foulque d'Am6rique Fulica americana
et l'Engoulevent piramidig Chordeiles gundla-
chii. Nous fournissons ici des details sur le statut
reproducteur de ces espbces en Guadeloupe, les
observations dues aux auteurs de cette note 6tant
indiqu6es par leurs initiales.
Erismature rousse (Oxyura jamaicensis).-Le
16 f6vrier 2003 AL et FD observent une niche
de sept poussins sur le barrage de Gaschet a Port-
Louis ; ce couple avait 6t6 signal quelques jours
auparavant par AR. Au cours de cette ann6e 2003,
au moins trois niches diff6rentes ont 6t6 compta-
bilis6es pour un total d'au moins 19 poussins. En
2004, un nouveau cas de reproduction a 6t6 not6
le 13 avril (un poussin de huit jours; AL et Pierre

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Y6sou).
Aux Antilles, c'est la sous-espece jamaicensis qui
est pr6sente oh elle est s6dentaire et consid6rde
comme localement commune a New Providence
(Bahamas) et dans les Grandes Antilles. Elle est
seulement localis6e et peu commune ailleurs aux
Bahamas et rare aux Iles Vierges et a Barbade, elle
est exceptionnelle aux Iles Caiman et ailleurs dans
les Petites Antilles. Des migrateurs de la sous-
espece rubida en provenance d'Am6rique du Nord
viennent augmenter localement les effectifs d'octo-
bre a mars. La sous-espece des Antilles a d6clin6
significativement aux Bahamas, a Porto-Rico et aux
Miles Vierges au point d'dtre menace dans ces iles.
Cependant les populations de Cuba, de la Jamaique
et d'Hispaniola apparaissent relativement stables
(Raffaele et al. 1998). Cette sous-espece est en ex-
pansion dans les Petites-Antilles oh elle a aussi 6t6
trouv6e nicheuse a Saint-Martin depuis 2002
(Brown et Collier 2004). Cette espece appartient a
la liste des espbces prot6g6es en Guadeloupe mais la
pression de chasse dans notre d6partement, notam-
ment sur le barrage de Gaschet, et le braconnage
dont elle est l'objet rendent trbs incertaine son ins-
tallation durable en Guadeloupe; a moins d'dtre


Page 45









LEVESQUE ETAL PRECISIONS SUR CINQ ESPECES D'OISEAUX EN GUADELOUPE


r6aliment6e chaque ann6e par de nouveaux arri-
vants.
Foulque d'Am6rique (Fulica americana).-Le
premier cas de nidification de cette espece en Gua-
deloupe continentale a 6t6 d6couvert le 26 f6vrier
2001: la ponte a eu lieu vers la seconde quinzaine
de janvier, aucun poussin n'a atteint l'envol
(Levesque et al. 2002). Un suivi r6gulier du barrage
de Gaschet a permis d'observer un nouveau cas de
nidification le 13 avril 2004 (Pierre Y6sou et AL):
d'aprbs l'6tat de leur plumage, les quatre poussins
6taient ag6s de quatre jours au plus (M. Fouquet,
com. pers.) Une nouvelle visite le 25 mai 2004 a
permis d'observer deux couples accompagn6s de
quatre et sept jeunes, tous ag6s d'environ un mois et
demi (AL). Le 13 juillet 2004, un nouveau cas de
nidification est rep6r6 sur ce meme site avec la pr6-
sence d'un jeune d'environ cinq jours. Ce jeune est
probablement issu d'une seconde ponte d'un des
deux couples ayant nich6 en d6but d'ann6e.
Aux Antilles, cette espece est un nicheur peu
commun aux Bahamas, a Cuba, a la Jamaique et a
Hispaniola. Elle se reproduit occasionnellement aux
lies Vierges et est consid6r6e comme rare ou 6gar6e
dans les Petites Antilles (Raffaele et al. 1998). Cette
espece semble donc en expansion mais la pression
de chasse sur ce site de nidification et le braconnage
dont elle est l'objet rendent al6atoire son installation
durable en Guadeloupe.
Gravelot de Wilson (Charadrius wilsonia).-En
1998, un suivi de la Grande Saline a la Pointe des
Chateaux, sur la commune de Saint-Francois, a per-
mis de localiser trois nids plus un quatribme couple
cantonn6 le 19 mai (AL). Cette meme ann6e, une
nich6e de deux poussins a 6t6 d6couverte le 11 juil-
let sur le marais de Port-Louis (AL et Erwan Le
Cornec). Depuis, un a quatre couples nichent cha-
que ann6e sur la Grande Saline. La p6riode de ponte
s'6tale de d6but avril a la premiere d6cade de juillet.
Cette espece dont la r6partition va du sud de l'Ame-
rique du Nord au nord de l'Am6rique du Sud, en
passant par l'Am6rique centrale et les Antilles, ni-
che commun6ment aux Bahamas, dans les Grandes
Antilles et dans le nord des Petites Antilles. Il est
difficile de savoir si sa d6couverte en tant que ni-
cheur en Guadeloupe est due a une expansion ou a
un manque de prospection. Meme si cette espece est
prot6g6e, la pression de chasse en Guadeloupe et
l'ouverture dbs le 14 juillet induisent un d6range-
ment qui compromet largement son implantation en
dehors des zones interdites a la chasse comme la
Pointe des Chateaux.


Page 46


Engoulevent piramidig (Chordeiles gundlachii).
-Le 21 juin 2000, I'Engoulevent piramidig a 6t6
observ6 pour la premiere fois en Guadeloupe, sur la
commune de Baie-Mahault (Levesque 2001). La
meme ann6e il 6tait 6galement rep6r6 a Belle Plaine,
commune des Abymes (Daniel Imbert, com. pers.).
En 2001, des males chanteurs 6taient vus et enten-
dus sur ces memes sites. Il en fut de meme en 2002,
et cette ann6e au moins un autre male chanteur 6tait
localis6 sur la commune de Pointe-a-Pitre. Aprbs
deux ann6es de recherche, la nidification a 6t6 d6-
couverte le 11 juillet 2003 a Belle Plaine: un nid
contenant un reuf sera 6cras6 par un v6hicule quel-
ques jours plus tard (AL et FD). Un nouveau nid
contenant un reuf sera d6couvert sur ce meme site le
13 juillet 2004 (AL). Sur quatre ann6es de suivi, la
date d'observation la plus pr6coce a 6t6 le 23 avril
(2002 et 2004, FD et AR) et la plus tardive le 15
octobre 2003 (AL).
L'Engoulevent piramidig niche aux Bahamas,
dans les Grandes Antilles et aux Iles Vierges. II
hivernerait en Am6rique du Sud (Raffaele et al.
1998). L'espece semble en expansion car meme si
elle a pu passer inapergue pendant quelques ann6es,
son chant est caract6ristique et il est peu probable
qu'elle ait pu 6chapper aux observateurs durant de
longues ann6es. Les milieux fr6quent6s ainsi que
ses mours cr6pusculaires et nocturnes la rendent
peu sensible a la chasse en Guadeloupe. On peut
donc etre confiant quant a son installation durable
dans notre d6partement.
Merle A lunettes (Turdus nudigenis).-Cette
espece a 6t6 signal6e en 1987 dans les Grands Fonds
(B6nito-Espinal et Hautcastel 2003), puis elle n'a
plus 6t6 mentionn6e jusqu'a ce que sa reproduction
soit d6couverte le 12 juillet 1997 sur la commune de
Capesterre Belle-Eau (Levesque 1997). Depuis,
plusieurs couples sont pr6sents chaque ann6e sur ce
site, et 1'espece semble 6tendre lentement sa r6parti-
tion: B6nito-Espinal et Hautcastel (2003) ont not6 sa
presence en 1998 a Morne a l'Eau, un individu a
6t6 observ6 en d6cembre 2003 a Beautiran sur la
commune de Petit-Canal (Mikael Champion, com.
pers.) et un autre le 10 septembre 2004 a la Pointe
de la Verdure au Gosier (AL), alors que d'autres
mentions en partie occidentale de Grande-Terre
restent a confirmer.
Le Merle a lunettes est pr6sent en Am6rique du
Sud et dans le sud des Petites Antilles jusqu'en
Martinique oh il a 6t6 observ6 pour la premiere fois
en 1951 (Raffaele et al. 1998). L'espece semble
donc s'6tendre lentement vers le nord des Petites
Antilles. Depuis sa d6couverte en Guadeloupe, elle


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









LEVESQUE ETAL


a aussi 6t6 trouv6e nicheuse en Dominique
(Stephen Durand, com. pers.). Cette espece serait
a surveiller 6troitement pour son impact possible
sur la Grive a pattes jaunes Cichlherminia lhermi-
nieri, espbce class6e vuln6rable par BirdLife In-
ternational (2000). En effet, cette espece est trbs
agressive a l'encontre des autres grives et il est
suspect6 qu'elle pourrait avoir jou6 un role dans
la quasi disparition de la Grive a pattes jaunes a
Sainte Lucie (Raffaele et al. 1998). Etant donn6
la dynamique de sa population et la menace possi-
ble sur la Grive a pattes jaunes, il devrait ftre
envisag6 de l'inscrire sur la liste des especes
chassables en Guadeloupe.


REMERCIEMENTS
Nos vifs remerciements s'adressent a Pierre
Y6sou pour la critique du document ainsi qu'a
toutes les personnes qui nous ont accompagn6s
lors des sorties de terrain.


BIBLIOGRAPHIE
AOU (AMERICAN ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION).
1998. Check-list of North American birds, 7th
edition. Lawrence, Kansas: Allen Press, Inc.
Lawrence, Kansas, USA. 829 pp.
BENITO-ESPINAL, E., ET P. HAUCASTEL. 2003.
Les oiseaux des Antilles et leur nid. Petites et
Grandes Antilles. PLB tEditions. 320 pp.


PRECISIONS SUR CINQ ESPECES D'OISEAUX EN GUADELOUPE


BROWN, A., ET N. COLLIER. 2004. A new breeding
population of Oxyura jamaicensis (Ruddy Duck)
on St. Martin, Lesser Antilles. Carib. J. Sci.
40:259-263.
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. 2000. Threatened birds
of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge: Lynx
Edicions and Bird Life International. 852 pp.
FELDMANN, P., A. LE DRU, C. PAVIS, ET P. VI-
LLARD. 1996. Checklist of the birds of Guade-
loupe, Martinique and their offshore islands. Re-
port to the Society of Caribbean Ornithology, 9th
Annual Meeting, Trinidad.
FELDMANN, P. 1998. Checklist of birds of Guade-
loupe and Martinique. AEVA Rep. No. 20. Petit-
Bourg, AEVA, Petit-Bourg. 10 pp.
LEVESQUE, A. 1997. D6couverte du Merle a lunettes
Turdus nudigenis nicheur en Guadeloupe. Alauda
65:378.
LEVESQUE, A. 2001. Premiere mention de l'Engou-
levent de Gundlach (Chordeiles gundlachii) en
Guadeloupe. Pitirre 14:7.
LEVESQUE, A., P. YESOU, ET M. SOUTH. 2002.
Nidification de la Foulque d'Am6rique (Fulica
americana) en Guadeloupe (Petites-Antilles).
Pitirre 15:44-45.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
ET J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. London: Helm. 511 pp.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 47












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:48-51, 2005


ESTADO DE LA POBLACION DEL FRAILECILLO BLANCO (CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS)
EN RIO MAXIMO, CUBA, DURANTE EL PERIODO 2002 2003

ARIAM JIMENEZ1, ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ1, SUSANA AGUILAR2, Y JOSE MORALES3
1Dpto. Biologia Animal y Humana, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana. Calle 25, No. 455,
entre J e I, Vedado, Ciudad Habana, Cuba; e-mail: ariam@fbio.uh.cu; 2Centro Nacional de Areas Protegi-
das (CNAP), Cuba; 3Empresa Nacional para la Proteccion de la Flora y la Fauna, Cuba

Resumen.-El Frailecillo Blanco (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) se considera un playero amenazado en la
regi6n del Caribe y sureste de Norteam6rica. Durante 6 meses de estudio en el Refugio de Fauna Rio Maximo, Cu-
ba, fue registrada una poblaci6n de Frailecillo Blanco realizando actividades de alimentaci6n y descanso. El tamanao
promedio de la poblaci6n fue de 36,2 8,3 individuos (n = 18) y result6 mayor en la temporada no reproductiva
(63,8 19,2; n = 15) que en la reproductiva (34,8 11,0; n = 5). Las mayores cantidades de frailecillos se registra-
ron durante los meses con mayor proporci6n de area anegada (mayo y noviembre: 132 y 121 individuos, respectiva-
mente). Junio fue el mes con menor cantidad de individuos, probablemente debido al periodo reproductivo de la
especie. El tamanao promedio de la poblaci6n de Frailecillo Blanco represent6 5,3 % de la poblaci6n regional, por lo
que el Refugio de Fauna Rio Maximo parece constituir un importante sitio para la conservaci6n de la especie en el
Caribe.
Palabras claves: Charadrius alexandrinus, Cuba, estado poblacional, Frailecillo Blanco, Rio Maximo

Abstract.-SNOWY PLOVER POPULATION STATUS (CHARADRIUS ALEXANDRINUS NIVOSUS) IN Rio MAXIMO, CUBA,
DURING THE 2002 2003 PERIOD. The Snowy Plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) is considered threatened
in the Caribbean and southeastern North America. During 6 mo of surveys in Rio Maximo Fauna Refuge, Cuba, we
documented a population of Snowy Plovers feeding and resting in the area. The mean population size was 36.2 +
8.3 birds (n = 18), with higher values during the non-reproductive season (63.8 19.2; n = 15) than in the reproduc-
tive (34.8 11.0; n = 5). Maximum plover numbers were during the months with the highest proportional flooded
area (May and November, 132 and 121, respectively). June was the month with the minimum number of individu-
als, perhaps due to the breeding season of the species. The mean population size of Snowy Plover recorded repre-
sent about 5.3 % of the regional population; thus, Rio Maximo Fauna Refuge can be considered as an important site
for Snowy Plover conservation in the Caribbean.
Key words: Charadrius alexandrinus, Cuba, population status, Snowy Plover, Rio Maximo


EL FRAILECILLO BLANCO (Charadrius alexandri-
nus) es una de las siete especies de la familia Chara-
driidae presentes en Cuba (Raffaele et al. 1998).
Esta pequefia limicola, de amplia distribuci6n mun-
dial, ha sufrido una intensa disminuci6n de sus po-
blaciones en gran parte de sus localidades de cria
(Martinez-Vilalta 1985, Jbnss6n 1991, 1995, Wiers-
ma 1996, Figuerola et al. 2001), llegando a un esta-
do critico en pauses como Gran Bretafia y Noruega
(Cramp y Simmons 1983). La transformaci6n del
habitat, el incremento de las actividades humanas en
playas y zonas costeras y la introducci6n de depre-
dadores, son reconocidos como los principales res-
ponsables de la disminuci6n de sus poblaciones
(Page et al. 1991, Canevari et al. 2001, Figuerola et
al. 2001). Similares causas han conllevado a que la
subespecie, C. a. nivosus, se considere amenazada
en el sureste de Norteam6rica y el Caribe, (Raffaele
et al. 1998).
Aunque bien documentada la distribuci6n y abun-


Page 48


dancia de la especie al oeste de Norteamdrica, la
informaci6n para el Caribe est6 limitada a nivel
local (Gorman y Haig 2002). Particularmente en
Cuba, el Frailecillo Blanco es considerado muy ra-
ro, de dificil localizaci6n y no se tienen datos sobre
el estado de sus poblaciones (Blanco et al. 2001).
Este autor refiere algunas observaciones de fraileci-
llos blancos en cayos cercanos a la Isla de la Juven-
tud, Cayo Cruz del Padre, cayos al este de Villa
Clara, Cayo Sabinal y la costa norte de Holguin.
Con el objetivo de contribuir a incrementar la infor-
maci6n referente a las poblaciones del Frailecillo
Blanco en el Caribe, y en particular en Cuba, hemos
considerado de interns dar a conocer algunos datos
poblacionales obtenidos en el Refugio de Fauna Rio
Maximo.


AREA DE ESTUDIO Y METODOS
El Refugio de Fauna Rio Maximo se localiza en-



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









JIMENEZ ETAL. ESTADO POBLACIONAL DEL FRAILECILLO BLANCO


tre la desembocadura de los rios Maximo y Ca-
giley, al norte de la provincia Camagiuey
(7727'W, 2145'N). Es considerado un ecosiste-
ma costero marino permanente o temporalmente
inundado que incluye diversos tipos de humedales
como rios, esteros, ensenadas, cayuelos de man-
gle, lagunas salobres, llanuras de lodo, entre
otros. Las observaciones fueron realizadas en un
itinerario de censo con una longitud de 2,0 km y
un tiempo de recorrido aproximado de 60 minu-
tos. Los censos tuvieron lugar en la mafiana (0700
- 0900 hr) y la tarde (1600 1800 hr) de los meses
de mayo, junio, octubre, y noviembre del afio
2002 y los meses de enero y febrero de 2003 (n =
18). Se calcularon los estadisticos de posici6n y
dispersi6n de la media poblacional (media error
estindar) para el periodo de estudio y la tempora-
da del afio (R: reproductiva, NR: no reproducti-
va). Para esto 61timo se sigui6 el criterio de Raf-
faelle et al. (1998) quien ubica la temporada re-
productiva entre los meses de enero a junio, que-
dando la no reproductiva entre julio y diciembre.


RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION
La poblaci6n de Frailecillo Blanco se mantuvo
durante todos los conteos utilizando las zonas
menos anegadas de una llanura de lodo de aproxi-


madamente 80 ha. Este habitat se caracteriz6 por su
gran variabilidad hidrol6gica, dada principalmente
por la acci6n de vientos provenientes del nordeste,
las precipitaciones y el ciclo de mareas. Los indivi-
duos observados utilizaron el sitio como irea de
alimentaci6n y descanso.
El tamafio promedio de la poblaci6n durante los
meses de muestreo fue de 36,2 8,3 individuos (n =
18). En la Fig. 1 se muestran los valores poblaciona-
les promedios para las temporadas reproductiva y
no reproductiva, no detectindose diferencias signifi-
cativas entre estos (prueba t de Student: t = -1,34, gl
= 16, P = 0,19). Noviembre fue el mes de mayor
abundancia promedio (59,0 24,2 individuos, n =
4, rango = 6 121), seguido por el mes de mayo
(50,3 15,6 individuos, n = 8, rango = 3 132). En
este 61timo mes se realiz6 el mayor conteo de indi-
viduos durante el estudio (Fig. 2). Los menores re-
gistros de la poblaci6n se realizaron en junio y fe-
brero.
El tamafio poblacional encontrado en el area de
estudio es mayor que el ofrecido por Goosen et al.
(1994) para una localidad cubana durante la etapa
no reproductiva. De igual forma, la poblaci6n resul-
ta mayor que la observada en Cabo Rojo, Puerto
Rico (Collazo et al. 1995), sitio donde se encontra-
ban los mayores reportes documentados de la regi6n


U,
R NR
Temporada
Fig. 1. Abundancia promedio de la poblaci6n de Frailecillo Blanco (Charadrius alexandrinus) en las tempo-
radas reproductiva (R: enero -junio, n = 13) y no reproductiva (NR: julio diciembre, n = 5) del periodo
2002 2003, en el Refugio de Fauna Rio Maximo.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


- Media I+ES I +1,96*ES


Page 49









- ESTADO POBLACIONAL DEL FRAILECILLO BLANCO


140

o 120

80
*0
o
.E 60
E
o 40

z
0


Mayo/02 Junio/02 Octubre/02 Noviembre/02 Enero/03 Febrero/03
Mayo/02 Junio/02 Octubre/02 Noviembre/02 Enero/03 Febrero/03


Meses

Fig. 1. Valores maximos de los conteos de Frailecillo Blanco (Charadrius alexandrinus) durante seis meses
del periodo 2002 2003, en el Refugio de Fauna Rio Maximo.


caribefia (Gorman y Haig 2002). El ndmero total de
Frailecillo Blanco estimado para el Caribe es de
unos 2,200 a 2,800 individuos (Wetlands Internatio-
nal 2000). Los valores encontrados en Rio Maximo
representan aproximadamente 5.3 % de la poblaci6n
regional, por lo que el Refugio de Fauna Rio M6xi-
mo parece constituir un importante sitio para la con-
servaci6n de la especie en la regi6n.
Raffaele et al. (1998) sugiere que estas aves no
permanecen en las costas cubanas una vez que cul-
mina el periodo reproductivo. Sin embargo nuestros
resultados demuestran la presencia de una poblaci6n
residente en el Area de estudio, que aumenta sus
efectivos poblacionales justamente durante el perio-
do no reproductivo. Los valores miximos encontra-
dos en mayo y noviembre fueron muy similares, lo
que podria indicar que se trata de la misma pobla-
ci6n. La alta variabilidad de la poblaci6n dentro del
Area de estudio sugiere que los individuos se mue-
ven a localidades cercanas y que son capaces de
detectar y regresar al sitio de estudio cuando ocu-
rren cambios favorables para ellos en el lodazal
(disponibilidad de habitat y/o alimento).
Aparentemente la abundancia de frailecillos blan-
cos en la localidad estuvo relacionada con la dispo-
nibilidad de habitat. Mayo y noviembre coincidie-
ron con los periodos de muestreo donde el lodazal
present6 una mayor superficie anegada por la acci6n
de los vientos y las lluvias. En estos periodos fue
comdn observar pequefios grupos dispersos, forra-
jeando activamente en la zona intermareal a trav6s
de m6todos de captura visual. La reducci6n del ni-


Page 50


vel de agua sobre el lodazal alcanz6 niveles critics
en febrero, cuando menos de 10 % se mantuvo ane-
gado. En este mes los escasos registros de fraileci-
llos blancos, provienen de individuos observados en
actividades de descanso, independientemente de la
hora del dia. Esta actividad fue favorecida por las
caracteristicas propias del sustrato. Las capas de
lodo mas superficiales al secarse se despegan de las
capas mis h6medas, de tal forma que los frailecillos
encuentran protecci6n contra el viento bajo ellas.
Estas capas de lodo superficial presentan la ventaja
adicional de que al secarse, los sedimentos salinos
toman una coloraci6n gris cenizo, muy similar al
dorso de estas aves, lo cual las hace pasar inadverti-
das tanto para un observador terrestre como a6reo.
Por otra parte, la dr6stica disminuci6n poblacio-
nal de junio pudo estar relacionada con el periodo
reproductivo de la especie. Garrido (1993) docu-
ment6 una pareja criando en Cayo Sabinal; dicho
cayo se caracteriza por presentar extensas playas de
arena poco frecuentadas por el hombre, que pueden
servir como habitat reproductivo. Los individuos de
esta especie tendrian que desplazarse entre 12 y 35
km entre los sitios que explotan en Cayo Sabinal y
Rio Maximo. Esta distancia relativamente corta
entre ambas Areas, hace posible que Rio Maximo
constituya un sitio de forrajeo para la especie duran-
te el afio. Estudios subsecuentes en el Area podrian
confirmar si se trata de la misma poblaci6n que ni-
difica en Cayo Sabinal, lo cual brindaria una valiosa
informaci6n para el manejo y conservaci6n del C.
alexandrinus en el Caribe.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


JIMENEZ ETAL.









JIMENEZ ETAL. ESTADO POBLACIONAL DEL FRAILECILLO BLANCO


AGRADECIMIENTOS
Este trabajo fue posible gracias al apoyo del
Programa de Conservaci6n BP (BP, BirdLife In-
ternational, Fauna and Flora International), Optic
for the Tropics y Whitley Awards Foundation.
Especial reconocimiento para el personal que
labora en el area protegida.


LITERATURA CITADA
BLANCO, P., S. J. PERIS Y B. SANCHEZ. 2001. Las
aves limicolas (Charadiiformes) nidificantes de
Cuba: su distribuci6n y reproducci6n. Alicante:
Centro Ibeoroam6ricano de la Biodiversidad.
CANEVARI, P., G. CASTRO, M. SALLABERRY Y L.
G. NARANJO. 2001. Gufa de los chorlos y pla-
yeros de la region Neotropical. Santiago de
Cali, Colombia: American Bird Conservancy,
WWF-US, Humedales para las Am6ricas, Ma-
nomet Conservation Science, y Asociaci6n
Calidris.
COLLAZO, J. A., B. A. HARRINGTON, J. S. GREAR,
Y J. A. COLON. 1995. Abundance and distribu-
tion of shorebirds at the Cabo Rojo salt flats,
Puerto Rico. J. Field Ornithol. 66:424-438.
CRAMP, S., Y K. E. L. SIMMONS. 1983. The birds
of the Western Paleartic. Vol. III. London: Uni-
versity Press.
FIGUEROLA, J., F. CERDA, Q. BACH, Y T.
MONTALVO. 2001. Seguimiento de la reproduc-
ci6n del chortilejo patinegro (Charadrius
alexandrinus) en el Delta del Llobregat en el
2001. Informe in6dito.
GARRIDO 0. 1993. El Frailecillo Blanco Cha-
radrius alexandrinus (Aves: Charadriidae)
anidando en Cuba. Redescubrimiento. Annual
Meeting of the Caribbean Society for Ornithol-
ogy, 1-6 August, 1993. Playa Gir6n, Ci6naga
de Zapata, Cuba (abstract).
GARRIDO 0., Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field


guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press.
GOOSEN, J. P., P. BLANCO, J. SIROIS, Y H. G. ALON-
so. 1994. Waterbird and shorebird counts in the
province of Matanzas, Cuba. Canadian Wildlife
Service Technical Report Series No. 170. Edmon-
ton, AB: Canadian Wildlife Service, Prairie and
Northern Region.
GORMAN, L. R., Y S. M. HAIG. 2002. Distribution
and abundance of Snowy Plovers in eastern North
America, the Caribbean and the Bahamas. J. Field
Ornithol. 73:38-52.
JONSSON, P. E. 1991. The Kentish Plover
(Charadrius alexandrinus) in Europe-recent
breeding population size estimates. Wader Stud.
Grp. Kentish Plover Proj. Newsl. 1:27-31.
JONSSON, P. E. 1995. The Kentish Plover in Scania,
South Sweden, 1993-1995 a report from a conser-
vation project. Answer 34:203-213.
MARTINEZ-VILALTA, A. 1985. Breeding waders of
the Iberian Peninsula. Wader Stud. Grp. Bull.
45:35-36.
PAGE, G., W E. STENZEL, W. D. SHUFORD, Y C. R.
BRUCE. 1991. Distribution and abundance of
Snowy Plover on its western North American
breeding grounds. J. Field Ornithol. 62: 245-255.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press.
WETLANDS INTERNATIONAL. 2002. Waterbird popu-
lation estimates. 3rd ed. Wageningen, Nether-
lands: Wetlands International Global Series No.
12.
WIERSMA, P. 1996. Family Charadriidae (Plovers).
Pp. 411-434 in Handbook of the Birds of the
World. Vol. 3. Hoatzin to Auks (J. del Hoyo, A.
Elliot, y J. Sargatal, eds.). Barcelona, Spain: Lynx
Edicions.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 51












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:52-53, 2005


RECENT BIRD OBSERVATIONS FROM DOMINICA, WEST INDIES

NIELS J. LARSEN', MORTEN HEEGAARD2, AND BERTRAND JNO BAPTISTE3
1Medical Genetics, Ross University School of Medicine, PO Box 266, Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica,
West Indies; e-mail: nlarsen@rossmed.edu.dm; 2Gronlunds Alle 34B, DK-2610 Rodovre, Denmark; e-mail:
morten.heegaard@get2net.dk; 3Coulibistri, Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies; e-mail:
drbirdy2 @ cwdom.dm

Abstract.-We report observations from December 2002 to January 2004 of Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gra-
vis), American Wigeon (Anas americana), and Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireoflavifrons), plus some less rare pelagic
species, from Dominica, Lesser Antilles.
Key words: distributional records, Dominica, Lesser Antilles

Resumen.-OBSERVACIONES RECIENTES DE AVES EN DOMINICA, ANTILLAS MENORES. Reportamos las observa-
ciones de Puffinus gravis, Anas americana y Vireo flavifrons, ademas de algunas otras especies pelagicas menos
raras, hechas desde diciembre del 2002 hasta enero del 2004 en Dominica, Antillas Menores.
Palabras claves: Antillas Menores, Dominica, registros de distribucidn


DOMINICA LIES NEAR THE MID-POINT (15020'N,
61022'W) of the Lesser Antillean arc, a series of
islands each stemming from a volcanic center. Do-
minica rises abruptly to 1,447 m, with near-shore
deep water (almost 1000 m within few km) on the
northern, western (Caribbean), and southern sides
and somewhat shallower Atlantic coast depths to the
east. Its 785 km2 includes dry scrub woodland along
the west coast, and upland montane and lush tropi-
cal rainforests further inland that give way to elfin
forest at Morne Trios Pitons and Morne Diablotin.
The montane forests are home to some of the re-
gion's unique endemic fauna, including two Ama-
zons-Red-necked (Amazona arausiaca) and Impe-
rial (A. imperialis). The shoreline lacks extensive
beaches or mangrove bays, and supports only a few
small wetlands, although heavy annual rains sustain
several permanent rivers. This paper records no new
species of birds from Dominica, but provides details
on several seen only infrequently, including sea-
birds recorded a few km west of the island during
whale-watch trips.


OBSERVATIONS
Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis).-On 21
June 2003, up to five were photographed at sea with
Brown (Sula leucogaster) and Red-footed (S. sula)
boobies feeding over schools of fish being hunted
by dolphins (NJL). Several photos were submitted
to the voucher section of VIREO (VIREO ref. no.
V06/54/003-005; Fig. 1). Both Evans (1990 and
Raffaele et al. (1998) consider Greater Shearwater


Page 52


'very rare or a vagrant' to Dominica, yet recent data
from nearby Guadeloupe (Levesque and Y6sou
2005) indicate that it is most likely an annual
northbound migrant in June and July, with an esti-
mated 14,000 passing there annually. It is thus
equally likely in Dominican waters, even if still
essentially undetected.
American Wigeon (Anas americana).-From 7-
21 December 2002, a male and a female were found
feeding and resting on the Blenheim River estuary,
the male remaining until 4 Feb 2003 (NJL, BJB).
Both observers had previous experience with the
species in life. While Raffaele et al (1998) record it
as 'rare,' Evans (1990), who has worked extensively
on Dominica, lists it as 'unknown.' In 10 yr of ac-
tive fieldwork, BJB has seen no others, so the spe-
cies seems at best to be very rare on Dominica
Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons).-One
was studied closely and digitally photographed
through a 30x telescope at Savane Paille, 22 April
2003 (NJL, MH); two photos have been submitted
to the voucher section of VIREO (ref. no.
V06/54/001-002; Fig. 2). NJL has previously ob-
served this species in the USA. The only other
known Dominica record was one caught at 'Beauso
Jour' on 30 September 1904 (Verrill 1905).
Seabirds.-A recent paper by Keith and Keith
(2003) calls for more pelagic observations from the
Caribbean. In response, we report the following
observations, all from a whale watch boat and all by
NJL except as noted. On 25 January 2003, a Red-
footed Booby was in the bay south of Roseau and a


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005























Fig. 1. Greater Shearwater (Puffinus gravis) west of
Dominica, 21 June 2003. Photo by Niels J. Larsen.


Fig. 2. Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons) at Sa-
vane Paille, Dominica, 22 April 2003. Photo by Niels J.
Larsen.

Pomarine Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus) was
about 1 km from the beach. On 20 April 2003, a
Red-billed Tropicbird (Phaethon aethereus) was
seen from shore near Douglas Point. During the
early mornings of 23-30 April 2003, seabirds seen
from shore at Savane Paille included: ten Bridled
Terns (Sterna anaethetus) on 24 April (MH); 24
tropicbirds of which only two were identified as
Red-billed Tropicbirds (Phaethon aetherus; MH),
and although White-tailed P. lepturus breeds on
Dominica, none were seen with certainty from
Savane Paille during 2 yr NJL lived there; five
Brown and 14 Red-footed boobies on 24 April
(MH); and two Pomarine Jaegers on 30 April
2003 (MH). On 8 June 2003, seven jaegers


LARSEN ETAL RECENT BIRD OBSERVATIONS FROM DOMINICA

(probably Pomarines; plumage characters could not
be seen due to distance and poor light) were seen
flying south from the harbor in Roseau in mid- to
late afternoon. On 21 June 2003, during the same
whale watch where the shearwaters described above
were observed, one Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata),
minima of 15 Brown and 10 Red-footed Boobies,
and three probable Pomarine Jaegers were seen. On
13 September 2003, one adult Brown Booby, one
Bridled Tern, and one Brown Noddy (Anous
stolidus) were observed during a whale watch. On
10 January 2004, one Brown Booby was in the bay
south of Roseau. On 31 May 2003, minima of 30
Brown Noddies and 25 Roseate Terns (S. dougallii)
were fishing at Douglas Bay; most of the Roseate
Terns continued to frequent the area through June
(not checked during July), but Brown Noddy num-
bers tapered off during the first few days of June.
Except for the jaegers, all of these seabirds breed
widely in the Lesser Antilles and so are likely to
turn up almost anywhere, at any time.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We express gratitude to James W. Wiley for
pointing out the importance of the Verrill paper and
to Rosemarie Gnam and Martin Frost for help in
obtaining a copy. We also thank VIREO for being a
permanent host of the images mentioned here.


LITERATURE CITED
EVANS, P. G. H. 1990. Birds of the Eastern Carib-
bean. Macmillan, London.
KEITH, A. R., AND W. KEITH. 2003. More pelagic
bird sightings off Dominica. J. Carib. Ornithol.
16:26-30.
LEVESQUE, A., AND YESOU, P. 2005. Tubenose oc-
currence and abundance at Guadeloupe, Lesser
Antilles, 2001-2004. North Amer. Birds 59: in
press.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. Birds of the West Indies.
Christopher Helm Ltd., London.
VERRILL, A. H. [c. 1905]. Additions to the avifauna
of Dominica. Privately printed, Barbados.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 53












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:54-68, 2005


MORFOMETRIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ (COLINUS VIRGINIANUS)
EN DOS AREAS DEL OCCIDENTE DE CUBA

MARTIN ACOSTA E IANELA GARCIA-LAU
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana Calle 25, No. 455, entre J e I, Vedado,
Ciudad Habana, Cuba; e-mail: macosta @fbio. uh. cu

Resumen.-La Codorniz (Colinus virginianus) es una especie de la familia Odontophoridae, comdn en Am6rica
del Norte y muy utilizada en la actividad cineg6tica. En Cuba contamos con una subespecie C. v. cubanensis, que se
encuentra distribuida por todo el territorio nacional y seg6n Garrido y Garcia (1975) ha sufrido hibridaci6n con
ejemplares introducidos de la subespecie C. v. virginianus. En este trabajo nos proponemos realizar un estudio mor-
fol6gico, asi como de la alimentaci6n de la especie en dos municipios de nuestro pais, para lo cual se colectaron 44
ejemplares en Artemisa y 62 en Varadero. Los ejemplares colectados presentaron pesos que variaron entre los 153 y
los 158 g, con los mayores valores para los machos, aunque no de manera significativa, estos mostraron a su vez
una alta variabilidad en el patr6n de color negro presente en el pecho, lo que pudiera ser un indicador del cruza-
miento entre las dos subespecies. Los mayores pesos se registraron hacia mediados de la 6poca de seca cuando las
codornices han consumido en gran medida las semillas producidas durante las lluvias. En el estudio de la dieta se
detectaron 96 tipos de semillas diferentes, de las cuales la hierba de Guinea (Panicum maximum), de la familia Poa-
ceae fue la mas utilizada. Poaceas y fabaceas fueron las dos familias preferidas por la Codorniz. Ademas fueron
incluidos como alimentos algunas familias de invertebrados.
Palabras clave: alimentacion, cinegetica, Codorniz, Colinus virginianus, hibridacion, morfologia

Abstract.-MORPHEMETRICS AND DIET OF THE NORTHERN BOBWHITE (COLINUS VIRGINIANUS) IN Two AREAS OF
WESTERN CUBA. The Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) is a species from the family Odontophoridae and it
is a common resident of North America and very important as game bird. The Cuban subspecies, C. v. cubanensis,
is distributed throughout the country. This subspecies, according Garrido and Garcia (1975), has suffered a hybridi-
zation process in the fields with C. v. virginianus, a species introduced in Cuba. In this paper we conducted a mor-
phological and feeding analysis in two municipalities of our country. We collected 44 Northern Bobwhites in Arte-
misa and 62 in Varadero. The body mass of collected specimens varied between 153-158 g, averaging greater but
not significantly for males. Males varied greatly in the breast black patch, which may be an indicator of crossing
between both subspecies. The highest weights were detected by the middle of the dry season when Northern Bob-
whites had consumed a great quantity of food produced during the wet season. Seeds of 96 species of plants were
recorded in the stomach and crop contents of this species. The most important seed was the Guinea grass (Panicum
maximum), of the family Poaceae. In general, Poaceae and Fabaceae were the two families preferred by this species.
Some families of invertebrates were used as feeding items as well.
Key words: Colinus virginianus, food, game birds, hybridization, morphology, Northern Bobwhite


LA CODORNIZ (Colinus virginianus) es la 6nica
gallinicea aut6ctona de nuestro territorio y tradicio-
nalmente ha despertado gran inter6s entre los caza-
dores dado lo emocionante de su caceria por el em-
pleo de perros de muestra. Se encuentra distribuida
por Norte y Centro Am6rica, con poblaciones im-
portantes en el sureste de los Estados Unidos. Ha
sido ademis introducida con 6xito en varios pauses
como Haiti, Repdblica Dominicana y Nueva Zelan-
da (Departamento de Agricultura, 2002).
Existen 22 subespecies dentro de las cuales C. v.
cubanensis es end6mica de Cuba (Garcia 1987, del
Hoyo et al. 1994). La subespecie C. v. virginianus
ampliamente distribuida en Virginia, Estados Uni-
dos, ha sido introducida en Cuba varias veces y Ga-
rrido y Garcia (1975) mencionan que ambas subes-


Page 54


pecies, pueden haberse cruzado, por lo que en toda
la Isla se observan ejemplares intermedios en sus
patrones de coloraci6n y solo en la Isla de la Juven-
tud se conserva la subespecie nativa.
Uno de los aspectos determinantes en el desarro-
11o de las poblaciones es la posibilidad de uso de los
recursos tr6ficos, por lo que el estudio de la dieta se
ha convertido en uno de los aspectos principales de
la autoecologia de las especies animales (Denis
2000). Ademis, esta informaci6n resulta imprescin-
dible para conocer la funci6n que tiene cada especie
en los ecosistemas, asi como para tomar medidas
concretas para su manejo (Gonzalez et al. 2001). En
este sentido se han desarrollado investigaciones
ecol6gicas sobre otras especies de aves cineg6ticas
cubanas (Acosta y Berovides 1982, Acosta y Torres


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


1984a, Godinez 1993), pero no existe ninguno
que aborde a profundidad el estudio de la dieta de
las codornices, a pesar de que representa un im-
portante recurso cineg6tico con una larga tradi-
ci6n de uso en nuestro pais. Por estas razones los
objetivos de este trabajo son:
Describir y caracterizar morfom6tricamente a
los individuos adultos y juveniles. de Colinus
virginianus en la regi6n occidental de Cuba, asi
como estudiar la composici6n y estructura de la
dieta en individuos adultos.
Para esto seleccionamos poblaciones de codor-
nices que habitan en varias localidades del Muni-
cipio Artemisa, Provincia Habana, donde tradi-
cionalmente ha sido utilizada en la actividad cine-
g6tica, y ademis se realiz6 un estudio puntual en
el Municipio Varadero, Provincia Matanzas.


AREA DE ESTUDIO Y METODOS
Area de estudio.-El estudio se realize en va-
rias localidades del Municipio Artemisa, Provin-
cia Habana, desde marzo de 2003 hasta diciembre
de 2004. Para el trabajo se seleccionaron dos ti-
pos de Mreas, una donde no hay actividad cineg6-
tica nombrada "Finca la Mariquita", la cual se
utilize como control y otra irea con tamafio y
estructura similar donde si se efect6a la cacerfa, la
que se utiliz6 con fines comparativos. Ademis, se
realiz6 un estudio puntual los dias 11 y 12 de
diciembre de 2004 en dreas del Municipio Vara-
dero, Provincia de Matanzas, donde tambi6n se
practica la caza.
La Finca la Mariquita se encuentra a 6 km al N
de la localidad de "Las Caflas" y cuenta aproxi-
madamente con 20 ha de extensi6n. En ella hay
terrenos destinados al cultivo de frijoles, mafz,
mani y carla; otros son utilizados como 6reas de
pastoreo y estin cubiertos por diferentes plantas
herbiceas como el romerillo de costa (Viguiera
helianthoides), la hierba hedionda (Cassia sp.) y
la hierba de Guinea (Panicum maximum). Mu-


chos de estos terrenos estin delimitados por las lla-
madas "cercas vivas", formadas fundamentalmente
por almicigo (Bursera simaruba) y pifi6n de cerca
(Eritrina berteroana).
Todas las demis ireas muestreadas son muy pare-
cidas y estin principalmente dedicadas a las activi-
dades de pastoreo, incluidas las de Varadero.
Muestreos, colectas y procesamiento de datos.-
Las colectas se efectuaron en las primeras horas de
la malana (7:00-11:00 hr) y las 61timas de la tarde
(17:00-20:00 hr) que son en las que las codornices
se alimentan y por tanto tienen mayor actividad y se
realizaron empleando perros de muestra de raza
Braco Alemin.
En total se colectaron al azar 106 codornices
adultas, 44 en Artemisa entre los meses de septiem-
bre a marzo y 62 en Varadero en diciembre. La
composici6n de la muestra por municipio, sexo y
6poca (lluvia o seca) se especifica en la tabla 1. Se
consideraron los meses de mayo a octubre como los
meses de lluvia y los restantes como los de seca.
Entre junio y agosto se capturaron en Artemisa 17
pichones, utilizando un jamo de 60 cm de diimetro.
A estos se le tomaron las medidas morfom6tricas en
el campo para luego liberarlos en el mismo lugar
donde fueron capturados.
Los ejemplares colectados fueron debidamente
marcados y se les midi6 la longitud total; el largo,
ancho y altura del pico; la longitud del tarso y del
ala plegada. Esta 61tima en el caso de los pichones
se omiti6, midi6ndoles solo la longitud de las reme-
ras primarias. En los machos se tom6 el largo y el
ancho de cada testi, para despu6s determinar el
"area testicular" seg6n Acosta y Torres (1984b). En
ellos se realizaron tambi6n medidas para precisar la
longitud de la mancha negra del pecho y se confec-
cionaron varios esquemas con el fin de esclarecer
los diferentes patrones de coloraci6n que se obser-
van. Ademis, se tomaron las medidas (largo y an-
cho) de 15 huevos.
Todas estas mediciones se realizaron con un pie


Tabla 1. Distribuci6n por municipio, sexo y 6poca, de las Codornices (C. virginia-
nus) capturadas fuera del period de crfa durante los anos 2003 y 2004. Solo apare-
cen los individuos adultos.
Localidad Hembras Machos Lluvia Seca
Artemisa (n = 44) 16 28 17 27
Varadero (n = 62) 32 30 62
Total (n = 106) 48 58 17 89


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 55









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


de rey y una regla de 0,01 y 1 mm de precisi6n res-
pectivamente. Posteriormente los ejemplares se pe-
saron utilizando una balanza de dinam6metro marca
Pesola de 2 g de error. Luego se procedi6 a la ex-
tracci6n del buche y la molleja, los cuales fueron
rotulados con un ndmero de orden y congelados
para su posterior andlisis. De la muestra de Varade-
ros se analizaron 15 hembras y 16 machos.
En el laboratorio se pes6 el contenido de cada
buche y molleja y se separaron los articulos ingeri-
dos para luego ser pesados y contados individual-
mente. Tambi6n los gastrolitos encontrados sufrie-
ron el mismo procesamiento. Para esto se utilize
una balanza con 0,1 g de precisi6n. A cada articulo
se le asign6 una letra diferente y se confeccion6 un
muestrario para posteriores identificaciones. Los
articulos de origen animal fueron clasificados hasta
el nivel de orden y los de origen vegetal hasta el de
familia. Para la clasificaci6n de las leguminosas se
sigui6 el criterio que considera a Fabaceae como
una 6nica familia compuesta por tres subfamilias
(Le6n y Alain 1951).
Se tom6 una muestra representativa de la semilla
mis importante en la dieta de la Codorniz para de-
terminar sus medidas lineales, empleando un pie de
rey de 0,01 mm de error.
Para el anilisis morfom6trico se calcularon los
estadisticos de tendencia central y variabilidad a
cada variable y se realizaron comparaciones entre
los sexos por una prueba t de Student una vez com-
probada la normalidad por la prueba de Kolmogo-
rov-Smirnov.
Para el andlisis de la dieta se determin6 la propor-
ci6n num6rica y la proporci6n en peso que represen-
ta cada recurso en la dieta, asi como la frecuencia de
aparici6n de cada articulo para poder valorar el In-
dice de Importancia Alimentaria de Acosta (1982).
La evaluaci6n del subnicho tr6fico se efectdo me-
diante la utilizaci6n del indice de diversidad de
Shannon y Weaver (1949) y su varianza asociada,
calculindose tambi6n el indice de equitatividad de
Pielou (1966) para los diferentes tipos de recursos
ingeridos. La amplitud del nicho (Levins 1968) se
calcul6 para analizar comparativamente los resulta-
dos y compensar las deficiencias del primer indice.
Todos estos indices se tuvieron en cuenta para com-
parar la dieta entre sexos en cada municipio y entre
6pocas (lluvia y seca para las codornices de Artemi-
sa y ambos municipios durante la seca). Para el cal-
culo de todos ellos se utiliz6 el ndmero de articulos.
El grado de superposici6n de la dieta de las hembras
y los machos en cada municipio se determin6 por el


Page 56


indice de Schoener (1970). La similitud de la dieta
entre sexos, epocas y municipios desde el punto de
vista cualitativo, se calcul6 utilizando el indice de
Czchanovsky (Sorensen, 1948), mientras que para
el an6lisis cuantitativo se emple6 el Indice de Simi-
litud Cuantitativa de Acosta (1987). Tambi6n se
aplic6 una prueba t de Student para comparar el
peso del contenido de la molleja, del buche y de los
gastrolitos ingeridos entre sexos y 6pocas luego de
comprobar que cumplian con los requisitos de nor-
malidad y homogeneidad de varianzas. Todas las
pruebas se realizaron utilizando el programa Statis-
tica para Windows versi6n 6.0.


RESULTADOS Y DISCUSION
Andlisis morfometrico.-El estudio de las vari-
ables morfom6tricas puede ser en ocasiones un indi-
cador de diferencias en la posibilidad de utilizaci6n
de los recursos. Los valores promedios en el peso
corporal de la Codorniz en nuestras ireas de trabajo
(Tabla 2) presentaron valores inferiores a los pre-
sentados por Tejaden y Kays (2003) (172,2 y 229,6
g) para algunas dreas de los Estados Unidos, y a los
expuestos por Stoddard (1950) en la misma 6poca
para las codornices de Thomasville, Tallase y Santa
Helena y est6n muy cercanos a los expuestos por el
Departamento de Recursos Naturales (2001) para la
Florida (160,7 g), lo que sugiere una disminuci6n
del peso corporal para latitudes mas bajas como
sugieren del Hoyo et al. (1994).
No obstante los valores referidos a la longitud
total se encuentran enmarcados dentro de los citados
para la Am6rica del Norte (150 275 mm) (Wildlife
Division 1999, Georgia Wildlife 2000, Fergus
2003) que a su vez denotan una alta variabilidad
posiblemente relacionada con la notable cantidad de
subespecies que presenta C. virginianus.
Una comparaci6n de las principales variables
arroj6 diferencias estadisticamente significativas
entre los sexos, para la longitud del tarso y el largo
del pico, en ambos casos a favor de los machos.
Al parecer, el tarso mis largo les garantiza a los
machos cierta ventaja a la hora de huir ante un de-
predador si tenemos en cuenta que su locomoci6n
fundamental es terrestre, lo que concuerda con lo
planteado por Stoddard (1950). Por otra parte el
pico mis largo puede conducir a que su rango de
explotaci6n de recursos sea diferente y utilice arti-
culos que quiz6s las hembras no pueden consumir,
lo que facilitaria la segregaci6n intraespecifica en
el uso de los recursos tr6ficos. El resto de las varia-
bles mostraron un comportamiento muy similar


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


Tabla 2. Mediciones de las variables morfometricas en ambos sexos y su comparaci6n estadistica (n = tamanao de la mues-
tra, x = media, S = desviaci6n estandar, CV = coeficiente de variaci6n, P = probabilidad asociada a la prueba t de Student,
* = diferencias estadisticamente significativas (P < 0.05).

Sexo


Variables


Hembras


Machos


n xS CV n xS CV P

Peso corporal (g) 46 153,83 15,40 10,01 57 158,05 21,95 13,89 0,2720
Longitud total (mm) 45 218,82 8,53 3,90 54 218,26 12,70 5,82 0,8004
Ala plegada (mm) 48 105,04 3,32 3,16 57 105,84 3,45 3,26 0,2312
Tarso (mm)* 47 35,70 1,51 4,22 58 36,45 1,18 3,23 0,0048
Largo del pico (mm)* 47 14,24 0,73 5,12 56 14,66 0,58 3,93 0,0018
Ancho del pico (mm) 48 8,64 0,55 6,31 57 8,84 0,61 6,94 0,0873
Altura del pico (mm) 48 8,56 0,62 7,29 57 8,74 0,53 6,05 0,1188


entre ambos sexos. En general todos los caracte-
res medidos presentaron una variabilidad muy
baja, lo que aboga por un fenotipo muy estable
para la especie, muy bien adaptado a las condicio-
nes de vida terrestre.
Esta variabilidad baja se elev6 un tanto en el
peso corporal quiz6s por las variaciones en la
disponibilidad del alimento, la cantidad de ali-
mento acumulado en el est6mago, la hora de co-
lecta, etc. Resultados similares han sido expuestos
para Bubulcus ibis (Mugica et al. 1987), Columba
leucocephala (Godinez 1993) y Butorides vires-
cens (Denis et al. 2000).
Al comparar la longitud promedio de los tarsos
de las codornices con la encontrada por Acosta y
Mugica (1990a, b) para la Golondrina de Arboles
y para trece especies de bijiritas respectivamente,
puede apreciarse que se cumple la tendencia men-
cionada por Dilger (1956) acerca de que las espe-
cies que forrajean en el suelo tienen los tarsos
proporcionalmente mayores que las que lo hacen
en los troncos o en el espacio adreo. Ademris,
estos presentaron valores de coeficiente de varia-
ci6n bajos como plantean Acosta et al. (2002),
basado en que es una estructura 6sea que depende
principalmente de la composici6n gendtica de los
individuos y juega un papel crucial en la locomo-
ci6n de esta especie, principalmente terrestre.
En ambos sexos se observ6 un incremento del
peso a medida que avanza el periodo de seca,
dado el uso que pueden realizar, en este periodo,
de numerosas semillas que fueron producidas
durante la temporada de lluvias y que en este mo-
mento estin aun dispersas en el area de forrajeo y
se vuelven mas asequibles por la disminuci6n en


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


la vegetaci6n que caracteriza a esta etapa. Ya en
marzo los recursos comienzan a escasear y las co-
dornices reducen su peso al minimo (Fig. 1). Esto
ha sido registrado para otras aves no migratorias
como el Tftere Playero (Charadrius wilsonia) en
Sur America (McNeil, 1968) y para las Cachiporras
(Himan-topus mexicanus) en Venezuela (McNeil,
1970). Este autor encontr6 dos momentos en que el
peso de las Cachiporras se elevaba, uno al comienzo
de la etapa reproductiva, antes de la puesta de los
huevos y otro al final de la 6poca de lluvia, y plan-
te6 que esto puede tener valor adaptativo ya que les
permite enfrentarse al period de seca.
Al parecer, el hecho de haber introducido en Cu-
ba otra subespecie de C. virginianus desde la 6poca
colonial ha producido una alta variabilidad en el
patr6n de coloraci6n que presentan los machos en la
regi6n ventral, sobre todo en la extensi6n de la man-
cha negra que presentan en el pecho (Tabla 3) por lo


' 200

P 150 -
1O-
100

50 -

0-


septiembre octubre diciembre
Hembras 0 Machos


marzo
Meses


Fig. 1. Variaci6n en el peso de las codornices adultas,
previo y durante el period de seca en Artemisa.


Page 57


.









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


Tabla 3. Longitud de la mancha negra (mm) del pecho
de los machos C. virginianus para toda la muestra y para
los dos municipios estudiados (n = tamano de la mues-
tra, x = media, S = desviaci6n estandar, CV = coeficien-
te de variaci6n).

n x S CV

Total 45 32,72 16,92 51,72
Artemisa 15 42,03 14,81 35,25
Varadero 30 28,07 16,17 57,61


que se encontraron ejemplares adultos sin esta man-
cha o donde mide escasamente 10 mm de longitud y
otros en los que llega a medir hasta 70 mm y con
patrones totalmente inestables.
En Artemisa este caracter vari6 menos y tuvo una
longitud promedio mayor, es decir, los machos de
esta poblaci6n tienen la mancha negra mis extendi-
da y de una manera mis uniforme. A pesar de esto y
de ser en Varadero donde se encontraron los ejem-
plares que no tenian esta mancha, fue alli donde se
hall6 un ntmero mayor de individuos (9) con la
descripci6n que ofrece del Hoyo et al. (1994) sobre
la subespecie cubana: la mancha negra extendida y
vientre rojizo oscuro; en Artemisa se encontraron
solo cuatro. El resto de los machos tenian el vientre
moteado, mis parecidos a las subespecies de la Flo-
rida (C. v. floridanus) y de Virginia (C. v. virginia-
nus). Llama la atenci6n c6mo a pesar de ser la
muestra de Varadero mayor que la de Artemisa, se
present6 una variabilidad mayor, en lugar de una
mayor homogeneidad en los datos, esto pudiera
estar condicionado al hecho de que la subespecie C.
v. virginianus fue introducida, durante la 6poca de
la colonia, en las afueras de la ciudad de la Habana,
y al ser una especie de escasa movilidad ha tenido
mas tiempo de entrecruzamiento con la subespecie
cubana y de ahi la menor variabilidad en el patr6n
de coloraci6n.
Al parecer, los machos estin aptos para iniciar la
6poca reproductiva sin haber alcanzado el maximo
desarrollo de sus g6nadas, por lo que los valores
superiores en el tamafio de los testiculos se detecta-
ron hacia el final de la temporada (Fig. 2). A partir
de septiembre comienza el period de regresi6n con
una notable reducci6n de estas estructuras. Morales
(1980) encontr6 en Colinus cristatus un comporta-
miento similar. Este proceso ocurre en todas las
especies de reproducci6n estacional y representa un
mecanismo de ahorro de energia para el desarrollo
del resto de las actividades vitales que corresponden
a diferentes periodos del afio. La alta variabilidad


Page 58


80.0

S60.0

G 40.0 -

20.0

0.0


- media


-*-desviaci6n estandar
60
50 7
40


10
0


septiembre octubre diciembre
Meses


marzo


Fig. 2. Area testicular (AT) y variabilidad de los testis de
C. virginianus adultos capturados, previo y durante la
6poca no reproductiva en Artemisa.


encontrada en el mes de septiembre quiz6s se deba a
un defasaje entre los machos a la hora de comenzar
la regresi6n de sus testis, ya que los machos mis
j6venes pueden comenzar el period reproductivo y
terminarlo en una fecha un poco mis tardia que los
adultos de la temporada anterior.
El crecimiento de las crias se puede evaluar de
manera tentativa, a trav6s de los incrementos de
cada una de las variables durante los estadios de
desarrollo (Godinez 1993). Las remeras primarias
mostraron un desarrollo mis acelerado que el resto
de las variables analizadas (Fig. 3), lo que ha sido
registrado tambidn por Bent (1932), ya que de ellas
depende en gran medida la supervivencia de los
pichones en sus primeros estadios, al ser aves prin-
cipalmente terrestres. Acosta y Mugica (1992) en-
contraron la misma tendencia en el Sabanero
(Sturnella magna) en el Jardin Botinico Nacional.
El peso de los pichones fue menor a lo encontra-
do por Stoddard (1950) en Georgia y Virginia, por
lo que parece disminuir con la latitud al igual que
ocurre en los adultos. No obstante, presenta un de-
sarrollo acelerado debido a que estas aves en muy
poco tiempo alcanzan la condici6n de adultos.
Las medidas realizadas a los huevos coincidieron
con las encontradas por Vald6s (1984). La mayor
variabilidad (CV = 3,27 %) fue hallada en el largo
de los huevos, cuya amplitud flucttia entre 29,4 y
32,7 mm para un valor promedio de 30,7 mm. El
ancho promedio fue de 23,8 mm y varfo entre 23,1
y 24,5 mm.
Andlisis de la dieta.-La dieta de la Codorniz
consisti6 fundamentalmente en semillas de las que
se encontraron 96 tipos diferentes. Pudieron ser
identificadas 69 % y quedaron agrupadas en nueve
familias. Tambidn se hallaron insectos en estadio
adulto y larval, los cuales estaban mayormente des-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









- MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


-*- peso (g)
pico (mm)
-A- tarso (mm)
-x-- remeras (mm)





12 17 Edad (dias)


Fig. 3. Desarrollo de algunas variables morfom6tricas en pichones de C. virginianus en Artemisa.


membrados y se agruparon en seis 6rdenes dife-
rentes. Otros articulos encontrados fueron restos
de hojas, tallos, tierra y cuatro tipos de frutos, un
opili6n (orden Phalangida) y un molusco terrestre
(Prayicolella griseola; Polygyridae), los que tam-
bi6n han sido sefialados por Stoddard (1950). Para
las comparaciones solo se incluyeron las semillas
y los insectos, ya que fueron los grupos mis re-
presentativos en la dieta de la Codorniz.
La semilla de mayor importancia fue la de la
hierba de Guinea (Panicum maximum), que es
una semilla pequefia (3,37 x 1,20 mm) pertene-
ciente a la familia Poaceae (Fig. 4). Es muy pro-
bable que esto se deba a una mayor disponibilidad
en el medio, ademis de que esta planta produce
abundantes semillas durante el perfodo de lluvias.
Roig (1962) plantea que es una planta perenne
que crece espont6neamente en terrenos f6rtiles y
htmedos, ademis de que se considera el mejor
pasto del pais. Seg6n Wiseman (1977), esta fue
tambi6n la semilla mis frecuente en la dieta de las
codornices en Oklahoma (10,9 %). Las siguientes
19 semillas en orden de importancia aportaron de
forma individual entre 5 y 2 % a la dieta de semi-
llas de la Codorniz y las 76 restantes 1 % o me-
nos.
De todas las semillas consumidas, solo tres
pertenecieron a plantas de cultivos (arroz, mafz y
frijol) y representaron menos del 3 % de la dieta,
por lo que estas aves no parecen depender de la
presencia de los cultivos para el desarrollo de sus
poblaciones. El resto perteneci6 a plantas silves-
tres. Este resultado concuerda con Bent (1932)
quien planted que las codornices consumen prefe-
rencialmente los granos de los cultivos despu6s
de pasada la cosecha.
Las semillas de la familia Fabaceae fueron el
articulo mis frecuente (Tabla 4), y aparecieron en
el 93,3 % del total de los individuos analizados,



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


ademis aportaron la mayor biomasa. Stoddard
(1950) tambi6n clasific6 a estas semillas como el
alimento preferido de las codornices de Norteam6ri-
ca. Le siguieron en orden las de la familia Poaceae,
con 73,3 % de aparici6n y un aporte de 32,4 % a la
biomasa total, pero fueron las que mis contribuye-
ron al aporte num6rico con un 60,2 %.
Dentro del grupo de los insectos los mis frecuen-
tes fueron los cole6pteros y los hemipteros (27 y 23
% respectivamente) pero tuvieron un aporte num6ri-
co muy bajo. Las larvas de lepid6pteros fueron las
que mas contribuyeron al aporte en biomasa.
La frecuencia de aparici6n de los restos de hojas
fue menor a lo registrado por Wiseman (1977). No
obstante es de cierta importancia al compararlo con
los demis elementos que forman la dieta. Los arti-
culos mas raros, que aparecieron en menos del 10 %
de las muestras, fueron los himen6pteros, las frutas,


otros (n=76)
31%


Panicum
-maximum
16% 5
5%
V
4%
BA
4%

4%

G
4%
S AT
AL AZ4%
iw. 3%


Fig. 4. Composici6n de la dieta de semillas consumida por
C. virginianus en los dos municipios de estudio durante los
anos 2003 y 2004. Cada letra representa una semilla dife-
rente.


Page 59


N 35.0
30.0
25.0
20.0
15.0
10.0
5.0
0.0


'


ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


Tabla 4. Frecuencia de aparici6n, proporci6n en peso y en ndmero de cada grupo taxon6mico y
articulo identificado en la dieta de C. virginianus en los dos municipios de estudio durante los
afos 2003 y 2004 (L = larvas).

Grupo Frecuencia de Proporci6n en Proporci6n en
aparici6n (%) peso (%) ndmero (%)

Semillas
Fabaceae 93,3 38,9 31,2
Poaceae 73,3 32,4 60,2
Convolvulaceae 49,3 1,9 1,9
Euphorbiaceae 40,0 3,2 0,8
Verbenaceae 36,0 2,8 2,6
Cyperaceae 29,3 3,3 0,9
Passifloraceae 17,3 0,8 1,0
Solanaceae 4,0 0,1 0,2
Malvaceae 2,7 0,2 0,2

Insectos
Lepidoptera (L) 10,7 8,7 0,2
Coleoptera 26,7 0,2 0,1
Hemiptera 22,7 0,2 0,1
Homoptera 15,0
Hymenoptera 8,0
Orthoptera 1,3 0,3

Otros
Opiliones 1,3
Moluscos 1,3
Frutas 5,0 6,4 0,2
Restos de hojas 25,3 0,3 0,2
Restos de tallos 3,0
Tierra 1,3


las semillas de las familias Solanaceae y Malvaceae,
asi como los restos de tallos, los ort6pteros, los opi-
liones, moluscos y tierra.
Como resultado de esto, las poiceas y las fabi-
ceas fueron los grupos de mayor importancia ali-
mentaria, marcando una gran diferencia con el resto
de los articulos consumidos que presentaron valores
inferiores a 0,6 (Fig. 5).
No se encontraron grandes diferencias en cuanto
al aporte energ6tico de las semillas pertenecientes a
las familias botinicas mis utilizadas por la Codor-
niz (Tabla 5), aunque vale destacar que las dos fa-
milias mis importantes en su dieta son la que menos
calorias poseen. Esto sugiere que no existe una se-
lecci6n en t6rminos de energia por parte del ave en
cuanto a los recursos que consume, ya que aunque
otras semillas presentan mayor contenido energ6tico
ellas hacen un uso diferencial de las fab6ceas y po6-
ceas. Esto pudiera ser un indicador de que estas son
las semillas mis abundantes en su habitat y necesi-
tan un menor gasto energ6tico para su obtenci6n.
Por otro lado hay que tener en cuenta que aunque


Page 60


estas dos familias son las que menos calorias apor-
tan quiz6s les sea suficiente para las actividades que
realizan, ya que son bastante sedentarias y solo rea-
lizan cortos vuelos en momentos de necesidad.
Teniendo en cuenta los valores de los indices
ecol6gicos calculados para todos los articulos que
conformaron la dieta de la Codorniz (H' = 2,52; Bij
= 4,15; J' = 0,54), asi como los datos obtenidos res-
pecto a sus preferencias alimentarias, puede plan-
tearse que el tipo de alimento ingerido por esta es-
pecie responde en primer lugar a la cantidad y dis-
tribuci6n en que se encuentre disponible en su hibi-
tat, mas que a una selecci6n por parte del animal, lo
que implica un comportamiento oportunista. Esto
garantiza la supervivencia de la especie al permitirle
una utilizaci6n mis amplia de los recursos presentes
en su habitat. Godinez (1993) encontr6 valores de
diversidad (H' = 2,63) tan alto como los hallados en
este trabajo durante el estudio de la Torcaza Cabeci-
blanca (Columba leucocephala), especie que es
considerada tambi6n oportunista para la alimenta-
ci6n.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU- MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


I'al.8 -
1.6 -
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6 -
0.4 -








Fig. 5. Importancia alimentaria (I'a) de los grupos identificados en la dieta de C. virginianus en los dos munici-
pios de estudio durante los anios 2003 y 2004 (L: larvas).


En general, el ndmero promedio de articulos
por buche fue de 7,3 y estos contenfan 4,04 g de
alimento (n = 60) con un minimo de 0,1 g y un
maximo de 10,4 g. Ambos valores fueron supe-
riores a los encontrados por Wiseman (1977).
En el buche no se encontraron gastrolitos,
mientras que en la molleja estos constituyeron el
17 % del total de su contenido (Fig. 6). Esto hace
pensar que el ave no los consume constantemente,
sino que hace uso de ellos solamente cuando los
necesita y probablemente lo haga en las primeras
horas de la mafiana, cuando el tracto digestivo se
encuentra a6n vacfo y por tanto pasan directamen-
te a la molleja sin ser acumulados en el buche. Es
decir, hay un consumo diferencial de acuerdo con
la capacidad y necesidad de trituraci6n para moler
el alimento ingerido. En general, se encontraron
gastrolitos en el 72 % de las mollejas analizadas y
nemitodos en el buche de cinco codornices


Tabla 5. Aporte energ6tico de las principales familias
botanicas incluidas en la dieta de la Codorniz. Tornado
de Cummins y Wuycheck (1971).

Aporte energ6tico (Cal/
Familia gramo)

Fabaceae 4678
Poaceae 4357
Convolvulaceae 4945
Euphorbiaceae 5326
Verbenaceae 5490
Cyperaceae 4870



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


(cuatro hembras y un macho), lo que ha sido tam-
bi6n detectado por Dfaz-Ungrfa (1965) y por Mora-
les (1980) para Colinus cristatus en Venezuela.
Alimentacidn por sexo en cada municipio.-En
Artemisa no se encontraron diferencias en cuanto al
ndmero de grupos representados en la dieta de cada
sexo (Tabla 6). Sin embargo, se observ6 en los ma-
chos cierta tendencia a consumir mis semillas que
las hembras, mientras que en estas incluyeron mis
insectos en su dieta que los machos. Esto puede
estar dado por diferencias en los requerimientos
nutricionales basadas en las principales actividades
que realizan. Las hembras, al ser las encargadas de
la producci6n de huevos, necesitan comer mis in-
sectos para suplir sus necesidades proteicas. Los
machos por su parte consumen mis alimentos ricos
en carbohidratos ya que estos les proporcionan la
energia necesaria para cantar, defender su territorio
y correr para alejar a los predadores del nido duran-
te la cria, entre otras actividades.
No se encontraron diferencias estadfsticamente
significativas en el peso del contenido del buche ni
en la molleja entre hembras y machos (Tabla 7). No
obstante, se observ6 cierta superioridad por parte de
las hembras en cuanto al peso del contenido del
buche. Esto quiz6s se deba a que dedican mis tiem-
po a la alimentaci6n manteniendo el buche mis lle-
no y esto les permite contar con el alimento necesa-
rio para garantizar el desarrollo de estructuras repro-
ductivas tan costosas como la producci6n de hue-
vos, mientras que los machos parecen dedicarle mis
tiempo a otras actividades posiblemente relaciona-
das con la defensa del territorio, la vigilancia ante
los depredadores, etc.


Page 61









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


A

materia
animal
38% A


gastrolitos
17%


semillas
45%


materia
animal
39% I


Ssemillas
61%


Fig. 6. Representaci6n general de cada tipo de articulo en la molleja (A) y en el buche (B) de C. virginianus en los dos
municipios de estudio durante los anos 2003 y 2004.


En ambos sexos se puso de manifiesto un mayor
uso de las semillas de fab6ceas y poiceas, aunque
no en el mismo orden ni en la misma proporci6n
(Fig. 7). Siguieron en orden en el caso de los ma-
chos los hemipteros y en el caso de las hembras los
lepid6pteros. Esto iltimo resulta de importancia si
se tiene en cuenta que todos los lepid6pteros encon-
trados estaban en estadio larval y pertenecian a la
familia Geometridae, cuyas mariposas suelen tener
hibitos nocturnos. Ademis, algunas de estas polillas
pueden constituir plagas para algunos sembrados
(Metcalf y Flint 1966), por lo que la Codorniz pu-
diera ser considerada como un controlador biol6gi-
co en algunas dreas de cultivos. El resto de los arti-
culos presentaron valores bajos y similares.
La variedad de articulos consumidos por los ma-
chos fue mayor que el de las hembras (Tabla 8).
Estos son capaces de utilizar algunos articulos que
las hembras pasan por alto, lo cual pudiera estar
relacionado con las diferencias planteadas anterior-
mente en la estructura del pico. La amplitud del
nicho y el indice de diversidad mostraron valores
altos para los dos sexos por lo que ambos utilizan
una gran variedad de recursos en su alimentaci6n;
aunque vale destacar que en todos los casos estos
indices fueron mayores para los machos y que H'
mostr6 diferencias estadisticamente significativas.
El indice de equitatividad mostr6 valores muy pare-
cidos y fue relativamente alto, justific6ndose bien su
valor por el hecho de que esta especie presenta un
comportamiento generalista en el uso de los recur-
sos y los consume en la medida en que se encuen-


tran presentes en el medio.
Sin embargo, el grado de superposici6n del nicho
tr6fico fue 49 %, por lo que hay cierta tendencia a
que la dieta entre los sexos sea diferente. Es posible
que esta diferencia est6 marcada por los articulos
menos abundantes en su habitat, ya que al calcular
la similitud cualitativa entre los articulos que for-
man la dieta arroj6 un valor de 71 % y desde el pun-
to de vista cuantitativo ascendi6 a 77 %. Esta cerca-
nia en ambos valores puede ser un indicador de que
los articulos utilizados en mayor proporci6n, por
ambos sexos, son los comunes y solo los utilizados
de manera esporidica diferencian las dietas.
No se encontraron diferencias estadisticamente
significativas en cuanto al peso promedio de los
gastrolitos en las mollejas de cada sexo (P =
0,4214), aunque al parecer, las hembras tienden a
consumir un mayor numero de ellos (Tabla 9).
En Varadero tampoco se encontraron grandes
diferencias en cuanto a los grupos consumidos por
cada sexo (Tabla 10). Igualmente se registry la ten-
dencia en los machos a consumir mis semillas que
las hembras y de estas a consumir mis insectos que
los machos, aunque las diferencias aquf fueron mu-
cho mis discretas que en Artemisa, debido a que el
muestreo se efectu6 solo en un momento del aflo.
Tampoco se presentaron diferencias estadistica-
mente significativas al analizar el peso del conteni-
do del buche y de la molleja entre sexos para las
codornices de Varadero (Tabla 11). Vale sefialar
que los valores promedios de las mollejas son muy


Tabla 6. Ndmero de grupos y de articulos alimentarios identificados, por sexo, en la dieta de C. virginianus en Artemisa
durante los anos 2003 y 2004.


Ndmero de grupos
Semillas (familias) Insectos (6rdenes)


Ndmero promedio de articulos
Semillas Insectos


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Hembras 9 5 456,4 4,7
Machos 9 5 548,0 3,8


Page 62









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


Tabla 7. Peso del contenido del buche y de la molleja de C. virginianus por sexo en Artemisa durante los anos 2003 y
2004 y su comparaci6n estadistica (x = media, S = desviaci6n estandar, CV = coeficiente de variaci6n, P = probabilidad
asociada a la prueba t de Student).

Buche Molleja
x +S CV P x S CV P
Hembras 5,6 2,4 41,8 2,9 0,7 23,5
Machos 3,9 2,6 68,7 0,065 2,6 0,6 24,2 0,120


r/H
H Sexo


Tipo de articulo


Fig. 7. Valores del Indice de Importancia Alimentaria (I'a) de los articulos consumidos por la Codorniz (C. virginianus)
seg6n el sexo en Artemisa durante los anios 2003 y 2004 (H: hembras, M: machos, L: larvas).


parecidos a los encontrados en Artemisa y con
coeficientes de variaci6n bajos, debido a que el
buche mantiene a la molleja con un volumen cons-
tante para el proceso de trituraci6n.
En ambos sexos los mayores valores del Indice
de Importancia Alimentaria se encontraron nueva-
mente para las po6ceas y las fabiceas (Fig. 8). A
diferencia de lo ocurrido en Artemisa, aquf las
proporciones consumidas por los machos sobrepa-
saron a las hembras solo en el caso de las poiceas.
Siguieron en orden las semillas de euforbiaceas
mientras que el resto de los articulos consumidos
tuvieron valores inferiores a 0,3.

Tabla 8. Variedad de articulos consumidos (S), diversidad
(H'), amplitud (Bij) y equitatividad (J') del subnicho
tr6fico de C. virginianus por sexo en Artemisa durante los
anios 2003 y 2004. = diferencias estadisticamente signi-
ficativas (P < 0.05).

S H' Bij J'
Hembras 61 2,53* 5,60 0,60
Machos 69 2,59* 5,83 0,61


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Los valores aportados por los indices ecol6gicos
para la dieta de cada sexo en este municipio fueron
semejantes y el indice de diversidad no mostr6 dife-
rencias significativas (Tabla 12). En este caso se
encontraron los mayores valores en las hembras. Sin
embargo, la variedad de articulos se mantuvo mas
elevada en los machos. Todos los valores fueron
inferiores a los encontrados en Artemisa debido a
que aquf nada mis se analiz6 la dieta en diciembre y
en Artemisa esti incluida la dieta en diferentes mo-
mentos del afio.
El grado de superposici6n del nicho tr6fico entre
ambos sexos fue 69 %, valor bastante bajo si tene-


Tabla 9. Contenido de gastrolitos en la molleja de C. vir-
ginianus, por sexo en el Municipio Artemisa durante los
anos 2003 y 2004.

Hembras Machos
Nfmero promedio 28,14 18,12
Peso promedio de piedras por 0,41 0,34
molleja (g)
Frecuencia de aparici6n (%) 88 93


Page 63









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


Tabla 10. Ndmero de grupos y de articulos alimentarios identificados en la dieta de C. virginianus
por sexo en Varadero en diciembre de 2004.
Ndmero de grupos Ndmero promedio de articulos
Semillas (familias) Insectos (6rdenes) Semillas Insectos
Hembras 7 4 716,5 1,1
Machos 8 4 734,7 0,7

Tabla 11. Peso del contenido del buche y la molleja de C. virginianus por sexo en Varadero en
diciembre de 2004 y su comparaci6n estadistica entre sexos (x = media, S = desviaci6n estandar,
CV = coeficiente de variaci6n, P = probabilidad asociada a la prueba t de Student).
Buche Molleja
x+S CV P x+S CV P
Hembras 3,11 2,23 71,8 2,66 0,68 25,5
Machos0,387 3,2,31 0,79 0,2120
Machos 3,89 2,49 63,9 2,31 0,79 34,2


mos en cuenta que todos los individuos fueron cap-
turados en el misma drea y durante dos dfas conse-
cutivos. La similitud cualitativa y cuantitativa fue
75 % y 83 % respectivamente. Todo esto ratifica
que hay una tendencia a la presencia de ligeras dife-
rencias entre la dieta de los machos y las hembras.
No se encontraron diferencias estadfsticamente
significativas en cuanto al peso promedio de las
piedras en las mollejas de cada sexo (P = 0,1607),
aunque las hembras tienden a consumir un mayor
ndmero de piedras (Tabla 13), igual que sucedi6 en
Artemisa.
Alimentacidn por ipoca.-En Artemisa, durante
la 6poca de lluvia las codomices consumieron un
mayor ndmero de artfculos comparado con la 6poca
de seca (Tabla 14), lo cual debe estar condicionado
a una menor disponibilidad de alimento durante la



I'a


seca. Ademis, el grado de utilizaci6n de los insectos
pudiera estar determinado por el incremento en las
necesidades de protefnas que se producen durante
esta etapa para poder asumir el gasto reproductivo,
ademis pudiera representar tambi6n un consumo
oportunista ya que en este perfodo se presenta el
pico reproductivo de la mayorfa de los insectos y
por tanto se encuentran mas disponibles en el me-
dio. Durante el perfodo de seca el ndmero de grupos
de artfculos consumidos en los dos municipios fue
semejante entre sf y a la cantidad encontrada duran-
te la lluvia en Artemisa. En Varadero se apreci6 una
mayor utilizaci6n de las semillas debido quiz6s a
una mayor disponibilidad en el medio.
En el municipio Artemisa, durante el perfodo de
lluvia las po6ceas fueron el artfculo mas importante
de la dieta, seguidas por las fabiceas con valores












H Sexo



0'q Tipo de articulo


Fig. 8. Valores del Indice de Importancia Alimentaria (I'a) de los grupos consumidos por la Codorniz (C. virgi
nianus) seg6n el sexo en Varadero en diciembre de 2004 (H: hembras, M: machos, L: larvas).


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 64









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


Tabla 12. Variedad de articulos consumidos (S), diver-
sidad (H'), amplitud (Bij) y equitatividad (J') del sub-
nicho tr6fico de C. virginianus por sexo en Varadero en
diciembre de 2004.

S H' Bij J'
Hembras 48 1,85 2,84 0,48
Machos 56 1,83 2,68 0,45

Tabla 13. Analisis del contenido de piedras en la molle-
ja de C. virginianus por sexo en Varadero en diciembre
de 2004.

Hembras Machos
Ndmero promedio 21,20 5,33
Peso promedio de piedras 0,60 0,15
por molleja (g)
Frecuencia de aparici6n (%) 33 56


mucho mis bajos (Fig. 9). Esto se invirti6 com-
pletamente durante la seca al ser las fabiceas el
grupo mis importante marcando una diferencia
adn mayor con las poiceas. Sin embargo, en Va-
radero durante la 6poca de seca ambas familias
tuvieron valores de importancia muy similares y
altos. Si se compara el perfodo de seca en Artemi-
sa con el perfodo de seca de Varadero se observa
que en los dos casos siguen en importancia las
mismas familias de semillas. El resto de los artf-
culos no tuvieron una importancia relevante. El
Indice de Importancia Alimentaria fue mayor
durante la 6poca de lluvia para todos los insectos,
destac6ndose las larvas de mariposas y los co-
le6pteros.
Las variaciones num6ricas de los grupos de
semillas consumidas en cada 6poca del afio solo
fueron relevantes para las fabiceas y po6ceas
(Fig. 10A). En la estaci6n de lluvia disminuy6
notablemente el consumo de fab6ceas y aument6
el de las poiceas lo cual debe estar condicionado
por los cambios estacionales de disponibilidad de
estas semillas en su habitat. Las po6ceas son un
grupo que generalmente est6 presente durante
todo el aio, pero se observa un incremento en su
producci6n de semillas cuando comienza el pe-
rfodo de lluvia ya que en 61 florecen y fructifican


(Pedro Herrera, com. pers). Este resultado coincide
con los de Morales (1980) y ratifica el caricter
oportunista de esta especie, al tomar del medio lo
que abunde en cada momento demostrando de esta
forma su gran adaptabilidad a ambientes cambian-
tes, como los destinados a la agricultura. Posible-
mente el aumento en el consumo de fab6ceas du-
rante la estaci6n de seca est6 ocasionado por una
disminuci6n en la abundancia de po6ceas, aunque
muchas de ellas fructifican y florecen en este mo-
mento. Lo mismo ocurre con los insectos (Fig.
10B).
Desde el punto de vista cualitativo la dieta de la
Codorniz arroj6 en ambos perfodos un indice de
similitud del 71 %, el cual se basa en diferencias en
las semillas consumidas en cada 6poca ya que todos
los grupos de insectos estuvieron presentes en los
dos perfodos. La diferencia mis grande se present6
en el ndmero de cada artfculo, aspecto en que la
similitud cuantitativa fue de un 33 %, lo que debe
estar condicionado por la disponibilidad de los artf-
culos en cada 6poca.
Los mayores valores de diversidad se registraron
durante el perfodo de seca en Artemisa, esto respon-
de fundamentalmente a un uso mis equitativo de los
recursos alimentarios (Tabla 15). Las diferencias
encontradas en cuanto a los artfculos ingeridos en
cada municipio durante la 6poca de seca pudieran
explicarse teniendo en cuenta la posible variabilidad
en las ofertas nutricionales en cada uno de ellos,
ademds de por los diferentes momentos en que se
realizaron las colectas.
Durante el perfodo de lluvia las codornices consu-
mieron un mayor numero de gastrolitos pero de
menor tamano (Tabla 16). Aunque el peso promedio
de gastrolitos por molleja no mostr6 diferencias
estadfsticamente significativas al compararlo entre
6pocas (P = 0,2053), hubo una tendencia a que las
piedras fueran mayores durante la seca, probable-
mente por la necesidad de triturar una mayor canti-
dad de semillas. Es decir, durante la lluvia consu-
mieron muchos gastrolitos pero de pequefio tamaflo
y durante la seca consumieron menos pero de mayor
tamafio. No se observaron grandes diferencias en
cuanto a la frecuencia de consumo.


Tabla 14. Ndmero de grupos y de articulos identificados en la dieta de C. virginianus por 6poca (A:
en Artemisa, V: en Varadero).
Ndmero de grupos Ndmero promedio de articulos
Semillas (familias) Insectos (6rdenes) Semillas Insectos
Hembras 7 4 716,5 1,1
Machos 8 4 734,7 0,7


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 65









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


I'a 2.2
2
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2



Seca (v)
dk tt &Lluvia (A)

STipo de articulo

Fig. 9. Valores del Indice de Importancia Alimentaria (I'a) de los grupos consumidos por la Codorniz (C. virginianus)
seg6n la 6poca del anio y el municipio (A: en Artemisa, V: en Varadero, L: larvas).


100%


S80% -


= 60%


40%

, 20%


0%
Lluvia

Poaceae
0 Verbenaceae
El Cyperaceae


100%


2 80%


60%


40%

20%
e 20%


Seca -poca

M Fabaceae
* Convolvulaceae


* Lepidoptera
o Coleoptera
* Hymenoptera


Fig. 10. Variaciones num6ricas de los articulos consumido por la Codomiz (C. virginianus) durante la 6poca de lluvia y
seca en Artemisa para las familias botanicas (A) y para los insectos (B).


CONCLUSIONES
Aunque el dimorfismo sexual se presenta princi-
palmente en relaci6n con las diferencias en colora-
ci6n de hembra y machos existen otros caracteres
como el largo del pico y el tarso, que son ligeramen-
te mayores en los machos.
El patron de color presente en el pecho de los
machos es sumamente variable, al parecer por los
cruzamientos ocurridos con C. v. virginianus.
Los pichones son nidifugos y crecen ripidamente.
El car6cter con desarrollo m6s acelerado fue el ta-
mafio de las alas, lo que les permite volar desde


Page 66


muy temprano favoreciendo su supervivencia.
La Codorniz es una especie que consume funda-
mentalmente semillas, con un amplio espectro tr6fi-
co que no depende de una selectividad especifica,
sino de la disponibilidad y abundancia de los recur-
sos existentes. Las semillas m6s utilizadas fueron
las pertenecientes a las familias Poaceae y Faba-
ceae.
Existe una tendencia a que ambos sexos utilicen
los recursos alimentarios en proporciones diferen-
tes, lo que debe ayudar a la disminuci6n de la com-
petencia intraespecffica.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Lluvia Seca poca


M Hemiptera
U3 Homoptera









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


Tabla 15. Variedad de articulos consumidos (S), diversi-
dad (H'), amplitud (Bij) y equitatividad (J') del subnicho
tr6fico de C. virginianus por 6poca (A: Artemisa, V:
Varadero). = diferencias estadisticamente significativas
(P < 0.05).

S H' Bij J'
Lluvia (A) 65 1,97* 2,90 0,47
Seca (A) 66 2,97* 11,80 0,71
Seca (V) 67 1,89* 2,73 0,45

Tabla 16. Analisis del contenido de gastrolitos en la
molleja de C. virginianus por 6poca durante la lluvia y la
seca en Artemisa.

Hembras Machos
N6mero promedio 37 12,4
Peso promedio de piedras por 0,42 0,32
molleja (g)
Frecuencia de aparici6n (%) 88 93



LITERATURA CITADA
ACOSTA, M. 1982. Indice para el estudio del nicho
tr6fico. Cien. Biol. 7:125-126.
ACOSTA, M. 1987. Una expresi6n de similaridad
cuantitativa. Utilizaci6n espacial y temporal en
aves. Rev. Cubana Biol. 3:67-72.
ACOSTA, M., Y V. BEROVIDES. 1982. Ecologia
tr6fica de las palomas del g6nero Zenaida en el
sur de Pinar del Rio. Cien. Biol. 7:113-123.
ACOSTA, M., Y L. MUGICA. 1990a. Preferencias
tr6ficas de la Golondrina de Arboles (Tachy-
cineta bicolor) (Vieillot). Cien. Biol. 23:121-
124.
ACOSTA, M., Y L. MUGICA. 1990b. Introducci6n al
estudio del espacio morfol6gico en trece especies
de bijiritas (Aves: Parulinae). Cien. Biol. 23:90-
99.
ACOSTA, M. Y L. MUGICA. 1992. Ciclo de vida del
Sabanero (Sturnella magna) (Aves: Icterinae) en
el Jardin Botinico Nacional. Revista del JBN.
8:123-128.
ACOSTA, M. Y 0. TORRES. 1984. Ecologia tr6fica
de las palomas del g6nero Zenaida en el Jardin
Botinico de Cienfuegos, Cuba. Cien. Biol.
11:107-116.
ACOSTA, M., Y 0. TORRES. 1984b. Morfometria,
reproducci6n y muda de palomas del g6nero Ze-
naida en el Jardin Botinico de Cienfuegos. Cu-
ba. Cien. Biol. 11:117-128.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


ACOSTA, M., A. C. LOPEZ, Y L. MUGICA. 2002.
Influencia del peso corporal y la longitud del tar-
so en las relaciones ecol6gicas de la comunidad
de aves acuiticas del agroecosistema arrocero.
Rev. Biol. 16:109-122.
BENT, A. C. 1932. Life histories of North American
gallinaceous birds. U. S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 162:1-
477.
DEL HOYO, J., A. ELLIOTT, Y J. SARGATAL. 1994.
Handbook of birds of the world. Vol 2. New
world vultures to guineafowl. Barcelona: Lynx
Editions. 638 pp.
DENIS, D. 2000. Aplicaci6n del m6todo Jackknife a
un descriptor de la dieta en Aves. Rev. Biol.
14:126-132.
DENIS, D., L. MUGICA, M. ACOSTA, Y A. JIMENEZ.
2000. Morfometria y alimentaci6n del Aguitacai-
min (Butorides virescens) (Aves: Ardeidae) en
dos arroceras cubanas. Rev. Biol. 14(2):133-140.
DEPARTAMENTO DE AGRICULTURA. 2002. Bobwhite
quail (Colinus virginianus). http://
ww.agric.wa.gov.au/agency/pubris/infonote/
infonotees/bwquail.html. (Julio 2003).
DEPARTAMENTO DE RECURSOS NATURALES. 2001.
The Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus.
http://www.state.ia.us/wildlife. (Julio2003).
DIAZ-UNGRIA, C. 1965. Nemitodos parisitos de
aves de Calabozo. Bol. Soc. Venez. Cien. Nat. 26
(110):103-128. [citado por Morales, 1980].
DILGER, W. C. 1956. Adaptive modifications and
ecological isolating mechanisms in the thrush
genera Catharus and Hilocichla. Wilson Bull.
68:171-199. [citado por Acosta et al., 2002].
FERGUS, C. 2003. Bobwhite Quail. http://
sites.state.pa.us/PA_Exec/PGC/w_notes/
bobwhite.html. (Julio-2003).
GARCIA, F. 1987. Las aves de Cuba. Subespecies
end6micas. Tomo II. Ciudad de la Habana: Ed.
Gente Nueva. 97 pp.
GARRIDO, 0. H., Y F. GARCIA. 1975. Catilogo de
las aves de Cuba. Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.
149 p.
GEORGIA WILDLIFE. 2000. Bobwhite. http://
museum.nhm.uga.edu/gawildlife/birds/
Galliformes/cvirginianus.html. (Julio-2003).
GODINEZ, E. 1993. Situaci6n de las poblaciones de
Columba leucocephala (Aves: Columbidae) en
Cuba entre 1979 y 1987. La Habana: Editorial
Academia. 78 pp.


Page 67









ACOSTA Y GARCIA-LAU MORFOLOGIA Y ALIMENTACION DE LA CODORNIZ


LEON, H., Y H. ALAIN. 1951. Flora de Cuba. Vol 2.
Im. P. Fernandez y Cia. 456 p.
LEVINS, R. 1968. Evolution in changing environ-
ments. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. 210
pp.
MCNEIL, R. 1970. Lean-season fat in a South
American population of black-necked stilts. Con-
dor 73:472-475.
METCALF, C. L., Y W. P. FLINT. 1966. Insectos
destructivos e insectos tiles. La Habana: Edici6n
Revolucionaria. 1208 pp.
MORALES, G. 1980. Grupos de edad, hibitos ali-
mentarios y ciclo reproductivo de la Perdiz Saba-
nera (Colinus cristatus, Aves: Gallifomes) en el
Alto Apure, Venezuela. Acta Biol. Venez. 10:
215-239.
MUGICA, L., 0. TORRES, Y A. LLANES. 1987. Mor-
fometria de la garza ganadera (Bubulcus ibis) en
algunas regiones de Cuba. Poeyana 334:1-8.
PIELOU, E. C. 1966. The measurement of diversity
in different types of biological collections. J.
Theoret. Biol. 13:131-144.
ROIG, J. T. 1962. Diccionario botinico de nombres
vulgares cubanos. Editorial Nacional de Cuba,
Editora del Consejo Nacional de Universidades.
La Habana. 2t. 1142 pp.
SCHOENER, T. W. 1970. Non-synchronous spatial


overlap of lizards in patchy habitats. Ecology
51:408-418.
SHANNON, C. E., Y W. WEAVER. 1949. The mathe-
matical theory of communication. Urbana, IL:
Univ. Illinois Press. 117 pp.
SORENSEN, T. 1948. A method of establishing
groups of equal amplitude in plant society based
on similarity of species content. K. Danske
Vidensk. Sesk. 5:1-34.
STODDARD, L. H. 1950. The Bobwhite quail. It's
habits, preservation and increase. New York:
Charles Scribner's Sons. 559 pp.
TEJADEN, B. Y J. KAYS. 2003. Wildlife Manage-
ment: Bobwhite Quail. FS-602- Wildlife Manage-
ment Bobwhite Quail. http://www.agnr.umd.edu./
MCE/Publications/Publication.cdm?=ID562.
(Junio-2003).
VALDES, V. 1984. Datos de nidificaci6n sobre las
aves que viven en Cuba. Poeyana 282:1-27.
WILDLIFE DIVISION. 1999. Bobwhite. Colinus vir-
ginianus. http://dep.state.ct.us/dep.state.ct.us/
burnatr/wildlife/wildlife/pdf/bwhite.pdf. (Junio
2003).
WISEMAN, D. 1977. Food habits and weights of
bobwhite from north-eastern Oklahoma tall grass
prairie. Proc. Okla. Acad. Sci. 57:110-115.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 68












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:69-71, 2005


FIRST RECORDS OF WHITE-EYED VIREO, BLUE-WINGED WARBLER,
AND BLUE-WINGED WARBLER x GOLDEN-WINGED WARBLER HYBRID FOR ST. MARTIN

ADAM C. BROWN1'2 AND NATALIA COLLIER1
1Environmental Protection In the Caribbean, 200 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd., Riviera Beach,
FL 33404, USA; e-mail: abrown@epicislands.org

Abstract.-We observed a single White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), banded a Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora
pinus), and banded a Blue-winged Warbler x Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) hybrid on Pic Para-
dis, St. Martin, FWI, during January of 2005. These are the first records for these species on St. Martin and the
White-eyed Vireo observation constitutes the first record for this species in the Lesser Antilles.
Key Words: Blue-winged Warbler, Golden-winged Warbler, hybrid, Lesser Antilles, St. Martin, Vermivora
chrysoptera, Vermivora pinus, Vireo griseus, White-eyed Vireo

Resumen.-PRIMEROS REGISTROS DE VIREO GRISEUS, VERMIVORA PINUS, Y VERMIVORA PINUS x VERMIVORA
CHRYSOPTERA EN ST. MARTIN. Observamos un individuo de Vireo griseus, un individuo anillado de Vermivora
pinus y un hibrido anillado de Vermivora pinus x Vermivora chrysoptera en Pic Paradis, S. Martin, Antillas France-
sas, durante enero del 2005. Estos son los primeros registros de estas especies en S. Martin y la observaci6n del
Vireo griseus es la primera de esta especie en las Antillas Menores.
Palabras claves: Antillas Menores, Cigiiita Ala Azul, Cigiiita Ala Oro, Julian Chivf Ojiblanco, St. Martin, Ver-
mivora chrysoptera, Vermivora pinus, Vireo griseus


DURING JANUARY 2005, while conducting stan-
dardized mist-netting and point counts on St.
Martin, we observed or captured two species and
a hybrid previously unrecorded on the island:
White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus), Blue-winged
Warbler (Vermivora pinus), and a hybrid Blue-
winged Warbler x Golden-winged Warbler (Ver-
mivora chrysoptera). The White-eyed Vireo
represents the first record for the Lesser Antilles.


OBSERVATIONS
White-eyed Vireo.-At approximately 11:00
hr on 11 January 2005, while conducting point
counts in the xerophytic forest dominated by
Thorn Acacia (Acacia tortuosa), Buttonwood
(Platanus hispanica), and ficus (Ficus sp.) below
Pic Paradis, A. Brown first heard an unfamiliar
vireo song and then observed the bird within 5 m
for 20 min through lOx binoculars. It was about 3
m high in a Thorn Acacia (Acacia tortuosa) and
constantly moved between branches. A. Brown
and Karla Falk relocated it later that day and ob-
served it for an additional 20 min, but we were
unsuccessful in obtaining a photograph. An at-
tempt to relocate the bird the following day was
unsuccessful.
The bird was identified by its bright yellow
supraloral area connected with a bright yellow


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


orbital ring. The pale iris indicated it was an adult
(Pyle 1997). The bill and lores were black, the fore-
head and crown olive green, and the nape was pale
gray extending down the sides of the neck onto the
upper breast. The throat, breast, and belly were
white with the flanks a bright lemon yellow. The
back and upper tail were the same shade of olive
green as the crown. The wings had two white wing
bars separated by a black bar, and olive green pri-
maries and secondaries tipped with black and edged
with yellow. The tail was blackish gray, with the
outer rectrices edged with yellow. The legs were
gray.
White-eyed Vireo is a regular over-wintering mi-
grant through the northern Caribbean. The species is
considered uncommon in the Bahamas, Cuba, and
the Caymans. It is rare in Turks and Caicos, Ja-
maica, and Puerto Rico, and is a vagrant on His-
paniola and the Virgin Islands (St. John) (Bond
1987, Pashley 1988a, 1988b, Faanes and Haney
1989, Pashley and Hamilton 1990, Bond 1993, Raf-
faele et al. 1998). The species also overwinters from
southeastern North America through Central Amer-
ica to Panami. The species breeds in eastern North
America (Hopps et al. 1995). Although there are no
records from the Lesser Antilles, there is one re-
markable record farther south from Tobago
(Petersen and McRae 2002, White and Hayes 2002).


Page 69









BROWN AND COLLIER- FIRST RECORDS OF BIRDS FOR ST. MARTIN


Blue-winged Warbler.-We mist-netted an indi-
vidual (Fig. 1) in secondary dry forest dominated by
mature mango (Mangifera indica), gum tree (Acacia
nilotica), and ficus (Ficus sp.) at 16:00 hr on 19
January 2005. It was banded with United States
Bird Banding Lab (BBL) number 2360-64326,
sexed as a male based on plumage, and aged as a
2CY male based on complete ossification of the
bird's skull and the shape of the outer rectrices and
primary coverts (Pyle 1997). There was no fat store,
no body molt, no flight feather molt and no flight
feather wear. Wing chord was 61.0 mm and body
mass was 9.0 g. The bird was photographed and
released following the data collection. It did not
call in the hand and was not observed again follow-
ing release.
The bird was yellow on the crown, throat, and
sides of the neck, with the auriculars and nape a
duller yellow, tinged blue. A thin black line ex-
tended from the bill through the lores to a point be-
tween the eye and nape. The iris was black. The
breast, belly, and flanks were lemon yellow, and the
undertail coverts were white. The back, scapulars,
and uppertail coverts were yellowish blue. The
wings had two white wing bars separated by a blu-
ish bar, and blue-gray primaries and secondaries
with some yellowish edging. The tail was blue-gray
and the legs were black.


Fig. 1. Male Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus)
at Pic Paradis, St. Martin, 19 January 2005. Photo by
Adam Brown.


Page 70


Blue-winged Warbler x Golden-winged War-
bler.-We mist-netted a bird (Fig. 2) in secondary
dry forest at 10:00 hr on 2 January 2005. It was
banded with BBL 2360-49702, sexed as a male
based on plumage, and aged as a second year bird
based on complete ossification of the bird's skull
and the shape of the outer rectrices and primary
coverts (Pyle 1997). It had no fat store and no body
molt or flight feather molt but some flight feather
wear. Wing chord was 61.0 mm and body mass was
8.7 g. The bird did not call in the hand and was not
seen again after release.
The bird was bright yellow on the forehead and
throat. A bold black eye line connected the black
lores to the orbital ring and continued to a point
between the eye and nape, and also spread below
the eye onto the auriculars, extending about half-
way down the cheek. The nape and back were blue
yellow. The breast, belly, and flanks bright yellow,
and the undertail coverts were white. The wing had
two yellow-white wing bars and a small amount of
blue-gray, with blue-gray primaries and seconda-
ries, and many small yellow feathers randomly scat-
tered on the upperwing. The tail was blue-gray with
long white patches on the inner web of the outer
rectrices. The legs were black.
This bird did not fit the classic "Brewster's" or
"Lawrence's" hybrid phenotypes, so it was most
likely a second or higher generation back-cross hy-
brid with a Blue-winged. However, it looked more
like a Blue-winged Warbler except for the more
extensive black below the eye and the extensive
yellow wash on the wingbars. The dark facial pat-
tern, especially in the auricular area, suggests a
Lawrence's type back-crossed individual.
There are very few records for Blue-winged War-


Fig. 2. Male Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus) x
Golden-winged Warbler (V. chrysoptera) hybrid at Pic
Paradis, St. Martin, 2 January 2005. Photo by Adam
Brown.

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









BROWN AND COLLIER FIRST RECORDS OF BIRDS FOR ST. MARTIN


bler and no records of either Golden-winged War-
bler or Blue-winged Warbler x Golden-winged
Warbler hybrids for the Lesser Antilles (Pashley
and Hamilton 1990, Confer 1992). Blue-winged
Warblers are rare in the Bahamas, Turks and Cai-
cos, the Greater Antilles, and the Virgin Islands,
with the exception of Puerto Rico where there are
no records (Raffaele et al. 1998). The species is
considered a vagrant on St. Barthelemy and Gua-
daloupe in the Lesser Antilles (Gochfield 1974,
Bond 1987, Pashley 1988a, 1988b, Faanes and
Haney 1989, Pashley and Hamilton 1990, Bond
1993, Raffaele et al. 1998). It is a common over-
wintering migrant in Central America to Panama.
The two species breed in eastern North America
(Confer 1992, Curson et al. 1994, Dunn and
Garrett 1997, Gill et al. 2001).


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank the 2005 St. Martin banders, Karla
Falk, Rick Newman, and Mark Meyers, for their
long hours in the field. We also thank Loterie
Farm for continued access to their forest. Our
banding research could not have been possible
without the support of Isabel Amengual, Mer-
chants Export, Merchants Market, and Island
Food.


LITERATURE CITED
BOND, J. 1987. Twenty-seventh supplement to the
Check-list of birds of the West Indies (1956).
Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences.
BOND, J. 1993. Birds of the West Indies: A field
guide to the birds of the Caribbean and the Ba-
hamas. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Com-
pany.
CONFER, J. L. 1992. Golden-winged Warbler
(Vermivora chrysoptera). In The birds of North
America, No. 20 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.).
Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences;
Washington, DC: American Ornithologists'
Union.
CURSON, J., D. BEADLE, AND D. QUINN. 1994.
Warblers of the Americas. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company.
DUNN, J., K. GARRETT. 1997. A field guide to the
warblers of North America. Boston: Houghton
Mifflin Company.
FAANES, C. A., AND J. C. HANEY. 1989. First



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


record of Kirtland's Warbler from the Dominican
Republic and additional bird observations. Carib.
J. Sci. 25:30-35.
GILL, F. B., R. A. CANTERBURY, AND J. L. BOONE.
2001. Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus).
In The birds of North America, No. 584 (A.
Poole and F. Gill, eds.). Philadelphia: Academy
of Natural Sciences; Washington, DC: American
Ornithologists' Union.
GOCHFIELD, M. 1974. Status of the genus Vermi-
vora (Aves Parulidae) in the Greater Antilles with
new records from Jamaica and Puerto Rico.
Carib. J. Sci. 14:177-181.
HOPPS, S. L., A. KIRBY, AND C. A. BOONE. 1995.
White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus). In The birds of
North America, No. 168 (A. Poole and F. Gill,
eds.). Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sci-
ences; Washington, DC: American Ornitholo-
gists' Union.
PASHLEY, D. N. 1988a. Warblers of the West Indies
I. The Virgin Islands. Carib. J. Sci. 24:11-22.
PASHLEY, D. N. 1988b. Warblers of the West Indies
II. The western Caribbean. Carib. J. Sci. 24:112-
126.
PASHLEY, D. N., AND R. B. HAMILTON. 1990. War-
blers of the West Indies. The Lesser Antilles.
Carib. J. Sci. 26:75-97.
PETERSEN, W. R., AND D. MCRAE. 2002. Notewor-
thy bird records for Trinidad and Tobago, includ-
ing first reports of Wood Sandpiper (Tringa
glareola) and White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus).
Dept. Life Sci., Univ. West Indies, St. Augustine,
Occ. Pap. 11:204-206.
PYLE, P. 1997. Identification guide to North Ameri-
can birds. Part 1. Bolinas, CA: Slate Creek Press.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.
SHORT, L. L., JR. 1963. Hybridization in the wood
warblers Vermivora pinus and V. chrysoptera. Pp.
147-160 in Proceedings of the XIII International
Ornithological Congress (C. G. Sibley, ed.). Ba-
ton Rouge, LA.
WHITE, G., AND F. E. HAYES. 2002. Second report
of the Trinidad and Tobago Rare Bird Committee.
Living World, J. Trin. Tob. Field Nat. Club
2002:51-56.


Page 71












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:72-76, 2005


CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF MULTIPLE HABITAT USE
BY NORTHERN WATERTHRUSHES DURING THE NONBREEDING SEASON

SHERMAN L. BURSON III1'2, LEONARD R. REITSMA1'3, AND PAMELA D. HUNT1'4
1New England Institute for Landscape Ecology, Box 38-H, RR2, Canaan, NH 03741, USA; e-mail:
shanburson@yahoo.com; 2Current address: Division of Science and Resource Management, Grand Teton National
Park, Moose, WY 83012, USA; 3Current address: Department of Natural Sciences, Plymouth State College, Plymouth,
NH 03264, USA; 4Current address: Audubon Society of New Hampshire, 3 Silk Farm Rd., Concord, NH 03301, USA

Abstract.-Using evidence from individually-marked birds and radio-telemetry, we studied daily and seasonal
habitat use of Northern Waterthrushes (Seiurus novaboracensis) in Puerto Rico during the nonbreeding season from
1999 to 2001. Our study was conducted in mangrove habitats along the southwest and east coasts and near ponds
and washes in mesquite savanna in the southwest. Of 29 radio-equipped birds we found a dominant pattern of over-
night roosting (87.8% of radioed birds) in coastal red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle), regardless of the habitat
used for daytime feeding. Birds left feeding areas just before dusk, sometimes flying as far as 1.8 km to coastal red
mangroves. These same birds returned to their feeding areas over a broader range of times the following morning.
We also observed individuals shift feeding areas (60.0% of birds followed for 3 or more days) over the course of
days, weeks, and months. The combination of daily movements between habitats and longer term shifting of feed-
ing areas suggests that this species selects multiple habitats that meet daytime feeding and night-time roosting re-
quirements. Due to these movements, habitat preferences of individual birds cannot be inferred from short-term
diurnal censuses or mist net data alone. These findings document the need to consider multiple habitats as well as
habitat mosaics when conserving Northern Waterthrushes and other species.
Key words: habitat use, Northern Waterthrush, Puerto Rico, Seiurus novaboracensis

Resumen.-IMPLICACIONES CONSERVACIONISTAS DEL USO DE MITLTIPLES HABITAT POR SEIURUS NOVABORACEN-
sis DURANTE LA ESTACION No REPRODUCTIVA. Estudiamos mediante individuos marcados y radiotelemetria, el
uso de habitat diario y estacional de Seiurus novaboracensis en Puerto Rico, durante las estaciones no reproductivas
de 1999 al 2001. Nuestro estudio se desarrollo en manglares a lo largo de las costas este y suroeste y en lagunas de
las sabanas del suroeste. De 29 individuos marcados con radio encontramos un patr6n dominante de descanso noc-
turno en areas costeras de mangle rojo (Rhizophora mangle) (87,8% de las aves con radiotransmisores), indepen-
dientemente del tipo de habitat empleado para la alimentaci6n durante el dia. Las aves abandonaron sus areas de
alimentaci6n justo antes del atardecer; en ocasiones volando hasta 1,8 km hacia las areas costeras de mangle rojo.
Estos mismos individuos regresaron a las areas de alimentaci6n en la manana siguiente en un rango mas amplio de
tiempo. Tambi6n observamos individuos que cambiaron sus areas de alimentaci6n (60,0% de las aves monitoreados
por tres o mas dias) durante los dias, semanas y meses. La combinaci6n de los movimientos diarios entre los habitat
y los cambios a largo plazo de las areas de alimentaci6n sugiere que esta especie selecciona habitat multiples que
cumplimentan sus requerimientos de alimentaci6n durante el dia y de descanso durante la noche. Debido a estos
movimientos, las preferencias de habitat de aves individuales no pueden ser inferidas a partir de censos diurnos a
corto plazo o de las capturas en las redes ornitol6gicas solamente. Estos hallasgos apoyan la necesidad de conside-
rar los habitat multiples y los mosaicos de habitat cuando hablamos de la conservaci6n de Seiurus novaboracensis y
otras especies.
Palabras claves: Puerto Rico, Seiurus novaboracensis, Sehorita de Manglar, uso de habitat



NEARCTIC-NEOTROPICAL migratory birds show Poulin 1996, Reitsma et al. 2002). These habitat
a diversity of habitat-use patterns among species. use patterns may also be combined with off-site
These differences include season-long territory roosting behavior (M. Baltz, pers. comm., Staicer
occupancy (Holmes and Sherry 1992), often with 1992, Reitsma et al. 2002, this study). The factors
social dominance hierarchies (Marra et al. 1993). that lead to these habitat use differences are only
Other species use ephemeral and discreet habitats partially understood, yet they have clear manage-
(i.e. floaters; Winker et al. 1990) or nomadic for- ment and conservation implications regarding the
aging on short-lived food sources (Greenberg differing importance of single and multiple habitats
1984), or alternatively, consistent, if temporary, for each species.
occupancy of sites within a season (Lefebvre and The Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus novaboracen-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 72









BURSON ETAL. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF HABITAT USE BY NORTHERN WATERTHRUSHES


sis) over-winters in the southern United States, Car-
ibbean, Central America and northern South Amer-
ica (Eaton 1995). This species is generally found in
coastal wetland habitat, especially mangroves,
where they are often abundant (Lefebvre et al.
1992, Wunderle and Waide 1993). We found more
than half of all migrant passerines in Puerto Rican
mangroves were Northern Waterthrushes (Reitsma
and Hunt, unpublished data). Individual Northern
Waterthrushes are found in well-defined locations
(e.g., feeding areas), during daylight hours for days,
weeks, and months (Schwartz 1964, Reitsma et al.
2002). However, birds usually move to different
locations for nighttime roosting, even from habitats
that support high densities of feeding areas (Reitsma
et al. 2002).
Individual birds also shift to new feeding areas in
an unpredictable manner. Coastal wetland habitats
in much of the Caribbean Basin become progres-
sively drier from September to April due to ex-
tended periods of low precipitation from January
through March. This may be the primary reason
individual birds relocate to moister areas (e.g., Le-
febvre and Poulin 1996). However, our evidence
indicates factors in addition to habitat moisture level
are operating on Northern Waterthrush behavior.
Our objective was to better understand habitat use
of Northern Waterthrushes during the nonbreeding
season. We used radio-telemetry to monitor North-
ern Waterthrush movements and habitat occupancy
in locations in eastern and southwestern Puerto
Rico. We documented the daily movement to and
from roost sites, and the locations and shifts of feed-
ing areas during continuous short (several days) and
discontinuous longer (months and seasons) time
periods.

STUDY AREAS AND METHODS
This study was conducted at the Cabo Rojo Na-
tional Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) on the arid south-
west coast, and at the Roosevelt Roads Naval Sta-
tion (RRNS) on the eastern shores of Puerto Rico
during the three nonbreeding seasons, 1999-2001.
CRNWR's dominant plant community is mesquite-
savanna but there are also ephemeral ponds and wet
washes that flow into red mangroves (Rhizophora
mangle) on the nearby coast. Washes generally have
standing water through the first half of the non-
breeding season (October into January). Ponds usu-
ally contain standing water throughout the season,
although not in all years. Due to our interest in the
use of red mangroves as roosting sites for birds that


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


used other habitats for feeding areas, we attached
radio transmitters to 17 birds (15 individuals) along
the washes and ponds during January and March
1999 and 2000.
Roosevelt Roads Naval Station has extensive
areas of mangroves, but relative abundance of
white (Laguncularia racemosa), black (Avicennia
germinans), and red mangrove differs among the
numerous mangrove forest areas. Unlike red man-
groves, black and white mangroves grow in areas
that are not constantly flooded with salt water. Our
radio-telemetry study sites included a predominately
mature white mangrove area, a mixed age and den-
sity black mangrove area, and an area with red and
black mangrove and scrub habitat. We collected
location and movement data on 12 radio-equipped
birds (11 individuals) during October, January and
March 2000 and 2001.
All Northern Waterthrushes were captured in mist
nets. Each bird was weighed, color-banded, and
scored for furcular fat. Wing chord, tarsus, and tail
length were also measured. When possible, we de-
termined sex using a combination of wing chord
and molecular techniques as described in Reitsma et
al. (2002) and age using plumage criteria as in Pyle
(1987). We attached radio transmitters on the upper
back by trimming scapular feathers and using five-
minute epoxy. Transmitters (Holohil Ltd.) averaged
0.78 g and a 3 wk battery life. The range of recep-
tion was > 1 km in open habitat but was restricted to
a few hundred meters in thick vegetation. When
possible, we increased our detection range by using
hilltops and towers near the study areas. With te-
lemetry, we were able to follow individual Northern
Waterthrush movement between feeding and roost-
ing areas.

RESULTS
During the three nonbreeding seasons from 1999-
2001, we followed 29 Northern Waterthrushes (26
individuals) on 34 days for a total of 123 bird-days
(range 3-10 days, x = 4.2 days/bird). We observed
behavioral changes associated with handling, band-
ing and applying a radio transmitter only immedi-
ately after release. One bird roosted near its release
site adjacent to feeding area after being released just
before dark. Otherwise, within one hour all birds
appeared to be behaving normally. We observed or
suspected no mortality related to this study. Birds
were only temporarily encumbered because radio
transmitters fell off all birds within 2 weeks of ap-
plication. Of the 29 radio-equipped birds, 27


Page 73









BURSON ETAL. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF HABITAT USE BY NORTHERN WATERTHRUSHES


Table 1. Northern Waterthrush movements among habitats from radio-telemetry studies in
two locations in Puerto Rico: Cabo Rojo National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) and Roosevelt
Roads Naval Station (RRNS), 1999-2001. Number (percentage).

Variable CRNWR RRNS Total

# of birds with radio transmitters
1998/1999 9 0 9
1999/2000 8 3 11
2000/2001 0 9 9
Totala 17 12 29

# of days of telemetry data 21 13 34

# of bird-days 79 44 123

# of bird-nights roosted
in red mangroves 72(91.1) 36(81.8) 108(87.8)
not in red mangroves 7(8.6) 8(18.2) 16(12.2)

# of bird-days moved to red mangrove roost site
from non-red mangrove feeding area 66 (83.5) 31 (70.5) 97 (78.9)

# of birds (of 29) that roosted in red mangroves 16 (94.1) 11 (91.7) 27 (93.1)

# of birds that shifted feeding areasb 8 of 14 (57.1) 4 of 6 (66.7) 12 of 20 (60.0)

aThree individuals had a radio-transmitter in two seasons (two at CRNWR, one at RNS).
bBirds with 3 or more days of data.


(93.1%) regularly used roost sites in red mangroves
distinct from feeding areas (Table 1). Using data of
birds from CRNWR where we have the most accu-
rate measurements, the distance traveled from feed-
ing areas not in red mangroves to roost sites in red
mangroves varied depending on habitat distribution
from 600 m to over 1800 m (x = 1.3 km, n =16).
Birds typically departed for roost sites 10 to 20 min
before dark. Return from roost sites was more vari-
able, especially later in the season, but usually oc-
curred within a few hours of sunrise. Only two birds
(6.9%) in our study that had a feeding area away
from red mangroves did not roost in red mangroves.
One bird remained on its feeding area on a pond in
CRNWR, the other moved from its feeding area to a
roosting site in black mangroves in RRNS. Three
birds (10.3%) had both feeding areas and roosting
sites in red mangroves. We observed no seasonal
differences in the use of red mangroves for roosting


Page 74


from October to March. We were unable to deter-
mine age of 10 or sex of 17 of 29 birds with radio-
transmitters. However, seven were males and five
were females. Five birds were in their first year, 14
were older than their first year. Our limited data
suggest no age, or sex differences in use of red man-
groves for roosting.
Although individual birds consistently used well-
defined feeding areas both in the short term (days)
and seasonally (months), they did not aggressively
defend these areas. However, of those we monitored
for more than three days, 12 of 20 (60.0%) shifted
their feeding areas from one location to another
(Table 1). Birds were sometimes absent from their
feeding areas for days or weeks but later returned.
In the case of the birds using the washes and ponds
within the mesquite savanna in CRNWR, we noted
a clear shift from washes with standing water to
partially dried ponds between January and March


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









BURSON ETAL. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF HABITAT USE BY NORTHERN WATERTHRUSHES


(at which time the washes were completely dry). At
RRNS, although the habitat moisture was not meas-
ured, it did not obviously change.


DISCUSSION
Northern Waterthrushes in Puerto Rico clearly
demonstrate two distinct movement patterns in
coastal habitats: (1) movement between daytime
feeding areas to nighttime roosts, the latter usually
in coastal red mangroves; and (2) shifting of day-
time feeding areas from one location to another
within a single nonbreeding season, and often
within the period of a single week. Collectively,
these patterns have several implications concerning
how this species uses habitat during the nonbreed-
ing season.
Most Northern Waterthrushes we studied in
Puerto Rico used red mangroves for roosting, usu-
ally moving from other habitats used for feeding.
This was documented using radio telemetry as re-
ported here and from a previous study of color-
banded birds at a site in southwestern Puerto Rico
(Reitsma et al. 2002). In that study, Northern Wa-
terthrushes captured in mist nets (aligned along a
distinct boundary between red and black man-
groves) suggested mass movement into red man-
groves from black mangrove and presumably other
feeding areas in the evening and the reverse in the
morning (Reitsma et al. 2002). Adaptive and non-
adaptive genetic predisposition may be alternatively
suggested as possible explanations for the use of red
mangroves for roosting; however, our study did not
address proximate or ultimate causes. Nevertheless,
the predominance of this behavior indicates that
coastal red mangrove habitat is important to this
species. Because of the high density of Northern
Waterthrushes in red mangroves and their wide-
spread use of this mangrove type for roosting, it is
important to preserve this valuable and disappearing
habitat.
The consistent use of small non-territorial feeding
areas suggests some advantage to certain areas, pre-
sumably in response to food availability. However,
the use of these feeding areas varies over time. This
species feeds primarily on the ground by probing
and turning over litter, except for birds whose feed-
ing areas are in red mangroves. Birds in red man-
grove forage on near-horizontal roots near the sur-
face of the water. We have evidence from other
mangrove forests in southwestern Puerto Rico
(Reitsma et al. 2002) that Northern Waterthrushes
leave black mangrove sites when they are flooded


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


and return when the water level recedes. At
CRNWR there was an obvious link to moisture lev-
els along washes in scrub/mesquite uplands. Data
from the washes and ponds in the southwest sug-
gests they desert feeding areas that dry out. Drying
conditions in March 1999 at CRNWR resulted in
many Northern Waterthrushes (> 10) occupying
overlapping feeding areas within a single 0.33 ha
semi-dry pond.
Not all birds followed a predictable pattern. At
RRNS, our data suggest a pattern of Northern Wa-
terthrushes abandoning areas that dry, but certain
individuals shifted into scrub habitat that remained
dry most of the year (Reitsma pers. obs.). Thus, the
ability to move to new areas may be an adaptive
response to ephemeral habitats that change over
short time intervals.
In addition to Northern Waterthrushes, we ob-
served a pattern of daily movement to roost sites in
red mangroves from a small sample of Prairie
(Dendroica discolor) and Prothonotary Warblers
(Protonotaria citrea) using mist netting and radio
telemetry at RRNS (Reitsma and Smith, unpub-
lished data). Large flocks of Gray Kingbirds
(Tyrannus dominicensis) also moved to and from
red mangroves for roosting (pers. obs.). In an earlier
study, we documented a consistent pattern of move-
ment of Northern Waterthrushes between a black
mangrove site and a large adjoining red mangrove
area in southwestern Puerto Rico (Reitsma et al.
2002). These patterns indicate the need to consider
habitat at multiple scales when managing for some
species. This result carries implications when con-
sidering which habitats to conserve. Northern Wa-
terthrushes use multiple habitat types for different
functions. While Northern Waterthrushes may oc-
cupy and successfully over-winter in a variety of
habitats, most select feeding areas that are in close
proximity to red mangrove roost sites (Hunt et al.
2005). Northern Waterthrushes occupy a range of
habitat types during the day, but most shift their
feeding areas as conditions change over the season.
Finally, our data from telemetry indicate that
Northern Waterthrushes move considerable dis-
tances and often through multiple habitats, some of
which are used only when passing to and from roost
sites. Therefore, one must use caution when infer-
ring patterns of relative abundance or habitat prefer-
ence from census or mist net data. Although the
relative importance of the multiple habitat types
used is unknown, each habitat may provide essential
requirements. This suggests that although preserv-


Page 75









BURSON ETAL. CONSERVATION IMPLICATIONS OF HABITAT USE BY NORTHERN WATERTHRUSHES


ing mangrove habitat should be the highest prior-
ity, preserving other habitat types would likely
enhance the overall survival of this species over
the nonbreeding season, especially if these habitats
are contiguous with coastal red mangroves. Com-
ments from anonymous reviewers and the editors
improved this paper.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank the staff of the Cabo Rojo National
Wildlife Refuge, especially Val Nolan, Joe
Swaigle, and Steven Earsom, and the Bosque Esta-
tal de Boqueron, for their support and permits. We
also thank the staff at Roosevelt Roads Naval Sta-
tion, particularly Winston Martinez and Oscar
Diaz, for their assistance. We are indebted to the
Legacy Resource Management, the Army Corps of
Engineers, and United States Forest Service-
International Institute for Tropical Forestry and Joe
Wunderle for funding. We appreciate the field as-
sistance of B. Steele, W. DeLuca, R. Reitsma, A.
Elkins, C. Swan, J. Gosselin, C. King, and K. Kel-
lermen.


LITERATURE CITED
EATON, S. W. 1995. Northern Waterthrush
(Seiurus novaboracensis). In The Birds of North
America, No. 182 (A. Poole and F. Gill, eds.).
Philadelphia: Academy of Natural Sciences;
Washington, DC: American Ornithologists' Un-
ion.
GREENBERG, R. 1984. The winter exploitation sys-
tems of Bay-breasted and Chestnut-sided War-
blers in Panama. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 116:1-
107.
HOLMES, R. T. AND T. W. SHERRY. 1992. Site
fidelity of migratory warblers in temperate
breeding and Neotropical wintering areas: im-
plications for population dynamics, habitat se-
lection, and conservation. Pp. 563-575 in Ecol-
ogy and Conservation of Neotropical Migrant
Landbirds (J. M. Hagan and D. W. Johnston,
eds.). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution
Press.


HUNT, P. D., L. R. REITSMA, S. L. BURSON III, AND
B. B. STEELE. 2005. Spatial and temporal distri-
bution of Northern Waterthrushes among non-
breeding habitats in southwestern Puerto Rico.
Biotropica 37:697-701.
LEFEBVRE, G., AND B. POULIN. 1996. Seasonal
abundance of migrant birds and food resources in
Panamanian mangrove forests. Wilson Bull.
108:748-759.
LEFEBVRE, G., B. POULIN, AND R. MCNEIL. 1992.
Abundance, feeding behavior, and body condition
of Nearctic warblers wintering in Venezuelan
mangroves. Wilson Bull. 104: 400-412.
MARRA, P. P., T. W. SHERRY, AND R .T. HOLMES.
1993. Territorial exclusion by a long-distance
migrant warbler in Jamaica: a removal experi-
ment with American Redstarts (Setophaga ruti-
cilla). Auk 110:565-572.
PYLE, P., S. N. G. HOWELL, R. P. YUNICK, AND D.
F. DESANTE. 1987. Identification guide to North
American passerines. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas,
CA.
REITSMA, L., P. HUNT, S. L. BURSON, III, AND B.
B. STEELE. 2002. Site fidelity and ephemeral
habitat occupancy: Northern Waterthrush use of
Puerto Rican black mangroves during the non-
breeding season. Wilson Bull. 114:99-105.
SCHWARTZ, P. 1964. The Northern Waterthrush in
Venezuela. Living Bird 3:169-184.
STAICER, C. 1992. Social behavior of the Northern
Parula, Cape May Warbler and Prairie Warbler
wintering in second-growth forest in southwest-
ern Puerto Rico. Pp. 308-320 in Ecology and
Conservation of Neotropical Migrant Landbirds
(J.M. Hagan and D. W. Johnston, eds.). Washing-
ton, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
WINKER, K., J. H. RAPPOLE, AND M. A. RAMOS.
1990. Population dynamics of the Wood Thrush
(Hylocichla mustelina) on its wintering grounds
in southern Veracruz, Mexico. Condor 92:444-
460.
WUNDERLE, J. M., JR., AND R. B. WAIDE. 1993.
Distribution of overwintering Nearctic migrants
in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Condor
95:904-933.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 76












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:77-78, 2005


THE AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN (PELECANUS ERYTHRORHYNCHOS),
A WINTER RESIDENT IN CUBA

LOURDES MUGICA1, MARTIN ACOSTA1, ARIAM JIMENEZ1, ANTONIO MOREJON2, AND JAVIER MEDINA2
1Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Cuba, e-mail: lmugica@fbio.uh.cu; 2Cuban Federation of
Sport Hunting, Los Palacios, Cuba.

Abstract.-We report for the first time a population of 400 American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhyn-
chos) as winter residents in the Maspoton Lagoon in the South coast of Pinar del Rio Province, Cuba.
Key words: American White Pelican, Cuba, Pelecanus erythrohyncus, winter resident

Resumen.-EL PELICANO BLANCO (PELECANUS ERYTHROHYNCHOS), UN RESIDENTE INVERNAL EN CUBA. Se regis-
tra por primera vez una poblacion de 400 pelicanos blancos (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) como residentes inverna-
les en la laguna de Maspoton en la costa sur de Pinar del Rio, Cuba.
Palabras claves: Cuba, Pelecanus erythrohyncus, Pelicano Blanco, residente invernal


THE AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN (Pelecanus
erythrorhynchos) has been described by Raffaele et
al. (1998) as a very rare non breeding resident on
Cuba and Puerto Rico and a vagrant elsewhere in
the west Indies. These authors reported a flock of
eight birds in one occasion. On the other hand Bond
(1993) mentioned that the bird is casual in the West
Indies. Garrido and Kirkconnell (2000) considered
the bird as a vagrant, and reported eight records for
Cuba, one last century (1838) and six recent records
in 1940, 1954, 1989, and 1997, usually in January,
February, or April in the localities of Yumury in the
North of Matanzas province and Zapata Swamp in
the south of the same province. In the Handbook of
the Birds of the World (Del Hoyo et al. 1992) the
West Indies are not included in the range for this
bird, perhaps due to the few records reported for the
region. Their normal winter distribution is along the
Pacific and Atlantic coasts from USA to Costa Rica.
Early in the morning (6:00 9:00) of 27 March
2004, we visited the Maspoton lagoon, in the coast-
al wetlands south to Los Palacios Rice Paddies in
the west of the country in Pinar del Rio province, as
part of a project to monitor the birds using both
coastal wetlands and nearby rice culture in three
Cuban provinces.
As we arrived at the lagoon we observed small
groups of American White Pelicans (between 5-15
individuals) feeding together with other seabirds
including Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis)
and Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax
auritus). A few min later more White Pelicans ar-
rived to form a flock of at least 400 feeding in the
lagoon.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


After feeding the flock soared over the lagoon for
about 2 hr; this behaviour has been described for
other migrant birds just before the spring migration
(Todd 1996).
Local guides Antonio Morej6n and Javier Me-
dina, who have fished regularly in the lagoon sfor
many years, report that the species is common in
these coastal wetlands during winter. They both
confirmed that during the last 6 years the same
population size had been using the lagoon during
winter residency, from October to March.
Although Del Hoyo et al. (1992) pointed out that
all migration occurs over land, thus avoiding long
sea crossings, it is evident in this case that this state-
ment is not valid. Undoubtedly the birds migrated to
Cuba flying over the Florida Strait to winter in our
coastal lagoons. The same authors stated that the
species is very susceptible to disturbance by hu-
mans, so perhaps these remote and inaccessible ar-
eas provide them not only with a wide offer of feed-
ing resources but with an optimal area for resting
without disturbance during their winter residency in
the largest island of the West Indies.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Our gratitude to the Whitley Laing Foundation
for funding our research and trips to the area.


LITERATURED CITED
BOND, J. 1993. A field guide to the birds of the
West Indies. 5th ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Company.


Page 77









MUGICA ETAL. AMERICAN WHITE PELICAN, A WINTER RESIDENT IN CUBA


GARRIDO, 0., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
University Press.
DEL HOYO, J., A. ELLIOT, AND J. SARGATAL (eds.).
1992. Handbook of the birds of the World. Vol. 1.
Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. 310 pp.


RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, 0. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press. 224 pp.
TODD, F. S. 1996. Natural history of the waterfowl.
Temecula, CA: Ibis Publishing Company. 490 pp.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 78












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:79-80, 2005


TWO OBSERVATIONS OF ALPINE SWIFT (APUS MELBA) ON BARBADOS

MARTIN D. FROST' AND R. WAYNE BURKE2
1Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados; e-mail: mfrost@hornabbot.bb; 2The Folly, Newcastle, St. John, Barbados;
e-mail: docinbarbados @yahoo.com

Abstract.-An Alpine Swift (Apus melba) observed at St. Bernards Village from 21 June to 9 July 2003 and an-
other at Newcastle on 31 July 2005 represent the second and third occurrences on Barbados. These are the sixth and
seventh observations for the Western Hemisphere.
Key words: Alpine Swift, Apus melba, Barbados, observations

Resumen.-Dos OBSERVACIONES DEL VENCEJO COMUN (Apus MELBA) EN BARBADOS. Un Vencejo Comin
(Apus melba) fue observado en la villa de St. Bernards del 21 de junio al 9 de julio del 2003 y otro en Newcastle el
31 de julio del 2005. Estos constituyen el segundo y tercer reportes en Barbados y el sexto y septimo del hemisferio
occidental.
Palabras claves: Apus melba, Barbados, observaciones, Vencejo Comnin


Two RECENT OBSERVATIONS of Alpine Swift
(Apus melba) on Barbados are presented in this
note, together with a summary of other Western
Hemisphere occurrences.


OBSERVATIONS
The first observation occurred while Frost was
watching up to six Black Swifts (Cypseloides niger)
feeding over the valley adjacent to St. Bernards
Village, St. Joseph (1312'N, 5934'W, ca 300 m
elevation) in the late afternoon of 21 June 2003. He
was surprised to observe, at 18:25 hr for several
seconds, a much larger swift fly close over the tree
tops nearby. His initial impression was of a bird
almost one and a half times the size of a Black
Swift, with proportionately longer wings and tail,
and chest area which appeared paler than the darker
anterior and posterior underparts. The viewing con-
ditions were poor with fading light and the sun be-
hind the bird. However, Alpine Swift immediately
sprang to mind as a possible candidate. About 3 min
later the large swift reappeared, this time flying
much higher over the trees and then almost over-
head. The large white oval area on the underparts,
which contrasted with the chocolate-brown breast
and vent areas, gleamed as it flew along a shaft of
sunlight for several seconds. The bird was clearly an
Alpine Swift. The bird made two more passes over-
head in the next five minutes but it was getting too
dark to make out further details. Frost left at 18:40
hr wondering whether it would be there in the morn-
ing.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Frost and Edward Massiah visited the site the
following morning and spent several hours watch-
ing and photographing the Alpine Swift. The bird
often obliged, making a circuit which brought it
within a range of 10-15 m, including close over-
head, before flying down into the valley below al-
lowing good dorsal views. The large white patch on
the underparts extending onto the flanks was promi-
nent, visible at a considerable range in good view-
ing conditions, with the remaining underparts ap-


Fig. 1. Alpine Swift (Apus melba) at St. Bernards
Village, St. Joseph, Barbados, 22 June 2003. Photo by
Martin D. Frost.


Page 79









FROST AND BURKE OBSERVATIONS OF ALPINE SWIFT ON BARBADOS


pearing dark brown at a distance. At very close
range the white throat area was discernible although
this feature was difficult to see unless the bird was
almost directly overhead. The upperparts were gray-
brown, palest in the mantle and rump area and
slightly darker on the wings. Its flight appeared
more powerful and direct than that of the Black
Swifts, with shallower wing beats giving an overall
more graceful impression. The tail was usually
closed, giving an attenuated appearance, but when
opened was moderately forked.
The Alpine Swift was observed on 7 out of 8 sub-
sequent days that this site was visited. It was present
on 3 July when Frost and Burke visited the site to-
gether and was last seen on 9 July, making its stay
at least 19 days long. It and the Black Swifts were
absent from this location on 7 July when a moder-
ately strong tropical wave was affecting the island
with the swifts presumably feeding at lower eleva-
tions. Initially, the Alpine Swift loosely associated
with the Black Swifts, but eventually settled into a
different routine, feeding closer to the tree tops,
farther down in the valley. It came less frequently
to the ridge at the top of the valley than the Black
Swifts.
The second observation was at 17:43 hr on 31
July 2005 at Newcastle, St. John (1311'N, 59
29'W, ca 180 m elevation). Burke and Renata
Goodridge were watching for the Black Swift flight
when an Alpine Swift appeared, passing within 10
m to the northeast. The large size, flight aspect and
plumage characteristics were seen well-backlit in
the afternoon light. The bird was observed through
ca 150 m of flight as it continued on a direct path to
the southeast.


DISCUSSION
These are the second and third observations of
Alpine Swift for the island and the sixth and seventh
occurrences for the western hemisphere. The first
occurrence for the island was a specimen (ANSP
169868) assigned to the African race tuneti. The
front of the specimen tag is labeled "Barbados 9/55
after hurricane Janet" while the back of the tag pro-


vides further details: "at Gibb's on west coast of
Barbados; 1st seen on 20 Sept., collected 27 Sept
1955 by Mr. Webster." The other western hemi-
sphere occurrences are from the Caribbean region
with one exception and also involved single indi-
viduals: Grande Anse, Guadeloupe, on 18 April
1987 (Feldmann and Pavis 1995), Desecheo Island,
Puerto Rico, on 20 July 1987 (Meier et al 1989);
Moule a Chique, St. Lucia, on 19 August 1992
(Burke 1994), and St. Laurent, French Guiana, on
16 June 2002 (Ottema 2004).
Given the wide-ranging daily movements of Al-
pine Swift estimated to be 600 to 1,000 km (Snow
and Perrins 1998), the recent spate of New World
records is perhaps not altogether surprising.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Edward Massiah and Renata Goodridge
for company in the field while sharing these obser-
vations and reviewing this note, and Leo Joseph at
the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia
for providing the specimen details.


LITERATURE CITED
BURKE, W. 1994. Alpine Swift (Tachymarptis
melba) photographed on St. Lucia, Lesser Antil-
les-Third record for the western hemisphere.
Pitirre 7(3):3.
FELDMANN, P., AND C. PAVIS. 1995. Alpine Swift
(Tachymarptis melba) observed in Guadeloupe,
Lesser Antilles: A fourth record for the western
hemisphere. Pitirre 8(2):2.
MEIER, A. J., R. E. NOBLE, AND H. A. RAFFAELE.
1989. The birds of Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico,
including a new record for Puerto Rican territory.
Carib. J. Sci. 25:24-29.
OTTEMA, 0. 2004. First sight record of Alpine Swift
Tachymarptis melba for South America, in
French Guiana. Cotinga 21:70-71.
SNOW, D. W., AND C. M. PERRINS. 1998. The birds
of the Western Palearctic concise edition. Vol. 1.
Non-Passerines. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 80












J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:81-108, 2005


REPORTS OF THE 15TH REGIONAL MEETING OF THE
SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS

Edited by LISA SORENSON

BELOW ARE REPORTS from the workshops, roundtable discussions, and Working Group meetings con-
vened during the 15th Regional Meeting of the Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean
Birds, held in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, 1-5 August 2005. The scientific program and all ab-
stracts from the meeting can be downloaded from www.scscb.org.


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:81-83, 2005

LONG-TERM CAPACITY BUILDING IN THE CARIBBEAN-STRENGTHENING
LOCAL CAPACITY FOR CONSERVATION THROUGH TRAINING
OF WILDLIFE PROFESSIONALS

HERBERT A. RAFFAELE
Office of International Conservation, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA 22203, USA; e-mail:
herb_raffaele@fws.gov


THIS WORKSHOP ADDRESSED CAPACITY BUILDING
as it relates to the Society rather than the needs of
the Caribbean as a whole (contrary to the title of the
workshop). Specifically the question discussed dur-
ing this session was, "What actions should the
SCSCB take to enhance the involvement of local
islanders in its core activities, particularly the bi-
annual meetings and ultimately leadership positions
in the Society?"
Participants were divided into five sub-groups.
These were organized by language to facilitate con-
versation. Groups included two Spanish, two Eng-
lish and one French. A facilitator directed each sub-
group discussion and a second individual recorded
on flip charts the ideas put forward. Each group met
for approximately an hour and one half. Near the
close of the sub-group segment each sub-group pri-
oritized its recommendations via a vote by the sub-
group participants. These priority recommendations
were then presented by each of the five facilitators


to the entire plenary assemblage. No attempt was
made to further prioritize the recommendations of
the five sub-groups. Rather, all of the priority rec-
ommendations were put forward to the Executive
Committee for their consideration. These have been
categorized by theme by Andrew Dobson and are
included in Table 1 below. The primary categories
include: communication, information, networking/
partnership, management, membership, and fund-
ing.
A number of innovative ideas came out of this
discussion. It is anticipated that many of these could
be adopted by the Executive Committee so that the
Society might establish a more proactive strategy to
better involve local islanders in its future develop-
ment.
Special thanks are owed to the facilitators who
included: Maurice Anselme, Yvonne Arias, Patricia
Bradley, Brandon Hay, and Lourdes Mugica.


Table 1. Priority recommendations for actions SCSCB can take to enhance the involvement of local islanders in its
core activities.

CONCERNS POSSIBLE ACTIONS
Communication
Better web site Find funding to employ web designer to create dedi-
cated SCSCB web site
Electronic newsletter Working Group chairs and society members contribute
news items, C. Wardle will produce 2 times per year


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 81










MEETING REPORTS


Table 1. (Continued)


CONCERNS


POSSIBLE ACTIONS


Communication (Cont.)
Why join SCSCB?
Language barrier for French speaking islands
Individual island involvement

Meeting attendance and involvement


Information
Provide greater information on the activities of the
various SCSCB Working Groups and current pro-
jects
Need information on skills required
Offer workshops, especially in the 'off years' between
conferences
Skills training (e.g., monitoring, outreach, habitat resto-
ration)
More publications (posters, books, outreach and educa-
tional materials, etc)
Journal required to encourage exchange of information
and scientific research
Strategic plan to be implemented
Methodological help in defining priorities (especially
French Antilles)
A joint education/awareness program for all the French
Caribbean areas
Concern over writing standards, especially Journal of
Caribbean Ornithology
Networking/Partnerships
Increase inter-island cooperation




Develop increased partnerships



Internships could take place



Management
Appoint a development officer prior to a paid secre-
tariat
Employ a paid secretariat
Hire an intern

Have a mentoring program to allow seamless transition
during Board changes
Leadership training required
French representative needed on Board
Membership
Lack of locals joining SCSCB


Page 82


Need to get the message out!
Translate web and newsletter text to French
Expand ways to engage local islanders in the society
(e.g., through projects and/or research)
Tie financial support for meeting attendance to playing
a more active role, require local co-leaders and co-
presenters for all papers, workshops and initiatives

Through newsletter, website and reports


Through a workshop or questionnaire
Design and run workshops

Hold training workshops for local islanders

Produce in three languages

Continue publication of Journal of Caribbean Ornithol-
ogy (JCO)
Distribute plan to members
SCSCB assist by offering a priority setting workshop

SCSCB to assist in developing with local French lead-
ership
Sponsor writing workshops


Channel and coordinate efforts through SCSCB, espe-
cially on regional topics and issues of shared con-
cern (e.g., monitoring and conservation of migratory
species, protected areas management, nature tour-
ism)
Expand our partnerships with other groups in the Car-
ibbean to involve them further in the society, estab-
lish formal links with BirdLife, SPAW, Waterbird
Council, etc
SCSCB partner with local NGOs, colleges and univer-
sities to develop internships offering training/
experience in applied research, management, and
conservation

Employ someone from one island

Apply for funding
Island intern to help with one or more key activities of
the society
Document job descriptions and include mentoring

Sponsor leadership training workshops
Co-opt to Board?

Better promotional material, offer opportunities to
become involved


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









MEETING REPORTS


Table 1. (Continued)


CONCERNS


POSSIBLE ACTIONS


Membership
Membership too narrow

Encourage local organisations and groups to join and
become involved
Target teachers, students and artists

Concerns over lack of younger members


Funding
Develop more SCSCB-funded projects to support local
people and projects
More individuals writing grant proposals


Attract funding to support society


Attract members and groups with diverse interests;
increase continental membership
e.g., Puerto Rican Ornithological Society

Better advertising, offer materials to teachers, and ac-
tivities for students; promote wildlife artists
Identify younger members and form local youth groups
and birding clubs, (e.g., Angela Ramsey willing to
try in Tobago), offer summer internships

Identify potential projects (based on local needs and
priorities) and raise funds
Provide training in proposal writing (e.g., SCSCB
workshop), list grant opportunities and funding
agencies on website and in newsletter
Identify major doners (funding agencies, foundations,
corporate and business sponsors) and pursue support


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:83-84, 2005

BIRD MONITORING SYMPOSIA AND WORKSHOP: STRATEGIES
FOR MONITORING BIRDS IN THE CARIBBEAN-HOW TO
DESIGN AND CARRY OUT A MONITORING PROGRAM

STEVEN C. LATTA
PRBO Conservation Science, 7428 Redwood Blvd. Ste. 203, Novato, CA 94945, USA;
e-mail: slatta@prbo.org


MANY INTERNATIONAL, REGIONAL, AND LOCAL
organizations have agreed to the need to establish
long-term bird monitoring programs. Habitat-
specific data on birds is required because conserva-
tion and management activities are related to the
population size of a species. The challenge of devel-
oping monitoring programs is difficult, however,
often because of the lack of qualified biologists or
other resources in key regions, and more fundamen-
tally because of confusion over how to compare
monitoring data across large areas, especially when
local organizations often have their own goals and
locally defined monitoring objectives. In this work-
shop we explored different types of monitoring pro-
grams, including inventories; defining population
size and habitat relationships based on a broad-scale
set of point counts; censuses based on repeated
counts; constant effort mist-netting; the determina-
tion of reproductive success and reproductive rate
through nest monitoring; and the estimation of


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


population composition, survivorship, and site fidel-
ity through a comprehensive program of mist net-
ting and/or color-band resighting.
Following oral presentations, we explored
through discussion a variety of monitoring topics.
Discussion groups were formed based on an indi-
vidual's interest in monitoring various types of
habitats or species. Thus we had groups discussing
the monitoring of West Indian Whistling-Ducks,
wetlands and waterbirds, seabird colonies, and for-
ested habitats. Each group informally reviewed
monitoring efforts for these species or habitats in
the Caribbean, and then explored how a monitoring
program could be designed that allowed more inter-
island cooperation. Little concrete headway was
made on this latter point, but groups also discussed
resources needed in order to expand monitoring in
the region. All groups expressed an enthusiastic
desire for more training in monitoring methods, and
some identified existing (albeit limited) opportuni-


Page 83









MEETING REPORTS


ties for training in monitoring techniques.
Because so many participants expressed interest
in monitoring training and an on-going monitoring
working group, a dinner meeting was held to ex-
plore the needs and goals of such a working group.
More than a dozen participants evaluated the need
for a monitoring working group, and presented their
vision of the role of such a group. We then agreed
by consensus that a Monitoring Working Group
would be formed. Steven Latta of Point Reyes Bird
Observatory (slatta@prbo.org) and Jon McCracken
of Bird Studies Canada (jmccracken@bsc-eoc.org)


agreed to coordinate the working group. We agreed
to proceed with the drafting of a vision statement
defining the role of the Monitoring Working Group,
with an emphasis on training SCSCB members in
monitoring techniques, and encouraging inter-island
cooperation in monitoring shared species and habi-
tats. We also agreed to prepare a regional report on
bird monitoring that will include existing monitor-
ing programs, existing training opportunities, and
recommendations for standardized monitoring pro-
tocols. Finally, we are exploring options for funding
training programs in the region.


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:84-86, 2005

EDUCATION, AWARENESS, AND COMMUNITY TRAINING INITIATIVES-EXPANDING
ON WHAT WORKS AND IDEAS FOR NEW INITIATIVES

LISA SORENSON1, KATE WALLACE2, AND LOURDES MUGICA3
1Department of Biology, 5 Cummington St., Boston University, Boston, MA 02215, USA; e-mail:
LSoren@bu.edu; 2Apdo. 3284, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, cua809@yahoo.com; 3Facultad de
Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25 entre J e I, Vedado, Ciudad Habana, Cuba;
e-mail: lmugica@fbio.uh.cu


CONSERVATION OF NATURE begins with educa-
tion-an understanding and awareness of our de-
pendence on intact ecosystems and an appreciation
for the many values of biodiversity. There has been
much progress in recent years in environmental
outreach and education in the Caribbean. SCSCB
has developed several innovative and successful
programs including the Caribbean Endemic Bird
Festival and WIWD and Wetlands Conservation
Project. Local NGOs and government agencies part-
ner with us to develop and deliver these programs as
well as engage in their own outreach and advocacy
projects. The Important Bird Areas Program and
recent advent of Site Support Groups has presented
new opportunities to engage the public in the con-
servation of local sites. In this symposium and
workshop, we heard excellent presentations about
the programs and activities taking place in different
countries. Symposium contributors included Lynn
Gape (Sorenson presented for Gape), Florence Ser-
gile, Eliezer Nieves, Adrianne Tossas, Susan Bon-
field, Yvonne Arias, and Lisa Sorenson. Presenters
discussed the results and outcomes of their activi-
ties, difficulties and challenges faced and how they
were/were not overcome, and ideas for how work-
shops and other activities could be improved and
sustained in the future.


Page 84


Discussion questions.-Following the oral pres-
entations, we explored, in breakout discussion
groups (organized by language spoken), means of
improving and expanding project activities and out-
comes. Each of the discussion groups addressed 5
questions regarding outreach, education and aware-
ness initiatives. The questions and results from the
discussion groups are compiled below.
1. What are the key ingredients for success?
a. Strong leadership-highly motivated, organ-
ized and enthusiastic leaders.
b. Funding-adequate funds to support the devel-
opment of materials and good quality workshops.
c. Well-defined objectives (identify the main
problems and determine priorities for the project).
d. Great materials and fun, hands-on activities.
e. Field component to the workshop.
f. Good organization and communication.
g. Involving local people in the organization and
implementation of the project.
h. Follow-up monitoring and reinforcement of
efforts (ensure repetition of the messages).
i. Creativity.
j. Consistency-which includes a commitment to
nature and people, good follow-through.

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









MEETING REPORTS


k. Network of collaborators.
1. Publicize the results (use the media).
2. How do we convince people of the importance
of the resource (e.g., wetlands, forests, birds)?
a. Educate about the many benefits of environ-
mental services; e.g., coastal mangrove wetlands
lessen the impacts and damage from hurricanes. b .
Assess the economic value of the resource
(especially important for decision makers), in other
words, determine the $$ value of forests and wet-
lands for tourism, biodiversity, fresh water, carbon
sequestration, hunting, recreational activities, etc.;
the value of wetlands for fisheries, flood damage
control, etc. Involve NGOs and government in the
assessment.
c. Have a clear idea of the values and be able to
explain them in terms that people understand; e.g.,
hunting, fishing, leisure activities, the intrinsic value
of nature, etc. The message will vary depending on
the audience you are trying to reach, so tailor your
message to your audience; e.g., policymakers, the
general public, local stakeholders, and school chil-
dren will understand and appreciate the value of the


PROBLEMS OR CHALLENGES
Unforeseen circumstances such as time constraints during
a workshop
Lack of funding


Set curriculum in schools



Imminent threat (e.g., to a bird, wetland, forest or other
habitat)




Gaining trust

Lack of capacity/personnel


4. How do we follow up with people that have
participated in the program?
a. Establish initial commitments (e.g., people that
were trained will, in turn, go out and train or teach a
certain number of people).
b. Require progress reports (including local pro-
jects and results).
c. Promote the interchange between local people


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


resource in different ways.
d. Give people first-hand experiences outdoors
with nature, confirm their knowledge and encourage
further explorations.
e. Convey information with hands-on activities.
f. Describe case studies showing the unintended
and negative consequences of habitat loss (but be
positive about what can still be done).
g. Gain trust by establishing relationships with
local people.
h. Link theory and practice; use local examples
wherever possible.
i. Organize debates (contradictory if possible) on
this question.
j. Be professional in your advocacy. Make sure
that you (or scientists) can back up your claims with
data from scientific research and/or peer-reviewed
papers in scientific journals.
3. What were the major problems and challenges
faced in education and awareness programs and
how were they solved?


POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS
Be flexible; be prepared to make scheduling changes and
adjustments as needed.
Be on the lookout for funding opportunities; network.
Become skilled at proposal writing.
Ask for support from local businesses.
Tailor your program to existing requirements, learn to
"speak the language."
Go through the proper channels to incorporate your mate-
rials into the schools' curriculum.
Arm yourself with the facts about your case (e.g., species
is threatened, wetland serves xx functions).
Take a direct approach to community leaders, policy mak-
ers, and general public.
Alert the media; write letters to the editor of your local
paper.
Always accomplish what you promised in order to gain
trust and credibility.
Recruit local volunteers/college students and train them.
Look for funding for paid education staff.


receiving the program.
d. Support the work of the local people in
schools.
e. Recognize the work of local people.
f. Use the media to communicate results.
g. Revisit and offer new or supplemental training
workshops to people that have already participated
(e.g., offer a bird identification workshop to teach-


Page 85









MEETING REPORTS


ers that have already taken a wetlands education
workshop).
h. Assign follow-up activities to a local represen-
tative or organization; e.g., check in with people to
see if they have questions or need more materials,
talk with them about how they can use the informa-
tion and materials they received if they are having
difficulties.
i. Offer continuing education through a newslet-
ter, quizzes, new materials, your website.
j. Administer evaluations (at the beginning and
end of the workshop and/or program).
k. Establish Site Support Groups with local lead-
ership.
5. How can we best measure conservation out-
comes or success from education and awareness
initiatives?
a. Conduct interviews or administer quizzes be-
fore and after your workshop or program to assess
what has been learned and if attitudes have changed.
b. Determine if those that have been trained are
continuing to teach others.
c. Look for and document anecdotal examples of
positive conservation outcomes in the community or
individuals; e.g., someone that has taken your wet-
lands workshop has successfully advocated for the
conservation of a local mangrove; e.g., a student
that has taken your program decides to pursue a


career in an environmental field. (These are real
examples from Cuba!).
d. Your program and materials are incorporated
in schools' curriculums.
e. Local people and/or Site Support Groups are
advocating for the protection of the resource; some-
one takes on grassroots organizing.
f. Creation of a protected area, such as a Ramsar
site, National Park, Watchable Wildlife Pond.
Conclusion.-We learned a great deal from one
another in both the presentations and discussions.
Many new insights and ideas were put forth for in-
creasing the effectiveness of education and aware-
ness initiatives in the Caribbean. It is recommended
that anyone embarking on (or already engaged in)
an education and awareness project follow, as much
as possible, the recommendations outlined above. In
addition, the French group noted that in the French
Antilles, many structures and agencies exist which
should be involved in education and awareness pro-
jects, but in fact, there is no "culture" for such pro-
jects and no real coordination between the actors.
The French group therefore recommended that an
outreach and education project (e.g., wetlands edu-
cation) be initiated in the French Antilles. The pro-
ject should be collaborative in order to develop syn-
ergism among the various groups.


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:86-87, 2005

BIRD CONSERVATION IN HAITI: IT'S NOW OR NEVER TO SAVE HAITI'S BIRDS

CHRISTOPHER RIMMER
Vermont Institute of Natural Science, 2723 Church Hill Road, Woodstock VT 05091, USA;
e-mail: crimmer@vinsweb.org


THIS ROUNDTABLE DISCUSSION was focused on
how the international community might help ad-
vance ongoing efforts to conserve Haiti's bird popu-
lations. The problem is obvious: Haiti is teetering
on the brink of ecological collapse and consequent
loss of biodiversity. Resources to achieve conserva-
tion are scarce or nonexistent, the resolve and ca-
pacity of government agencies are weak at best, and
the number of committed in-country players is ex-
tremely few. The Soci6dt Audubon Haiti stands
virtually alone, with Florence Sergile and Philippe
Bayard engineering current efforts. They have the
commitment and vision, but they need the backing,
at all levels (conceptual, technical, human resource,
and financial), of the international conservation


Page 86


community. The goal of the roundtable was to draw
on the extensive experience of the participants to
collectively think through some of the issues and
possible solutions.
Many people, including Florence Sergile, offered
their perspectives, and several ideas were proposed.
These included:
1. Drafting a resolution from SCSCB to the Hai-
tian Ministries of Agriculture and Environment,
urging strong and community-based measures to
protect the country's remaining forest habitats, to
restore damaged habitats within currently protected
areas, and to work closely with local communities
to develop sustainable land use practices. This reso-
lution was subsequently drafted and approved by

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









MEETING REPORTS


the SCSCB Executive Committee.
2. The possibility that a similar resolution could
also be signed by multiple international conserva-
tion groups was also raised.
3. Establishment of a Haitian Bird Habitat Con-
servation Steering Committee, whose role would be
strictly advisory in helping Soci6dt Audubon Haiti
and the Ministries of Agriculture/Environment im-
plement bird conservation. Such a group might lend
legitimacy, increase international visibility, and help
ensure oversight and accountability to in-country
conservation efforts. It was pointed out that such a
committee must be composed largely of Haitians,
with a small but select representation of committed
participants from other countries.
4. Establishment of a Haiti Bird Habitat Conser-
vation Fund, administered by Soci6dt Audubon
Haiti with oversight from the above Steering Com-
mittee. Such a fund could essentially be a "trust
fund" to help implement needed conservation meas-
ures, ranging from enhancing the capacity of So-
ci6dt Audubon Haiti through increased staffing to
providing infrastructure for protected areas manage-
ment. Most likely, initial funds would target the
Macaya Biosphere Reserve and might complement
anticipated funds from other sources. The Vermont
Institute of Natural Science has agreed to launch a
fundraising drive in the Northeast, with a goal of
raising $100,000. It is hoped that this "seed" money


could be used to leverage additional funding of
$900,000 from the international community.
5. While an influx of funding is crucial to achieve
avian conservation in Haiti, roundtable participants
agreed that the bottom line is creating capacity
(human resources) to deliver conservation. Bird
conservation must be linked to the Haitian people
and their socioeconomic conditions. Integration and
local buy-in are key.
6. Involving and investing Haitians currently liv-
ing outside Haiti in conservation of their home
country could provide critical resources. The means
of accomplishing this pose a significant challenge,
but it should be investigated.
7. The exploratory nature of this roundtable dis-
cussion precluded the identification of formal fol-
low-up actions or the creation of actual working
subgroups. Soci6dt Audubon Haiti, in cooperation
with Chris Rimmer of the Vermont Institute of
Natural Science, will pursue the ideas and potential
actions identified above. An immediate goal is to
secure funding to enable the Soci6dt Audubon Haiti
to increase its staffing and devote resources to pro-
moting a cohesive bird conservation agenda in
Haiti. Longer-term goals include coordinating a
multi-taxa field expedition to Macaya Biosphere
Reserve in February of 2006, and beginning imple-
mentation of a locally-based program to achieve
sustainable conservation of Macaya.


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:87, 2005

CARIBBEAN ENDEMIC BIRD FESTIVAL WORKING GROUP

ADRIANNE G. TOSSAS
Department of Biology, Chemistry and Environmental Sciences, Inter American University of Puerto Rico, PO Box 5100,
San German, PR 00683-9801; e-mail: agtossas@caribe.net


THE CARIBBEAN ENDEMIC BIRD FESTIVAL
(CEBF) completed its fourth edition in 22 May
2005 with the participation of 17,072 persons from
12 countries. During the 15th meeting of the Society
for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds
held in Guadeloupe from 1-5 August, 2005 the re-
sults of this year's event were presented by the re-
gional coordinator Adrianne Tossas. Certificates of
appreciation were awarded to coordinators or their
representatives from nine countries by the regional
coordinator and SCSCB president Andrew Dobson


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


during the general meeting of the society. A meet-
ing with the coordinators was held on 4 August in
which the outcomes of the first four editions of the
festival and ideas for further improving the event
were discussed. Changes for the 2006 CEBF in-
clude a new regional coordinator, Sheylda Diaz
(otoarina77@yahoo.com), and the participation of
five new islands/countries (Haiti, Trinidad & To-
bago, Montserrat, British Virgin Islands, and Vene-
zuela).


Page 87









MEETING REPORTS


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:88-93, 2005

TOWARDS A GLOBALLY THREATENED BIRD PROGRAM FOR THE CARIBBEAN

DAVID WEGE1 AND VERONICA ANADON-IRIZARRY2
1BirdLife International, Wellbrook Court, Girton Road, Cambridge CB3 ONA, UK;
e-mail: David. Wege@birdlife.org.uk; 2Caribbean Program BirdLife International, Rio Canas 2107, Colorado St.,
Ponce, Puerto Rico 00728-1824; e-mail: nesospingus@yahoo.com


OVER 10% OF THE CARIBBEAN'S AVIFAUNA (57
of 560+ species) is considered globally threatened
following the IUCN Red List criteria. Twelve of
these are Critically Endangered, 21 Endangered and
24 Vulnerable, with an additional 18 species Near
Threatened (see Table 1). These birds will be the
next to go extinct (due to a number of differ-
ent threat factors), and thus it is our collective re-
sponsibility to focus our attentions on their conser-
vation. While conservation actions and monitoring
activities are focused on some of these birds, for
many we have no idea on a year to year basis
whether their status is improving or declining, or
whether anyone is addressing any of their conserva-
tion needs. While site protection may be the answer
for the majority of the birds (e.g., through the Im-
portant Bird Area program which identifies sites for
globally threatened birds), a number will need spe-
cies-specific actions to address threats such as ille-
gal trade, hunting, invasive alien species, etc. The
focus of species conservation provides an excellent
opportunity for the SCSCB to engage all of its
members in monitoring, evaluating and conserving
these most threatened of our Caribbean species.
The workshop, which continued after the Guade-
loupe meeting via email, focused on a number of
critical issues related to Threatened Caribbean birds
and what the SCSCB response could be. The aim
was to start investigating ways of engaging more
people, stimulating urgent research, identifying
"species champions," reviewing the threatened spe-
cies list and the conservation actions proposed, and
also establishing a monitoring scheme.
Questions.-The following questions were dis-
cussed:
1. Does the current list of threatened birds in the
Caribbean need revision in terms of the species and
the status of the species listed?
2. Are there obvious species champions (or advo-
cates) for each of the 57 Caribbean threatened spe-
cies?


3. Are there any priority actions that need to be
added to the published conservation action list for
each species, and what level of funding would be
required to implement the identified activities?
4. Would it be valuable for SCSCB to form a
Threatened Bird Working Group?
5. What would be the focus of such a group, and
how would this relate to existing Working Groups?
Outputs.-The following outputs were discussed:
1. There are 57 globally threatened and 18 near
threatened species on the IUCN Red List for the
Caribbean (Table 1). The workshop identified 17
species that should be reassessed with a view to
them being listed as globally threatened and 9 spe-
cies (already listed) that should be reviewed in
terms of their category of threat. For 8 of these it
was suggested that the species were more at risk
than currently suggested.
2. Workshop participants identified potential ad-
vocates (or caretakers, champions, etc.) for 38 of the
57 globally threatened species.
3. Additional conservation actions were identified
for 23 globally threatened species. For 17 species,
the type of grant required (small, medium or large)
to implement the conservation actions was docu-
mented.
4. There was enthusiasm (after the workshop and
in follow-up emails) for the formation of an SCSCB
Threatened Bird Working Group (TBWG).
5. The TBWG would aim to coordinate and en-
gage the SCSCB membership in monitoring, evalu-
ating and conserving the most threatened of our
Caribbean bird species. It would need to do this by
developing explicit terms of reference and working
in close collaboration with the existing Caribbean
Parrot, West Indian Whistling-Duck, and Monitor-
ing Working Groups to provide added benefit to
these groups and, recognising the potential for over-
lap, avoid duplication of effort.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 88










MEETING REPORTS


Table 1. Globally threatened and endemic birds of the Caribbean and their IUCN Red List status. The worskshop iden-
tified those species for which a review of status should be undertaken, and also potential "species advocates" or
"champions" for the globally threatened birds.


Red List Status review Threatened species
English name Scientific nameadvocate identified?
status needed? advocate identified?


Bermuda Petrel
Jamaican Petrel
Black-capped Petrel
West Indian Whistling-Duck
Cuban Kite
Gundlach's Hawk
Ridgway's Hawk
Trinidad Piping-Guan
Black Rail
Zapata Rail
Caribbean Coot
Piping Plover
Buff-breasted Sandpiper
White-crowned Pigeon
Ring-tailed Pigeon
Plain Pigeon
Grenada Dove
Grey-headed Quail-Dove
Key West Quail-Dove
Crested Quail-Dove
Blue-headed Quail-Dove
Hispaniolan Parakeet
Cuban Parakeet
Black-billed Parrot
Yellow-billed Parrot
Cuban Parrot
Hispaniolan Parrot
Puerto Rican Parrot
Red-necked Parrot
St. Vincent Parrot
Imperial Parrot
St. Lucia Parrot
Chestnut-bellied Cuckoo
Bay-breasted Cuckoo
Hispaniolan Lizard-Cuckoo
Great Lizard-Cuckoo


Pterodroma cahow
Pterodroma caribbaea
Pterodroma hasitata
Dendrocygna arborea
Chondrohierax wilsonii
Accipiter gundlachi
Buteo ridgwayi
Pipile pipile
Laterallus jamaicensis
Cyanolimnas cerverai
Fulica caribaea
Charadrius melodus
Tryngites subruficollis
Patagioenas leucocephala
Patagioenas caribaea
Patagioenas inornata
Leptotila wellsi
Geotrygon caniceps
Geotrygon chrysia
Geotrygon versicolor
Starnoenas cyanocephala
Aratinga chloroptera
Aratinga euops
Amazona agilis
Amazona collaria
Amazona leucocephala
Amazona ventralis
Amazona vittata
Amazona arausiaca
Amazona guildingii
Amazona imperialis
Amazona versicolor
Piaya pluvialis
Piaya rufigularis
Saurothera longirostris
Saurothera merlini


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes


EN
CR
EN
VU
CR
EN
CR
CR
NT
EN
NT
NT
NT
NT
VU
NT
CR
VU


Page 89










MEETING REPORTS


Table 1. (Continued)


Scientific name


Red List Status review Threatened species
status needed? advocate identified?


English name

Jamaican Lizard-Cuckoo

Puerto Rican Lizard-Cuckoo

Ashy-faced Owl

Puerto Rican Screech-Owl

Cuban Pygmy-Owl

Bare-legged Owl

Jamaican Owl

Antillean Nighthawk

Jamaican Poorwill

Least Poorwill

Cuban Nightjar

Hispaniolan Nightjar

St Lucia Nightjar

Puerto Rican Nightjar

Antillean Palm-Swift

Lesser Antillean Swift

White-tailed Sabrewing

Antillean Mango

Jamaican Mango

Green Mango

Purple-throated Carib

Blue-headed Hummingbird

Puerto Rican Emerald

Cuban Emerald

Hispaniolan Emerald

Red-billed Streamertail
Black-billed Streamertail
Bahama Woodstar
Vervain Hummingbird
Bee Hummingbird
Cuban Trogon
Hispaniolan Trogon
Narrow-billed Tody
Puerto Rican Tody
Cuban Tody


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Saurothera vetula

Saurothera vielloti Yes

Tyto glaucops

Otus nudipes

Glaucidium siju

Gymnoglaux lawrencii

Pseudoscops grammicus

Chordeiles gundlachii Yes

Siphonorhis americanus CR

Siphonorhis brewsteri DD

Caprimulgus cubanensis

Caprimulgus eckmani

Caprimulgus cayennensis Yes

Caprimulgus noctitherus CR Yes

Tachornis phoenicobia

Chaetura martinica Yes

Campylopterus ensippenis NT

Anthracothorax dominicus

Anthracothorax mango

Anthracothorax viridis

Eulampis jugularis

Cyanophaia bicolor Yes

Chlorostilbon maugaeus

Chlorostilbon ricordii

Chlorostilbon swainsonii

Trochilus polytmus
Trochilus scitulus
Philodice evelynae Yes
Mellisuga minima
Calypte helenae NT
Priotelus temnurus
Temnotrogon roseigaster NT
Todus angustirostris
Todus mexicanus
Todus multicolor


Page 90










MEETING REPORTS


Table 1. (Continued)


English name

Broad-billed Tody

Jamaican Tody

Antillean Piculet

Guadeloupe Woodpecker

Puerto Rican Woodpecker

Jamaican Woodpecker

Hispaniolan Woodpecker

West Indian Woodpecker

Cuban Green Woodpecker

Fernandina' s Flicker

Ivory-billed Woodpecker

Jamaican Elaenia

Greater Antillean Elaenia

Greater Antillean Pewee

Olive-sided Flycatcher

Hispaniolan Pewee

Jamaican Pewee

Puerto Rican Flycatcher

Sad Flycatcher

Grenada Flycatcher

Lesser Antillean Flycatcher

La Sagra's Flycatcher

Stolid Flycatcher

Rufous-tailed Flycatcher

Loggerhead Kingbird

Giant Kingbird
Jamaican Becard
Bahama Swallow
Golden Swallow
Cuban Martin
Palmchat
Zapata Wren
Antillean House-Wren
Bahama Mockingbird
White-breasted Thrasher


Scientific name


Red List Status review Threatened species
status needed? advocate identified?


Todus subulatus

Todus todus

Nesoctites micromegas

Melanerpes herminieri

Melanerpes portoricensis

Melanerpes radiolatus

Melanerpes striatus

Melanerpes superciliaris

Xiphidiopicus percussus

Colaptes fernandinae

Campephilus principalis

Myiopagis cotta

Elaenia fallax

Contopus caribaeus

Contopus cooperi

Contopus hispaniolensis

Contopus pallidus

Myiarchus antillarum

Myiarchus barbirostris

Myiarchus nugator

Myiarchus oberi

Myiarchus sagrae

Myiarchus stolidus

Myiarchus validus

Tyrannus caudifasciatus

Tyrannus cubensis
Pachyramphus niger
Callichelidon cyaneoviridis
Kalochelidon euchrysea
Progne cryptoleuca
Dulus dominicus
Ferminia cerverai
Troglodytes martinicensis
Mimus gundlachii
Ramphocinclus brachyurus


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 91










MEETING REPORTS


Table 1. (Continued)


Scientific name


Red List Status review Threatened species
status needed? advocate identified?


English name

Scaly-breasted Thrasher

Grey Trembler

Brown Trembler

Cuban Solitaire

Bicknell's Thrush

White-chinned Thrush

White-eyed Thrush

La Selle Thrush

Forest Thrush

Cuban Gnatcatcher

Cuban Sparrow

Cuban Bullfinch

Painted Bunting

Cuban Grassquit

Yellow-shouldered Grassquit

St. Lucia Black Finch

Puerto Rican Bullfinch

Greater Antillean Bullfinch

Puerto Rican Tanager

Lesser Antillean Tanager

Black-crowned Palm-Tanager

Grey-crowned Palm-Tanager

Chat Tanager

Stripe-headed Tanager

Jamaican Euphonia

Orangequit
Bachman's Warbler
Golden-winged Warbler
Cerulean Warbler
Elfin-woods Warbler
Kirtland's Warbler
Arrowhead Warbler
Olive-capped Warbler
Vitelline Warbler
Plumbeous Warbler


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Alleniafusca

Cinclocerthia gutturalis Yes

Cinclocerthia ruficauda Yes

Myadestes elisabeth NT

Catharus bicknelli VU Yes

Turdus aurantius

Turdus jamaicensis

Turdus swalesi EN Yes

Cichlherminia iherminieri VU

Polioptila lembeyei

Torreornis inexpectata EN Yes

Melopyrrha nigra

Passerina ciris NT

Tiaris canora

Loxipasser anoxanthus

Melanospiza richardsoni EN

Loxigilla portoricensis

Loxigilla violacea

Nesospingus speculiferus

Tangara cucullata

Phaenicophilus palmarum

Phaenicophilus poliocephalus NT Yes

Calyptophilusfrugivorus VU Yes Yes

Spindalis zena

Euphonia jamaica

Euneornis campestris
Vermivora bachmanii CR
Vermivora chrysoptera NT
Dendoica cerulea VU
Dendroica angelae VU Yes Yes
Dendroica kirtlandii NT
Dendroica pharetra Yes
Dendroica pityophila
Dendroica vitellina NT
Dendroica plumbea


Page 92









MEETING REPORTS


Table 1. (Continued)

Red List Status review Threatened species
English name Scientific name
status needed? advocate identified?
Barbuda Warbler Dendroica subita NT
Whistling Warbler Catharopeza bishopi EN
Semper's Warbler Leucopeza semperi CR
Bahama Yellowthroat Geothlypis rostrata
Green-tailed Warbler Microligea palustris
Yellow-headed Warbler Teretistris fernandinae
Oriente Warbler Teretistrisfornsi
White-winged Warbler Xenoligea montana VU Yes
San Andres Vireo Vireo caribaeus
Thick-billed Vireo Vireo crassirostris
Cuban Vireo Vireo gundlachii
Puerto Rican Vireo Vireo latimeri Yes
Jamaican Vireo Vireo modestus
Flat-billed Vireo Vireo nanus Yes
Blue Mountain Vireo Vireo osburni NT
Greater Antillean Oriole Icterus dominicensis


Follow-up actions.-The following actions were
recommended:
1. Draft a vision statement and Terms of Refer-
ence for the TBWG and share with the SCSCB
membership and existing Working Groups to ensure
coherence and appropriateness. [David Wege; Lisa
Sorenson; Steven Latta; Ver6nica Anad6n; Chris
Rimmer; Mayra Vincenty]
2. Set up a Threatened Birds Yahoo group, and
invite people to participate. Explore other tools to
manage new information and discussions on threat-
ened species within the Caribbean. [Ver6nica
Anad6n; David Wege]
3. Follow up, through the Yahoo group, on the
various recommendations for changes in species
threat status, additions to the threatened species list,
and changes to the listed conservation actions.
Work in close collaboration with the IUCN Red List


review process (coordinated by BirdLife Interna-
tional). [David Wege; Ver6nica Anad6n; Chris
Rimmer; Mayra Vincenty]
4. Follow up, through the Yahoo group, and with
the named individuals, the concept of species cham-
pions or advocates, and whether this is could form a
network that both engages SCSCB members and
could help monitor the status of threatened species.
[David Wege; Ver6nica Anad6n; Chris Rimmer;
Mayra Vincenty]
5. Build on the dynamism generated to develop
an SCSCB Threatened Bird Conservation Program.
[David Wege; Lisa Sorenson; Chris Rimmer;
Veronica Anad6n]
6. Liaise closely with the Monitoring Working
Group (and potentially others) to develop joint ini-
tiatives. [Steven Latta; Lisa Sorenson; David Wege]


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 93









MEETING REPORTS


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:94-96, 2005

HURRICANES AND THE FATE OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS-WHAT DO WE KNOW,
WHAT DO WE NEED TO KNOW, WHO IS VULNERABLE, HOW CAN WE PREPARE,
WHAT CAN WE DO, AND WHAT ARE THE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS?

JOSEPH WUNDERLE
International Institute of Tropical Forestry, USDA Forest Service, P.O. Box 507, Palmer, Puerto Rico 00721;
e-mail: wunderle@coqui.net


RECENT HURRICANES have raised concerns re-
garding the fate of many Caribbean birds, especially
for rare, single island endemic species. Although
Caribbean birds and their habitats have evolved in
an area with a high hurricane frequency and are
assumed to be relatively resilient to storm effects,
habitat loss and degradation and various other hu-
man impacts may place certain species at risk to
hurricanes. This symposium was designed to review
knowledge regarding hurricane effects on birds and
their habitats; dispel myths; identify information
needs; review pre- and post- hurricane monitoring
and census methods; and identify population and
habitat management options to ameliorate storm
effects. The symposium identified the species at
greatest risk to hurricane impacts, the pre-hurricane
information needs, and the potential post-hurricane
management responses.
Review of hurricane effects.-The review of pre-
vious hurricane studies and the presentations in this
symposium indicated that:
1. Direct effects of hurricanes, which occur dur-
ing the storm (i.e., mortality due to exposure to the
storm's winds, rains, or storm surge), are most evi-
dent in aquatic or seabirds.
2. Indirect effects, which occur in the storm's
aftermath due to damage to the habitat are most
evident in land birds.
3. Population declines of land birds are often re-
lated to diet nectarivores and frugivore/seedeaters
are most likely to decline, while insectivores and
raptors are more resistant to storm effects.
4. Population declines are often most severe at
high elevations, reflecting the fact that montane
vegetation recovers more slowly than lowland vege-
tation.
5. Some population declines of land birds do oc-
cur as a result of mortality (e.g., Puerto Rican Par-
rot).
6. Some population declines of land birds repre-
sent habitat or location shifts and may include:


Page 94


a. Montane populations shift to the lowlands.
b. Canopy-dwellers shift to ground level.
c. Forest understory species shift to early-suc-
cessional sites (e.g., pre-existing treefall gaps).
7. Some population declines of land birds and
colonial water birds may result from loss of large
trees for nesting or roosting.
8. Reproduction may be initially curtailed or de-
layed in the breeding season immediately following
a hurricane in terrestrial and aquatic species.
9. Post-hurricane wandering or movements of
some birds may bring them into conflict with hu-
mans, which may further contribute to bird mortal-
ity.
10. Given the importance of indirect effects of
hurricanes on land birds it may be possible to devise
management strategies to ameliorate some negative
hurricane effects.
Traits of birds that are likely to be at risk of popu-
lation declines due to hurricanes, based on previous
studies and the symposium studies include:
1. Nectarivores, frugivores and seed eating birds.
2. Tree cavity nesting species of birds.
3. Species confined to small habitat fragments on
islands.
4. Species that require high elevation or montane
habitats (> 1,000 m).
5. Colonial waterbirds (e.g., herons & egrets)
requiring trees for nesting.
6. Species of open exposed habitats (e.g., aquatic
birds).
7. Species with small (< 500) population size.
Potential management activities to ameliorate
hurricane impacts on bird populations include:
1. Close hunting seasons on game birds for at
least a year after the passage of a major hurricane.
2. Supplementary feeding might be possible if
post-hurricane populations are concentrated in re-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









MEETING REPORTS


stricted locations where provisioned food might be
encountered.
3. Establish lowland reserves as post-hurricane
refuges for high elevation or montane species,
which move to the lowlands in search of food and
shelter following hurricanes.
4. Encourage habitat corridors between forest
reserves, which facilitate post-hurricane movement
of displaced birds.
5. Plant or favor fruit or seed-bearing plants that
are relatively resistant to hurricane damage or have
rapid recovery rates after storm (e.g., some palms).
6. Provide artificial cavities for nest or roost sites
for species at risk to loss of cavity trees.
7. Encourage wide geographic dispersion of habi-
tat and populations to minimize risk of a strike to a
small isolated population or habitat.
Questions.-Questions posed to the symposium
contributors included:
1. What information would have been helpful to
you prior to a hurricane, which might have allowed
a more efficient post-hurricane response?
2. What recommendations do you have for those
concerned with storm impacts on sensitive popula-
tions?
3. Can you make any management recommenda-
tions that might help limit the effects of hurricanes
on birds?
General response of participants.-All partici-
pants reiterated the importance of having monitor-
ing programs established to provide baseline studies
well before the arrival of a hurricane. All studies
presented in the symposium were based on compari-
sons of post-hurricane studies with baseline studies
of populations conducted before the storm. All par-
ticipants agreed that baseline data were absolutely
essential to evaluate hurricane effects and L6pez-
Ortiz emphasized that without quantitative before
and after data it would be difficult to persuade deci-
sion makers to respond to hurricane-induced popu-
lation declines in bird populations. The presenta-
tions of Arendt and L6pez-Ortiz were especially
noteworthy in illustrating the value of long-term
monitoring and other studies well before the arrival
of hurricanes. Rusk's Grenada Dove studies suggest
the possibility of substantial declines in an already
critically endangered population (estimated at 180
doves before Hurricane Ivan). The Grenada work
indicated that the doves shifted out of traditional
sites and changed their calling behavior thereby
making evaluation of the actual numbers of remain-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


ing doves difficult. Thus the uncertainty of the dove
counts may result in management actions such as
captive breeding.
Bradley's experiences in response to the devastat-
ing effects of Hurricane Ivan (initially a class 5
storm when it struck Grand Cayman) were espe-
cially insightful. She noted the importance of public
outreach after the storm to sensitize the public to the
plight of birds after the storm. Artificially provi-
sioning some sensitive bird populations (i.e., Cay-
man Parrots and West Indian Whistling-Ducks) was
possible as birds wandered into human settlements
in search of food handouts (as long as food supplies
lasted on the island). However, wandering parrots
were at risk when they came into farm yards in
search of food where they were frequently shot. As
documented elsewhere, the loss of cavity trees for
nesting parrots and woodpeckers was a concern on
Grand Cayman where Bradley and collaborators
were providing nest boxes to speed the recovery of
affected species. Unexpected storm surge contrib-
uted to substantial tree mortality on the island's
coast in a forest reserve, which was believed (before
the storm) to have been the most important forest
site on the island emphasizing the importance of
widely scattered habitat reserves on an island. These
experiences suggested that preparations for manage-
ment of sensitive species should be initiated before
a hurricane and should include having potential bird
food supplies stored, nest boxes constructed, as well
as plans in place for public education and outreach.
Also, the storm damage to the major forest reserve
on Grand Cayman emphasized the importance of
considering hurricane effects when establishing
nature reserves (i.e., storm surges can cause sub-
stantial tree mortality in coastal forest reserves).
Recommendations.-Discussions with partici-
pants and the audience indicated that there was a
need for information relating to the effects of hurri-
canes on bird populations and potential manage-
ment responses. Thus it was recommended that a
publication summarizing information on hurricane
effects on Caribbean bird populations and suggest-
ing management responses before and after storms
should be prepared for decision makers in both the
public and private sector. The publication would
also suggest ways in which to prepare for these
storms in terms of bird conservation. The sympo-
sium organizer, J. Wunderle, volunteered to write
the proposed publication, which would summarize
results from the SCSCB symposium. The recom-
mended work would be published as U.S. Forest
Service Technical Report that would be sent to ap-


Page 95









MEETING REPORTS


propriate officials throughout the region as well as
provided to participants at SCSCB meetings. The


publication will also be translated into Spanish and
French.


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:96-97, 2005

CARIBBEAN WILDLIFE ART WORKING GROUP

NILS NAVARRO
Provincial Art Center, Frexes 334, entre Carb6 y Carretera Central, Ciudad Holguin, Cuba;
e-mail: nilsarts@yahoo.com


THE MISSION OF THE Caribbean Wildlife Art
Working Group: To promote an artistic movement
in the Caribbean based on Wildlife Art, to raise
awareness and appreciation of the rich biodiversity
of the region, and to join efforts among the artistic
community to contribute to the financing of the
SCSCB.
Our objectives are:
1. To promote the conservation of Caribbean bio-
diversity, especially birds, through the arts.
2. To create and develop a wildlife artist move-
ment focused on the richness and endemism of Car-
ibbean biodiversity.
3. To contribute to raising funds for the Society
for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds
(SCSCB) through donations of artwork, limited
edition prints, royalties, poster designs, paintings for
auctions and raffles, on-line sales, illustrations of
books and magazines, designs for T-Shirts and
greeting cards, collective exhibitions, and establish-
ing a wildlife photo reference library for artists,
among other actions.
4. Design art activities that are related to environ-
mental education and outreach: festivals, work-
shops, art competitions, and field trips.
Art possesses the capacity to inspire and to touch
the hearts of many people. For this reason a group
of artists and scientists was founded in the year
2003, the "Caribbean Wildlife Art Working Group,"
during the 14th Meeting of the Society for the Con-
servation and Study of the Caribbean Birds in the
island of Tobago. Within two years of having been
created, the Caribbean Wildlife Art Working Group
(CWAWG) has carried out several actions with the
objective of promoting the conservation of the bio-
logical diversity of the Caribbean, through the fine
arts, as well as a movement of wildlife artists in the
area.


Page 96


The results obtained during the first two years
(2003-2005) of work were presented in Nils
Navarro's presentation to the plenary as a featured
speaker: Caribbean Wildlife Art and Conservation -
Art's Capacity to Inspire and Raise Funds for Na-
ture Conservation. Among the more important ac-
tions of the WG: exhibitions of paintings, design of
programs for teaching wildlife art in Academies of
Fine Arts in Cuba, courses in wildlife art, art com-
petitions for children, Festivals of Art and Nature,
design of posters with a conservation message, book
illustrations, auction of art to raise funds for conser-
vation NGOs, donation of copyright, preparation of
programs for environmental education on the radio
and TV, and painting murals for cities (with the
topic of the flora and fauna of the Caribbean). Nils
also presented several proposals for obtaining funds
for the SCSCB. During the meeting, the CWAWG
donated T-shirts decorated with a Cuban Macaw
painting and an original American Kestrel watercol-
our painting by Nils for the Silent Auction.
The meeting was a wonderful place to share ex-
periences with other people and have contact with
an organization that is enthusiastic about our project
support. The needs and recommendations outlined
below arose out of discussions with CWAWG
members in Cuba prior to and following the Guade-
loupe conference, and from discussions with col-
leagues at the CWAWG meeting, and with meeting
delegates during the week.
Our needs include:
1. The project needs to be expanded to other is-
lands in the Caribbean. To date most of the actions
of the CWAWG have been carried out in the island
of Cuba, including the training courses for young
artists in the Academies of Fine Arts. The work-
shops and training courses should be organized in
other countries in the region. This will enable new
artists to join our efforts in bird conservation and
through their work they will have the opportunity to


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005









MEETING REPORTS


contribute to the conservation of Caribbean avi-
fauna.
2. The work and actions of the CWAWG needs to
be promoted on SCSCB's web site, through a novel
and colourful design. The group's achievements and
art can be featured on the website and workshops in
the region can be publicized on the webpage. We
also propose on-line sales of art using artists mem-
bers' donations, in order to help finance the core
activities of the SCSCB.
3. A seed fund is needed for the preparation of all
the materials that are needed to build the program
and obtain future funds for the SCSCB. This seed
funding will be used to purchase art materials and to
pay for finished products such as T-Shirts, fans,
cards, and others products. At the moment the Car-
ibbean Wildlife Art WG lacks financial support to
initiate proposed plans to assist the SCSCB.
Our recommendations include:
1. Carry out a training workshop in Wildlife Art
in another Caribbean country in 2006, preferably
Dominican Republic, Bahamas or Puerto Rico,


where Cuban artists are willing to impart free
courses as a donation to SCSCB. These courses can
also help raise funds for SCSCB and they can be
promoted through SCSCB's web site.
2. If accepted by the SCSCB Board, a Cuban art-
ist and member of the CWAGG will design a web
site for SCSCB. The web site will include a section
of online art sales with the objective of raising funds
for the Society. The CWAWG is willing to create
the website design and keep this section of the site
up to date in its entirety.
3. SCSCB establish a seed fund for the Caribbean
Wildlife Art Working Group for the preparation of
works and other products. This seed fund will be
reimbursed to SCSCB through the sales of the do-
nated works and other art products.
4. Prepare an art show to present during the North
American Ornithological Conference next year in
Veracruz, Mexico. Some art pieces will be donated
by the CWAWG members to raise funds for
SCSCB. Additional items will be prepared for silent
auctions that take place during these kind of meet-
ings.


J. Carib. Ornithol. 18:97-99, 2005

PROTECTED AREAS MANAGEMENT: MOVING FROM PAPER PARKS
TO EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT,
ARE PROTECTED AREAS REALLY CONSERVING BIRDS?

NADRA NATHAI-GYAN1, ERIC CAREY2, AND HERBERT RAFFAELE3
1Wildlife Section, Forestry Division, 29 Farm Road, St. Joseph, Trinidad and Tobago; e-mail: wildlife@trinidad.net;
2P. 0. Box CB.12840, Nassau, Bahamas; e-mail: ecarey@batelnet.bs; 30ffice of International Conservation,
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, VA 22203, USA; e-mail: herb_raffaele@fws.gov


THIS ROUND-TABLE DISCUSSION was held to
stimulate thoughts on the effectiveness of existing
and proposed protected areas (PAs) in the region, in
regard to the conservation of birds. Moreover, it
aimed to move beyond just complaining about PAs
not fulfilling this objective, but formulating new
and innovative solutions to meet the identified con-
straints.
Protected Areas have been a part of the region's
landscape since the mid-1800s, with the Tobago's
Main Ridge Forest Reserve designated as the first
such area in the Western Hemisphere, primarily for



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


watershed protection. With the signing of Multi-
Environmental Agreements by countries in the Re-
gion, especially over the last two-three decades,
more PAs have been established or at least pro-
posed. It seems apparent that a well-established
system of PAs would conserve birds, but in reality
this does not seem to translate on the ground.
Some of the issues were highlighted, including:
1. Under-staffing and/or underpaid staff.
2. Shortage or lack of trained personnel / man-
agers.
3. Inadequate or no enforcement of laws and


Page 97









MEETING REPORTS


regulations.
4. Lack of political support.
5. Improper demarcation of boundaries on the
ground.
Three break-out working groups (selected on the
basis of language spoken) were tasked to discuss the
following question in order to provide recommenda-
tions for follow-up: What can be done to effectively
manage protected areas so that they conserve birds?
The working groups identified the following ad-
ditional issues and problems:
1. Lack of human resources.
2. Lack of financial resources.
3. Lack of (financial) incentives.
4. Insufficient law enforcement.
5. Lack/absence of legislation.


6. Lack of political support and continuity.
7. Frequent staff turn-over.
8. Absence of management plan.
9. Need for effective stakeholder survey / in-
volvement.
10. Lack of training.
11. Lack of education.
12. Lack of public awareness.
13. Demarcation of boundaries of protected areas;
existence of private in-holdings within protected
areas.
14. Need for agreed clear objectives for creation
of protected areas.
Recommendations.-The following recommenda-
tions were made by the working groups (WGs):


WG 1 WG2 WG3
English Spanish French
Designating PAs
Delimiting boundaries of PAs on the ground
Management Plans
Elaborate Management Plan guided by public policy and
with full engagement of stakeholders in the process.
Incorporate all essentials in the Plan
-Adequate Human Resources
-Sustainable financing including core funding 4
-Stakeholder involvement
Implement Plan ensuring that:
-Goals are clearly identified
-Threats are clearly identified
-Initiatives are incorporated
-Clear roles are identified for stakeholders
-Local communities are empowered to undertake key
roles, including policy development
Periodic review of Management Plan, involving commu-
nities
Financing
Adopt strategies for the economic sustainability of the
PAs, which may include establishing a Conservation
Fund, with clear guidelines for operating and sustaining
the fund
Establish a User-fee schedule
Elaborate a catalogue for the public to review and make
donations towards the PA
Training
Efficiently train personnel to manage PAs and imple-
ment management plans
Enforcement (Resource Protection)
Establish strict regulations and provide for enforcement '
by park rangers and honorary rangers


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 18(1), 2005


Page 98




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs