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Group Title: journal of Caribbean ornithology
Title: The Journal of Caribbean ornithology
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 Material Information
Title: The Journal of Caribbean ornithology
Physical Description: v. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds
Publisher: Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds/Sociedad para la Conservatción Y Estudio de Las Aves Caribeñas / Société pour la Conservation et L'Etude de Caraïbe
Place of Publication: Ridgewood, NY
Publication Date: Spring 2003
Copyright Date: 2003
Frequency: three issues a year
three times a year
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Ornithology -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Ornithology -- Periodicals -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Conservation -- Periodicals -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
Birds -- Conservation -- Periodicals -- West Indies   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Language: In English, French and Spanish.
Dates or Sequential Designation: Vol. 16, no. 1 (Spring 2004)-
General Note: Title from cover.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100142
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 52094634
lccn - 2003212636
issn - 1544-4953
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Copyright
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    Back Matter
        Back Matter
    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text









THE JOURNAL OF


CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBErAS
SOCIETE POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L'ETUDE DE LA CARAIBE

Spring 2003 Vol. 16, No. 1
(ISSN 1544-4953)

Formerly EL PITIRRE



CONTENTS

RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY LAND BIRDS IN THE WEST
INDIES: A REPORT TO THE SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS (SCSCB) BY
THE NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRD WORKING GROUP OF THE SCSCB. Steven C. Latta, Adrianne Tossas,
Ann Sutton, Hiram Gonzalez, Paul B. Hamel, and David DeSante ........................ ....... ............................ 1
FIRST SIGHT RECORD OF NORTHERN PARULA (PARULA AMERICANA) FOR TRINIDAD AND A FOURTH RECORD FOR
T O BA G O F loyd E H ay es .......................................... .................................................... ... .................................... 20
NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES ACUATICAS EN CAYO SABINAL, CAMAGIEY, CUBA. Omilcar Barrio Valdes,
Pedro Blanco Rodriguezy Roberto Soriano .............................................................. .......................... ............... 22
RECENT COLONIZATION OF ST. MARTIN BY THE SCALY-BREASTED THRASHER (MARGAROPS FUSCUS). Adam C.
B row n and N atalia C ollier ............................................ ................................................................. ................... 24
MORE PELAGIC BIRD SIGHTINGS OFF DOMINICA. Allan R. Keith and Lucy W. Keith .................................................... 26
NOTABLE BIRD SIGHTINGS FROM CUBA, WINTERS 2002 AND 2003. Julie A. Craves and Kimberly R. Hall ................. 31
DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS (AVES: ARDEIDAE) DE LA CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS,
C U B A D en n is D en is A vila ........................................ .. ....................................................................................... 3 5
REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUS IBIS) EN LA CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS, CUBA. Dennis Denis,
Antonio Rodriguez, Patricia Rodriguez y Ariam Jim nez ............... ..................................... ............................. 45
BIRD RECORDS IN A MONTANE FOREST FRAGMENT OF WESTERN SIERRA DE NEIBA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC.
Christopher C. Rimmer, Jesus Almonte M., Esteban Garrido G., Danilo A. Mejia, Maria Milagros P., and
Paul R. Wieczoreck .............................................................. .... 55
NUEVO REPORTE PARA EL ZARAPICO NADADOR (PHALAROPUS LOBATUS) EN CUBA. Ariam Jimenez, Antonio
Rodriguez y Jos Morales .................................................................. ... 61
UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WESTERN STRIPE-HEADED TANAGER (SPINDALIS ZENA). Martin Acosta, Lourdes
Mugica y Antonio Rodriguez .............................................................. ... 62
OBSERVATIONS OF RARE AND UNUSUAL BIRDS ON GRENADA. Martin D. Frost and Edward B. Massiah ................... 63
OCCURRENCE OF AN OVER-WINTERING CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (DENDROICA PENSYLVANICA) ON ST.
M ARTIN, LESSER ANTILLES. Adam C. Brown and Natalia Collier .................................................................. 66
Is CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (RAMIPHASTOS VITELLINUS) ESTABLISHED ON GRENADA? Edward B. Massiah and
Martin D. Frost ............................................................... ... 68
PRESENCIA DURANTE TODO EL ANO DE LA PIZPITA DE MANGLE (SEIURUS NOVEBORACENSIS) EN PUERTO RICO.
RailA. P&rez-Rivera, Limary Ramirez, Josd Velzquezy Alberto Molina ....................................... ............... 70


Continued on back cover











THE JOURNAL OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY


THE JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
LA REVISTA DE LA SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
LE JOURNAL DE LA SOCIETE POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L'ETUDE DE LA CARAIBE




Editor: James W. Wiley, Maryland Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, 1120 Trigg Hall, University
ofMaryland Eastern Shore, Princess Anne, Maryland 21853, USA; Telephone: (410) 651-7654; Fax:
(410) 651-7662; e-mail: jwwiley@mail.umes.edu
Associate Editor: Adrianne G. Tossas, Department ofBiology, University of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, PR
00931; e-mail: agtossas@hotmail.com
Associate Editor for French West Indies: Philippe Feldmann, CIRAD-Micap, TA 179/03, F-34398 Montpellier
cedex 5, France; e-mail: philippe.feldmann@cirad.fr
Associate Editor for Spanish-Language Materials: Jos6 Placer, Coereba Society (www.coereba.org); e-mail:
jplacer@coereba.org
News, comments, requests, and manuscripts should be mailed to the Editor or an Associate Editor for inclusion
in the newsletter.
Noticias, comentarios, peticiones y manuscritos deben ser enviadas al Editor o Editor Asociado para inclusi6n
en el boletin.


NEW EDITOR

Please note that all communications regarding The Journal of Caribbean Ornithology
should be made to the new Editor, as follows:
Dr. Jerome A. Jackson
Whitaker Center for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education
Florida Gulf Coast University
10501 FGCU Blvd. South
Ft. Myers, Florida 33965-6565, USA
Telephone: 941-590-7193
Facsimile: 941-590-7200
E-mail: jjackson@fgcu.edu















The Journal of


Caribbean Ornithology

Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds
Sociedadpara la Conservaci6n y Estudio de las Aves Caribehas
Society pour la Conservation et 1'Etude de la Caratbe

Spring 2003 Vol. 16, No. 1


RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF
NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY LAND BIRDS IN THE WEST INDIES:
A REPORT TO THE SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS (SCSCB)
BY THE NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRD WORKING GROUP OF THE SCSCB


STEVEN C. LATTA', ADRIANNE TOSSAS2, ANN SUTTON3,
HIRAM GONZALEZ4, PAUL B. HAMEL5, AND DAVID DESANTE6
1PRBO Conservation Science, 4990 Shoreline Hwy, Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA; 2Alturas de Mayagiiez, Yunque E-43,
Mayagiiez, Puerto Rico 00680; 3Mlarshall's Pen, PO Box 58, Mandeville, Jamaica; 4Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemitica,
Carretera de Varona Km. 3.5, La Habana, Cuba; 5Centerfor Bottomlands Hardwoods Research, PO Box 227, Stoneville,
MS 38776, USA; and 6Institutefor Bird Populations, PO Box 1346, Point Reyes Station, CA 94956, USA


Abstract.-In a Caribbean-wide effort to compile and exchange among islands information about Neotropical mi-
gratory birds that spend the non-breeding season in the Caribbean Basin, we collected summaries of research pro-
jects undertaken on each island which had as their focus the ecology of Neotropical migratory birds, current research
and conservation projects in each country, and a bibliography of publications based on local research. We then used
these data to generate a comprehensive list of research priorities concerning migrants in the non-breeding season,
and finally, recommend uniform methodologies for the monitoring of migratory land birds on the islands.
Resumen.-INVESTIGACION, MONITOREO Y MONSERVACION DE AVES MIGRATORIAS NEOTROPICALES EN LAS IN-
DIAS OCCIDENTALES: UN REPORTE AL SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIA DE AVES CARIBENAS
(SCSCB) POR EL GRUPO DE TRABAJO PARA AVES MIGRATORIAS NEOTROPICALES DE SCSCB. En un esfuerzo para
compilar y intercambiar entre los omit6logos y conservacionistas de las islas caribefias informaci6n sobre aves mi-
gratorias que pasan la temporada no-reproductiva en el Caribe, aqui presentamos un resumen de investigaciones con-
cluidos sobre la ecologia de las aves migratorias, investigaciones y proyectos de conservaci6n que estan en marcha,
y una bibliografia de publicaciones sobre aves migratorias en el Caribe. Usamos estos datos para producir una lista
amplia de los prioridades de investigaci6n sobre aves migratorias, y finalmente, unas recomendaciones para m6todos
uniformes para el monitoreo de aves migratorias en las islas.
Resumn.--ETUDE, SUIVI ET CONSERVATION DES OISEAUX MIGRATEURS TERRESTRES DANS LES ANTILLES : RAP-
PORT A LA SOCIETY POUR L'ETUDE ET LA CONSERVATION DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE (SCSCB) DU GROUPE DE
TRAVAIL SUR LES OISEAUX MIGRATEURS NEOTROPICAUX. Dans le cadre d'un effort de compilation et d'6change d'in-
formations entre les iles de la Carafbe sur les oiseaux migrateurs neotropicaux qui y sejoument en dehors de la pe-
riode de nidification, nous avons r6unis des resumes des projets de recherches entrepris sur chaque ile. Ces projets
concemaient l'6cologie des oiseaux migrateurs neotropicaux, les recherches et les actions de conservation en cours
ainsi que l'6tablissement d'une bibliographie des publications basees sur des recherches locales. Ces donn6es ont
ensuite permis de d6finir une liste exhaustive des priorit6s de recherche sur les migrants hors saisons de nidification
et, en conclusion, de recommander des m6thodes homogenes de suivi de ces especes dans les iles.
Key words: conservation, monitoring, Neotropical migrant birds, research, West Indies









LATTAETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


INTRODUCTION
AT THE 13TH MEETING of the Society of Caribbean
Ornithology (now the Society for the Conservation
and Study of Caribbean Birds [SCSCB]) held in
Topes de Collante, Cuba, 15-22 July, 2001, a special
symposium was conducted on Neotropical migratory
birds in the Caribbean. The symposium consisted of
a series of presentations of original research and is-
land reports, including summaries of previous re-
search projects undertaken in each country, current
research and conservation projects in each country,
research needs, and a bibliography of publications
based on local research. There followed a presenta-
tion and discussion of various research and monitor-
ing protocols that may be applicable to Neotropical
migrants in the West Indies. Following this sympo-
sium, a formal Working Group on Neotropical Mi-
gratory Birds was formed with the following objec-
tives: (1) to compile and exchange among islands
information about Neotropical migratory birds in the
Caribbean Basin; (2) to recommend uniform method-
ologies for the research and monitoring of migratory
birds in the islands; and (3) to sponsor training pro-
grams for Caribbean biologists interested in applying
recommended research and monitoring techniques.
The Working Group also supported assembling and
publishing a summary report of these discussions and
the recommendations that the symposium engen-
dered.

HISTORY OF RESEARCH OF NEOTROPICAL
MIGRATORY BIRDS IN THE CARIBBEAN
With few exceptions, the history of research and
monitoring of Neotropical migratory birds in the Car-
ibbean Basin has followed a similar pattern among
the various islands. Early work was limited to species
lists and observations made by visiting or resident
ornithologists and naturalists. These observations are
mostly scattered in the literature as notes, included in
check-lists, or perhaps summarized in bird guides
and special publications (i.e., Barbour 1923, Wet-
more and Swales 1931, Bond 1960, Biaggi 1970,
Woods 1975, Dod 1978). Since the mid-1970s, when
the first symposium on Neotropical migratory birds
was held (Keast and Morton 1980), through the
1980s (Rappole et al. 1983, Arendt 1986), and espe-
cially subsequent to the 1989 publication of Chandler
Robbins' documentation of continent-wide declines
in some migratory species (Robbins et al. 1989), the
ecology of Neotropical migrants has attracted in-
creased attention. Whereas most of this attention has
been directed toward breeding-ground events in


Page 2


North America, a few early studies of migrants dur-
ing the non-breeding season focused primarily on
the distribution, abundance, and foraging behavior
of species in Mesoamerica and the Caribbean (i.e.,
Terborgh and Faaborg 1980; Arendt 1992; Finch
and Stangel 1993; Wunderle and Waide 1993,
1994), and often concluded that species were gener-
alists because they were found in geographically
widespread areas and a variety of habitats. But be-
ginning with Faaborg and Arendt's research in
Puerto Rico (Faaborg and Arendt 1984), and later
Holmes and Sherry's work in Jamaica (Holmes et
al. 1989), studies began to focus on the need for
habitat-specific, demographic, and site-fidelity data
in assessing habitat preferences of migratory birds
during the non-breeding season. Because some spe-
cies were shown to segregate by sex and age class,
abundance data alone could be a misleading indica-
tor of population size and habitat preference. More-
over, abundance cannot be equated with survival, so
data on site fidelity, including site persistence and
annual return rate, may be required to assess habitat
quality. Thus, across the Caribbean, several recent
studies have focused on habitat-specific demo-
graphies and site fidelity of warblers during the
non-breeding season (Woods 1975; Holmes et al.
1989; Wunderle 1995; Marra et al. 1998; Wunderle
and Latta 2000; Marra and Holmes 2001; Sillett et
al. 2000; Latta and Faaborg 2001, 2002), and these
studies have set the standard by which studies of the
ecology of migrants are measured. Below we briefly
summarize previous research and monitoring efforts
on each of the islands or island systems where sub-
stantial numbers of Neotropical migrants are known
to spend the non-breeding season.
Cuba.-A tremendous amount of work on
Neotropical migratory birds has come out of Cuba.
Because of its geographical position and large size,
a considerable number of migrants is found in Cuba
during migration and throughout the Nearctic win-
ter. With these large numbers of birds and the re-
ported general declines in migrant populations, Cu-
ban ornithologists have developed research pro-
grams to determine the state of migrant populations
and factors that affect these populations, and col-
lected data needed to implement management plans
for the conservation of the habitats that these mi-
grants use. Unique to the Caribbean Basin, research
in Cuba has focused on the following objectives: (1)
determine the influence of various forest-types and
regions of the island on the distribution, community
composition, and abundance of migratory and resi-
dent birds throughout the year; (2) delineate possi-



Joumal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









LATTA ETAL. RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


ble migration corridors; (3) determine the distribu-
tion and state of communities of resident and migra-
tory birds in the different regions of Cuba; and (4)
make management recommendations to managers of
protected areas concerning birds and their habitats.
With these objectives, from 1988 to 1999 Cuban
biologists using linear transects, point counts, and
mist-nets have worked in 34 localities in 10 regions
of Cuba (Guanahacabibes, Mil Cumbres, la Guira,
Peninsula de Hicacos, Cidnaga de Zapata, Cayo
Coco, Cayo Santa Maria, Gibara, Altiplanicie de
Nipe, and Parque Alejandro de Humbolt) to evaluate
communities of terrestrial birds. Vegetation composi-
tion and structure have also been measured in circu-
lar plots at each site. This work adds to the growing
body of evidence from several countries showing the
importance of combining circular point counts and
mist-net captures to efficiently sample avian commu-
nities (Ralph and Scott 1981, Ralph et al. 1993). Dif-
ferences in species richness and abundance among
study sites owe principally to the distribution of mi-
gratory birds. In addition, biologists have found dif-
ferences in sex ratios of migrants among regions of
Cuba. Characteristics of the vegetation structure that
have most influenced the composition and abundance
of bird communities are canopy cover, ground cover,
and the volume of foliage at 0-1 m. Areas most im-
portant for Neotropical migratory birds include
Guanahacabibes, Peninsula de Hicacos, Cayo Coco,
Cayo Santa Maria, and Gibara. With relation to mi-
gratory birds banded in the non-breeding season and
later recaptured, 49.5% of 111 birds were recaptured
in the same mist-net where they were previously
banded, whereas an additional 31.5% were recap-
tured within 100 m of the mist-net where they were
banded, thereby demonstrating strong site fidelity to
territories, and corroborating not only that birds re-
turn to the same region or area, but that they occupy
the same microhabitat each year. Additional work
has been done on migratory populations of shore-
birds and waterbirds. Work on migratory birds has
been summarized in some 37 articles published in
journals in Cuba, United States, Mexico, Canada, and
Spain. Two doctoral dissertations have been success-
fully defended (Gonzalez 1996, Rodriguez 2000a), as
well as two theses (P6rez 1996, Ay6n 1998). Finan-
cial support for the work has been provided by Cana-
dian Wildlife Service, World Wildlife Fund of Can-
ada, International Council for Bird Preservation (now
BirdLife International), Tennessee Department of
Conservation, and the Institute of Ecology and Sys-
tematics of the Ministry of Science, Technology, and
Environment of Cuba.


Jamaica.-Jamaica has seen intensive surveys by
local biologists for many decades for both Neotropi-
cal migrants and residents, and has been the site of
important, sustained research on the ecology of
Neotropical migrants during the non-breeding sea-
son. Since the 1970s important counts and surveys
have been conducted in Jamaica by Lack (1976),
Ann and Robert Sutton, Wunderle and Waide
(1993), Chandler Robbins (Robbins et al. 1987,
1992), and many others. Beginning in 1986, Rich-
ard Holmes (Dartmouth College) and Tom Sherry
(Tulane University), followed by students Peter
Marra, Allan Strong, Matthew Johnson, and Scott
Sillett, conducted some of the first studies of demo-
graphic differences in habitat use and site fidelity of
migratory birds during the non-breeding season,
with much of their work focused on the American
Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), Black-throated Blue
Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens), and Ovenbird
(Seiurus auricapillus) across an array of habitat
types that exhibit different degrees of stress as the
dry season progresses. Results from redstarts have
shown that patterns of habitat occupancy such as
sexual habitat segregation are caused by behavioral
dominance of older males (Marra 2000). Sexual
habitat segregation is important to the population
dynamics of these species, with individual birds in
less suitable habitats having lower annual survival
and poorer physiological condition (Marra and
Holmes 2001). Using stable-carbon isotopes, Marra
et al. (1998) showed that redstarts in high-quality
habitats in Jamaica arrived on breeding grounds ear-
lier and in better physical condition, both of which
are positively correlated with reproductive success
on the breeding grounds. Poor body condition dur-
ing the non-breeding season was linked to food
availability for the Ovenbird by Allan Strong
(Strong and Sherry 2000). Research on another
ground-forager, Swainson's Warbler (Limnothlypis
swainsonii), suggests that for this guild, differences
in foraging strategy and the location of available
prey will dictate a species' ability to maintain body
mass in Jamaica (Strong 2000, Strong and Sherry
2001). Recently, Leo Douglas has built on some of
this work to look at migrant behavior in anthropo-
genic habitats (Douglas 2001). Work has also
shown that Jamaican shade-coffee plantations pro-
vide relatively high quality habitat for redstarts, and
the types of shade trees used to shelter the coffee
affects the birds via their influence on food avail-
ability (Johnson 2000b). Finally, climate cycles,
such as the El Nifio Southern Oscillation have been
shown to influence survival of the Black-throated


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 3











Blue Warbler in Jamaica, which in turn affects re-
cruitment rates in the subsequent breeding season
(Sillett et al. 2000).
Hispaniola.-Hispaniola was probably less in-
tensively surveyed for Neotropical migratory birds
than were some of the other Caribbean islands, al-
though Chandler Robbins (Robbins et al. 1987,
1992), and later Wunderle and Waide (1993) in-
cluded the Dominican Republic in their Caribbean-
wide surveys. In addition, early surveys of migrant
abundance and habitat use were made by Terborgh
and Faaborg (1980) and Arendt (1992, Table 4).
Whereas political instability has prevented work in
Haiti (but see Woods and Ottenwalder 1983, 1986),
the Dominican Republic has seen numerous studies
of the ecology of Neotropical migratory birds since
the early 1990s. These studies were first led by Jo-
seph Wunderle (U.S. Forest Service), and later by
Steven Latta (University of Missouri) and Chris
Rimmer (Vermont Institute of Natural Science).
Work over the past decade has focused on several
species of migratory birds which spend the non-
breeding season in large numbers on the island. Sig-
nificant progress has been made in understanding
habitat needs of such species as the Black-throated
Blue Warbler, Cape May Warbler (Dendroica ti-
grina), Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor), Palm
Warbler (Dendroica palmarum), American Red-
start, and Ovenbird. Studies completed by Joseph
Wunderle and Steven Latta focused on migrant use
of shade coffee plantations (Wunderle and Latta
1994; 1996; 1998a,b; 2000), with the plantations
serving as a model for fragmented forest habitat.
Results indicated that site fidelity to small shade
coffee plantations was comparable to that found in
some native tropical forests, and that size of the
plantation had little effect on site fidelity. This work
also provided some of the early scientific basis
needed to promote "bird friendly coffee." Subse-
quent studies of migrants by Latta focused on natu-
ral habitats in the Sierra de Bahoruco where some of
the most significant parcels of native habitat remain.
In the Bahorucos, Latta established nine long-term
study sites, each with color-banded populations of
birds, and focused research on habitat-specific
demographics and site fidelity, and factors responsi-
ble for variation in site fidelity among habitats.
Among other results, Latta has shown the impor-
tance of late dry-season events and habitat heteroge-
neity in the non-breeding season ecology of the
Prairie Warbler (Latta and Faaborg 2001), linked
both population responses and individual condition
of nonbreeding Cape May Warblers to prevailing
ecological conditions across habitats (Latta and


Page 4


Faaborg 2002), and demonstrated that an ectopara-
site can have a dramatic impact on Palm Warblers
(Arendt 1992, p. 164; Latta and O'Connor 2001;
Latta, in press), thus suggesting the potential impor-
tance of parasites to limitation of avian populations
during the non-breeding season.
Hispaniola is also the principal non-breeding
grounds of the globally threatened Bicknell's
Thrush (Catharus bicknelli) that has been inten-
sively studied in the Dominican Republic by Chris
Rimmer and collaborators. Research has focused on
distribution, habitat use, site fidelity, and survival of
these birds in high elevation, moist broadleaf sites
(Rimmer and McFarland 2001). Current research is
investigating apparent sexual segregation in this
species and the possible impact of this on popula-
tion dynamics.
Finally, the Dominican Republic is unique in the
Caribbean in that in 1998 a national avian conserva-
tion workshop was held which sought, among other
things, to prioritize avian research needs and to pro-
mote the concept of long-term avian monitoring
(Latta and Lorenzo 2000, Latta 2000). This led to a
national monitoring plan which includes methods
for the monitoring of birds during both the breeding
and non-breeding seasons. Portions of that plan
have been implemented (see Monitoring below).
Puerto Rico.-As has occurred in other islands,
early work in Puerto Rico was limited to observa-
tions of species occurrence by visiting and resident
ornithologists and naturalists. These observations
are scattered in the literature as notes or included in
check-lists and supplements, and have since been
summarized in bird guides and special publications
(Biaggi 1970, Raffaele 1989). Since the 1970s, sev-
eral more rigorous studies of Neotropical migrants
have been conducted in Puerto Rico. Two of the
principal researchers working with migratory land-
birds in the island are John Faaborg (University of
Missouri Columbia) and Wayne J. Arendt (U. S.
Forest Service, International Institute of Tropical
Forestry, Rio Piedras, PR). They have been study-
ing residents and migratory birds in the subtropical
dry forest of Guhnica in southwestern Puerto Rico
since 1972 with the primary purpose of monitoring
long-term population fluctuations. This is indeed the
longest-running monitoring program in the region
and has yielded a wealth of data on population
trends and the response of warbler populations to
habitat change and climate fluctuations (Faaborg
1982; Faaborg and Arendt 1984, 1989, 1990 1992a,
b, 1995). Numerous other completed research pro-
jects have focused on Neotropical migrants in


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LATTA ETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


Puerto Rico during shorter-term periods including
three doctoral dissertations (Richardson 1974,
Faaborg 1975, Baltz 2000). General research topics
have included migrant community structure (Faaborg
1975, Wunderle and Waide 1993), migration ecology
(Richardson 1974, 1976), habitat use by focal species
(Baltz 2000; Wunderle 1992, 1995), social behavior
(Staicer 1992), and conservation (Wunderle and
Waide 1994).
Bahamas.-Beyond general surveys (Wunderle and
Waide 1993), occasional mist-netting, and intensive
searching for Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirt-
landii), little work has been conducted in the Bahama
Islands. John Emlen (1977) completed a monograph
on land-bird communities of Grand Bahama Island
which included data on residents during the non-
breeding season, whereas more recently Michael Mur-
phy and co-authors (2001) studied population struc-
ture and habitat use by Neotropical migrants on San
Salvador Island. Joseph Wunderle is overseeing the
only active project studying habitat use by the endan-
gered Kirtland's Warbler on Eleuthera Island, with
additional work on the demographics and site fidelity
of the suite of Neotropical migratory birds inhabiting
low scrub vegetation. This work is undertaken with
the participation of Bahamas National Trust, Bahamas
Department of Agriculture, The Nature Conservancy,
and the U. S. Forest Service.
Virgin Islands.-Beyond survey work and avian
monitoring completed by David Ewert and Robert
Askins (see below), little work has taken place in the
Virgin Islands with regard to migrants. Work by
Askins et al. (1992) pointed to the abundance of mi-
grants in unfragmented moist forests of St. John Island
compared to the fragmented forests of St. Thomas.
There are no active projects beyond a recently initi-
ated monitoring project at a single site on St. Croix
(see below).


RESEARCH NEEDS
1. Habitat associations
a. Habitat-specific survival data by sex and age
class are unavailable for most species and most
habitats.
b. Although almost all major natural habitat types
have received some attention, a few habitat types
are almost completely unstudied.
c. With the exception of shade coffee, few studies of
site fidelity have used anthropogenic habitats,
whereas managers may be most interested in
what levels of disturbance migratory birds will
tolerate. What is the relationship between habitat


use and anthropogenic changes to habitats?
What value does early successional habitat have
for migrants? Bamboo? Acacia woodlands?
What are the possibilities of managing selected
crops as habitat (especially pasture, citrus, ca-
cao, and other agricultural crops)?
2. Social behavior of species on their non-breeding
grounds
a. How prevalent are mixed-species flocks in the
Caribbean and what species participate in
flocks?
b. Similarly, which species are territorial on their
non-breeding grounds?
c. What drives the movements of "floaters" or
"wanderers" and how does wandering influence
survival probabilities?
3. Limiting factors
a. What are the limiting factors for each species on
their non-breeding grounds (e.g., climate, food,
habitat, predators, disease)?
b. How do weather patterns (especially rainfall)
affect site fidelity, and can these data be related
to climate change (i.e., global warming) and
global climate patterns such as the El Nifio
Southern Oscillation (ENSO)?
c. How general is the model of non-breeding sea-
son ecology and population dynamics as pre-
sented for the American Redstart?
d. Do events that occur in the nonbreeding period
play a critical role in population dynamics of
these species in the annual cycle?
4. Conservation concerns
a. What are the effects of habitat fragmentation on
migrants on their non-breeding grounds? Do ef-
fects vary among habitats? Can we develop stan-
dard techniques of rapidly assessing habitat
quality?
b. In addition to coffee plantation research, are
there any other examples of cost-effective at-
tempts to improve quality and quantity of mi-
grant-bird habitats?
c. Can we prioritize the conservation importance of
species within and across political units (island/
country)?
5. General concerns
a. Few studies cover the entire migratory or non-
breeding season. We need a better understand-
ing of arrival and territory establishment peri-
ods, and spring fattening periods. We need an
understanding of how birds prepare for spring


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LATTAETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


migration, both behaviorally and physiologi-
cally, and whether territorial individuals use
different habitats just before migration.
b. Are there competitive relationships among per-
manent-resident and non-breeding season-
resident migratory species and how are these
relationships affected by habitat alteration?
c. How comparable are data when collected using
different methodologies? Can we standardize
methods of data collection and data analyses?

RECOMMENDED METHODOLOGIES
Our focus is on monitoring seasonal resident
Neotropical migratory birds on their non-breeding
grounds, and monitoring methods that can be com-
bined with research protocols to determine site fi-
delity and survival of migrants of both sexes and all
age classes in diverse habitats. We recognize that
some organizations may want to monitor fall and
spring migration, but those methods are not ad-
dressed here. Most organizations will also be inter-
ested in monitoring permanent-resident bird species.
Although this is not directly addressed here either,
many of the methods presented do lend themselves
to the monitoring of permanent-resident species as
well. For reviews of other monitoring methods, see
some of the numerous published reviews of moni-
toring methods (Martin and Geupel 1993; Ralph et
al. 1993, 1995; Geupel and Warkentin 1995).
Herein, we present a standard avian monitoring
plan that can be implemented at one or more of sev-
eral different levels. Because of their relatively
small size, we believe that most Caribbean countries
can develop and initiate an avian monitoring pro-
gram which combines an extensive (country-wide)
and quick monitoring system of point counts, and a
local and more intensive monitoring method at a
limited number of sites at protected areas around the
country. Depending on resources, a local, intensive
monitoring program could be expanded to a "Level
2" plan which is specifically designed to allow re-
searchers to collect habitat specific, demographic,
and site fidelity data to assess habitat preferences of
migratory birds during the non-breeding season and
factors affecting site fidelity. In selecting a monitor-
ing protocol it must be stressed that these are proto-
cols for long-term monitoring that requires dedi-
cated funding over many years, and dedicated per-
sonnel who are committed to the long-term collec-
tion of data. Protocols presented here are based on a
variety of sources, including Martin and Geupel
(1993), Ralph et al. (1993, 1995), and especially
Faaborg (2000) and Latta and Lorenzo (2000).


Page 6


Extensive and Quick Monitoring Protocol
This protocol reflects the guidelines set forth by
Ralph et al. (1993, 1995) and Faaborg (2000), and
is based on the North American Breeding Bird Sur-
vey (BBS) for broad-scale monitoring of many
habitats and many species. This monitoring method
consists of a national system of point counts that are
conducted once a year by volunteer counters. The
intent of the extensive, quick monitoring program is
the detection of national trends in population size so
that population changes can be addressed with man-
agement actions. This survey is designed to give us
a first warning of population changes across a broad
region.
Specifically:
1. Systematically locate a minimum of 25 census
stations across the country, but designate a
starting point of each census route at random.
This may be accomplished by superimposing
25 or more cells in a grid over a map of the
area and then randomly locating a general
starting point within each cell. The specific
location of each starting point within a cell
will then be determined by locating the nearest
appropriate road (or trail if no road is avail-
able) to the randomly selected starting point.
Direction of travel along the selected road or
trail should be determined randomly.
2. In all cases try to locate censuses on tertiary
roads, then secondary roads, then off-road
trails. Primary roads should be avoided. Sam-
pling locations should be checked on the
ground before the first count is initiated and
their locations mapped, preferably using GIS
and GPS methods.
3. Routes should be designed with 25 point-count
stations along each route (15 stations for walk-
ing routes). Additional routes may be added in
the future should funding, trained volunteers,
and vehicle accessibility improve.
4. Use 5-min point counts; data should be sepa-
rated into those individuals seen or heard dur-
ing the first three minutes and those additional
individuals recorded in the remaining two
minutes.
5. Points on vehicle routes should be 0.5 mi from
one another; points on walking routes should
be 250 m apart.
6. Use an unlimited-radius point count, but birds
detected within 25 m should be recorded sepa-
rately. Use of an additional distance band of
25-50 m, or employing distance sampling


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LATTA ETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


techniques (Rosenstock et al. 2002, Bart and
Earnst 2002), may allow detection probabili-
ties to be factored into results.
7. Point counts should be conducted annually, 1-
31 January. Birds should not be surveyed dur-
ing inclement weather including rain, fog, or
high winds.
8. Counters should be trained in binocular use,
bird identification by sight, song, and call, and
census techniques. Only qualified counters
should be used.
9. Use standardized data recording forms in the
field. Notations should include species and
number; general location and change of loca-
tion; whether the individual was detected by
vocalization, sight, or simultaneous audio-
visual detection; whether the detection was a
flyover; and incidence of counter-singing,
counter-calling, mobbing, or predator-
recognition vocalizations.

Local, Intensive Monitoring Protocol
This protocol is based on previous work on mi-
grant site fidelity by Holmes et al. (1989),
Wunderle and Latta (2000), and Latta and Faaborg
(2001, 2002). At its fullest development, this is an
intensive effort that involves point counts, constant-
effort mist-netting, re-sighting of color-marked
birds, and vegetation sampling to determine local
site fidelity, and to estimate survival rates of migra-
tory (and resident) bird species at each site and in
each habitat. Local, intensive monitoring comple-
ments broad, quick monitoring by helping to ex-
plain national population trends that the broad,
quick monitoring reveals. Point counts and con-
stant-effort mist-netting provide an index of annual
productivity and information on annual survival.
Re-sighting of color-marked birds is used to deter-
mine site persistence or survival over the nonbreed-
ing season. Intensive monitoring will also provide
urgently needed data on life-history traits and de-
mography of species, and provide direct information
on habitat conditions necessary for survival through
the non-breeding season. Together, these data are
required to assess the non-breeding ecology of
Neotropical migratory birds and habitat conditions
for land and species management.
Local, intensive monitoring may be completed as
either Level 1 or Level 2 depending on the re-
sources available to the organizers of the monitoring
effort, and the type of questions that need to be ad-
dressed in the monitoring effort. "Level 1 Local,
intensive monitoring" includes a single mid-winter

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


(1 January-15 February) session of point counts and
constant-effort mist-netting, with vegetation sam-
pling completed every five years. "Level 2 Local,
intensive monitoring" is more labor intensive and
includes early-winter (28 October-14 December)
and late-winter (1 February-March 20) sessions of
point counts and constant-effort mist-netting, with
each mist-netting session followed by intensive ef-
forts to re-sight color-banded birds. Vegetation sam-
pling is also completed every five years. The MOSI
program (see below) is essentially a Level 2 Local,
intensive monitoring program but does not
(generally) include the re-sighting effort.
For either Level 1 or Level 2 local, intensive
monitoring, study sites of 12-20 ha each should be
established. Study sites may be in either native or
anthropogenic habitats, altered or pristine states,
depending on the monitoring or research questions.
Study sites within a habitat will likely need to be
replicated. At each site the following should be
completed:
Point counts (For both Level 1 and Level 2, Lo-
cal, intensive monitoring).-Ten-min, unlimited-
radius point counts (with data recorded separately
for each 5-min interval and for birds seen within 25
m and 50 m) are conducted at each site. Six point
counts are established per site and points are
counted preceding mist-netting efforts. Points are
arranged in either a 3 x 2 grid or a line, depending
on mist-net arrangement, and points are a minimum
of 150 m apart.
Mist-netting (For both Level 1 and Level 2, Lo-
cal, intensive monitoring).-Mist-nets are set in
fixed lines that form either a grid pattern or a single
long line. Depending on bird activity, as many as
24-42 nets (12 m x 2.5m, 30-mm mesh) may be
used per site. However, it is important that net num-
bers at each site and net locations are fixed within a
site so that there are consistent net hours and net
times among years. A given monitoring effort may
set its own mist-netting schedule with the under-
standing that capture rates decline precipitously
over time. During monitoring efforts on Hispaniola,
we generally open nets from before sunrise to sun-
down on Day 1, sunrise to 12:00 and 15:30 to sun-
down on Day 2, and sunrise to 10:30 on Day 3. On
Puerto Rico, monitoring efforts extend to three full
days of netting. All birds mist-netted (except hum-
mingbirds) should be banded with numbered alumi-
num bands. All migratory species and some perma-
nent-resident species should be uniquely color-
banded if re-sighting is done as prescribed in Level
2, Local intensive monitoring.


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LATTAETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


Re-sighting (For Level 2, Local, intensive
monitoring only).-Following banding efforts,
each plot is searched systematically for color-
banded individuals. Plots may be searched sys-
tematically, with color-banded, territorial birds
located on plot maps. Additional effort may be
extended to locate previously unrecorded indi-
viduals, but re-sighting may take 3-5 days or
more by several individuals. Re-sighting should
continue until observers are confident that no
more color-banded birds remain unidentified on
the plot. Search areas may extend approximately
100 m beyond the net lines or plot boundaries.
Vegetation sampling.-Vegetation measure-
ments provide information on habitat characteris-
tics at each site, and can be used for developing
land management guidelines. These measure-
ments should be made in the first year of opera-
tion of nets and at every five-year interval. At a
minimum of nine randomly selected locations
across each study site, sample vegetation in a
11.3-m radius circle (James and Shugart 1970). In
each circle record:
1. Number of stems of all saplings and shrubs
<3 cm DBH along each of the cardinal axes
in 2-m wide transects. This is recorded by
walking with arms outstretched along each
axis and counting the number of "touches"
by sapling or shrub branches on the arms.
2. Number of live trees in each DBH size class
by species or type, with size classes being
3-7.9 cm, 8-14.9 cm, 15-22.9 cm, 23-38
cm, and >38-cm DBH.
3. At five evenly-spaced points along each of
the cardinal axes, record presence or ab-
sence (touches on an extended pole) of
broadleaf trees, grasses or other ground
cover, pine, cactus, or other relevant vegeta-
tion type, at each of the following height
intervals: 0-0.4 m, 0.5-0.9 m, 1-1.4 m, 1.5-
1.9 m, 2-2.4 m, 2.5-2.9 n, 3-3.9 m, 4-5.9
m, 6-7.9 m, 8-9.9 m, 10-11.9 m, 12-14.9
m, 15-19.9 m, 20-25 m, >25 m.
4. The height of the 10 tallest trees in the circle;
calculate mean and maximum canopy
height.
5. The percent canopy cover using a densiome-
ter.
6. The number of all snags >15 cm DBH.
7. An ocular estimate of percent of the ground
covered by green vegetation, grasses or
sedges, shrubs, forbs, and ferns.


Page 8


8. An ocular estimate of percent of ground cov-
ered by leaf litter.
9. An ocular estimate of percent of ground cov-
ered by downed logs.
10. An ocular estimate of percent of ground that
is bare.
11. Plot elevation.
12. Plot aspect and slope.

THE MOSI (MONITOREO DE SOBREVIVENCIA
INVERNAL) PROGRAM
The Monitoreo de Sobrevivencia Invernal
(MOSI) program uses constant-effort mist-netting
and banding during the non-breeding season to
monitor survival rates of Nearctic-Neotropical mi-
gratory birds and Neotropical resident landbirds.
MOSI builds on the Monitoring Avian Productivity
and Survivorship (MAPS) program, which sug-
gested that low survival may be a factor in the
population decline of several Nearctic-Neotropical
migratory landbird species. Although it is not clear
where or when in the life cycle of these species the
mortality rate is greatest, conventional wisdom sug-
gests that high mortality may well occur during the
non-breeding months when environmental condi-
tions are harsh, food resources are relatively scarce,
and both intra- and inter-specific competition may
be high. Migration to tropical latitudes tends to re-
duce harsh environmental conditions and increase
food resources, but it may also increase the intensity
of the competitive regime for both migratory and
tropical resident species. When habitat loss and deg-
radation combine with an increased competitive en-
vironment during the non-breeding season, dramati-
cally lowered survival rates may result.
Survey work in the Neotropics has provided in-
formation on the habitat requirements of many spe-
cies of migratory and resident landbirds. Such work
suggests that many species, even those that are
thought to prefer relatively mature and undisturbed
primary forest, can also be found in substantial
numbers in secondary forest, forest edge, and other
disturbed habitats. What remains unknown, how-
ever, is how well they survive in such habitats. A
concerted effort to determine habitat-specific sur-
vival rates throughout the non-breeding season is
thus a critical need. Another critical need is to deter-
mine age-specific survival rates; that is, survival
rates for young (first-year) and adult individuals.
This may be a key factor in the population declines
of migratory and resident Neotropical birds, particu-
larly if young and adults have differing habitat re-
quirements, or if older birds actively exclude


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LATTA ETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


younger birds from possibly optimal habitats or likely
critical food or other resources. Similar considerations
may apply to sex-related differences in habitat prefer-
ences, dominance behavior, and survival through the
non-breeding season.
MOSI proposes to apply state-of-the-art mark-
recapture models to standardized bird-banding data
obtained from a network of mist-netting stations oper-
ated throughout the non-breeding season ranges of
Nearctic-Neotropical migratory bird species. The es-
tablishment of the MOSI program, designed as a co-
operative effort among agencies, organizations, and
individual bird-banders in Mexico, Central America,
and the Caribbean, will facilitate the determination of
survival rates for about 20 target migratory landbird
species (and many resident species) in a wide range of
tropical habitats. A proposed pilot MOSI protocol in-
cludes: (1) one session of mist-netting during the early
part of the non-breeding season, from 28 October to
14 December, consisting of the operation of at least 16
12-m nets for two or (preferably) three consecutive
days on half of a 40-ha study area, followed immedi-
ately by two or (preferably) three days of operation of
at least 16 nets on the other half of the study area; and
(2) one session of mist-netting during the latter part of
the non-breeding season, from 1 February to 20
March, which replicates the same protocol at the same
net locations on the same study area. All birds cap-
tured are to be identified to species, age, and (if possi-
ble) sex, and marked with uniquely numbered leg
bands; if possible, individuals of one or two focal spe-
cies should also be individually color-banded to pro-
vide mark-resighting data. A four-year pilot project to
evaluate and enhance the operation of this network of
MOSI stations has been proposed for commencement
in 2002-2003. Parties interested in establishing one or
more MOSI stations in the Caribbean should contact
David F. DeSante (ddesante@birdpop.org,) at The
Institute for Bird Populations (IBP), P.O. Box 1346,
Point Reyes Station, CA 94956-1346, USA. More
information about the MOSI Program can be found at
the IBP's website, www.birdpop.org.

CITIZEN SCIENCE AND MONITORING MIGRATORY
BIRDS IN THE CARIBBEAN
Citizen Science is a term used for the use of non-
professional volunteers in the coordinated gathering of
important scientific data. The quality of the scientific
knowledge base for conservation of migratory birds in
the Caribbean involves both breadth of coverage and
depth of detail. The breadth of coverage involves the
gathering of information of low level of detail about
the broad course of bird movements or bird residence


throughout the islands. The depth of detail involves
more precise information about the demographic
consequences of variation in the nature and features
of particular habitats in which a species resides. Be-
tween these extremes lies a spectrum of activities of
different intensities. Citizen Science has its major
application to the broad scale. The activities in-
volved at this broad scale require small investments
of time and energy by large numbers of birdwatch-
ers. The required data resulting from birdwatching
activities include lists of species, numbers of indi-
viduals, dates, and places. Because these data are
too numerous, diffuse, and expensive to be gathered
in a single effort, they are ideally gathered by a vari-
ety of observers who are loosely coordinated. Indi-
vidually, such data are of modest scientific value,
but the collection of such data from many sources is
potentially a priceless source of otherwise unavail-
able information. Maps of occurrence can be drawn
from these data, and from these maps more precise
hypotheses can be made and then tested with more
detailed and specific work.
Citizen Science is relevant to conservation activi-
ties to manage or protect habitats used by migratory
birds because sufficient information required to
conserve these birds during the migratory period is
not yet available. Development of the requisite in-
formation will occur in a series of steps, each im-
portant to the development of a base of knowledge
on which conservation action will proceed. These
steps each involve different sets of skills, observers,
locations, techniques, and costs. Subsequent to the
development of the knowledge base, the implemen-
tation of conservation action, in which knowledge is
applied to influence the future course of land use or
management, is a distinct activity requiring a sepa-
rate treatment. It is important to note that the quality
of conservation action is limited by the quality of
the knowledge on which conservation action is
based, and the quality of the knowledge may depend
on Citizen Science.
The development of the knowledge base for con-
servation of birds during the migratory or non-
breeding period has four phases: (1) identification
of the avifauna present, their locations, and the tim-
ing of their movements; (2) determination of differ-
ential movements of sex and age classes of each
species, their survival rates, and the relative impor-
tance of different locations and habitats for each sex
and age class; (3) comparison of the importance of
areas for migratory and resident birds, including
island endemics; and, (4) evaluation of localities
based on habitat contents, geographical context, and


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LATTAETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


relative importance of the migratory species occur-
ring in each locality.
Conduct of this Citizen Science requires individu-
als with sufficient skill and ambition to record bird
presence, as well as access particular sites. Also re-
quired is a coordinating body and mechanisms to
compile the data and to share the observations with
others in a timely way. The Gulf Coast Bird Obser-
vatory (GCBO; http://www.gcbo.org) provides an
example of how such data can be managed and util-
ized. The migration monitoring database currently
maintained by the GCBO allows straightforward
data entry and editing, and compiled data can be
downloaded and summarized by any interested per-
son. This process is being made even more user-
friendly by the translation of the data entry and re-
trieval instructions into several languages by mem-
bers of the SCSCB.


CURRENT NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRD
MONITORING PROJECTS IN THE WEST INDIES
Cuba
None known.
Jamaica
1. Constant-effort Bird-Monitoring Project in Mid-
level Forests
Purpose: Collect long-term information on status
and relative abundance of bird populations.
Methods: Mist-netting and point counts com-
pleted once per month, year round.
Duration: Sporadic before 1990; regular since
then. Will continue indefinitely.
Principal investigator: Ann Sutton
Hispaniola
1. Avian Monitoring in the Sierra de Bahoruco
Purpose: Monitoring of non-breeding season
(migratory) and permanent-resident birds in
three habitats (desert thorn scrub, dry forest,
pine forest) along an altitudinal gradient.
Methods: Constant-effort mist-netting; 10 min
point counts on 25-m fixed-radius circles
(January of each year).
Duration: Continuous since 1996.
Principal Investigator: Steven Latta.
2. Avian Monitoring in Montane Wet Forest
Purpose: Monitoring of non-breeding season
(migratory) and permanent-resident birds in
montane wet forest of the Sierra de Bahoruco.
Methods: Constant-effort mist-netting; 10 min
point counts on 50-m fixed-radius circles
(January of each year).


Duration: Continuous since 1995.
Principal Investigator: Christopher Rimmer
3. Fundaci6n Moscoso Puello Monitoring
Purpose: Monitoring of migrants and permanent
residents in three National Parks: Parque del
Este, Parque Jaragua, and Valle Nuevo.
Methods: Constant-effort mist-netting and 10 min
point counts on 25-m fixed-radius circles.
Duration: Initiated in 2002.
Principal Investigator: Fundaci6n Moscoso
Puello
Puerto Rico
1. Guinica Forest
Purpose: Monitoring of non-breeding season
(migratory) and permanent-resident birds in
the subtropical dry forest of Gunica.
Methods: Constant effort mist-netting (January of
each year).
Duration: Continuous since 1972.
Principal Investigators: John Faaborg and Wayne
Arendt.
2. USFWS Sites
Purpose: To establish long-term monitoring sta-
tions in different habitats at Ciales and Cabo
Rojo, Puerto Rico, and at Culebra Island.
Methods: Constant-effort mist-netting.
Duration: Initiated in 2001
Principal Investigators: Leopoldo Miranda-Cas-
tro and Steve Earsome
Bahamas
None known.
Virgin Islands
1. USFWS Site, St. Croix
Purpose: To establish long-term monitoring sta-
tions at St. Croix, U. S. Virgin Islands.
Methods: Constant-effort mist-netting.
Duration: Initiated in 2001
Principal Investigators: Leopoldo Miranda-
Castro and Steve Earsome
2. Virgin Islands National Park, St. John
Purpose: Monitoring of non-breeding season
(migratory) songbirds in Virgin Islands Na-
tional Park, St John.
Methods: 10-min point counts on 25-m radius
circles at 68 permanently-marked survey
points.
Duration: Completed in seven years from 1987 to
1997. Hope to continue in the future.
Principal Investigators: Robert Askins and David
Ewert.


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BIBLIOGRAPHY OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY LAND BIRDS IN THE WEST INDIES
Included below are studies of biology, ecology, and social interactions of Neotropical migratory land birds
"wintering" in the West Indies. Publications on the distribution or occurrence of migratory birds (other than
major field guides and annotated check-lists) are not included, nor are studies of species other than migratory
land birds. However, one may refer to the annotated bibliography by Wiley (2000), and an earlier bibliography
contained in Rappole et al. (1983), for all other such references.


ARENDT, W. J. 1986. A summary of the status of
North American migrant landbirds in the Carib-
bean. Ornitol. Caribefia 2:44-45.
ARENDT, W. J. 1992. Status of North American mi-
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Page 16


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LATTA ETAL. -RESEARCH, MONITORING, AND CONSERVATION OF NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS


WUNDERLE, J. M., JR., AND S. C. LATTA. 1998b.
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4:191-207.


NEOTROPICAL MIGRATORY BIRD WORKING GROUP OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE
CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS


Dr. Hiram Gonzalez Alonso, Coordinator
Instituto de Ecologia y Sistematica
Carretera de Varona Km 3.5
Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
zoologia.ies@ama.cu
Dr. Daysi Rodriguez Batista
Institutio de Ecologia y Sistematica
Carretera de Varona Km 3.5
Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
Dr. David DeSante
Institute for Bird Populations
PO Box 1346
Point Reyes Station, CA 94956, USA
ddesante@birdpop.org
Leo Douglas
11A Lounsbury
Kingston 10, Jamaica
leodouglas@cwj amaica.com
Dr. Paul B. Hamel
Center for Bottomlands Hardwoods Research
PO Box 227
Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
phamel@fs.fed.us
Dr. Steven C. Latta
PRBO Conservation Science
4990 Shoreline Hwy


Stinson Beach, CA 94970, USA
slatta@prbo.org
Cecilia Riley
Gulf Coast Bird Observatory
103 West Highway 332
Lake Jackson, TX 77566, USA
criley@gcbo.org
Alejandro Llanes Sosa
Ave. 35 #2008 e/20 y 22
Sta. Maria Del Rosario
Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba
Anne Haynes Sutton
Marshall's Pen
PO Box 58
Mandeville, Jamaica
asutton@cwjamaica.com
Adrianne Tossas
Alturas de Mayagtiez
Yunque E-43
Mayagtiez, Puerto Rico 00680
agtossas @hotmail.com
Dr. Joseph Wunderle, Jr.
International Institute of Tropical Forestry
P.O Box 490
Palmer, Puerto Rico 00721
wunderle@coqui.net


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank the Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds for its support of this project. Alan
Strong, Michael Baltz, John Faaborg, Paul Hamel, Matthew Johnson, Peter Marra, Christopher Rimmer,
George Wallace, and especially Wayne Arendt contributed with comments and corrections to this report. Phil-
ippe Feldmann provided the French translation of the abstract. This is Contribution Number 1061 of the Point
Reyes Bird Observatory.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 19












FIRST SIGHT RECORD OF NORTHERN PARULA (PAR ULA AMERICANA)
FOR TRINIDAD AND A FOURTH RECORD FOR TOBAGO

FLOYD E. HAYES
Department ofLife Sciences, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago;
Current address: Department ofBiology, Pacific Union College, Angwin, CA 94508, USA


Abstract.-I report sight records of a male Northern Parula (Parula americana) at Pointe-a-Pierre, Trinidad,
on 22 February 1998, and a male at Buccoo, Tobago, on 9 February 1998. These records provide the first for
Trinidad and the fourth for Tobago, and were my only sightings during nine years of field work in Trinidad
and Tobago (1993-2002).
Key words: distribution, Nearctic migrants, Parula americana, sight records, Tobago, Trinidad
Resumen.-PRIMER REGISTRO VISUAL DE LA PARULA NORTELA (PARULA AMERICANA) PARA TRINIDAD Y EL
CUARTO REGISTRO PARA TOBAGO. Reporto registros visuales de un macho de la Parula Nortefia (Parula
americana) en Pointe-a-Pierre, Trinidad, el 22 de febrero de 1998, y un macho en Buccoo, Tobago, el 9 de
febrero de 1998. Estos registros constituyen el primero para Trinidad y el cuarto para Tobago, y fueron los
unicos registros durante nueve aios de trabajo de campo en Trinidad y Tobago (1993-2002).
Palabras clave: distribuci6n, migradores nedrticos, Parula americana, registros visuales, Tobago, Trinidad


THE NORTHERN PARULA (Parula americana) is a
Nearctic migrant that breeds in North America and
winters chiefly in Central America, the Greater An-
tilles, and the northern Lesser Antilles (e.g., Curson
et al. 1994, Dunn and Garrett 1997, Moldenhauer
and Regelski 1996). Thus far the only South Ameri-
can records appear to be from continental islands in
the southern Caribbean, including the Dutch Antil-
les (Voous 1983), Islas Los Roques (Meyer de
Schauensee and Phelps 1978), and Tobago (ffrench
1991), and a single record from the mainland on the
Peninsula de Paraguana of Venezuela (Bosque and
Lentino 1987). In this note I report the first sight
record of this species for Trinidad and the fourth for
Tobago.

TRINIDAD OBSERVATION
While visiting the Pointe-a-Pierre Wildfowl Trust
on 22 February 1998, I paused by the bridge cross-
ing the pond's overspill and began whistling imita-
tions of the Eastern Screech-Owl (Otus asio), alter-
nating with spishing, in an effort to attract migrant
warblers in the surrounding secondary forest. Mo-
ments later a Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia)
popped into view and soon disappeared. About 10
min later a Northern Parula flew into the branches
of a tree directly above me. During the next 4 min
(15:05-15:09 h) it moved about on branches 8-12
m above me. During that time I was able to view its
broken eyering on several brief occasions through
7x35 binoculars. The underparts were plainly visi-
ble, but the upperparts were difficult to view. After
the bird flew away I could not relocate it and


Page 20


searched in vain for the bird at the same locality on
18 and 21 March 1998, plus during each successive
winter through 2001-2002.
In my field notes I wrote: "white belly, yellow
lower breast, extensive bright orange wash across
breast, more extensive than Tobago bird, some blu-
ish across upper breast, yellow throat; dark above,
with white broken eyering; couldn't tell if upper or
lower eyering was wider; definitely saw breaks on
both sides of eyering; ... also noted white wingbars,
I believe; dark bluish above; chirping loud and re-
peatedly, which caught my attention."

TOBAGO OBSERVATION
While birding at Buccoo Swamp on 9 February
1998, I found a Northern Parula just 3 m away in a
tree at the edge of a secondary forest only a few me-
ters from a mangrove lagoon at 06:52 h. I watched it
from 5 m for about 45 sec until it flew away across
the lagoon. I then walked around the lagoon while
alternating bouts of spishing with whistled imita-
tions of the Eastern Screech-Owl. Halfway around
the lagoon I saw an immature White-eyed Vireo
(Vireo griseus), a male Yellow Warbler, a male
American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla), a male
Prothonotary Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), and a
Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis). On
the other side of the lagoon I momentarily observed
the Yellow Warbler, Prothonotary Warbler, and fi-
nally the Northern Parula all in the same tree, scold-
ing the phantom owl. This time I viewed the North-
ern Parula from only 3 m away during 07:23-07:25
h. The resident White-fringed Antwrens (Formi-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1












civora grisea) also responded to the owl calls.
In the first entry in my field notes I wrote:
"yellow breast, dark back, broken white eye-ring
below and above eye; ...wing bars seen; no dark
band seen across chest; no light spot noted on
back." After obtaining better views, my second en-
try stated: "lower eye ring broader than upper eye
ring; yellow throat, slight bluish-gray wash just be-
low, then more extensive orangish wash across
chest, then extensive yellow on lower breast; white
belly."

DISCUSSION
The broken white eye ring, darker band across
yellow breast, and more extensive white on belly of
both birds distinguished them from the Tropical Pa-
rula (P. pitiayumi; Curson et al. 1994, Dunn and
Garrett 1997), which is resident on Trinidad but not
on Tobago (ffrench 1991). The distinctive blue-gray
band across the chest of both birds indicated that
each was a male. I did not note whether the remiges,
alula, and primary coverts were edged greenish,
which is indicative of a first-winter male, but the
Tobago individual which I observed closely did not
appear to have the pale supraloral streak typical of
an immature. My observation of the white arc below
the eye being broader than the upper arc on the To-
bago bird matches Dunn and Garrett's (1997:201)
description of a "conspicuous white arc under the
eye, with a slightly smaller arc above the eye."
These records constitute the first for Trinidad and
the fourth for Tobago, and were my only sightings
during nine years of extensive field work in Trini-
dad and Tobago (1993-2002). Both have been ac-
cepted by the Trinidad and Tobago Rare Bird Com-
mittee (White and Hayes 2002). Previous records
from Tobago include a female captured at Grafton
Estate on 19 December 1974 (ffrench 1975), a fe-
male seen by G. Blidberg and S. Samuelsson at Lit-
tle Tobago on 1 November 1977 (ffrench 1979), and
a female seen by D. Fisher at Grafton Estate on 18
January 1985 (ffrench 1991).


HAYES -NORTHERN PARULA IN TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
I thank S. Mlodinow for reviewing the manu-
script. Fieldwork in Tobago was funded by the Scott
Neotropic Fund of the Lincoln Park Zoo in support
of Project Sabrewing. I thank N. A. Trimm for shar-
ing my observation in Tobago and G. Wilson for
sharing my observation in Trinidad. Pertinent litera-
ture was provided by C. A. Botero and F. M. Mur-
doch, and D. B. McNair pointed out another.

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FFRENCH, R 1979. More records of rare birds in
Trinidad and Tobago. Living World (J. Trinidad
Tobago Field Nat. Club) 1978-1979:25-26.
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
& Tobago. 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University
Press.
MEYER DE SCHAUENSE, R., AND W. H. PHELPS, JR.
1978. A guide to the birds of Venezuela. Prince-
ton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
MOLDENHAUER, R. R., AND D. J. REGELSKI. 1996.
Northern Parula (Parula americana). Birds N.
Amer. 215:1-22.
Voous, K. H. 1983. Birds of the Netherlands Antil-
les. 2nded. Utrecht: Foundation for Scientific Re-
search in Surinam and the Netherlands Antilles.
WHITE, G., AND F. E. HAYES. In press. Second re-
port of the Trinidad and Tobago Rare Bird Com-
mittee. Living World (J. Trinidad Tobago Field
Nat. Club) 2002.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 21












NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES ACUATICAS EN CAYO SABINAL, CAMAGUEY, CUBA


OMILCAR BARRIO VALDES1, PEDRO BLANCO RODRIGUEZ2 Y ROBERTO SORIANO1
1Empresa Nacionalpara la Proteccidn de la Flora y la Fauna, Nuevitas, Camagiiey, Cuba; y 2Instituto de Ecologia y Sis-
temdtica, CITM4, Carretera de Varona km 3.5, Boyeros, Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, CP 10800, AP 8029



Resumen.-Presentamos informaci6n sobre 15 nuevas especies de aves acuaticas reportadas entre enero del
2000 y marzo del 2002 en Cayo Sabinal, provincia de Camagtiey, Cuba. Entre las especies de mayor importan-
cia se encuentran: Charadrius melodus, Numenius phaeopus, Calidris canutus, Rynchops niger, Larus ridibun-
dus y Larus marinus.
Palabras clave: aves acuaticas, Cayo Sabinal, Camagiiey, Cuba, nuevos registros
Abstract.-NEW RECORDS OF WATERBIRDS IN CAYO SABINAL, CAMAGDEY, CUBA. We present information
on 15 new records of waterbirds for Sabinal Cay in Camaguey province, Cuba, reported from January 2000 to
March 2002. Among the most important species were Charadrius melodus, Numenius phaeopus, Calidris
canutus, Rynchops niger, Larus ridibundus, and Larus marinus.
Key words: aquatic birds, Cayo Sabinal, Camagiiey, Cuba, new records


LAS LABORES DE INVENTARIOS proveen informa-
ci6n sobre la distribuci6n de la fauna y permiten
elaborar estrategias de conservaci6n y manejo de los
recursos naturales (Meeks and Higgins 1998). En el
Cayo Sabinal se han reportado 141 especies de aves,
de las cuales 43.3% son acuiticas (Morales y Garri-
do 1996). Sin embargo, en el presente trabajo afiadi-
mos 15 nuevos registros de aves acuiticas para este
cayo, observados entre enero del 2000 y marzo del
2002.
Anas acuta.-En febrero de 2001 se observ6 una
bando de 10 individuos sobrevolando la laguna Jica-
cal, al Oeste del cayo.
Aythya affinis.-En la ensenada El Jato, durante
el mes de diciembre de 2001 se registraron seis indi-
viduos de la especie.
Charadrius melodus.-En el sector costero de
Playa Los Pinos a finales del mes de marzo del
2002 se registraron 11 individuos.
Numenius phaeopus.-El primer individuo fue
visto el 24 de noviembre de 2000, en la ensenada El
Jato, al Sudoeste del cayo. Posteriormente en la
misma localidad, entre enero y abril de 2001 se ob-
servaron tres individuos de la especie.
Calidris canutus.-Se observo un individuo en
febrero de 2001 en la localidad de Playa Bonita,
ubicada en el extremo este del cayo.
Calidris alba.-En noviembre del 2000 y en fe-
brero del 2001, en el sector costero entre Punta Pie-
dra y Playa Brava, se detectaron bandos de 3-50


Page 22


individuos.
Calidris pusilla. El 8 de agosto del 2000 y el 13 de
marzo del 2001 observamos 3 y 8 individuos, res-
pectivamente, en la ensenada El Jato.
Limnodromus griseus.-A partir de marzo del
2000, esta especie aparece registrada en todos los
censos, principalmente en las costas del cayo en las
localidades de Punta Piedra y en la ensenada El Ja-
to, donde frecuentemente puede ser localizada du-
rante todo el periodo invemal.
Larus marinus.-De esta especie se reporta tres
individuo adulto en la ensenada El Jato, con mayor
frecuencia en marzo. El Larus marinus es un visi-
tante invernal muy raro para Cuba (Garrido y Kirk-
connell 2000). Este registro constituye el s6ptimo
para el pais.
Larus delawarensis.-En febrero del 2002, se
registr6 un individuo en la ensenada el Jato.
Larus ridibundus.-En agosto del 2000, encon-
tramos un juvenil posado en el pedraplen que atra-
viesa la ensenada El Jato. Esta es una especie acci-
dental para el territorio cubano, del cual solo se co-
nocen dos reportes (Garrido y Kirkconnell 2000).
Este constituye el tercer registro de la especie para
el pais.
Sterna nilotica.-A partir del 2000, observamos
esta especie finicamente en febrero y septiembre. El
mayor registro de individuos observado fue en la
ensenada El Jato con 96 individuos en el 2001.
Sterna antillarum.-Esta especie puede ser ob-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









BARRIO VALDES ETAL. NUEVOS REGISTROS DE AVES ACUATICAS EN CAYO SABINAL, CUBA


servada en varios sectores costeros del cayo, pero
s6lo en los meses entre abril y agosto, y en bandos
de hasta 54 individuos.
Sterna caspia.-Detectada por primera vez en
marzo del 2000 en la ensenada El Jato. Esta especie
ha sido observada en varias ocasiones, principal-
mente entre octubre y mayo. El nimero maximo
registrado hasta el momento no supera la cifra de
seis individuos.
Rynchops niger.-En noviembre del 1999, obser-
vamos una bandada de 300 individuos en la ensena-
da El Jato. Esta especie puede ser observada en el
cayo desde octubre hasta abril, aunque tambidn se
ha observado en los meses de mayo y junio (seis y
un individuo, respectivamente). La presencia de esta
especie habia sido reportada desde el 23 de noviem-
bre hasta el 26 de abril (Garrido y Kirkconnell
2000), por lo que nuestros resultados aportan nue-
vas fechas relacionadas con la residencia de esta
especie para el pais.


Con esta contribuci6n se incrementa a 76 el nit-
mero de especies de aves acuiticas y a 156 el total
de especies registradas para Cayo Sabinal, lo que
repercute de forma notable en la importancia cienti-
fica, conservacionista y el atractivo natural de este
territorio del Norte de Cuba.


LITERATURA CITADA
GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cornell
Univ. Press.
MEEKS, W. A., AND K. F. HIGGINS. 1998. Nongame
birds, small mammals, herptiles, and fishes: Sand
Lake National Wildlife Refuge, 1995-1996.
SDAES Bulletin 729. Brooking: South Dakota
State University.
MORALES, J. Y O. H. GARRIDO. 1996. Aves y repti-
les de Cayo Sabinal, Archipidlago Sabana-
Camagiiey, Cuba. Pitirre 9:9-11.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 23












RECENT COLONIZATION OF ST. MARTIN BY THE
SCALY-BREASTED THRASHER (A4RGAROPS FUSCUS)


ADAM C. BROWN1 AND NATALIA COLLIER
Environmental Protection In the Caribbean (EPIC), 200 Dr. Martin Luther King
Jr. Blvd., Riviera Beach, Florida 33404, USA; aabrown@epicislands.org



Abstract.-We report the colonization of St. Martin by the Scaly-breasted Thrasher (Margarops fuscus).
During 2002, biologists banded seven birds of this species and observed 25 other individuals during area
searches. This indicates a northward range expansion for this species.
Key words: colonization, Lesser Antilles, Margarops fuscus, Scaly-breasted Thrasher, St. Martin
Resumen.-COLONIZACION RECIENTE DE SAN MARTIN POR EL ZORZAL PECHIESCAMADO (Ml4RGAROPS
FUSCUS). Reportamos la colonizaci6n de Margaropsfuscus en St. Martin. Durante 2002, biologos atraparon
siete individuos y observaron 25 otros durante buscas del area. Esto indica una expansion hacia el norte por
esta especie.
Palabras clave: Antiles Menores, colonizaci6n, Margarops fuscus, San Martin, Zorzal Pechiescamado


INTRODUCTION
THE SCALY-BREASTED THRASHER (Margarops
fuscus) is endemic to the Lesser Antilles and known
to range from St. Barthelemy in the northern ex-
treme of its range to St. Vincent in the southern end.
Recent literature suggests that this species is declin-
ing throughout its range and has been extirpated
from St. Eustatius, Barbuda, and Barbados (Voous
1983, Raffaele et al. 1998). Additional literature
states the presence of the Scaly-breasted Thrasher as
an accidental visitor to St. Martin (McLaughlin and
Roughgarden 1989, Benito-Espinal 1990, Evans
1990). During bird surveys on St. Martin from 2
January through 7 March 2002, biologists trapped
seven Scaly-breasted Thrashers in mist-nets and
observed 25 additional individuals within our 20-ha
study area during standardized area searches.

METHODS
During the winter of 2002, banding of over-
wintering and resident songbirds was conducted at a
research station at Lotterie Farm, within a secon-
dary dry forest, a rare habitat on the island. Ten nets
were placed at the study site and arranged at a dis-
tance of three nets per 2-ha area. This distance as-
sured that biologists could maintain all nets within a
15-min time span. All nets were 12-m-long, 30-mm-
mesh, 4-tier, tethered, nylon mist-nets. Nets were
open during the hours of the most bird activity, be-


Page 24


ginning at sunrise and continuing for 6 hours. Nets
were placed in areas of high avian traffic, including
shrub areas and within canopy areas of larger trees.
This assured a high capture rate. Finally, all birds
were banded with uniquely numbered bands. The
station was run for four consecutive days. Two four-
day banding periods were run over a two-month
time span; the first starting 11 February and ending
14 February and the second starting 4 March and
ending 7 March 2002. Additionally, once during
each four-day banding period, biologists traveled
over the trails between mist-nets and recorded all
the bird species either seen or heard.

RESULTS
On 11 February 2001, our first day banding, a
Scaly-breasted Thrasher was trapped in a mist-net,
drawing our attention to the presence of this species
on the island. During the subsequent seven days of
netting, we trapped and banded six more individu-
als. Of the seven birds banded, four were adults and
three were in their first year. Of the four adults, two
were determined to be males based on the presence
of an enlarged cloaca, and two were determined to
be female based on the presence of brood patches.
The three first-year birds were identified by the
presence of incompletely pneumaticized skulls. Ad-
ditionally, we detected a high count of 25 individu-
als during area searches of our 20-ha study area.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









BROWN AND COLLIER -COLONIZATION OF ST. MARTIN BY SCALY-BREASTED THRASHER


DISCUSSION
The Scaly-breasted Thrasher has a limited range,
constituting only a small portion of the Lesser An-
tilles. Little is known regarding the life history of
this species. As has been previously mentioned, this
species population has been reduced on many is-
lands within its range and is possibly extirpated
from three of these islands. The cause for this de-
cline is not well documented. Our observations of
this species within secondary dry forest on St. Mar-
tin supports the recent literature, which suggests
that this species prefers forest habitat (Voous 1983,
Bond 1985, Raffaele et al. 1998). Secondary dry
forests have been reduced on many islands as a re-
sult of over-harvesting timber for cooking and
building materials as well as clearing for economic
development. This reduction of primary habitat for
the Scaly-breasted Thrasher indicates that habitat
fragmentation might be a main cause for the re-
duced population (pers. observ.).
Scaly-breasted Thrasher colonization is undocu-
mented in the literature, although the closely related
Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus) has
been known to colonize from island to island
(Norton 2000). It is an "accidental visitor" to St.
Martin so it is documented to move between is-
lands, but not to colonize. Birds of this species
might have dispersed to St. Martin in direct re-
sponse to habitat restrictions within their current
range. Environmental events such as hurricanes pos-
sibly have displaced this species from nearby is-
lands.


The presence of adult females with heavy brood
patches and adult males with enlarged cloacal protu-
berances indicates a possible breeding population
on St. Martin. Additionally, the presence of three
first-year birds supports this assumption.
Future research should focus on estimating the
population and status of the Scaly-breasted Thrasher
on St. Martin. Additionally, habitat preferences, for-
aging requirements, and breeding cycles need to be
identified.


LITERATURE CITED
BENITO-ESPINAL, E. 1990. Birds of the West Indies.
St. Barths, FWI: Anse des Lezards.
BOND, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. Hong
Kong: South China Printing Co.
EVANS, P. G. H. 1990. Birds of the eastern Carib-
bean. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
MCLAUGHLIN, J. F., AND J. ROUGHGARDEN. 1989.
Avian predation on the Anolis lizards in the north-
eastern Caribbean: an inter-island contrast. Ecol-
ogy 70:617-628.
NORTON, R. L. 2000. Regional Reports: West In-
dies: North American Birds 54:225.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ.
Press.
VooUS, K. H. 1983. Birds of the Netherlands Antil-
les. Utrecht: De Walburg Press.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 25












MORE PELAGIC BIRD SIGHTINGS OFF DOMINICA


ALLAN R. KEITH' AND LUCY W. KEITH2
1PO Box 247, Chilmark, MA, 02535, USA; and 2Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, South-
west Field Laboratory, 1481-G Market Circle, Unit 7, Port Charlotte, FL 33953, USA

Abstract.-We report the first documented records of Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) and of
probable Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus) for Dominica on 7 December and 8 December, 2002, respec-
tively. Both birds were seen over deep water off the southeast coast of the island. The available records of
both species from offshore French Guiana north to the Bahamas are summarized. Notes on several other pe-
lagic species are also included.
Key words: Calonectris diomedea, Cory's Shearwater, Dominica, Manx Shearwater, pelagic birds,
Puffmus puffmus
Resumen.-REGISTROS ADICIONALES DE AVES PELAGICAS EN DOMINICA. Reportamos los primeros regis-
tros documentados de la Pardela Cenicienta (Calonectris diomedea) y una probable Pardela Pichoneta
(Puffinus puffinus) para Dominica el 7 y 8 de diciembre de 2002, respectivamente. Ambas aves fueron vistas
sobre mares profundos cerca de la costa sureste de la isla. Se sumarizan los registros disponibles para la espe-
cie desde la Guayana Francesa hasta las Bahamas en el norte. Tambi6n se incluyen notas sobre varias espe-
cies pelagicas.
Palabras clave: aves pelagicas, Calonectris diomedea, Dominica, Pardela cenicienta, Petrel blanquine-
gro, Puffinus puffinus


THERE CONTINUES TO BE a shortage of consistent
observations of marine seabirds in offshore waters
in the Lesser Antilles. However, the pace of obser-
vations and the amount of data accumulated has
picked up in the last few years. Here we report ob-
servations made in deep offshore waters (200-1000
fathoms) off the west coast of Dominica during a
Boston University Marine Program Marine Mam-
mals of the Caribbean class led by Dr. Kevin Chu
during 3-13 December 2002. The main purpose of
the class was to collect data on the occurrence, be-
havior and distribution of marine mammals in the
area. The junior author served as a course consultant
and made a special effort to record and photograph
any birds of interest that came close enough to iden-
tify.
The following bird species were recorded:
Cory's Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea).-
Two birds were seen on 7 December, one of which
was photographed by LWK. The photograph shows
the diagnostic large pale bill, gray neck, and broad
pale underwing of this species in contrast to the
small dark bill and patterned underwing of Greater
Shearwater (Puffinus gravis), the only other species
with which it would be likely confused. A copy of
the photo has been placed on file at VIREO (ref.
V06/46/003). This apparently is the first docu-


Page 26


mented record for Dominica waters.
Manx Shearwater (Puffinus puffinus).-One
bird came close by the boat 8 December and two
photographs were taken by student Josiah Sewell.
One photo shows the dark black back and noticea-
bly longer wings of a typical darker adult Manx in
contrast to the browner mantle and shorter wings
observed in most members of the local population
of Audubon's Shearwater (P. lherminieri). The sec-
ond photo clearly shows clean white undertail cov-
erts, a distinct dark line across the underwing cov-
erts to be expected in dark adult Manx, distinctly
longer bill than Audubon's, a pale crescent behind
the auriculars of a darker adult Manx, and a
smudged dark area below the eye rather than the
crisper line between the cheek and face to be ex-
pected in Audubon's at this season. Taken together,
these field marks satisfy the senior author that the
bird was a Manx Shearwater. Copies of both photos
have been placed on file at VIREO (ref. V06/46/001
and V06/46/002). On the assumption that it was a
Manx, this is the first documented record of this
species for Dominica. (It should be noted that the
two photos of this bird were posted by Floyd Hayes
on the ID Frontiers website; several commentators
agreed that the bird was a Manx though others
thought it was an Audubon's on the basis of a
longer tail [not all agreed with this view], longer bill


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1












[which is incorrect since Manx definitely has the
longer bill], and different opinions about the under-
wing and facial patterns.)
Brown Booby (Sula leucogaster).-Three were
observed on 5 December, two on 6 December, and
eight on 9 December. Several photographs were
taken by LWK.
Red-footed Booby (Sula sula).-One adult of the
dark form seen and photographed 5 December, and
one adult of the white form photographed 6 Decem-
ber, both by LWK.
Pomarine Jaeger (Stercorarius pomarinus).-A
common species seen almost every day in the pe-
riod: seven on 5 December, about 15 on 6 Decem-
ber, about 20 on 7 December, about 10 on 8 Decem-
ber, and about three on 9 December. In some cases
four or five birds were in sight at once; several pho-
tographs taken by LWK.
Royal Tern (Sterna maxima).-About 15 birds
were seen together 5 December feeding in Roseau
harbor. About six more birds at a distance that were
possibly this species were seen offshore 8 Decem-
ber.
Noddy (Anous sp.).-Two birds were seen in a
feeding flock but not close enough to photograph on
5 December. Though it is most likely that the birds
were Brown Noddies (A. stolidus), the possibility of
Black Noddy (A. minutus) could not be ruled out.
LWK has had extensive field experience with Nod-
dies in both the tropical Pacific and the Dry Tortu-
gas.
Other species.-Magnificent Frigatebirds
(Fregata magnificens) were seen every day in num-
bers ranging from two to about 20. Notable for their
absence were Audubon's Shearwater (P. Ihermini-
eri), Sooty Tern (Sterna fuscata), and White-tailed
Tropicbird (Phaethon lepturus) because all three
were found in this same area 15 to 23 January 1997
(Keith and Ward 1997).


DISCUSSION
The discovery of Cory's Shearwater is a surprise
in December at Dominica because it is primarily
known as a spring migrant in the Lesser Antilles.
For perspective, very large numbers (20,000-
30,000) of this species were observed off the mouth
of the La Plata River in Uruguayan waters on 8 De-
cember 1973 (Gore and Gepp 1978:62), suggesting
a major wintering ground for the species. Sick
(1993:117) noted that it regularly occurs on the high
seas off the coasts of Espirito Santo, Bahia and Per-


Joumal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


KEITH AND KEITH -PELAGIC BIRDS OFF DOMINICA

nambuco Provinces of eastern Brazil, in May. In
addition, birds banded near Madeira were found
dead on the Ceard Province coast of northeastern
Brazil, in December and on the Rio Grand do Sul
Province coast at Tramandai, southeastern Brazil, in
February. This species has also been recorded three
times in the offshore waters of French Guiana from
December to early February (Tostain et al.
1992:25). At Trinidad, ffrench (1973:43) reported
dead or exhausted birds found on beaches 21 June
1955, 19 February 1956, and 29 April 1961. Peter-
sen and McRae (2002:204) report at least 15 at
Trinidad on 30 December 1991, and Murphy
(2002:106) reports two near the Paria Peninsula,
Venezuela, and one near Tobago, all on 27 February
1997. There also exists another extralimital record
by D. D. Gibson at 110 50' N, 55000' W, or about
415 km ESE of Barbados, on 10 June 1965 (M.
Frost, pers. comm.). At Barbados, there are three
known records (M. Frost, pers. comm.): (1) one
found exhausted on Morgan Lewis Beach, St. An-
drew, by D. Hunte and identified by M. B. Hutt in
March 1966 was restored to health and later re-
leased (Bond 1967:12); (2) one seen just off Rock-
ley Beach, Christ Church, 11 November 1966 by D.
I. Smith; and (3) one observed about 5 km off East
Point, St. Philip, 16 November 2002 by R. W.
Burke. There are previous records for Dominica for
March and December (Evans and James 1997:14),
but no more specific data are available and none are
documented. Feldmann et al. (1999:81) reported
records from Guadeloupe on 16 May 1992 and 22
May 1993, and A. Levesque (pers. comm.) observed
birds migrating past Petite Terre, Guadeloupe, as
follows: one on 4 May 2001, two on 9 May 2001,
one on 25 May 2001, and one on 13 May 2002, 68
on 7 June 2003, and 111 on 8 June 2003. It is
known as a vagrant at Antigua: one seen by F.
Sladen between there and St. Croix on 16 May 1984
(Norton 1984), and one found there between August
1993 and April 1994 (Raffaele et al. 1998). White
(in prep.) described it as fairly common in Baha-
mian offshore waters from May to July, once in
September, once in December, and once in
"winter." There are three records for the open ocean
off northeastern Cuba: 26 November 1951, 3 May
1965, and in December 1966 (Garrido and Kirkcon-
nell 2000:24). All this suggests that this species is
probably a routine seasonal transient over the open
ocean through the Lesser Antilles north primarily
around the outside of the arc of the Caribbean Is-
lands to the Bahamas and then north along the coast
of the United States. It apparently ventures seldom,


Page 27









KEITH AND KEITH -PELAGIC BIRDS OFF DOMINICA

if ever, into the waters of the central Caribbean Sea
as it is still unreported from Hispaniola, Puerto
Rico, Jamaica, the Caymans, or the Virgin Islands.
Whereas it is most often found in the Lesser Antil-
les in spring from March through June, the growing
body of records suggests that stragglers can occur at
other times, even in fall and winter.
Manx Shearwater is another surprise in Decem-
ber at Dominica, and less is probably known about
its status in the West Indies than the previous spe-
cies. Also for perspective, it occurs routinely off the
southeastern coast of Brazil from late September at
least into November; in 1962 alone nine banded
birds were recovered off Rio Grande do Sul Prov-
ince and by 1975 a total of 80 birds banded in Eng-
land had been recorded in Brazilian waters, two
having come all the way from Skokholm, Wales, in
45 and 26 days, respectively (Sick 1993:117).
Tostain et al. (1992:26) provides the following re-
ports for French Guiana: one found dead on the
beach 2 January 1985, and from 11 to 15 March
1990, a total of 26 birds were seen as singles and
small flocks 70-150 km off the coast, all flying
northwest. In Trinidad, an exhausted bird was found
inland on 29 March 1958, two birds were found
dead on the beach 6 December 1958, and a bird
banded at Skokholm, Wales, on 30 August 1967
was found dead on Manzanilla Beach on 10 No-
vember 1968 (ffrench 1991:41). In addition, one
was seen off the northern coast on 23 February 1997
(Hayes and White 2000), single dead individuals
were found at Manzanilla Beach on 14 November
1997 (White and Hayes, in press) and 19 October
2002 (F. Hayes pers. comm.), one was seen off
Galera Point on 9 April 1999 (F. Hayes, pers.
comm.), and up to five per day were seen off Galera
Point, Trinidad, from 5 October to 7 November
2002 by M. Kenefick. In the Lesser Antilles, a bird
banded in Pembrokeshire, Wales, on 9 September
1969 was recovered on a ship 13 km off Grenada on
24 November 1970 (J. Clark, pers. comm.). It is
known as a vagrant at St. Vincent (Raffaele et al.
1998). The first record known for Guadeloupe is a
bird banded at St. Kilda, Scotland, on 6 July 1978
which was recovered at La Desirade on April 30
1997, over 18 years later! The next known Guade-
loupe records are those of A. Levesque (pers.
comm.), migrating past Petite Terre as follows: one
on 3 May 2001, three on 25 May 2001, three on 12
December 2001, remarkable numbers of 80 on 11
March 2002 and 225 on 12 March 2002, one on 1
April 2002, three on 7 April 2002, and five on 13
May 2002. It was found once at Puerto Rico on 5
September 1975 (Raffaele 1983:195), and two that


Page 28


had been banded on Skomer Island, Wales, were
found dead on the beach of the easternmost prov-
ince of the Dominican Republic on 28 June 1980
(Keith et al., in press). White (in prep.) mentions
one possible record of three among a large flock of
Audubon's Shearwaters in Bahamian waters on 11
February 1988. A bird banded on Bardsey Island,
Wales, on 14 May 1986 was found dead on 17 April
1989 near Little Harbour, Great Abaco Island, Ba-
hamas (J. Clark, pers. comm.). Taken together, es-
pecially the recent Guadeloupe data, these reports
suggest that Manx Shearwater occurs more com-
monly in West Indies waters than heretofore
thought. As suggested by van Halewyn and Norton
(1984:179), "Manx Shearwaters nested in Bermuda
until [the early 1900s, and it] is likely that birds
from both west and east Atlantic breeding popula-
tions occur as migrants in the Caribbean region
when on their way to and from wintering grounds
off northern Argentina and southwestern Africa."
Given the recent data, especially of banded birds,
van Halewyn and Norton's suggestion is now con-
firmed.
Lee (1995) reviewed the occurrence and status of
Manx Shearwater off the southeastern United States
but had essentially no data for this species in the
Greater and Lesser Antilles, a matter corrected
above. However, Lee (1995) provided 11 records
for the Gulf of Mexico: five for western Florida,
one off Alabama, and five along the Texas coast. A
record for Louisiana waters has been accepted by
that state's rarities committees (A. White, pers.
comm.). Lee (1995) also provided 25 records for the
eastern coast of Florida, three of which are speci-
mens, some of which were banded in the British
Isles (Robinson and Woolfenden 1992). In addition,
Lee (1995) also listed eight records off Georgia,
five off South Carolina, 38 off North Carolina, 11
off Virginia, and 22 off Maryland. He also showed
that this species occurs off the coast from Florida to
Maryland in greatest numbers from mid-March to
mid-June on its northward migration to breeding
grounds in western Europe, Newfoundland, and
possibly elsewhere in the western Atlantic.
Southbound migration occurs from mid-October to
January by which time most birds that nest in the
eastern Atlantic are believed to be wintering in the
southern hemisphere. Lee further suggested that
birds found in the Maryland to Florida area in sum-
mer are probably non-breeding juveniles and that
the increase in reports since about 1980 along the
eastern coast of the United States may be due to in-
creased breeding in the western Atlantic as well as
more fieldwork being done. Since it is believed that

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1












birds breeding in the eastern Atlantic migrate south
by way of West Africa and do not cross to the west-
ern Atlantic or to the West Indies north of the Equa-
tor (Brooke 1990), southbound migrants off the
eastern coast of the United States and in the West
Indies appear likely to be western Atlantic breeding
birds primarily, whereas numbers of eastern Atlan-
tic breeders may be among the northbound birds
passing through the West Indies in spring. Data
from the West Indies agree well with the patterns
suggested by Lee (1995), particularly regarding the
timing of northbound migration in spring. It is now
also clear that some birds from the eastern Atlantic
population occur in the West Indies regularly in
winter and spring, and that some birds from the
growing population known to be breeding in the
northwestern Atlantic probably winter in offshore
waters of the Lesser Antilles or farther south. Re-
ports from the Gulf of Mexico also suggest that this
species may also occur more widely in the West
Indies than has been thought before.
Pomarine Jaeger is known now to be a regular
and occasionally common fall transient to, winter
resident in, and spring migrant in the Lesser Antil-
les, particularly over deeper water. In Barbados wa-
ters there are three known records (M. Frost, pers.
comm.): (1) at least seven seen 8-16 km NW of the
island on 12 December 1994 by E. Massiah, (2)
eight just off the western coast on 24 April 2000 by
M. Gawn, and (3) two seen 11-16 km SW of the
island on 29 April 2000 by M. Frost and M. Gawn.
At Dominica, seven were seen just off the SW coast
on 7 February 2001 by E. Massiah, and six were
seen in the same area on 18 February 2001 by M.
Frost. Evans and James (1997:22) describe it as an
"Uncommon though regular passage migrant," pri-
marily from October to December and March to
June when 10 to 20 birds per day are not excep-
tional, but regularly seen at all other times of year
(P. G. H. Evans, pers. comm.), suggesting that some
non-breeding birds may frequently spend the north-
ern hemisphere breeding season in the area. Obser-
vations at Petite Terre, Guadeloupe, in 2001 and
2002 (A. Levesque, pers. com.), show this jaeger to
be a regular northbound migrant in April, occurring
often until mid-May. This confirms its status as de-
scribed by Feldmann et al. (1999:87) as "regular
and probably common in winter and as a spring
transient in offshore waters" of Guadeloupe and
Martinique. White (in prep.) reports it to be a
"Fairly common winter and spring visitor," twice
recorded in fall in the Bahamas. The new data from
Dominica confirm that the large numbers reported
there by Keith and Ward (1997) should no longer be

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


KEITH AND KEITH -PELAGIC BIRDS OFF DOMINICA


considered exceptional.
Red-footed Booby is only an occasional visitant
to Dominica waters between October and April
(Evans 1990, Evans and James 1997:14), so addi-
tional observations are of interest. Feldmann et al.
(1999:81-82) noted that a few have bred nearby at
Les Saintes, Guadeloupe, for some years, which
colony is likely to be the source of birds seen in Do-
minica waters.
None of the 2002 Dominica tern observations are
surprising, and Frigatebird numbers appear to be
normal for this time of year.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors especially wish to thank Jacquie
Clark, Peter G. H. Evans, Martin Frost, Floyd
Hayes, Martyn Kenefick, Herb Raffaele, Jorge Sa-
liva, and Tony White for information, records, or
references cited above, and Sheri Hall of the Boston
University Marine Program, Lambert Charles of
Ken's Hinterland Tours, and Derek Perryman and
staff of Dive Dominica for assistance and courtesies
extended during the class' visit to the island.


LITERATURE CITED
BOND, J. 1967. Twelfth supplement to the Check-
list of birds of the West Indies (1956). Philadel-
phia, PA: Academy of Natural Sciences.
BROOKE, M. DE L. 1990. The Manx Shearwater.
London: T. & A. D. Poyser.
EVANS, P. G. H. 1990. Birds of the eastern Carib-
bean. London: Macmillan Education Ltd.
EVANS, P. G. H., AND A. JAMES. 1997. Domin-
ica nature island of the Caribbean a guide to
birdwatching. Sussex, England: Published by P.
G. H. Evans and S. Heimlich-Boran.
FELDMANN, P., E. BENITO-ESPINAL, AND A. R.
KEITH. 1999. New bird records for Guadeloupe
and Martinique, West Indies. J. Field Ornithol.
70:80-94.
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago, 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univer-
sity Press.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000.
Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cor-
nell University Press.
GORE, M. E. J., AND A. R. M. GEPP. 1978. Las aves
del Uruguay. Montevideo, Uruguay: International
Council for the Preservation of Birds Pan
American and United States Sections.


Page 29









KEITH AND KEITH -PELAGIC BIRDS OFF DOMINICA

HAYES, F. E., AND G. WHITE. 2000. First report of
the Trinidad and Tobago Rare Bird Committee.
Living World (J. Trinidad Tobago Field Nat.
Club) 1999-2000:39-45.
KEITH, A. R., AND N. F. R. WARD. 1997. Pelagic
bird sightings off Dominica. Pitirre 10:60-61.
KEITH, A. R., J. W. WILEY, S. C. LATTA, AND J. A.
OTTENWALDER. In press. Birds of Hispaniola: Do-
minican Republic and Haiti. BOU Check-list No.
21. London: British Ornithologists' Union.
LEE, D. S. 1995. The pelagic ecology of Manx
Shearwaters Puffinus puffinus off the southeastern
United States of America. Marine Ornithology
23:107-119.
MURPHY, W. L. 2002. Observations of pelagic sea-
birds wintering at sea in the southeastern Carib-
bean. Pp. 104-110 in Studies in Trinidad and To-
bago ornithology honouring Richard ffrench
(Hayes, F. E., and S. A. Temple, Eds.). Dept. Life
Sci., University of the West Indies, St. Augustine,
Occ. Pap. 11.
NORTON, R. L. 1984. West Indies region. American
Birds 38:968.
PETERSEN, W. R. AND D. MCRAE. 2002. Notewor-
thy bird records for Trinidad and Tobago, includ-
ing first reports of Wood Sandpiper (Tringa
glareola) and White-eyed Vireo (Vireo griseus).
Pp. 204-206 in Studies in Trinidad and Tobago
ornithology honouring Richard ffrench (Hayes, F.
E., and S. A. Temple, Eds.). Dept. Life Sci., Univ.


West Indies, St. Augustine, Occ. Pap. 11.
RAFFAELE, H. A. 1983. A guide to the birds of
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. San Juan,
Puerto Rico: Fondo Educativo Interamericano.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.
ROBINSON, W. B., JR., AND G. E. WOOLFENDEN.
1992. Florida bird species: an annotated list. Spe-
cial Publication No. 6. Gainesville, FL: Florida
Ornithological Society.
TOSTAIN, O., J.-L. DUJARDIN, CH. ERARD, AND J.-
M. THIOLLAY. 1992. Oiseaux de Guyane. Brunoy,
France: Soci&te d'Etudes Omithologiques, Mu-
s6um National d'Histoire Naturelle.
VAN HALEWYN, R., AND R. L. NORTON. 1984. The
status and conservation of seabirds in the Carib-
bean. Pp. 169-222 in Status and conservation of
the world's seabirds (Croxall, J. P., P. G. H. Ev-
ans, and R. W. Schrieber, Eds.). ICBP Technical
Report No. 2, International Council for Bird Pres-
ervation, Cambridge.
WHITE A. W. In prep. Transient seabirds in the Ba-
hamian archipelago and adjacent waters. North
Amer. Birds.
WHITE, G. AND F. E. HAYES. In press. Second re-
port of the Trinidad and Tobago Rare Bird Com-
mittee. Living World (J. Trinidad Tobago Field
Nat. Club.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 30












NOTABLE BIRD SIGHTINGS FROM CUBA, WINTERS 2002 AND 2003


JULIE A. CRAVES1 AND KIMBERLY R. HALL2
'Rouge River Bird Observatory, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128, USA; and 2Michigan
State University, Dept. Fisheries and Wildlife, 13 Natural Resources Bldg., E. Lansing, MI 48824, USA


Abstract.-We present significant sight reports of birds made in Cuba during late winter 2002 and winter 2003. Of
special interest are the second documented report of Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula), the first wintering
reports for Tennessee Warbler (Vermivora peregrina) and Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis), and a range ex-
pansion for Olive-capped Warbler (Dendroica pityophila).
Key words: Blue-winged Warbler, Calidris alpina, Cuba, Dendroica pityophila, Dunlin, Hooded Warbler, Olive-
capped Warbler, Pheucticus ludovicianus, Regulus calendula, Rose-breasted Grosbeak, Ruby-crowned Kinglet, Ten-
nessee Warbler, Vireo flavifrons, Vermivora peregrina, Vermivora pinus, Wilsonia citrina, winter records, Yellow-
throated Vireo
Resumen.-AVES NOTABLES REGISTRA DE CUBA, LOS INVIERNOS 2002 Y 2003. Nosotros observaciones significa-
tivas presentes de aves hicieron durante inviemo tarde 2002 y el invierno 2003. Del interest especial son el segundo
el registro documentado de Regulus calendula, los primeros registros de aves invemando estaban para el Vermivora
peregrina y Vermivora pinus, y una expansion de la distancia para el Dendroica pityophila.
Palabras clave: Bijirita Azul de Garganta Negra, Birijita de Alas Azules, Bijirita de Tennessee, Birijita Peregrina,
Bijirita del Pinar, Calidris alpina, Cuba, Degollado, Dendroica pityophila, Monjita, Pheucticus ludovicianus,
Regulus calendula, Reyezuela, Verddn de Pecho Amarillo, Vermivora peregrina, Vermivora pinus, Vireo flavifrons,
Wilsonia citrina, winter records, Zarapico Gris


ALTHOUGH OF INTEREST to ornithologists and
birders for its 21 endemic bird species and 39
unique subspecies (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000),
Cuba is also an important wintering and stopover
site for many North American migrant birds be-
cause of its size and location (Gonzalez Alonso et
al. 1992). Knowledge of the true wintering ranges
and winter ecology of North American migrants is
critical in understanding apparent declines in their
populations (Remsen 2001). For species that can be
reliably identified by skilled observers, observations
of birds in their winter habitat can provide an im-
portant addition to collections and banding data as
sources of range information.
In recent years, "eco-tours" have become a popu-
lar form of travel, and many tour companies include
trips that focus on birdwatching and attract people
with strong bird identification skills. As these tours
have become established, the recognition of the po-
tential conservation value of observations made on
these trips has increased. In some cases, the goal of
contributing to conservation efforts has led tour
leaders to more conscientiously document bird
sightings by groups that incorporate natural history
into their itineraries. Here we present some interest-
ing distributional and temporal records compiled by
Craves (22 February to 1 March 2002, "Group A")
and Craves and Hall (31 January to 8 February


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


2003, "Group B") on two tours of central and west-
ern Cuba in which the authors were able to make
bird observations. In addition, we also present pre-
viously undocumented observations made by mem-
bers of other tour groups, who provide context for
our observations.
Dunlin (Calidris alpina).-Six were counted on
23 February 2002 (Group A) and three on 1 Febru-
ary 2003 (Group B) at Las Salinas Refuge, Zapata
peninsula, Matanzas province. Dunlin are reported
to be very rare transients and winter residents at Za-
pata and Cayo Coco (Garrido and Kirkconnell
2000). This species was not recorded in Cuba until
1989 (Norton 1990, Wallace et al. 1999), and until
1997 all reports were from the Zapata area. Dunlin
were then photographed at Cayo Coco (Wallace et
al. 1999) and reported from Holguin province (Pefia
Rodriguez et al. 2000).
Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica).-Two were
seen well on 1 February (Group B) and 15 February
2003 (another tour) at Las Salinas Refuge, Zapata
peninsula, Matanzas province. This species is con-
sidered a rare transient and winter resident in Cuba
(Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000), and there have
been previous published reports from Las Salinas
(Norton 1988, 1994). Wallace et al. (1999) gave the
first reports for the Archipidlago de Sabana-


Page 31









CRAVES AND HALL-BIRD SIGHTINGS IN CUBA


Camagiiey along the northern coast from 1996-
1997, and stated there were 10 previous records or
reports from Cuba.
Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons).-
Group A observed a Yellow-throated Vireo in the
endemic forest section of the Jardin Botinico Na-
cional in La Habana province on 22 February 2002,
and single birds were seen at the same location on 6
December 2002 (another tour) and 31 January 2003
(Group B). The botanical garden is regarded as a
traditional wintering location for this species (0.
Garrrido, pers. comm.). In 2003, Group B found this
species in several locations in Pinar del Rio prov-
ince: Soroa (two on 4 February and one on 6 Febru-
ary), El Taburete near Las Terrazas (one on 5 Feb-
ruary), and La Guira National Park (two on 7 Febru-
ary). A previous tour also had two at La Guira on 10
December 2002. Garrido and Kirkconnell (2000)
report them as rare winter residents in Cuba. Per-
haps Yellow-throated Vireos are more common in
winter in Cuba than previously believed.
Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula).-
The second documented report for Cuba was of a
bird discovered at a native forest site between
Palpite and Playa Larga on the Zapata peninsula,
Matanzas province. The bird was first seen by a tour
group on 8 December 2002. At that time, none of
the observers noted a red crown (M. Kraus and M.
J. Good, pers.comm.). On 1 February 2003, two in-
dependent sets of people in Group B, among them
Cuban ornithologist William SuWrez, found a Ruby-
crowned Kinglet at the same location. One person
provided a sketch, and several gave written descrip-
tions, including references to the active foraging
behavior typical of kinglets (versus the more slug-
gish foraging maneuvers of the similar Cuban Vireo
Vireo gundlachii). Again, none of the observers no-
ticed a red crown. A few weeks later, a third tour
group relocated the kinglet in the same place (0.
Garrido, pers. comm.).
Only one previously published record exists for
Ruby-crowned Kinglet in Cuba, a bird collected
near La Habana on 18 October 1964 (Garrido and
Garcia Montafia 1975, Garrido and Kirkconnell
2000). Ruby-crowned Kinglets are noted as va-
grants in Cuba (Ingold and Wallace 1994), and Ja-
maica and the Dominican Republic (Raffaele et al.
1998).
Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivorapinus).-One
was observed by Group A with O. Garrido in the
endemic forest section of the Jardin Botinico Na-
cional in La Habana province on 22 February 2002.
Garrido also located one with a tour at La Guira Na-


tional Park, Pinar del Rio province, on 10 December
2002 (M. J. Good, pers. comm.). In Cuba, these
warblers are listed as rare winter residents and tran-
sients (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000), with only six
records listed by Garrido and Garcia Montafia
(1975). Blue-winged Warblers are rare in the
Greater Antilles and occasional in the Lesser Antil-
les (Gill et al. 2001).
Tennessee Warbler (Vermivora peregrina).-
Several sightings in Pinar del Rio province repre-
sent the first wintering reports of Tennessee War-
blers in Cuba. One was seen well through a scope
by a tour including O. Garrido in Vifiales on 12 De-
cember 2002 (M. J. Good, pers. comm). Other Ten-
nessee Warblers were found by Group B in 2003.
Two were watched (one by Garrido) as they foraged
in large trees at the forest edge outside the Ecologi-
cal Station at Las Terrazas on 4 February. The next
day, another was found at nearby El Taburete. Fi-
nally, one (possibly two) was noted at La Guira Na-
tional Park on 7 February.
In Cuba, this warbler is regarded as an uncom-
mon transient (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000). Al-
though the early spring migration arrival date for
Tennessee Warblers is listed as 8 February (Garrido
and Kirkconnell 2000), Garrido (pers. comm.) be-
lieves Tennessee Warblers to be late migrants, gen-
erally, and he judged the sightings we report here to
represent wintering birds. This species is described
as a rare to uncommon transient in much of the
West Indies, and uncommon in winter in Bermuda,
Grand Bahama, and Jamaica (Rimmer and McFar-
land 1998). Raffaele et al. (1998) lists the Tennes-
see Warbler as an uncommon non-breeding resident
through the Bahamas, Cayman Islands, and San
Andres.
Olive-capped Warbler (Dendroica pityo-
phila).-Two were observed by Group B and O.
Garrido in pine trees outside of the Ecological Sta-
tion at Las Terrazas on 4 February 2003. This spe-
cies is a common but local permanent resident in
Pinar del Rio province (in the west) and in two far
eastern provinces (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000).
This sighting represents the easternmost report in
Pinar del Rio province (0. Garrido, pers. comm.).
Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina).-Group B
detected a male Hooded Warbler in an open, dis-
turbed site in mature second-growth forest at Soroa,
Pinar del Rio province. The bird was first seen by
one observer on 5 February 2003. The next day, an-
other member of the group found a male Hooded
Warbler (presumably the same bird) foraging in low
vegetation at the same location. Considered a com-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 16(1)


Page 32









CRAVES AND HALL-BIRD SIGHTINGS IN CUBA


mon transient and rare winter resident (Garrido and
Kirkconnell 2000) in Cuba, most Hooded Warblers
are reported to winter in south to eastern Mexico
and Belize, with smaller numbers in the West In-
dies, including Cuba (Evans Ogden and Stutchbury
1994). This species is noted as uncommon to rare in
the Bahamas, and rare in Hispaniola, Puerto Rico,
and the Virgin and Cayman Islands (Raffaele et al.
1998).
Canada Warbler (Wilsonia canadensis).-The
first winter report for Canada Warbler in Cuba (0.
Garrido, pers. comm.) was of a bird foraging in
dense shrubs bordering marshy ground in Soplillar,
Matanzas province on 2 February 2003 by Group B.
The sketch and description indicate a first-winter
female. This species is described as wintering from
Venezuela and Colombia south through eastern Ec-
uador to central Peru (Conway 1999) and is re-
corded as a very rare transient in Cuba (Garrido and
Kirkconnell 2000). Raffaele et al. (1998) lists Can-
ada Warblers as very rare migrants and even less
common winter residents in the northern Bahamas
and Cuba.
Rose-breasted Grosbeak (Pheucticus ludovi-
cianus).-Group B observed two Rose-breasted
Grosbeaks (both male, one a first-winter and the
other an older adult) in mature, second-growth for-
est at Soroa, Pinar del Rio province, on 6 February.
The same group also saw a female foraging along
the road through open forest at La Guira National
Park, Pinar del Rio province, on 7 February 2003.
Another tour counted four females there on 12 De-
cember 2002 (M. J. Good, pers. comm.). In Cuba,
this species is regarded as a rare transient and very
rare winter resident (Garrido and Kirkconnell 2000).
For the foreseeable future, it is probable that pro-
fessional field work in Cuba will continue to be lim-
ited by travel restrictions, a shortage of resources,
and the isolation imposed by governmental policy.
As emphasized by Wallace et al. (1999), even mod-
est amounts of field work in Cuba yield much new
information. The reports above demonstrate the po-
tential for future tour groups to make noteworthy
contributions to the understanding of the status and
distribution of birds in Cuba. Observers are encour-
aged to note not only numbers and habitats, but also
gender where discernable, to add to the body of
work on sexual segregation by habitat in over-
wintering migrants (e.g., Lopez Orat and Green-
berg 1990, Lynch et al. 1985, Parrish and Sherry
1994, Wunderle 1992). We are willing to provide
suggestions and assistance to travelers.



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Special thanks to Orlando Garrido, William
Suarez (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Ha-
vana), and Frank Medina (Cidnaga de Zapata Par-
que Nacional), one or more of whom were always
with us providing insight and guidance. Gary
Markowski has been resolutely pursuing ways to
improve our knowledge of birds in Cuba since
1995, and these surveys would not have been possi-
ble without him, or the inspiration of John
McNeely. The American Birding Association has
endorsed and promoted bird survey tours in Cuba.
In addition to the authors, the 2003 group consisted
of many experienced field observers and bird-
banders, several of whom provided documentation
on these sightings: D. Armstrong, H. Chambers, R.
Denton, W. King, G. Norwood, D. O'Brien, F. Oat-
man, and S. Ruck. R. Brooks, M. J. Good, Jr., M.
and J. Kraus, and B. Walker provided details on ob-
servations from other groups.

LITERATURE CITED
CONWAY, C. J. 1999. Canada Warbler (Wilsonia
canadensis). In The birds of North America, No.
421. (Poole, A., and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia,
PA: Birds of North America, Inc.
EVANS OGDEN, L. J., AND B. J. STUTCHBURY. 1994.
Hooded Warbler (Wilsonia citrina). In The birds
of North America, No. 110. (Poole, A., and F.
Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia, PA: Birds of North
America, Inc.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975.
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Academia de Ciencias de Cuba.
GARRIDO, O. H., AND A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000.
Field guide to the birds of Cuba. Ithaca, NY: Cor-
nell Univ. Press
GILL, F. B., R. A. CANTERBURY, AND J. L. CONFER.
2001. Blue-winged Warbler (Vermivora pinus).
In The birds of North America, No. 584. (Poole,
A., and F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia, PA: Birds of
North America, Inc.
INGOLD, J. L., AND G. E. WALLACE. 1994. Ruby-
crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula). In The
birds of North America, No. 119. (Poole, A., and
F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia, PA: Birds of North
America, Inc.
LOPEZ ORNAT, A., AND R. GREENBERG. 1990. Sex-
ual segregation by habitat in migratory warblers
in Quintana Roo, Mexico. Auk 107:539-543.
LYNCH, J. F., E. S. MORTON, AND M. E. VAN DER


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VOORT. 1985. Habitat segregation between the
sexes of wintering Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia
citrina). Auk 102:714-721.
NORTON, R. L. 1988. West Indies region. American
Birds 42:327-328.
NORTON, R. L. 1990. West Indies region. American
Birds 44:335-336.
NORTON, R. L. 1994. West Indies region. American
Birds 48:156-158.
PARRISH, J. D., AND T. W. SHERRY. 1994. Sexual
segregation by American Redstarts wintering in
Jamaica: importance of resource seasonality. Auk
111:38-49.
PENA RODRIGUEZ, C. M., A. FERNANDEZ, E.
REYES, N. NAVARO, AND J. A. LA'O. OSORIO.
2000. Nuevos registros de Charadriiformes
(Scolopacidae) para la costa norte de oriente,
Cuba. Pitirre 13:21.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ.
Press.


REMSEN, J. V., JR. 2001. True winter range of the
Veery (Catharus fuscescens): lessons for deter-
mining winter ranges of species that winter in the
Tropics. Auk 118:838-848.
RIMMER, C. C., AND K. P. MCFARLAND. 1998. Ten-
nessee Warbler (Vermivora peregrina). In The
birds of North America, No. 350. (Poole, A., and
F. Gill, Eds.). Philadelphia, PA: Birds of North
America, Inc.
WALLACE, G. E., E. A. H. WALLACE, D. R. FROEH-
LICH, B. WALKER, A. KIRKCONNELL, E. SOCAR-
RAS TORRES, H. A. CARLISLE, AND E. MACHELL.
1999. Hermit Thrush and Black-throated Gray
Warbler, new for Cuba, and other significant bird
records from Cayo Coco and vicinity, Ciego de
Avila province, Cuba. Florida Field Naturalist
27:37-51.
WUNDERLE, J. M., JR. 1992. Sexual habitat segrega-
tion in wintering Black-throated Blue Warblers in
Puerto Rico. Pp. 229-307 in Ecology and conser-
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J. M., III, and D. W. Johnson, Eds.). Smithsonian
Inst. Press, Washington, DC.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 34












DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS
(AVES: ARDEIDAE) DE LA CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS, CUBA


DENNIS DENIS AVILA
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, Calle 25 e/J e I, Vedado, Ciu-
dad de La Habana CP 10900, Cuba; e-mail: dda@fbio.uh.cu

Resumen.-Las metapoblaciones se defmen como mozaicos cambiantes de poblaciones temporales interconecta-
das por algun grado de migraci6n. En el presente trabajo se demuestra el comportamiento metapoblacional de un
grupo de colonias de garzas y cocos en la laguna Las Playas, Ci6naga de Biramas, Cuba, y se describen sus relacio-
nes en los afios de 1998 a 2002. Los cambios en numero y composici6n de especies en estas colonias permiten defi-
nir como poblaci6n nucleo la establecida en Cayo Norte, desde la cual se nutren en afios desfavorables las colonias
satelites de la Guija, Wiso y Juan Viejo entre las cuales tambi6n existen movimientos de parejas. Las dinamicas de
formaci6n de la colonia de Cayo Norte y Wiso, muestran cierta sincronizaci6n en algunos momentos que parece evi-
denciar los movimientos de parejas entre estas. Las colonias satelites de Juan Viejo y Wiso aparecen y desaparecen
entre afios en dependencia de las condiciones generales para la cria en la region. La descripci6n de esta dinamica es
vital para los planes de manejo y de conservaci6n del grupo en esta area y varias medidas practices de manejo se
proponen sobre su base.
Palabras Clave: Cienaga de Biramas, Colonias, Cuba, manejo, metapoblaci6n
Abstract.-METAPOPULATION DYNAMICS IN WADING BIRD (AVES: ARDEIDAE) COLONIES IN THE CIENAGA DE
BIRAMAS, CUBA. Metapopulations are dynamic complexes of changing populations interconnected by migration of
individuals. We describe the metapopulation behavior of several reproductive colonies of egrets, herons, and ibises
in Las Playas lagoon, Ci6naga de Biramas, Cuba. Apparent movements among these breeding sites are described for
1998 to 2002. Changes in numbers and species composition allowed us to define the Cayo Norte colony as a popula-
tion source from which several satellite colonies receive breeding pairs. Also, movements occurred between satellite
colonies of Guija, Wiso, and Juan Viejo. In 2002, recruitment dynamics of Cayo Norte and Wiso showed certain
synchronization in some events, thereby supporting the theory of source-sink interrelation. Satellite colonies of Juan
Viejo and Wiso fluctuated among years, probably related to general condition of the season in the region. Descrip-
tion of this dynamic is useful for the managing and conservation of wading birds in this wetland and we suggest sev-
eral measures based on the metapopulation dynamics.
Keywords: Cienaga de Biramas, colonies, Cuba, management, metapopulation


INTRODUCCION
LAS AVES ZANCUDAS COLONIALES son un grupo
de aves de particular importancia biol6gica y con-
servacionista, dentro de los complejos ecosistemas
de humedales (Hancock y Kushlan 1984). Constitu-
yen especies clave en 6stos al ser eslabones funda-
mentales del flujo de energia y actuar como acelera-
dores en el reciclaje de los nutrientes y su moviliza-
ci6n, debido a su alta movilidad (Morales y Pacheco
1986).
Cuba representa la mayor de las islas del Caribe,
y por su forma alargada y geomorfologia baja, con-
tiene las mis extensas regiones de zonas hfimedas y,
particularmente, de humedales costeros de la regi6n
caribefia. Dada su situaci6n biogeogrifica, recibe un
flujo importante de aves migratorias que se mezclan
con las poblaciones residentes, como han demostra-
do las recuperaciones de individuos de algunas es-
pecies anilladas en los Estados Unidos (Byrd 1978,
Frederick et al. 1996). Por estas razones, los estu-
dios en nuestro pais tienen importancia no s6lo lo-


Joumal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


cal, sino tambidn regional, al existir la posibilidad
de constituir las colonias en nuestros humedales
fuentes importantes dentro de las metapoblaciones
hemicontinentales de algunas especies.
Las metapoblaciones se definen como mozaicos
cambiantes de poblaciones temporales interconecta-
das por algin grado de migraci6n (Hanski et al.
1996, McCullough 1996, Hanski y Simberloff
1997). En algunas especies las poblaciones son de
vida corta y cambian drammticamente en cada gene-
raci6n. En otras la metapoblaci6n se caracteriza por
una o mis poblaciones nucleares o fuentes, mis o
menos estables en el tiempo y varias poblaciones
satdlites o receptoras que fluctuan con la llegada de
inmigrantes (Bleich et al. 1990). Las poblaciones
satelites pueden extinguirse en afios desfavorables,
pero son recolonizadas por migraciones desde una
poblaci6n nuclear. Las metapoblaciones se mani-
fiestan a diferentes escalas geogrdficas, desde gran-
des regiones zoogeogrdficas hasta en localidades
especificas de menor extensi6n, en dependencia de


Page 35









DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


las caracteristicas demogrificas y biol6gicas de las
especies.
El colonialismo es un fen6meno dinimico que
aparece en cerca del 10% de las aves (Sieguel-
Causey y Kharitonov 1990), y es una de las caracte-
risticas mis conspicuas de la mayoria de los ciconi-
formes durante la etapa de cria. Los factores que
conducen a la formaci6n de las colonias son alta-
mente complejos y varian entre especies (Bancroft
et al. 1994); sin embargo, se ha sefialado que influ-
yen aspectos como la disponibilidad y asequibilidad
de alimentos, las distancias a los sitios de forrajeo y
su calidad, el grado de disturbio humano, la estruc-
tura de la vegetaci6n y la presi6n de depredaci6n,
entre otros (Fasola y Alieri 1992). Asi, durante la
etapa de cria las mayoria de las garzas concentran
sus poblaciones reproductivas en puntos determina-
dos, a partir de los cuales vuelan direccionalmente
hacia los sitios de forrajeo. Entre estas colonias pue-
de establecerse un intercambio de parejas o indivi-
duos. Estos movimientos intercolonias no han sido
demostrados en algunas especies como los garzo-
nes, pero en la Garza de Vientre Blanco estudios de
radiotelemetria han encontrado que los individuos
intentan anidar en diferentes colonias cada afio, y en
ocasiones secuencialmente entre afios (Jewel y Ban-
croft en prep., cit. por Bancroft et al. 1994).
La descripci6n de esta dinimica es vital para los
planes de manejo y de conservaci6n de los grupos
en las areas, al demostrar c6mo los efectos produci-
dos en un punto especifico puede repercutir en otro,
o no tener efecto a causa de los movimientos pobla-
cionales. Por esta raz6n el objetivo de este trabajo
es describir las relaciones que se establecen entre
las colonias de garzas nidificantes en la laguna Las
Playas, para establecer esta informaci6n de base
necesaria para el manejo y protecci6n de este grupo.

MATERIALES Y METODOS
Se trabaj6 en un total de cuatro colonias repro-
ductivas localizadas al norte de la laguna Las Playas
entre los afios 1998 y 2001. Esta laguna es un exten-
so cuerpo de aguas someras (segunda en extensi6n
del pais), con una superficie de alrededor de 12 km2,
que centra un amplio sistema de esteros interconec-
tados que desemboca en el mar 11 km al oeste
(vease descripcion del area en Denis et al. 2001).
Durante el periodo estudiado se reprodujeron nueve
especies de garzas en esta area y dos de cocos, que
se identifican en el trabajo con las siguientes siglas:
Garza de Rizos (Egretta thula) GR
Garza Ganadera (Bubulcus ibis) GG


Page 36


Garza de Viente Blanco (E. tricolor) GVB
Garza Azul (E. caerulea) GA
Garza Rojiza (E. rufescens) GRj
Garz6n (Ardea alba) Gz
Guanabi de la Florida (Nycticorax
nycticorax) GF
Guanabi Real (Nyctanassa violacea) GR1
Aguaitacaimin (Butorides virescens) Ag
Coco Blanco (Eudocimus albus) CB
Coco Prieto (Plegadisfalcinellus) CP
El tamafio de las colonias fue estimado visual-
mente de forma aproximada a partir de un punto
elevado, o recorriendo la colonia. Las proporciones
de las especies nidificantes en los dos primeros afios
(1998-1999) se estimaron a partir de una muestra
de 653 nidos seleccionados aleatoriamente. En los
afios sucesivos (2000-2002) se procedi6 a estimar la
composici6n por medio de registros de secuencias
de especies (Denis, en prep.). Este m6todo consisti6
en registrar desde un punto alejado, a partir de un
individuo ubicado al azar, las especies de los prime-
ros 10 individuos que se encontraban nidificando a
su derecha. En las colonias de los esteros o donde la
vegetaci6n no ofrecia observatorios a distancia se
emple6 una variante de este m6todo, anotando las
apariciones a lo largo de una linea de transecto a
trav6s de las mismas.
En Cayo Norte y Wiso se determin6 la dinimica
de formaci6n de la colonia, es decir, la intensidad de
reclutamiento de parejas cada semana. Dicha infor-
maci6n se hall6 a partir de los nidos marcados y
monitoreados, empleindose entre 146 y 460 nidos
por afio par un total de 1245 nidos. Durante este
seguimiento se detectaron los momentos criticos del
ciclo que podian ser temporalmente ubicados: la
puesta o eclosi6n de algin huevo o la edad de algu-
no de los pichones. Para esto, se asumi6 que la
construcci6n del nido dura siete dias en la Garza
Ganadera, cuatro en la Garza de Rizos y cinco en la
Garza de Vientre Blanco (Telfair 1987). El intervalo
de puesta entre huevos, se asumi6 como dos dias
para todas las especies, y la duraci6n de la misma,
segfin el numero de huevos en el nido (Palmer
1962). La edad de los pichones se calcul6 seguin las
ecuaciones de regresi6n lineal obtenidas en este pe-
riodo y publicadas por Denis (2002). El inicio de la
construcci6n de los nidos se determin6 transforman-
do las fechas de estos momentos a dias julianos,
mediante la asignaci6n de una numeraci6n continua
a cada dia del afio. A este valor se le restaba el tiem-
po que debia haber transcurrido segni el desarrollo
del nido hasta alcanzar ese punto y se volvia a trans-
formar la fecha a formato gregoriano siguiendo el


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA



Estero Juan Viejo
Cayo Juan Vie
Colonia Colonia
Juan Viejo Cocos

Colonia Wiso 0 Colonia
La Guija


Cayo Norte
Colonia Cayo Norte*


Laguna Las Playas



Fig. 1. Localizaci6n de las colonias reproductivas en el area de la Laguna Las Playas, Ci6na-
ga de Biramas, entre 1998-2002. Las estrellas muestran la ubicaci6n de los nidos de Aguai-
tacaiman (Butorides virescens).


procedimiento inverso. Con estos datos se constru-
yeron histogramas de frecuencias agrupadas por
semanas para caracterizar la dinimica de formaci6n
de la colonia.
Par este m6todo se adoptaron dos asunciones
importantes. Primero, que los nidos con huevos en
los que durante todo el seguimiento no se observ6
ningin cambio, se encontraban en incubaci6n. Para
esto se tom6 como edad del nido la cantidad de dias
que se sigui6 mis la mitad de la diferencia entre el
periodo de incubaci6n de la especie y el nimero de
dias que fue observado sin cambios. Y en segundo
lugar, se emple6 el tamafio de puesta aparente para
calcular la duraci6n del periodo de puesta.


RESULTADOS
Durante el periodo estudiado en el area se crearon
cinco colonias de nidificaci6n de aves acuaticas co-
loniales (Fig. 1). El circulo azul muestra la ubica-
ci6n de una colonia de Cocos Prietos y Blancos con
algunas garzas que existi6 en 1998, pero que des-
apareci6 antes de ser estudiada.
Ademis de las especies coloniales, el area tam-
bien fue sitio de cria de Aguaitacaimin (Butorides
virescens). Esta especie cri6 en los bordes del canal
de acceso a la laguna con gran intensidad en 1998,
pero posiblemente por el incremento del disturbio
humano dado por la entrada al area de motores fuera
de borda, en los afios sucesivos solo emplearon este


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


lugar para criar varias parejas aisladas. En el afio
2002 se encontr6 un nuevo sitio de nidificaci6n,
donde posiblemente se habian trasladado desde
1998, a menos de un kil6metro del sitio anterior,
pero en un estero sin acceso desde la laguna y aleja-
do del disturbio humano.
El monitoreo de las colonias evidenci6 la existen-
cia de interrelaciones con el comportamiento tipico
de una metapoblaci6n del tipo de interacciones
complejas segfin la clasificaci6n de White (1996).
Esto puede inferirse analizando los cambios sincr6-
nicos entre afios en tamafio de las colonias y en su
composici6n especifica, enfocados desde el punto
de vista de la dinimica poblacional.
En 1998 la situaci6n de las colonias era la mostra-
da en la Figura 2. Este afio no estaban formadas las
colonias de las localidades de Juan Viejo ni de Wi-
so, y ain se encontraba un alto nimero de Cocos
Prietos en la colonia al este de La Guija, asi como
algunas parejas en Cayo Norte.
La colonia central, mayor y mias estable, fue la de
Cayo Norte, pero entre dos y tres colonias, general-
mente mis pequefias, se formaban cada afio en un
area de menos de 3 km de radio. Cayo Norte es un
islote de 260 m de ancho por 380 m de largo (88
000 m2) localizado en la laguna Las Playas. Presen-
ta en su interior dos pequefias lagunas efimeras que
se cubren en marea alta con un espejo de agua de 5-
30 cm de profundidad. Bordeando el cayo se en-
cuentra una densa franja de mangle rojo


Page 37









DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


Juan Viejo
*


Colonia (?)
CP, CB,
GG, GR
Giiija
GF


Cayo Norte
GG, GR, GVB,
GAz, Gz, CP


GG: Garza Ganadera
GR: Garza de Rizos
GVB: Garza de Vientre Blanco
GRj: Garza Rojiza
GA: Garza Azul
Gz: Garzon
CB: Coco Blanco
CP: Coco Prieto
GF: Guanaba de La Florida
GRl: Guanaba Real


Fig. 2. Ubicaci6n relativa y composici6n de especies de las colonias existentes en
1998.


(Rhizophora mangle), predominando hacia el inter-
ior el mangle prieto (Avicennia germinans), que se
hace mis pequefio y ralo a medida que se encuentra
mis pr6ximo al borde de las lagunas interiores. La
colonia mantuvo su actividad desde finales de abril
hasta finales de julio, con rangos de puesta variables
entre 65 y 90 dias (Fig. 3), por lo que afin a finales
de agosto podian verse signos de reproducci6n. En
1998 la actividad de la colonia se retras6 considera-
blemente, al parecer por la llegada tardia de las llu-
vias (Omar Labrada Vega, Empresa para la protec-
ci6n de la Flora y la Fauna, Unidad "Delta del Cau-
to"; com. pers.).
Esta colonia, en los primeros afios de la investiga-


ci6n, fue estimada en unas 10-12 mil parejas y mos-
tr6 una tendencia decreciente durante el periodo es-
tudiado, hasta llegar a 4500 parejas en el afio 2001,
al parecer a causa del deterioro de la vegetaci6n.
Estuvo compuesta por nueve especies de garzas:
Garza Ganadera, Garza de Rizos, Garza de Vientre
Blanco, Garz6n, Garza Azul, Garza Rojiza y Aguai-
tacaimin, las primeras cuatro fueron numdricamente
dominantes (Fig. 4). Ademis de estas especies, el
cayo ha sido el sitio de nidificaci6n de algunas pare-
jas de Marbella, Guanabi de la Florida, Gallinuela
de Manglar, Corfa de Agua Dulce, Cachiporra y en
1998 de alrededor de 20 parejas de Coco Prieto.
La franja de mangle de baja altura que bordeaba


SFecha promedio de inicio
Rango


Inicio del 90% de los nidos


1OOQ


*I SfS


10 000 nidos A


12 000 nidos A


Q Atnnn() ;


4500 nidos

I I S - I S--


Mayo


Junio


Julio


Fig. 3. Cronologia de la reproducci6n de la colonia de garzas en Cayo Norte, ci6naga de Biramas, entre los afios
1998 y 2001. Los nfmeros indican el tamafo de la colonia en cada afio.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Wiso
*0


I


A7f OO


La


Page 38










DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


n=150*
0 Garzas Blancas


GVB
|


1998


n=513*


1999


n=244**


n=252**


GG






GR


GVB
---rl


2000


2001 Alo


Fig. 4. Composici6n de la colonia de Cayo Norte durante los afios 1998-2001 (en 1998 se
agruparon la Garza Ganadera y de Rizos en la categoria de garzas blancas). *= No. de nidos;
**= No. de conteos de secuencias de especies. Las abbreviations como en Fig. 2.


la laguna interior y que separaba las dos lagunas fue
muriendo progresivamente por la acci6n sindrgica
de varios factores. La causa principal posiblemente
fuera la guanotrofia y la actividad podadora de las
garzas durante la construcci6n de los nidos. Pero
esto se vi6 agravado con el debilitamiento de la cir-
culaci6n del agua a causa del rellenamiento natural
de los esteros, lo cual fue reforzado por fuertes
vientos que produjeron dafios considerables a la es-
tructura de la vegetaci6n. Esta transformaci6n en la
vegetaci6n influy6 notablemente en el cambio de
los sitios de nidificaci6n dentro de la colonia,
haciendo que cada afio las garzas se retiraran a nidi-
ficar hacia mangles mayores y posiblemente mu-
chas de ellas abandonaran la colonia.
La segunda colonia en importancia fue la de La


% delno. de
individuos
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%
0% -


Giiija, ubicada alrededor de un sistema de esteros y
lagunas someras al norte de la laguna. Esta colonia
es estructuralmente diferente a la del cayo por la
estructura de su vegetaci6n: una mezcla de mangle
rojo y prieto de gran altura. Esti dominada por Gua-
nabi de la Florida y Coco Blanco, y como especies
"acompafiantes" crian en ella marbellas, sevillas y
en 1998 criaron numerosos cocos prietos (Fig. 5).
Esta colonia carece de limites definidos y se extien-
de de forma laxa por un area de tres o cuatro hecti-
reas. Su actividad fue irregular, por lo que no se pu-
do determinar exactamente su dinimica. Fue asin-
cr6nica con la de Cayo Norte en el 2000 y tuvo do-
ble periodo en el 2001, cuando el Guanabi de la
Florida nidific6 dos veces en el afio.
Como dato significativo, en 1998 existi6 una co-


M Coco Prieto

O Guanaba de la Fla.

* Marbella

O Coco Blanco


Fig. 5. Composici6n especifica de la colonia de La GiUija en los tres afios en
que su actividad fue sincr6nica con la de Cayo Norte.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 39









DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


Juan Viejo

*0
CB, GG, Wiso l
Colonial (?)
GR, GVB j, B,
S GG, GR
La Giiij/
GF


0


Cayo Norte
GG, GR, GVB,
GAz, Gz, 6


GG: Garza Ganadera
GR: Garza de Rizos
GVB: Garza de Vientre Blanco
GRj: Garza Rojiza
GA: Garza Azul
Gz: Garzon
CB: Coco Blanco
CP: Coco Prieto
GF: Guanaba de La Florida
GRI: Guanaba Real


Fig. 6. Ubicaci6n relativa y composici6n de especies de las colonias existentes en
1999. Las flechas indican los posibles movimientos de parejas nidificantes.


lonia de cocos prietos y cocos blancos, ademis de
algunas garzas, a un lado de La Giiija, hacia el este,
ubicada sobre mangle prieto de mediana altura. Esta
colonia desapareci6 por un fuerte disturbio humano,
principalmente colecta de huevos y pichones para
consumo, antes de que pudiera ser estudiada. Este
fue el ultimo afio en que el Coco Prieto se reprodujo
significativamente en el area; en afios posteriores se
desplazaron hacia zonas mis interiores de la Cidna-
ga de Biramas.
En el siguiente afio (Fig. 6), desaparece la colonia
de cocos, posiblemente por un fuerte disturbio
humano a que se someti6 el afio anterior. Muchas de
las parejas de garzas aparentemente se trasladan con
los Cocos Blancos hacia una nueva colonia que sur-
ge en los Cayos de Juan Viejo, y al parecer otras se
mueven hacia la colonia de Cayo Norte que aumen-
ta su tamafio. Este afio la colonia de La Guija, de
Guanabaes, no es sincr6nica con las otras y los Co-
cos Prietos dejan de criar en el area para trasladarse


%del no. de
individuos
100% '1


a Garza Azul
O Garza de Rizos
* Garza Ganadera
* Garza de Vientre Blanco
O Coco Blanco


2000 2001


Fig. 7. Composici6n de especies en la colonia del Cayo
Juan Viejo


Page 40


al parecer hacia la laguna del Leonero, cerca de N
kil6metros al norte (Omar Labrada Vega, Empresa
para la protecci6n de la Flora y la Fauna, Unidad
"Delta del Cauto"; com. pers.).
La colonia de Juan Viejo, es estructuralmente si-
milar a la de Cayo Norte por las caracteristicas del
cayo y la ubicaci6n de los nidos, con la diferencia
de que el nicleo mis denso de nidificaci6n no se
encontr6 alrededor de la laguna interior del cayo
sino en un estero que lo atravieza tangencialmente.
Su tamafio y composici6n exacta en este primer afio
no pudo ser estimado por dificultades logisticas,
pero de forma general en este primer afio dominaron
los cocos blancos, ademis de garzas (Ganadera, de
Rizos y de Vientre Blanco) (Fig. 7). Ademis, se
encontraron en otras especies acompafiantes: nume-
rosas marbellas, una pareja de Garza Rojiza y en el
2001 varios nidos de Guanaba Real (Nyctanassa
violacea). La aparici6n de esta filtima especie como
reproductora en el area fue significativa y estuvo
estrechamente asociada a la colonizaci6n por can-
grejos Uca sp. que comenzaron a proliferar en las
lagunas someras de estos cayos. Ambas especies,
depredador y presa, pueden considerarse como indi-
cadores biol6gicos de la posible salinizaci6n de esta
laguna, fen6meno que viene produci6ndose en todo
el sistema deltaico del rio Cauto, producto del repre-
samiento de parte de su cauce.
En el afio 2000 (Fig. 8), la nidificaci6n de los
guanabaes en La Guija vuelve a aparecer en la mis-
ma fecha que el resto de las garzas, y en su colonia
tambidn crian numerosas parejas de Coco Blanco,
que disminuyen su numero en Juan Viejo, donde
aumenta la proporci6n de garzas.
La colonia de Cayo Norte disminuye notablemen-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1










DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


Juan Viejo


GR, GVB


Wish


\ *
La Giiija
GF, CB
Garza Rojiza
Cayo Norte
GG, GR, GVB,
GR (3 nidos) GAz, Gz
GRj (3 nidos)


GG: Garza Ganadera
GR: Garza de Rizos
GVB: Garza de Vientre Blanco
GRj: Garza Rojiza
GA: Garza Azul
Gz: Garzon
CB: Coco Blanco
CP: Coco Prieto
GF: Guanaba de La Florida
GRI: Guanaba Real


Fig. 8. Ubicaci6n relativa y composici6n de especies de las colonias existentes en el
2000. Las flechas indican los posibles movimientos de parejas nidificantes.


te su tamafio, posiblemente por movimiento de sus
parejas hacia Juan Viejo, y aparecen por primera
vez en ella 3 nidos de Garza Rojiza.
En el afio 2001 (Fig. 9) la colonia de Cayo Norte
tiene el minimo de reproductores de toda la etapa
por un fuerte disturbio humano dado por la cons-
trucci6n de una estaci6n a un lado del cayo en el
inicio de la cria. Esto provoc6 que muchas parejas
abandonaran el Cayo y se trasladaran hacia una nue-
va colonia que surge al final de los esteros de la
Guija, que alcanza gran tamafio al recibir tambidn a
gran parte de las parejas de Juan Viejo, que perma-
neci6 activa pero con una disminuci6n fuerte en su
tamafio. Todos los cocos blancos abandonan Juan
Viejo y nidifican en La Guija.
Esta nueva colonia, denominada Wiso, se encon-
tr6 al fondo de los esteros de La Giiija, entre esta
localidad y Juan Viejo, y fue estimada en mis de 10
mil parejas. Su aparici6n y dinimica tuvo un com-
portamiento peculiar por una serie de condiciones
particulares que se dieron este afio. Estuvo com-
puesta principalmente por garzas y algunos cocos
blancos y guanabaes (Fig. 10), y se nutri6 al parecer
de los individuos que abandonaron Cayo Norte du-


rante el inicio de la etapa reproductiva.
Asi, dentro de la dinimica de reclutamiento de
esta colonia se produjeron tres fases independientes
bien marcadas y espacialmente delimitadas (Fig.
11). La etapa inicial (fase A) fue sincr6nica con el
momento de disminuci6n en el reclutamiento inicial
en Cayo Norte, cuando cerca del 80% de las parejas
deesta colonia ya se habian establecido. Al estar
ocupados la mayoria de los sitios 6ptimos en Cayo
Norte, las nuevas parejas que llegaron se desplaza-
ban a la nueva colonia. Los primero nidos en esta se
ubicaron en una franja de mangle alto que bordeaba
la porci6n final de un estero del sistema de La Giii-
ja. La segunda etapa (B) fue producida probable-
mente por individuos que abandonaron Cayo Norte
y que colonizaron una laguna somera al sur del ni-
cleo inicial. Esto coincidi6 temporalmente con el
cese del reclutamiento en aquella colonia, posible-
mente afectada por el disturbio producido por el
inicio de la construcci6n de una estaci6n en el cayo.
El ruido de la construcci6n y la actividad de los tra-
bajadores, posiblemente alej6 a las nuevas parejas
hacia areas con menos disturbio. Y finalmente, en la
dinimica de la colonia apareci6 una filtima etapa


Juan Viejo


CB, GG, \
GR, GVB, GRJ1


U .
La Giiija
GF, CB


6C Cayo Norte
GG, GR, GVB,
GAz, Gz
GRj (3 nidos)


GG: Garza Ganadera
GR: Garza de Rizos
GVB: Garza de Vientre Blanco
GRj: Garza Rojiza
GA: Garza Azul
Gz: Garzon
CB: Coco Blanco
CP: Coco Prieto
GF: Guanaba de La Florida
GRl: Guanaba Real


Fig. 9. Ubicaci6n relativa y composici6n de especies de las colonias existentes
en el 2001. Las flechas indican los posibles movimientos de parejas nidificantes.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 41











DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


GF
GAz -,


24/ GG: Garza Ganadera
GR: Garza de Rizos
GVB: Garza de Vientre Blanco
GRj: Garza Rojiza
GAz: Garza Azul
CB: Coco Blanco
GF: Guanaba de La Florida
GG
55%


Fig. 10. Composici6n de especies de la colonia de Wiso, ci6naga de
Biramas, afio 2001.



-*-Cayn Norte --- Wiso 4
'7

V Fase B Fase C


/ Fase A
,


Abril Mayo Junio Julio
(S-4) (S-1) (S-2) (S-3) (S-4) (S-1) (S-2) (S-3) (S-4) (S-1) (S-2) (S-3) (S-4)
Semana

Fig. 11. Comparaci6n de las dinamicas de formaci6n de las colonias de Cayo Norte y Wiso
en el afio 2001. Se sefialan las etapas de la colonia de Wiso.


Juan Viejo

GG, GR, GVB, is
(GR



La Giiija
GF, CB
S Cayo Norte
GG, GR, GVB,
tGRj (19 nidos) AG
tGRI(60 nidos)


GG: Garza Ganadera
GR: Garza de Rizos
GVB: Garza de Vientre Blanco
GRj: Garza Rojiza
GA: Garza Azul
Gz: Garzon
CB: Coco Blanco
CP: Coco Prieto
GF: Guanaba de La Florida
GRI: Guanaba Real


Fig. 12. Ubicaci6n relativa y composici6n de especies de las colonias
existentes en el 2002. Las flechas indican los posibles movimientos de
parejas nidificantes.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


S Bo
:E 80
70

5Q
E 40
A 30
S20
Qi


Page 42









DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


I

Colonias
f "satelites"






Colonia "fuente"

Fig. 13. Representaci6n esquematica de las relaciones
posibles establecidas entre las colonias de garzas estudia-
das en la laguna Las Playas, durante 1998-2002. JV =
Juan Viejo, W = Wiso, G = La Guija, CN = Cayo Norte.


tardia (C) formada por centenares de garzas ganade-
rs que comenzaron a criar a principio de agosto y
que extendieron la colonia por el borde del estero
hasta fundirla con la de La Giiija, que en este mo-
mento se encontraba en su etapa media, es decir,
con pichones chicos a medianos.
Por primera vez aparecen nidos de Guanaba Real
en el area, especificamente en juan Viejo. Indivi-
duos adultos se veian merodeando esporidicamente
en los afios anteriores. Tambidn aumenta a seis el
nfumero de parejas de Garza Rojiza en Cayo Norte.
El afio 2002 (Fig. 12), mostr6 otros cambios dris-
ticos en el sistema de poblaciones reproductivas.
Las colonias de Juan Viejo y Wiso desaparecieron
totalmente y todas las garzas se concentraron en
Cayo Norte que alcanz6 el maximo tamafio de la
etapa monitoreada. El nfmero de Guanaba de la
Florida en la colonia de La Guija aument6 fuerte-
mente, extendiendose esta hacia el norte, casi hasta
alcanzar el gran estero de Juan Viejo.
El nfmero de cocos blancos entre todas las colo-
nias se reduce notablemente, lo que hace suponer
que se esten trasladando hacia algin sitio fuera del
area de estudio, como sucedi6 con los cocos prietos
el primero afio. En Cayo Norte, aument6 de forma
importante el nfimero de parejas de Garza Rojiza,
llegando a 19 parejas, y el borde sur del cayo fue
sitio de cria de 60 parejas de Guanaba Real, que
aparentemente se ha establecido bien en el area.
Cuando se representan simultineamente los pro-
bables movimientos de parejas nidificantes que ge-
neraron estos cambios en las colonias se obtiene un
esquema tipico de un sistema metapoblacional de
tipo III, de interacciones complejas (Fig. 13). En


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


este se puede identificar la colonia de cayo Norte
como la fuente y a las demis colonias como satdli-
tes con intercambio no s61o con la fuente entre ellos
sino tambidn entre ellos. Algunos de los cambios
observados pueden deberse a influencias de otras
colonias regionales mis alejadas, ya que el radio de
utilizaci6n del habitat alrededor de las colonias de
garzas puede extenderse hasta los 12-15 kil6metros,
aunque es l6gico suponer que su efecto sea menor.
Las medidas de conservaci6n de este grupo de
aves coloniales deben incluir protecci6n, manipula-
ci6n activa y restauraci6n de los sitios de nidifica-
ci6n, alimentaci6n, de descanso y de invemada, pa-
ra lo cual se requieren estudios detallados sitio-
especificos. Por esta raz6n la dinimica metapobla-
cional evidenciada en este trabajo es muy importan-
te que sea tenida en cuenta en todos los planes de
manejo locales. En relaci6n con ella, las medidas
recomendables son:
* Incluir en el monitoreo anual todos los sitios don-
de se ha detectado en algun momento la cria y
anualmente recorrer el area para detectar poten-
ciales nuevos sitios de colonias satdlites.
* Monitorear el estado de la vegetaci6n en todos los
sitios de nidificaci6n para determinar la necesidad
de trabajos de restauraci6n ecol6gica o recupera-
ci6n. Ante la degradaci6n fuerte de la vegetaci6n
se puede intentar el manejo activo del nfmero de
nidificantes activos en las colonias aprovechando
el comportamiento metapoblacional descrito. Para
ello se pueden emplear nidos artificiales y sefiue-
los blancos para atraer nidificantes en las colonias
satelites al inicio del reclutamiento de parejas, a
la vez que se efectua un disturbio bien controlado
en el sitio afectado para promover la traslocaci6n
de las parejas nidificantes. Este tipo de manejo
activo ha sido realizado con 6xito por Hafner
(1982) y Fasola y Alieri (1992) en Italia, aunque
requiere de cuidado para no afectar la reproduc-
ci6n irreversiblemente. Ante la degradaci6n ex-
tensiva de la vegetaci6n en alguno de los sitios
tambien puede inducirse artificialmente la utiliza-
ci6n de otros utilizando sefnuelos, posibilidad que
ha sido demostrada por Parnell y Soots (1978).
Como sitios posibles adicionales se recomiendan
el cayo La Garnacha, adyacente a Cayo Norte, y
los otros dos Cayos de Juan Viejo que no son em-
pleados para nidificar.
* La identificaci6n de la colonia fuente en el siste-
ma metapoblacional regional permite enfocar las
medidas de conservaci6n y protecci6n en el sitio
mis vulnerable. Por esta raz6n debe limitarse la
utilizaci6n de los sitios de nidificaci6n con fines


Page 43









DENIS AVILA-DINAMICA METAPOBLACIONAL EN LAS COLONIAS DE GARZAS EN CUBA


ecoturisticos o de educaci6n ambiental a las colo-
nias satdlites y siempre manteniendo la distancia
tamp6n recomendada en la literatura, que para el
caso de las garzas es de 100 m como promedio.
* Monitorear exhaustivamente las parejas de Garza
Rojiza y Guanaba Real en el area.
* Realizar estudios de anillamiento de pichones em-
pleando anillos de colores diferentes en cada co-
lonia, para determinar con mayor exactitud los
movimientos intercolonias, asi como las areas
vitales de forrajeo de cada nficleo poblacional.


LITERATURE CITED
BANCROFT, G. T.; A. M. STRONG; R. J. SAWICKI;
W. HOFFMAN Y S. D. JEWELL. 1994. Relationship
among wading bird foraging patterns, colony loca-
tions and hydrology in the everglades. Pp. 615-
657 in: Everglades: the ecosystem and its restora-
tion. Davis, S. and J. Ogden (Eds.). Delray Beach,
FL: St. Lucie Press.
BLEICH, V. C.; J. D. WEHAUSEN Y S. A. HOLL.
1990. Desert-dwelling mountain sheep: conserva-
tion implications of a naturally fragmented distri-
bution. Conserv. Biol. 4:383-389.
BYRD, M. A. 1978. Dispersal and movement of six
North American ciconiiforms. National Audubon
Society Research Report 7: 161-185.
DENIS, D. 2002. Ecologia reproductiva de siete es-
pecies de garzas (Aves: Ardeidae) en la Cidnaga
de Biramas, Cuba. Tesis para el titulo de Doctor
en Ciencias Biol6gicas. Universidad de La Haba-
na, Cuba.
DENIS, D., P. RODRIGUEZ, A. RODRIGUEZ Y L. TO-
RRELLA. 2001. Ecologia reproductiva de tres espe-
cies de garzas (Aves: Ardeidae) en la Cidnaga de
Birams, Cuba. Biologia 15: 27-36.
FASOLA, M. Y R. ALIERI. 1992. Nest site character-
istics in relation to body size in herons in Italy.
Colonial Waterbirds 15:185-191.


FREDERICK, P. C.; K. L. BILDSTEIN, B. FLEURY,
AND J. ODGEN. 1996. Conservation of large, no-
madic populations of White Ibises (Eudocimus
albus) in the United States. Conserv. Biol.
10:203-216.
HAFNER, H. 1982. Creation of a breeding site for
tree-nesting herons in the Camargue, France. Pp.
216-220 in Managing wetlands and their birds -
A manual of wetland and waterfowl management
(Scott, D. A., Ed.). IWRB Slimbridge, UK
HANCOCK, J. A., Y J. A. KUSHLAN. 1984. The heron
handbook. NY: Harper and Row.
HANSKI, I. Y D. SYMBERLOFF. 1997. The metapopu-
lation approach, its history, conceptual domain
and applications to conservation. Pp: 5-26 in Me-
tapopulation biology (Hanski, I. y D. Symberloff,
Compilers). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
HANSKI, I.; A. MOILANEN Y M. GYLLENBERG.
1996. Minimun viable metapopulation size. Am.
Nat. 147: 527-541.
MCCULLOGHT,, D. R. 1996. Metapopulation and
wildlife conservation. Washington DC: Island
Press.
MORALES, G. Y J. PACHECO. 1986. Effects of diking
of a venezuelan savanna on avian habitat, on spe-
cies diversity, energy flow, and mineral flow
through wading birds. Colonial Waterbirds 9:236-
242.
PALMER, R. S. 1962. Handbook of North American
birds.1: loons through flamingos. New Haven,
CT: Yale Univ. Press.
SIEGUEL-CAUSEY, D. Y S. P. KHARITONOV. 1990.
The evolution of coloniality. Current Ornithology
7:285-330.
TELFAIR, R. C. 1987. The Cattle Egret: a Texas fo-
cus and world view. Texas Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, College Klenberg. Studies in Natu-
ral Resources.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 44












REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUSIBIS)
EN LA CIENAGA DE BIRAMAS, CUBA


DENNIS DENIS1, ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ, PATRICIA RODRIGUEZ Y ARIAM JIMENEZ
Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de La Habana, Calle 25 e/J e I, Vedado, Ciudad de
La Habana CP 10900, Cuba; 1e-mail: da@fbio.uh.cu



Resumen.-La Garza Ganadera (Bubulcus ibis) es una especie de particular interest por su asociaci6n a agroecosis-
temas que la hace potencialmente importante como controlador biol6gico. El presente trabajo brinda algunos de sus
parametros reproductivos en la ci6naga de Biramas, Granma, Cuba, durante la estaci6n de cria de 1999. Se localiza-
ron y marcaron 176 nidos de esta especie en la colonia de Cayo Norte, los cuales fueron medidos y visitados diaria-
mente durante dos semanas para evaluar la mortalidad y el 6xito reproductivo. Los nidos se ubicaron a 1.4 0.3 m de
altura y tuvieron un diametro de 28.6 5.4 cm. El tamafio de la nidada fue de 2.08 huevos, cuyo diametro mayor fue
de 45.73 2.4 mm y diametro menor de 32.13 1.6 mm. No se detectaron diferencias estadisticas entre los huevos
en relaci6n con el orden de puesta. El intervalo entre puestas fue de 1.8 dias, siendo la eclosi6n simultanea o en dias
consecutivos en el 36.8% de los casos. El 95% de los nidos perdi6 algun huevo durante la incubaci6n y el 12% fue
totalmente destruido antes de eclosionar, obteni6ndose una probabilidad del 24.4% de que un nido iniciado llegue a
producir al menos un pich6n de 14 dias de edad. El efecto del disturbio se expres6 en una disminuci6n de un 8.9% en
la probabilidad de 6xito de los nidos, pero la diferencia no present significaci6n estadistica. Tanto el peso corporal
como el tarso y la longitud del pico siguieron un comportamiento sigmoideo, caracterizado por una ecuaci6n polino-
mial de tercer orden, ademas se brindan las regresiones lineales para predecir la edad de los pichones.
Palabras clave: Bubulcus ibis, colonias, Garza Ganadera, reproducci6n
Abstract.-The Cattle Egret (Bubulcus ibis) is an interesting species because it associates with agroecosystems,
giving them potential value as biological controllers of pests. Here we report some reproductive parameters of the
egret in the Ci6naga de Biramas, Granma province, Cuba, during the breeding season of 1999. A total of 176 nests
was located and labeled in the Cayo Norte colony. The nests were measured and monitored for two weeks to deter-
mine mortality and reproductive success. Nests were at a mean height of 1.4 0.3 m and averaged 28.6 5.4 cm in
diameter. Clutch size averaged 2.08 eggs, with eggs averaging 45.73 2.4 mm by 32.13 1.6 mm. No statistical
differences were found between eggs in relation to laying order. Time between laying of sequential eggs was 1.8
days, with 36.8% being laid on the same day or the next day. Ninety-five percent of nests lost some egg during incu-
bation and 12% of nests were destroyed before hatching, resulting in a probability of 24.4% that an initiated nest pro-
duce at least one nestling of 14 days old. Researcher disturbance was responsible for an 8.9% reduction in the prob-
ability of nest success, but this was not statistically significant. Weight and lengths of tarsus and bill exhibited sig-
moidal growth curves best described by a third-order polynomial equation, which we present along with the lineal
regressions.


INTRODUCCION
Los PARAMETROS REPRODUCTIVOS de las aves
acuiticas y particularmente de las zancudas o va-
deadoras, son utilizados cada vez mis como indica-
dores biol6gicos de la salud de los humedales
(Custer y Osborne 1977, Parnell et al. 1988, Kush-
lan 1993). Por su sensibilidad al disturbio, a los
cambios hidrol6gicos y por la bioacumulaci6n de
contaminantes, algunos aspectos de la ecologia re-
productiva de estas especies son empleados para el
anhlisis del nivel de antropizaci6n de estos ecosiste-
mas. Entre estos tenemos la cronologia de la puesta,
el tamafio de la nidada, la composici6n de los hue-
vos y la supervivencia de los huevos o pichones.
Los aspectos relacionados con la reproducci6n tam-
bidn son elementos muy importantes en la regula-


Joumal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


ci6n poblacional de estas especies de aves (Butler
1994) cuyo importante papel en los humedales ha
sido reconocido reiteradamente (Morales et al.
1981; Morales y Pacheco 1986; Frederick y Powell
1994).
La Garza Ganadera (Bubulcus ibis) es un especie
de reciente arribo al continente americano, y ha su-
frido dinimicas transformaciones demogrdficas en
el filtimo siglo, que han conducido a la colonizaci6n
del continente. Esto ha sido bien documentado por
muchos autores como Telfair (1980, 1984, 1993,
1994), Arendt (1988), Fleury y Sherry (1995), entre
otros.
En Cuba se observ6 por primera vez en la d6cada
de 1950 (Garrido y Garcia Montafia 1980), pero su
reproducci6n no se detect6 hasta 1958 (Smith


Page 45









DENISETAL.-REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUSIBIS ) EN CUBA


1958). Luego de una perfecta aclimataci6n a nues-
tras condiciones ecol6gicas y de un acelerado incre-
mento en sus poblaciones se ha convertido en una
de las especies mis abundantes e importantes eco-
n6micamente por su asociaci6n a los agroecosiste-
mas (Martin et al. 1967).
Su ecologia tr6fica, de particular interns practico-
econ6mico, ha sido reiteradamente estudiada
(Torres et al. 1985; Acosta et al. 1990a,b), asi como
aspectos de su morfometria (Mugica et al. 1987).
Sin embargo, hasta el momento no existen investi-
gaciones acerca de su reproducci6n. S61o son men-
cionadas dos colonias en la provincia de La Habana
por Balat y Gonzalez (1982), sin existir mis infor-
maci6n que las medidas de dos huevos depositados
en las colecciones del antiguo Instituto de Zoologia,
actual Instituto de Ecologia y Sistemitica, prove-
nientes de Villa Clara (Vald6s 1984).
El periodo de cria en nuestro territorio se extiende
desde mayo hasta finales de octubre (Raffaele et al.
1998, Denis et al. 1999a), y las colonias reproducti-
vas parecen distribuirse a lo largo de todo el pais,
incluyendo la Isla de la Juventud.
Dada la ausencia de informaci6n en este sentido
en el presente trabajo nos proponemos brindar los
primeros datos sobre algunos parametros reproduc-
tivos de esta especie en la ci6naga de Biramas, Pro-
vincia Granma, Cuba, como son la morfometria de
nidos y huevos, descripci6n del sitio de nidificaci6n,
crecimiento de los pichones y 6xito reproductivo
durante la estaci6n de cria de 1999.

MATERIALES Y METODOS
El trabajo se realiz6 durante los meses de julio y
agosto de 1999 en la colonia reproductiva de garzas
de Cayo Norte, Laguna Las Playas, en el Area Pro-
tegida "Delta del Cauto," provincia Granma
(Lat.20032'60", Long.77001'030") que incluye la
mayor parte de la Cidnaga de Biramas. Las caracte-
risticas del area son dadas por Denis et al. (1999b).
Se localizaron y marcaron 176 nidos de esta espe-
cie, a 115 de los cuales se le midi6 la altura sobre el
suelo asi como su dihmetro.
Los nidos fueron visitados diariamente durante 1
o 2 semanas, registrindose los cambios en su conte-
nido para determinar el orden e intervalo de puesta
y/o eclosi6n de los huevos, evaluar la mortalidad de
huevos y pichones y determinar el 6xito reproducti-
vo segfin el m6todo de Mayfield (1961). Las visitas
se realizaron de 08:00 a 11:00 y de 16:00 a 18:00 h
para evitar el estr6s t6rmico a los pichones por inso-
laci6n y no alterar demasiado los patrones de ali-


Page 46


mentaci6n. Ademis la colonia s6lo se visit6 con
buenas condiciones meteorol6gicas y nunca mien-
tras llovia o habia viento fuerte, par no introducir
factores de mortalidad adicionales.
El periodo de incubaci6n de la especie se encuen-
tra entre 21-26 dias, y los valores difieren entre au-
tores, e.g., 26 dias (Skead 1966), 22-26 dias (Jenni
1969, Hancock y Kushlan 1984), 23 dias
(Summerour 1971), 24 dias (Weber 1975). Por esta
raz6n para el calculo de la Probabilidad de Supervi-
vencia Diaria (PSD) propuesta por Mayfield (1961)
se asumi6 conservadoramente 22 dias (minimo) pa-
ra evitar el riesgo de incrementar artificialmente la
supervivencia.
Los huevos fueron marcados, y se les midi6 el
diametro mayor y menor con un pie de rey de 0.05
mm de precisi6n, y se calcul6 el volumen segfin la
ecuaci6n de Hoyt (1979). Los huevos se considera-
ban inf6rtiles si permanecian como minimo mis de
5 dias en el nido luego de la eclosi6n del pich6n an-
terior o si se presentaban variaciones en el color o
peso especifico. Todos los huevos que no eclosiona-
ban se abrieron para detectar algun signo de desa-
rrollo embrionario y asi dilucidar si la causa de
muerte fue la infertilidad o la muerte embrionaria.
El orden de puesta se determin6 por observaci6n
directa o por el orden de eclosi6n (Custer y Frede-
rick 1990). En 30 nidos se registr6 el intervalo entre
la puesta o la eclosi6n de los huevos, ambos datos
se unieron y se refieren como grado de asincronia
en la eclosi6n.
Los nidos que de un dia a otro aparecian desman-
telados, con los huevos rotos en el piso o perdidos,
y/o los pichones pequefios muertos o desaparecidos
se anotaron como depredados. Estos se diferencia-
ron marcadamente de las muertes por exclusi6n
competitiva entre hermanos, la cual se detect6 por el
debilitamiento gradual de uno de los pichones hasta
su muerte.
Par determinar el tamafio de puesta se tomaron
aquellos nidos en los cuales el nfimero de huevos no
vari6 por mis de 4 dias, dando asi un margen de
error para posibles puestas tardias, ya que el interva-
lo entre las puestas de cada huevo en la especie se
ha reportado alrededor de los dos dias (Telfair
1984).
Los nidos que fueron diariamente chequeados se
dividieron en dos grupos. Un primer grupo de 131
estuvo sometido a un disturbio adicional al realizar-
se en ellos las medidas morfom6tricas de los picho-
nes que implicaba manipulaci6n de estos y mayor
tiempo de permanencia en el area. Para evaluar el



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1










DENISETAL.-REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUS IBIS ) EN CUBA


1 huevo
20.7%


2 huevos
k 52.9%


4 huevos
2.5%


Fig. 1. Frecuencia de aparici6n de nidadas de 1,
2, 3 o 4 huevos en los nidos de Garza Ganadera
de la colonia de Cayo Norte, Cuba, en julio-
agosto de 1999 (n = 176 nidos).


efecto de este disturbio se tom6 un segundo grupo
de 45 nidos como control, localizados en un area
aparte de la colonia con las mismas condiciones,
pero que s6lo se visit6 para el monitoreo.
El crecimiento de los pichones se evalu6 midien-
do en dias alternos el peso corporal con una balanza
de campo de 1 g de precisi6n y las longitudes del
pico y del tarso con un pie de rey (0.05 mm de pre-
cisi6n). Los datos de crecimiento se normalizaron
por una transformaci6n logaritmica para realizar las
pruebas de significaci6n de las regresiones (nivel de
significaci6n 0.05). Se calcularon las ecuaciones de
regresi6n que mejor describian matemiticamente las
curvas de crecimiento que fueron polinomios de


segundo orden, pero con fines predictivos practicos
se realizaron regresiones lineales con los datos ori-
ginales ya que el empleo de logaritmos complejiza
su uso en condiciones de campo, que es donde son
mis empleadas. En cada variable se determinaron
los promedios y limites de confianza del 95% y
99% para los residuales de la regresi6n que se em-
plearon como medida del error que se comete du-
rante las predicciones.
Par el tratamiento estadistico se utiliz6 el progra-
ma Statistica 5.0 (StatSoft, Inc., 1995).

RESULTADOS
Caracteristicas de los Nidos y Sitios de Nidificacion
Los nidos medidos en Cayo Norte se concentra-
ron en el nficleo de la colonia para evitar el efecto
de borde, y en este lugar la vegetaci6n tenia poco
desarrollo.
Los 115 nidos medidos de esta especie en la colo-
nia de Cayo Norte se ubicaron a 1.4 0.34 m (R =
0.3-2.0 m) de altura. Este valor subestima la altura
promedio real debido a la imposibilidad de medir
nidos mis altos, que se ubican en las areas perif6ri-
cas de la colonia.
Los nidos tuvieron un dihmetro promedio de 28.6
+ 5.35 cm y no se encontraron diferencias significa-
tivas en los tamafios de los nidos en relaci6n con su
contenido. La altura de los nidos con pichones tam-
poco diferia significativamente de los nidos con
huevos, ni entre estos segin el tamafio de la nidada.


Tabla 1. Estadisticos de posici6n y dispersion de las medidas de los huevos de la Garza Ganadera en la Ci6naga de
Biramas, segun el orden de puesta (A: ler huevo, B: 2do huevo, C: 3er huevo y D: 4to huevo).


Orden de
puesta


Variable


Diametro mayor (mm)



Total
Diametro menor (mm)



Total
Volumen (cm3)


N Media Minimo Maximo D.S.


45.28
45.53
44.64
43.60
45.73
31.52
32.42
31.56
32.45
32.13
23.05
24.43
22.68
23.44
24.11


Total


33.10
42.70
36.30
41.30
33.10
24.40
30.00
29.50
31.70
24.40
10.03
20.62
18.57
21.13
10.03


51.20
49.20
47.70
45.90
51.30
34.30
39.20
33.00
33.20
39.70
27.90
34.57
25.96
22.75
39.79


2.83
1.73
2.92
3.25
2.409
1.80
1.77
0.99
1.06
1.570
3.162
3.004
2.285
3.272
2.934


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


C.V.

6.25
3.80
6.54
7.45
5.27
5.71
5.46
3.14
3.27
4.89
13.72
12.29
10.08
13.96
12.17


Page 47









DENISETAL.-REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUSIBIS ) EN CUBA


Muerte enbrionaria
Exitosos
4%
Infertiles 63%
11%



Rotos o
perdidos
22%

Fig. 2. Causas de mortalidad entre los huevos de Gar-
za Ganadera en la colonia de Cayo Norte (n = 238
huevos), Cuba, enjulio-agosto de 1999.

En Cayo Norte los nidos fueron construidos casi
en su totalidad por ramas de mangle prieto, que es el
arbol dominante en el area. El material de construc-
ci6n parece ser limitante ya que los nidos abandona-
dos y/o depredados eran desmantelados muy ripida-
mente y eran frecuentes los hurtos de ramas de los
nidos aun activos, lo que causaba numerosas peleas.

Tamaio de Puesta
El tamafio de la nidada para 121 nidos fue de 2.08
+ 0.73 huevos (R = 1-4), siendo el de dos huevos el
estado mis frecuente. El 20.7% de los nidos presen-
t6 solamente 1 huevo, mientras que solo el 2.5%
tuvo cuatro huevos (Fig. 1).
El valor promedio del diametro mayor de los hue-
vos fue de 45.7 2.4 mm (R = 33.1-51.3), mientras
que para el diametro menor fue de 32.1 + 1.6 mm
(R = 24.4-39.7). El volumen promedio en los hue-
vos fue de 24.1 2.9 cm3 (R = 10.0-39.8) (Tabla
1). No se detectaron diferencias estadisticamente
significativas entre los huevos en relaci6n con el
orden de puesta, aunque aparece el mismo patr6n de
variaci6n reportado por Telfair (1980): el diametro
mayor varia mas que el menor, y aunque los dos
primeros huevos son mis alargados, el primero es
ligeramente mis estrecho y por lo tanto tiene un me-
nor volumen.

Intervalo de Puesta y/o Eclosi6n
En las especies con asincronia en la puesta, que
comienzan la incubaci6n desde el primer huevo, la
eclosi6n ocurre con los mismos intervalos que la
puesta y puede ser empleada para predecir el orden
de puesta entre estos (Custer y Frederick 1990). En-
tre los dos primeros huevos de los nidos el intervalo
promedio fue de 1.8 dias, siendo la eclosi6n simul-
tinea o en dias consecutivos en el 36.8% de los ca-
sos, y con un dia de por medio en el restante 63.2%.


Page 48


Entre los demis huevos: segundo tercero y terce-
ro-cuarto, el intervalo promedio entre las eclosiones
fue de 1.74 1.03 dias, siendo simultinea o en dias
consecutivos en el 91% de los casos. La prueba de
la Probabilidad Exacta de Fisher, empleada para
conocer si existia relaci6n o dependencia entre el
intervalo de puesta (asincronias de hasta un dia o
mayor de un dia) y el orden de puesta detect6 una
asociaci6n significativa, lo que comprueba que la
asincronia en la eclosi6n disminuye entre los huevos
finales.

Seguimiento de los Nidos: Exito Reproducti-
vo y Supervivencia
En general, de 95 nidos con huevos el 9.5% per-
di6 algin huevo durante la incubaci6n, mientras que
el 12% fue totalmente destruido antes de eclosionar.
El mayor porcentaje de p6rdida entre los huevos
marcados (n = 102) correspondi6 a los rotos, depre-
dados o perdidos por causas desconocidas (22%),
alrededor del 11% fueron inf6rtiles y una pequefia
proporci6n (4%) tuvo muerte embrionaria o muri6
durante la eclosi6n, siendo la causa mis probable el
estr6s t6rmico (Fig. 2).
El 6xito durante la eclosi6n, calculado como la
raz6n del nnimero promedio de pichones por nido
entre el tamafio promedio de puesta, fue de un
88.4%. Este m6todo presenta numerosos sesgos
(Klett y Johnson 1982), por lo que se procedi6 a
calcular la probabilidad de supervivencia diaria
(PSD) de Mayfield (1961). Luego de la eclosi6n el
26.2% de los pichones (n = 103 pichones) muri6 o
desapareci6 del nido, siendo la PSD en este periodo
del 96.2%. A lo largo de todo el periodo reproducti-
vo (Puesta-Incubaci6n-Pichones hasta los 14 dias
de edad), estos valores dan una probabilidad del
24.4% de que un nido iniciado llegue a producir al
menos un pich6n de 14 dias de edad.


Crecimiento de los Pichones
Las medidas de los pichones durante los primeros
11 dias de edad se presentan en la tabla 2. Tanto el
peso corporal como el tarso y la longitud del pico
siguieron un comportamiento sigmoideo, caracteri-
zado por una ecuaci6n polinomial de tercer orden
(Fig. 3).
Por esta raz6n, con fines pricticos, asumimos un
comportamiento lineal en el crecimiento de estos
primeros dias en los pichones y hallamos la ecua-
ci6n de regresi6n lineal como plantean Custer y Pe-
terson (1991) (Tabla 3). En todos los casos la ecua-
ci6n de la recta obtenida explica mis del 80% de la


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1











DENISETAL.-REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUS IBIS ) EN CUBA


S,8 Y -0.223X3+ 4.652X2 10.72X+ 30.29
R80= 0.991
160-
40

S120-











0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13



30.0

Y -0.0138X3 +0.273X2 +12.343 ei^,*^""r
80-

60 25.0-















20.0-
15.0-











10.0-
5.0-













0.0 I I I I I
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
30.0











Y= -0.0211X3+ 0.432X2 +.316X17.34
R2= 0.996
























^ 40

-3 35
25.0--


20.0















15.0

10.0

5.0-
0.0 I I I












0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
50




















Edad
Fig. Curves de crecimiento del peso corporal, la longitude del pico y del tarso en17.34












pichones de Garza Ganadera hasta los 14 dias de edad. Se muestra la ecuacion po-
linomica de 3er orden representada por la linea continua, y el coeficiente de deter-
0aci.97n.
30-

r.25-*
c 20-

15-

10o-

5-

0-
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Edad


Fig. 3. Curvas de crecimiento del peso corporal, la longitud del pico y del tarso en
pichones de Garza Ganadera hasta los 14 dias de edad. Se muestra la ecuaci6n po-
lin6mica de 3er orden representada por la linea continua, y el coeficiente de deter-
minacion.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 49









DENISETAL.-REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUS IBIS ) EN CUBA


Tabla 2. Medidas morfometricas de los pichones de Garza Ganadera hasta los 11 dias de
edad, en la colonia de Cayo Norte, Cuba, julio-agosto de 1999.

Longitud del Longitud del
Peso (g) Pico (mm) tarso (mm)

Edad (dias) N Media D.S Media D.S Media D.S

0* 21 20.0 4.48 12.4 1.00 18.2 1.67
1 4 27.9 6.25 13.8 2.07 19.0 0.69
2 12 42.0 22.19 14.7 2.20 22.9 3.35
3 5 47.1 10.05 16.8 3.52 22.6 1.26
4 9 62.5 13.68 18.0 1.72 27.4 3.38
5 2 77.5 10.61 19.4 2.05 30.1 3.68
6 7 102.3 29.32 21.8 2.77 33.7 4.11
7 2 137.5 53.03 23.2 2.76 38.7 3.54
8 3 116.7 16.07 24.8 3.40 36.7 3.11
9 2 167.5 38.89 27.6 2.62 45.0 5.16
10 1 130.0 28.4 44.0
11 1 165.0 29.4 48.8

*Dia de la eclosion


varianza de los datos.
Los residuales en las regresiones dan una indica-
ci6n de la confiabilidad de las predicciones que se
puedan realizar a partir de estas ecuaciones y del
posible error cometido. Las predicciones de la edad
a partir de estas ecuaciones tienen un error prome-
dio de alrededor de un dia para las tres variables
predictoras empleadas (Tabla 4). La ecuaci6n que
utiliza la longitud del tarso es la que predice mis
exactamente la edad, siendo el error a cometer entre
medio dia y un dia con una certeza del 99%.

DISCUSSION
La Garza Ganadera arriba a Amdrica a principios
del siglo XX, y comienza a interactuar con las espe-
cies nativas en las colonias ya establecidas. De estas


interacciones resultan muchas de las caracteristicas
reproductivas de la especie en el continente ameri-
cano (Telfair 1980, Arendt y Arendt 1988, Belzer y
Lombardi 1989). Como cada colonia tiene caracte-
risticas individuales particulares (tamafio, composi-
ci6n por especies, estructura fisica, plantas substra-
to) algunos parimetros reproductivos son muy va-
riables geogrfficamente. En la colonia de Cayo
Norte las especies dominantes eran la Garza Gana-
dera, la Garza de Vientre Blanco (Egretta tricolor)
y la Garza de Rizos (Egretta thula), aunque en me-
nor medida aparecian Garzas Azules (Egretta cae-
rulea), Garzones (Ardea alba) y Cocos Prietos
(Plegadisfalcinellus).
Muchos trabajos han demostrado que la diferen-


Tabla 3. Ecuaciones de regresi6n lineal obtenidas a partir de los datos de creci-
miento en pichones de Garza Ganadera. Se muestra el coeficiente de correlacion
(R) y el porciento de la varianza explicado por la regresi6n.


Ecuaci6n


Varianza
R explicada


Peso corporal
Longitud del pico
Longitud del tarso


Edad = 0.0616 x Peso 0.4906 0.904
Edad = 0.5498 x Long. Pico 6.2227 0.920
Edad = 0.3385 x Long. Tarso 5.5806 0.937


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Variable


81.63 %
84.63 %
87.83 %


Page 50









DENISETAL.-REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUSIBIS ) EN CUBA


Tabla 4. Analisis de los residuales de las regresiones lineales de las medidas corporales de los
pichones para determinar la edad en dias de los mismos.


Variable de la
regresi6n


Residuales (dias)

Maximo Minimo Promedio


Peso
Longitud del pico
Longitud del tarso


Limites de confianza


95%


0.96 0.76-1.17
0.92 0.750-1.10
0.81 0.64-0.97


ciaci6n espacio temporal en las colonias disminuye
la competencia por el sitio de nidificaci6n entre es-
pecies (Dusi 1966, Jenni 1969), de esta manera se
ha planteado que la Garza Ganadera puede comen-
zar a nidificar en momentos diferentes que las de-
mis especies (Telfair 1984, Hancock y Kushlan
1984) y en vegetaci6n mis alta que la Garza Azul,
la Garza de Rizos y la Garza de Vientre Blanco
(Jenni 1969, McCrimmon 1978, Burger 1978). Sin
embargo, la ubicaci6n de los nidos depende de mu-
chos factores entre los que pueden mencionarse la
altura de la vegetaci6n, el orden de arribo de las es-
pecies a la colonia asi como la competencia inter e
intraespecifica tipica de las zancudas (Palmer 1962,
Burger 1978, McCrimmon 1978), por lo cual no es
constante entre localidades aun cercanas. Los nidos
se ubicaron a una altura promedio menor a la repor-
tada por Jenni (1969) en la Florida, McCrimmon
(1978) en Carolina del Norte, Burger (1978) en
New Jersey, Jim6nez (1981) en M6xico, entre otros.
La utilizaci6n de ramas de mangle prieto para la
construcci6n de los nidos era de esperar, ya que a lo
largo de todo su rango de distribuci6n, los nidos de
Garza Ganadera se componen de materiales que re-
flejan la composici6n de la vegetaci6n del lugar
(Riddell 1944, Siegfried 1971, Summerour 1971,
Burger 1978). El material de construcci6n de los
nidos parece ser limitante ya que los nidos abando-
nados y/o depredados eran desmantelados muy ripi-
damente y eran frecuentes los hurtos de ramas de
los nidos aun activos, lo que causaba numerosas
peleas.
El tamafio de los nidos fue similar a lo reportado
por Telfair (1984) y por Harrison (1978). Aunque la
construcci6n del nido se estima dura entre 3 y 11
dias, en la mayoria de las garzas se ha descrito, y
fue observado, que el aporte de material nuevo al
nido continue durante toda la incubaci6n e incluso
cuando los pichones han nacido (Hancock y Kush-


Joumal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


lan 1984). Esto podria implicar un aumento de ta-
mafio del nido en relaci6n con su contenido, que sin
embargo no fue detectado. Por lo que esta adici6n
de material nuevo s6lo garantiza, al parecer, el man-
tenimiento y reposici6n del material perdido o hur-
tado, pero no produce incremento significativo en el
dihmetro de los nidos. El tamafio de los nidos se
encuentra dentro de los rangos dados para todo el
area de distribuci6n de la especie (Harrison 1978,
Telfair 1984), aunque es menor al valor dado por
Jim6nez (1981) en M6xico.
Diversos autores han sugerido que el tamafio de
puesta puede servir como un indicador de la produc-
tividad local de los ecosistemas (Ricklefs 1980), sin
embargo, este depende de muchos factores como el
ritmo de lluvias que influye en las poblaciones de
presas, de la experiencia previa de cria, del momen-
to de la estaci6n reproductiva en que se realice, en-
tre otros factores. Tambidn Jenni (1969) ha mencio-
nado una tendencia latitudinal en el tamafio de la
nidada de la especie, a lo cual tambidn puede deber-
se que el valor obtenido en Cayo Norte sea inferior
al reportado por Telfair (1980) en Texas (3.58
0.99 huevos) y Manry et al. (1976) en Carolina (2.9
1.07). De igual manera es inferior al tamafio de
puesta en Florida (Weber 1975), M6xico (Vazquez
1971) y Sudgfrica (Blaker 1969), que es alrededor
de 2.8 huevos. Manry (op cit)., sin embargo, men-
ciona la alta variabilidad de este parimetro entre
colonias.
La Garza Ganadera, como el resto de las garzas,
comienzan la incubaci6n con el primer huevo, lo
que conlleva a una asincronia en la eclosi6n, y en el
posterior desarrollo de los pichones (Fujioka 1985).
El significado biol6gico de este fen6meno parece
estar relacionado a una estrategia reduccionista fa-
cultativa en la nidada que depende de la jerarquia
entre los pichones como mecanismo proximal para
llevarse a cabo (Fujioka 1984, 1985). Segfin Blaker


Page 51


99%


0.69-1.24
0.69-1.60
0.59-1.02









DENISETAL.-REPRODUCCION DE LA GARZA GANADERA (BUBULCUSIBIS ) EN CUBA


(1969) y Jenni (1969) el intervalo entre la puesta de
los huevos es como promedio de 2.04 0.55 dias.
Maxwell y Kale (1977) por su parte mencionan un
periodo de 2.2 0.13 dias (n = 21), muy similar a lo
encontrado en nuestro trabajo.
La jerarquia entre los pichones lograda por la
asincronia de eclosi6n parece estar reforzada por
diferencias en el tamafio de los huevos al afectar
este la posterior supervivencia del pich6n
(Beissinger y Stolesson 1997). En nuestro trabajo
no se detectaron diferencias estadisticamente signi-
ficativas entre los huevos en relaci6n al orden de
puesta, en contraposici6n con lo encontrado para
otras especies de ard6idos (Custer y Frederick
1990).
Las medidas de exitos reproductivo son muy va-
riables geogrificamente. Durante la incubaci6n el
6xito de los nidos en Cayo Norte fue muy superior
al reportado por Telfair (1984), donde un porcentaje
cuatro veces mayor de nidos perdi6 alghin huevo.
Igualmente se diferencia de lo hallado por Parsons
(1995) en Delaware Bay donde el 65.4% de los ni-
dos sufri6 alguna p6rdida o fallo de huevo. Utilizan-
do la proporci6n de huevos perdidos o que fallaron
en la eclosion por otras causas Blaker (1969) obtuvo
una mortalidad del 34.5% en 61 huevos en Sudgfri-
ca. Sin embargo, Vazquez (1971) reporta para 1128
huevos solo un 0.53% de mortalidad en M6xico. En
la Florida Weber (1975) encuentra en 32 huevos
una mortalidad del 12.5%, similar a lo encontrado
en nuestro trabajo. Parsons (1995) encuentra en dos
colonias de Garza Ganadera, con 40 y 61 nidos y
tamafios de puesta promedio de 3.5 y 3.1 huevos
respectivamente, porcientos de eclosi6n de 55 y
58%. Toda esta alta variaci6n puede sugerir la alta
dependencia de estos parimetros de las condiciones
ecol6gicas locales como la calidad del habitat, el
sustrato de nidificaci6n, la ubicaci6n de las colo-
nias.
Las causas de disminuci6n del 6xito reproductivo
mis importantes detectadas en nuestro trabajo fue-
ron la ruptura de los huevos (por causas desconoci-
das e incluyendo las depredaciones), la infertilidad
de los huevos y las muertes embrionarias, igual a lo
planteado por Telfair (1984). En Cayo Norte se pre-
sent6 una incidencia mucho menor de muertes em-
brionarias que las reportadas por este autor (10.8 %
vs. 29.9%). Por otra parte apareci6 una proporci6n
mayor de huevos inf6rtiles (29.7% vs. 19.1%0) y una
proporci6n ligeramente inferior de huevos rotos o
depredados (50.9% vs. 59.5%). Parsons (1995)
hall6 en Pea Patch Island, un 30% de huevos inf6rti-
les, muy cercano a lo obtenido en Cayo Norte. En


Page 52


estos estudios la proporci6n de muertes embriona-
rias esta subestimada a favor de la infertilidad ya
que en esta filtima categoria estin incluidos tambidn
los embriones muertos en etapas muy tempranas del
desarrollo.
Es necesario tener en cuenta que nuestra investi-
gaci6n fue realizada durante dos meses de la esta-
ci6n reproductiva de 1999, por tanto mucha de la
variabilidad de los resultados puede deberse al corto
periodo de muestreo.
La Garza Ganadera es una especie semialtricial,
sus pichones nacen cubiertos de plum6n y con los
ojos abiertos, pero incapaces de moverse y sin con-
trol sobre la posici6n de la cabeza (Nice 1962). El
peso promedio al nacer encontrado en este trabajo
es similar a lo reportado para otros lugares: Weber
(1975) en 47 pichones reci6n eclosionados encuen-
tra un peso promedio de 20.0 g (minimo 16.1g,
maximo 25.8g). Telfair (1984) tambidn menciona
valores alrededor de los 20 g.
Los pichones mostraron un crecimiento sigmoi-
deo del peso, igual al reportado por Telfair (1984),
pero que se represent6 satisfactoriamente con una
ecuaci6n polinomial de tercer orden, y no de cuarto
orden como plantea este autor. Las curvas de creci-
miento de las tres variables morfom6tricas medidas
fueron diferentes, siendo el largo del pico la estruc-
tura de crecimiento mis lento.

LITERATURA CITADA
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1990a. Alimentaci6n de Bubulcus ibis ibis
(Linneo) (Aves: Ardeidae) en la provincia de
Pinar del Rio. Cien. Biol. 23:82-91.
ACOSTA, M.; L. MUGICA; Y P. MARTINEZ. 1990b.
Segregaci6n del subnicho tr6fico en seis especies
de ciconifornes cubanos. Cien. Biol. 23:68-81.
ARENDT, W. J. 1988. Range expansion of the Cattle
Egret (Bubulcus ibis) in the Caribbean Basin.
Colonial Waterbirds 11: 252-262.
ARENDT, W.J. Y ARENDT, A. I. 1988. Aspects of the
breeding biology of the Cattle Egret (Bubulcus
ibis) in Montserrat, West Indies, and its impact
on nest vegetation. Colonial Waterbirds 11:72-
84.
BALAT, F. Y H. GONZALEZ. 1982. Concrete data on
breeding Cuban birds, Acta Sci. Nat. Brno 16: 1-
46.
BEISSINGER, S. R. Y S. H. STOLESSON. 1997. Hatch-
ing asynchrony in birds. Tree 12: 112.
BELZER, W. R. AND J. R. LOMBARDI. 1989. Cattle


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Egret symbiosis and heronry abandonment. Co-
lonial Waterbirds 12: 115-117.
BLAKER, D. 1969. Behaviour of the Cattle Egret,
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BURGER, J. 1978. The patterns and mechanism of
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Winckler, Eds.). Research Report No. 7 of the
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Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 54












BIRD RECORDS IN A MONTANE FOREST FRAGMENT OF
WESTERN SIERRA DE NEIBA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


CHRISTOPHER C. RIMMER, JESUS ALMONTE M., ESTEBAN GARRIDO G.,
DANILO A. MEJIA, MARIA MILAGROS P., AND PAUL R. WIECZORECK
Vermont Institute of Natural Science, 27023 Church Hill Road, Woodstock, Vermont 05091, USA


Abstract.-We surveyed the montane forest bird community at 1800-1900 m elevation in western Sierra
de Neiba, Dominican Republic during 6-8 February 2003. We documented a total of 36 species, of which 18
were recorded on point counts and 12 were captured in mist-nets. Observational data revealed that canopy-
foraging species were lower in abundance than during our previous visit to the site in November of 1997. We
captured 57 individuals in 361.5 net-hours (15.8 birds/1 00 net-hours). The most abundant species in our mist-
net samples were Eastern Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus frugivorus; n = 10), Green-tailed Warbler (Microligea
palustris; n = 9), and Rufous-collared Sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis; n = 8). Noteworthy records included one
Antillean Mango (Anthracothorax dominicus), 11 Caribbean Martins (Progne dominicensis), nine Bicknell's
Thrushes (Catharus bicknelli), and eight La Selle Thrushes (Turdus swalesi). The broadleaf forest, while recov-
ering from past disturbances, appeared to be little changed from 1997, and we believe that prospects for long-
term conservation are moderately encouraging.
Key words: Calyptophilus frugivorus, Dominican Republic, montane forest birds, Sierra de Neiba
Resumen.-Estudiamos la comunidad de aves de bosque montafia a los elevaciones de 1800-1900 m en
Sierra de Neiba occidental, Republica Dominicana durante 6-8 febrero 2003. Documentamos un total de 36
especies, de cuales 18 estaba recordados en los conteos por puntos y 12 capturados en las redes. Los datos por
observaci6n revalaron que las especias forrajeando en el dosel estaban menos por abundancia que durante nues-
tra visita al sitio en noviembre de 1997. Capturamos 57 individuos en 361.5 horas de redes (15.8 aves/100 horas
de redes). Las especies mas abundantes in nuestras muestras de redes fueron Patico Chirri (Calyptophilusfrugi-
vorus; n = 10), Ciguita Colaverde (Microligea palustris; n = 9), y Sigua de Constanza (Zonotrichia capensis; n
= 8). Observaci6nes notables incluieron un Zumbador Grande (Anthracothorax dominicus), 11 Golondrinas
Grandes (Progne dominicensis), nueve Zorzales Migratorios (Catharus bicknelli), y ocho Zorzales de la Selle
(Turdus swalesi). El bosque latifoliado, mientras que recobrando de disturbios pasados, parecieron estar poco
diferente de 1997, y creemos que las esperanzas para conservaci6n a largo plazo estan moderadamente alentan-
das.
Palabras clave: aves de bosque montafa, Calyptophilus frugivorus, Reptblica Dominicana, Sierra de
Neiba


As FOLLOW-UP to avian field surveys conducted
during November of 1997 (Rimmer et al. 1998), the
Vermont Institute of Natural Science (VINS) revis-
ited a montane forest site in western Sierra de Neiba
of the Dominican Republic during February 2003.
Objectives were to conduct focused searches for
Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli), to survey
the entire avian community through mist-netting,
point counts, and observations, and to reassess the
conservation status of the area's threatened forest
habitat. This report summarizes our findings.

STUDY AREA AND METHODS
From 6 to 8 February 2003, we surveyed an area
of montane forest 2 to 4 km above "Vuelta de
Quince" on the road to Hondo Valle. From a base
site on the road (180 41.51'N, 710 46.12' W) at 1843
m (6050 ft) elevation, we operated 25 12 x 2.5-m,


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


36-mm mesh nylon mist-nets from 18:00 to 19:00
EDST on 6 February, 07:00 to 19:00 EDST on 7
February, and 07:00 to 10:30 EDST on 8 February.
Seventeen nets were spaced over ca 1.0 km of road,
and eight nets were placed over ca 0.5 km of foot
trails in the adjacent broadleaf forest. Nets were
checked hourly and closed at night. All captured
birds were identified, banded, aged, and sexed. A
series of morphometric measurements were taken to
the nearest 0.1 mm, and weight was recorded to the
nearest 0.1 g. We collected 50-150 ml of blood
from most individuals by brachial venipuncture, and
we stored samples in plastic vials with 1.0 ml
Queen's lysis buffer. In addition to mist-netting, we
recorded all incidental observations of birds en-
countered during the three-day visit, and we con-
ducted five unlimited-distance, 10-minute point
counts from 07:45 to 08:30 EDST on 8 February.
Each point was separated by 150-200 m.


Page 55









RIMMER ETAL.-BIRD RECORDS FOR WESTERN SIERRA DE NEIBA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


The forest at these elevations of western Sierra de
Neiba is characterized as "premontane wet for-
est" (sensu Fisher-Meerow and Judd 1989) or cloud
forest (Santana et al. 1990, Schubert 1993, Tolen-
tino and Pefia 1998). Although Sierra de Neiba was
formally designated as a national park in 1995, its
landscape has been subject to various degrees of
human disturbance in recent decades (Rimmer et al.
1998; A. Schubert, pers. comm.). Since 2000, sub-
stantial resources of infrastructure and personnel
have been invested in the park. The construction
and permanent staffing of three ranger stations have
greatly reduced human impacts, although an addi-
tional three stations are needed to adequately protect
the park's fragile landscape (Secretaria de Medio
Ambiente y Recursos Naturales 2001). In our study
area, most habitat within 250 m or more of the road
consisted of secondary forest in various seral stages,
with scattered emergent mature trees. Some cattle
grazing was evident within the forest. Only by pene-
trating >1.0 km away from the road on a foot trail
did we reach undisturbed, older growth broadleaf
forest, dominated by "palo de viento" (Schefflera
tremula) trees. We encountered very few stands of
Hispaniolan pine (Pinus occidentalis), although
pines are abundant on northern slopes of the range
(A. Schubert, pers. comm.). We suspect that logging
and agricultural clearing have greatly reduced the
extent of this forest type in western Sierra de Neiba.

RESULTS
Our field surveys revealed a typical assemblage
of Hispaniolan montane broadleaf forest birds
(Table 1). We recorded 36 bird species during our
three-day visit to western Sierra de Neiba. All 36
species were seen or heard via incidental observa-
tions, whereas 18 species were recorded on point
counts, and 12 species were captured in mist-nets
(Table 1). We captured 57 individuals in a total of
361.5 net-hours (15.8 birds/100 net-hours). Because
the time of year (November versus February), pe-
riod of observations (three versus two days), and
field methods differed from those of our previous
visit to this site in 1997 (Rimmer et al. 1998), we
cannot strictly compare results of the two field trips.
One striking difference was the relative scarcity
in 2003 of canopy-foraging flocks that we observed
in 1997. Several species were found in lower num-
bers, or not at all. Among endemics, White-winged
Warbler (Xenoligea montana), of which we encoun-
tered two individuals in 1997, was not recorded.
This species is one of the most abundant members
of canopy-foraging flocks in undisturbed montane


Page 56


broadleaf forests of Sierra de Bahoruco (Rimmer et
al. 1999, Rimmer and Goetz 2001). The apparent
absence, or lower density, of this and other species
may have reflected seasonal differences in move-
ments due to changes in fruit and insect phenology
that typically occur between November and Febru-
ary. For example, Brunellia comocladifolia, a com-
mon canopy and sub-canopy species in montane
broadleaf forests (Fisher-Meerow and Judd 1989,
Tolentino and Pefia 1998), including those in our
study area, appears to fruit much more heavily in
November-December than in January-February and
is more heavily visited by foraging birds at the ear-
lier time (pers. obs.). Alternatively, the disturbed,
regenerating forest above Vuelta de Quince may
simply be less attractive to canopy-dwelling species
like White-winged Warblers that prefer undisturbed,
mature broadleaf forest (Curson et al. 1994, pers.
obs.).
Observations of several species warrant specific
mention:
Hispaniolan Parrot (Amazona ventralis).-We
observed several flocks totaling at least 45 birds
flying eastward towards a presumed roosting site
during the evening of 7 February. This is nearly
three times as many birds as we observed in the
same area during November of 1997. Although
habitat loss may have concentrated the species in
this remnant forest reserve, its numbers appear to be
stable at present.
Antillean Mango (Anthracothorax domini-
cus).-A male was observed flying across a regen-
erating open meadow slope on 7 February. Al-
though Keith et al. (in press) report that this species
is common "well up into the mountains island-
wide," our extensive field experience at high eleva-
tions in Sierra de Bahoruco suggests otherwise. We
have never recorded it above 1400 m elevation in
that mountain range, and, to our knowledge, this is
first documented record of Antillean Mango from
the montane forest zone of Sierra de Neiba. The oc-
currence of this species in the Vuelta de Quince area
is not unexpected, as Woods and Ottenwalder
(1992) suggest that its presence above 1500 m ele-
vation indicates forest that has been degraded.
Narrow-billed Tody (Todus angustirostris).-
We were surprised to record only seven individuals
of this species, which is among the most abundant
resident birds in montane forests of Sierra de Baho-
ruco (Latta et al. 2003). We encountered eight birds
over a smaller area surveyed at this site in Novem-
ber 1997. We suspect the relatively low abundance
of the species in roadside forests above Vuelta de


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









RIMMERETAL.-BIRD RECORDS FOR WESTERN SIERRA DE NEIBA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


Table 1. Birds observed and mist-netted above Vuelta de Quince, Sierra de Neiba, Dominican Republic, 6-8 February
2003.


Name

English


Spanish


Total
number
observed


Number Number in
banded point counts


Accipiter striatus
Buteojamaicensis
Columba squamosa
Columba inorata
Zenaida macroura
Aratinga chloroptera
Amazona ventralis
Saurothera longirostris
Cypseloides niger
Anthracothorax dominicus
Chlorostilbon swainsonii
Priotelus roseigaster
Todus angustirostris
Melanerpes striatus
Elaeniafallax
Contopus hispaniolensis
Progne dominicensis
Tachycineta euchrysea
Corvus palmarum
Mlyadestes genibarbis
Catharus bicknelli
Turdus swalesi
Turdus plumbeus
Dendroica caerulescens
M/nioltilta varia
Setophaga ruticilla
Microligea palustris
Coerebaflaveola
Euphonia musica
Spindalis dominicensis
Phaenocophilus palmarum
Calyptophilusfrugivorus
Tiaris bicolor
Loxigilla violacea
Zonotrichia capensis
Carduelis dominicensis
Total number of individuals


Sharp-shinned Hawk
Red-tailed Hawk
Scaly-naped Pigeon
Plain Pigeon
Mourning Dove
Hispaniolan Parakeet
Hispaniolan Parrot
Hispaniolan Lizard-Cuckoo
Black Swift
Antillean Mango
Hispaniolan Emerald
Hispaniolan Trogon
Narrow-billed Tody
Hispaniolan Woodpecker
Greater Antillean Elaenia
Hispaniolan Pewee
Caribbean Martin
Golden Swallow
Palm Crow
Rufous-throated Solitaire
Bicknell's Thrush
La Selle Thrush
Red-legged Thrush
Black-throated Blue Warbler
Black-and-white Warbler
American Redstart
Green-tailed Warbler
Bananaquit
Antillean Euphonia
Hispaniolan Spindalis
Black-crowned Palm-Tanager
Eastern Chat-Tanager
Black-faced Grassquit
Greater Antillean Bullfinch
Rufous-collared Sparrow
Antillean Siskin


Guaraguaito de Sierra
Guaraguao
Paloma Torcaza
Paloma Ceniza
Tortola
Perico
Cotorra
Pajaro Bobo
Vencejo Negro
Zumbador Grande
Zumbador Mediano
Papagayo
Chi-cui
Carpintero
Maroita Canosa
Maroita
Golondrina Grande
Golondrina Verde
Cio
Jilguero
Zorzal Migratorio
Zorzal de la Selle
Chua-chua
Ciguita Azul
Pega Palo
Candelita
Ciguita Colaverde
Ciguita Commun
Jilguerillo
Cigua Amarilla
Cuatro Ojos
Patico Chirri
Juana Maruca
Gallito Prieto
Cigua de Constanza
Canario


370 57 46


aExcludes birds observed during point counts, although some of these individuals were likely encountered outside of point counts and are
thus included in these totals.
bTail-clipped, not banded.
CThree individuals captured through the use of vocal playback lures, one captured passively.


Quince is due to the predominance of second-
growth habitat. The preferred habitat of Narrow-
billed Tody throughout Hispaniola appears to be
wet, primary broadleaf forests at high elevations
(Kepler 1977; Woods and Ottenwalder 1992; Keith
et al., in press).



Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Caribbean Martin (Progne dominicensis).-We
did not record this species in November 1997, but a
flock of up to 11 birds was conspicuous during the
mornings of 7 and 8 February over a regenerating
open meadow with several large standing dead
trees. One individual was observed carrying what


Page 57


Scientific


2
1
1





6b 4
1
4
11
3 6


9 2
1 2
3
1









RIMMER ETAL.-BIRD RECORDS FOR WESTERN SIERRA DE NEIBA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


appeared to be nesting material on 7 February. This
appears to be the highest elevation at which Carib-
bean Martins have been reported in Hispaniola
(Keith et al., in press).
Golden Swallow (Tachycineta euchrysea).-We
recorded 12 individuals of this species in both 1997
and 2003. Most birds in 2003 were observed over
the same open meadow slope as the martins, and
several investigated apparent cavities in dead stand-
ing trees. Golden Swallows are considered at seri-
ous risk over their entire Hispaniolan and Jamaican
range (Raffaele et al. 1998, BirdLife International
2000), but our observations tentatively suggest that
populations in Sierra de Neiba, while small, may be
stable.
Bicknell's Thrush (Catharus bicknelli).-We
recorded two fewer individuals of this species in
2003 than in 1997, despite covering a larger area
over a longer period in our 2003 surveys. Of the
four birds we mist-netted, two were yearlings and
two were older (>2 year-old) individuals. We be-
lieve that habitat segregation of sex, and possibly
age, classes of Bicknell's Thrush occurs in the Do-
minican Republic. Preliminary data collected since
1999 indicate that 24 of 28 (86%) known-sex indi-
viduals from primary montane broadleaf forests in
Sierra de Bahoruco were male, whereas 13 of 18
(72%) birds from mid-elevation, moderately dis-
turbed forests in the Cordillera Septentrional were
female. Data on age segregation are less clear, with
similar ratios of yearling to older birds in Sierra de
Bahoruco (5 of 28 [18%]) and Cordillera Septen-
trional (3 of 18 [17%]). The two yearlings captured
in our sample of four Bicknell's Thrushes in regen-
erating forests of western Sierra de Neiba both had
relatively small wing chords (89.0 mm and 90.0
mm), suggesting that they were females. Analyses
of blood samples will confirm this.
La Selle Thrush (Turdus swalesi).-Although
we did not capture any La Selle Thrushes, they were
conspicuously vocal at dawn and dusk. Based on
both our 1997 and 2003 surveys, this species ap-
pears to occur at fairly high density in the broadleaf
forest above Vuelta de Quince.
Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica
caerulescens).-This was the only Nearctic-
Neotropical migrant found to be common in either
1997 or 2003. Of the 20 individuals observed in
2003, 15 were females. Our banded sample of five
birds included three males and two females. As in
other areas of Hispaniola, females appear to pre-
dominate in higher elevation, broadleaf forest habi-
tats (Keith et al., in press; Latta et al. 2003).


Page 58


Hispaniolan Spindalis (Spindalis dominicen-
sis).-This species was notable for its scarcity in
2003 relative to 1997. Although we covered more
ground for a longer period in 2003, we encountered
only 12 individuals, less than half the 25 recorded in
1997. Whether this reduced number reflected a sea-
sonal shift in movements between our November
1997 and February 2003 observation periods, an
actual local population change within the study
area, or simply chance is not known.
Eastern Chat-Tanager (Calyptophilus
frugivorus).-This was the most abundant species
in our mist-net samples (Table 1) and appeared to
be at relatively high density in the study area. Sev-
eral birds were heard calling, mainly early and late
in the day, and at least two individuals were heard
singing. Morphometric data and plumage characters
revealed handheld birds to be strikingly different
from individuals of C. tertius mist-netted in Sierra
de Bahoruco. On all birds we noted a distinct, al-
though incomplete, pale yellow eye-ring, slightly
wider at its extreme posterior edge, with an anterior
break between about 2-5 "o'clock." The extent of
complete posterior coverage of this eyering ranged
on four birds from 60%, 65%, 75%, to 90%. There
was no apparent association with extent of this eyer-
ing and body size (i.e., by presumed sex, as tertius
show marked sexual dimorphism [unpubl. data],
though birds in non-breeding condition cannot be
confidently sexed). Another prominent distinguish-
ing feature of the two species was the brighter and
more extensive orangish-yellow "wrist" and under-
wing coverts of frugivorus. Size differences were
also pronounced (Table 2). Comparing the 10
frugivorus we banded with 21 individual tertius ex-
amined from 2001 to 2003 in Sierra de Bahoruco
revealed significant differences in five measure-
ments (Table 2; Mann-Whitney U-tests, P < 0.001
for all tests; SYSTAT Version 5.2.1). Calyptophilus
frugivorus is considered in serious danger of extinc-
tion (BirdLife International 2000; Keith et al., in
press), and western Sierra de Neiba may represent
an important refuge for the species.

DIScuSSIoN
The remnant tract of moist broadleaf forest at
Vuelta de Quince, which we estimated to be roughly
25 sq-km in size in 1997, appears to have remained
largely intact in the more than six years since our
previous visit. We observed no evidence of recent
tree-cutting or agriculture. The primary ongoing
disturbance involved limited cattle grazing in scat-
tered clearings along and off the road. The Subse-


Joumal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









RIMMER ETAL.-BIRD RECORDS FOR WESTERN SIERRA DE NEIBA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


Table 2. Morphometrics of mist-netted Calyptophilus frugivorus in western Sierra de Neiba (February
2003) and C. tertius in Sierra de Bahonico (January and February, 2001-2003), Dominican Republic.
Differences between all measurements statistically significant (see text for details).


C. frugivorus


C. tertius


n Mean + SD


Range


75.0 + 5.45
86.5 + 5.33
29.9+ 1.36
13.1 + 0.75
32.1 +4.51


n Mean + SD


91.2 + 5.88
99.3 + 7.04
35.0 + 2.01
15.2 + 0.83
49.2 + 4.86


Range


80.0-102.5
88.5-110.0
32.1-39.8
13.6-17.0
40.2-55.3


a Measured from bend of wing (carpal joint) to tip of longest primary.
b Measured from base of feathering to tip of longest rectrix.
c Measured from "bend" of toes to outside of tibia adjacent to intertarsal joint.
dMeasured from anterior edge of nares to bill tip.
e Measured with digital Ohaus HS-20 scale.


cretaria de Areas Protegidas y Biodiversidad
(formerly known as Direcci6n Nacional de Parques)
has implemented protective measures that include a
permanently staffed park headquarters 3 km below
Vuelta de Quince, a 2-km interpretive nature trail
looping from the international road to Vuelta de
Quince, and a sustained community education pro-
gram (A. Schubert, pers. comm.). Since 2002, the
binational Programa Medioambiental Transfronter-
izo, Haiti-Dominican Republic, has supported the
local Dominican communities of Sabana Real and
Angel F6lix, and the nearby Haitian border commu-
nity of Nam Palme through training in sustainable
agriculture, agro-forestry, community development,
and ecotourism. The interpretive trail and a cave
with public access will be managed directly by
these communities. Agreements with local ranchers
have been made to remove all cattle from inside the
park boundaries by the end of 2003 (A. Schubert,
pers. comm.).
If all agricultural and resource extraction activities
cease in the near future, we believe that a carefully
planned program of reforestation, in combination
with continued education in surrounding communi-
ties and enforcement of protective laws, could en-
sure the long-term viability of this critical reservoir
of Hispaniolan biodiversity. The current outlook for
conservation of montane broadleaf forests in west-
ern Sierra de Neiba appears more promising than it
did in 1997, but concerted vigilance and steward-
ship will be necessary to maintain progress. Eastern
sections of Sierra de Neiba, however, remain under
severe threat of habitat loss and degradation, as for-
est habitats are increasingly converted to agriculture


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


(A. Schubert, pers. comm.). Intensified monitoring
and protection must be invested immediately in this
part of the park.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We are grateful for funding support from the U.S.
Forest Service International Program, the National
Geographic Society, The Nature Conservancy, the
Thomas Marshall Foundation, and the Wendling
Foundation. Logistic support was generously provi-
ded by Fundaci6n Moscoso Puello and Subsecreta-
ria de Areas Protegidas y Biodiversidad. Allan
Keith, Steven Latta, Kent McFarland, and Andreas
Schubert offered constructive comments that im-
proved the manuscript.

LITERATURE CITED
BIRDLIFE INTERNATIONAL. 2000. Threatened birds
of the world. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge,
UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
CURSON, J., D. QUINN, AND D. BEADLE. 1994. War-
blers of the Americas. Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Co.
FISHER-MEEROW, L. L., AND W. S. JUDD. 1989. A
floristic study of five sites along an elevational
transect in the Sierra de Baoruco, Prov. Peder-
nales, Dominican Republic. Moscosoa 5:159-
195.
KEITH, A. R., J. W. WILEY, S. C. LATTA, AND J. A.
OTTENWALDER. In press. The birds of Hispaniola:
Dominican Republic and Haiti. BOU Checklist
No. 21. Tring, UK: British Ornithologists' Union.


Page 59


Measurement

Wing chord"
Tail lengthb
Tarsus length
Bill length
Weight"









RIMMER ETAL.-BIRD RECORDS FOR WESTERN SIERRA DE NEIBA, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


KEPLER, A. K. 1977. Comparative study of todies
(Todidae): with emphasis on the Puerto Rican
Tody, Todus mexicanus. Publ. Nuttall Omithol.
Club 16.
LATTA, S. C., C. C. RIMMER, AND K. P.
MCFARLAND. 2003. Winter bird communities in
four habitats along an elevational gradient on His-
paniola. Condor 105:179-197.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.
RIMMER, C. C., AND J. E. GOETZ. 2001. Montane
forest bird studies in the Dominican Republic,
January 2000. Unpubl. report. Woodstock, VT:
Vermont Institute of Natural Science.
RIMMER, C. C., J. E. GOETZ, AND K. P.
MCFARLAND. 1998. Bird observations in threat-
ened forest fragments of the Sierra de Neiba.
Pitirre 11:38-39.
RIMMER, C. C., K. P. MCFARLAND, AND J. E.
GOETZ. 1999. Demographics and ecology of
Bicknell's Thrush and other montane forest birds
in the Dominican Republic. Unpubl. report.
Woodstock, VT: Vermont Institute of Natural
Science.


SANTANA B., G. DOMINICI, AND T. SCHAUB. 1990.
Informe sobre investigaciones botinicas, zool6gi-
cas, y socioecon6micas en la Sierra de Neiba. Un-
publ. Report. Santo Domingo, Repfiblica Domini-
cana: Departamento de Vida Silvestre, Secretaria
de Agricultura.
SECRETARIA DE MEDIO AMBIENTE Y RECURSOS
NATURALES. 2001. Plan de desarrollo del Parque
Nacional Sierra de Neiba y del Monumento Natu-
ral Las Caobas. Unpubl. report. Santo Domingo,
Repfiblica Dominicana.
SCHUBERT, A. 1993. Conservation of biological di-
versity in the Dominican Republic. Oryx 27:115-
121.
SCHUBERT, A. 2003. Guia ecoturistica de la Sierra
de Neiba occidental. Espafiol y Franc6s. Santo
Domingo, Repfiblica Dominicana: Secretaria de
Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales.
TOLENTINO, L., AND M. PENA. 1998. Inventario de
la vegetaci6n y uso de la tierra en la Repuiblica
Dominicana. Moscosoa 10:179-203.
WOODS, C. A., AND J. A. OTTENWALDER. 1992.
The natural history of southern Haiti. Gainesville,
FL: Florida Museum of Natural History.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 60












NUEVO REPORTE PARA EL ZARAPICO NADADOR (PHALAROPUSLOBATUS) EN CUBA


ARIAM JIMENEZ1'3, ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ1 Y JOSE MORALES2
aDepartamento de Biologia Animal y Humana, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de la Habana, Calle 25,
No. 455, entre J e I, Vedado, Ciudad Habana, Cuba; and 2Empresa Nacionalpara la Protecci6n de la Flora
y la Fauna, La Habana, Cuba; 3e-mail: ariam@fbio.uh.cu


Resumen.-Un Zarapico Nadador (Phalaropus lobatus) fue observado durante un muestreo de aves acua-
ticas en el Refugio de Fauna Rio Maximo, provincia Camagiey, Cuba, 24 de noviembre del 2002.
Palabras clave: Cuba, distribuci6n, Phalaropus lobatus, registro, Zarapico Nadador
Abstract.-NEW REPORT FOR RED-NECKED PHALAROPE (PHALAROPUS LOBATUS) IN CUBA. A Red-necked
Phalarope was observed at Rio Maximo Fauna Refuge, Camagiey province, Cuba, 24 November 2002.
Key words: Cuba, distribution, Phalaropus lobatus, record, Red-necked Phalarope


EL ZARAPICO NADADOR (Phalaropus lobatus) es
una especie de la Familia Scolopacidae, que cria en
la regi6n circumpolar y con una amplia distribuci6n
en los oc6anos Artico, Atlintico, Pacifico e Indico.
Su presencia en el area del Caribe resulta muy rara,
debido a que durante el invierno frecuentan areas
peligicas, fundamentalmente en Suramdrica (del
Hoyo et al. 1996, Raffaele et al. 1998).
Durante los muestreos de aves acuiticas realiza-
dos en el Refugio de Fauna Rio Maximo 24 de no-
viembre 2002, fue observado aproximadamente a
las 10:00 horas, un Zarapico Nadador mientras se
alimentaba en una laguna salobre de poca profundi-
dad. El ave se encontr6 forrajeando junto a un ban-
do mixto de unos 40 zarapicos, entre los que se en-
contraban individuos de Calidris himantopus y
Limnodromus griseus. Su peculiar conducta de na-
dar en circulos, muy rara en el resto de los zarapi-
cos (Sibley 2000), asi como su plumaje tipico de
invierno (cabeza blanca con una banda ciliar negra,
pico negro y fino, capuchin negro por encima de la
parte anterior de la cabeza) (Raffaele et al. 1998),
hicieron posible la identificaci6n in situ de esta rara
especie. Su presencia en el area probablemente est6
relacionada con la entrada de un frente frio el dia
anterior a su observaci6n, el tercero en arribar al
area en un lapso menor de 15 dias.


En Cuba, esta especie se considera accidental y
hasta el momento s6lo se conocia de otras dos ob-
servaciones, la mis reciente de ellas data de hace 40
afios (Garrido y Garcia Montafia 1975, Garrido y
Kirkconnell 2000). Este reporte constituye el terce-
ro para la especie e involucra una nueva localidad
para su distribuci6n en el pais.

LITERATURA CITADA
DEL HOYO, J., A. ELLIOT Y J. SARGATAL (Eds.).
1996. Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3.
Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edition.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y A. KIRKCONNELL. 2000. Field
guide to the birds of Cuba. London: Christopher
Helm.
GARRIDO, O. H. Y F. GARCIA MONTANA. 1975. Ca-
tilogo de las aves de Cuba. La Habana: Academia
de Ciencias de Cuba.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. H. GARRIDO, A. KEITH
Y J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press.
SIBLEY, D. A. 2000. The Sibley guide to birds. NY:
Alfred A. Knopf


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 61












UNUSUAL DISTRIBUTION OF WESTERN STRIPE-HEADED TANAGER (SPINDALIS ZENA)


MARTIN ACOSTA, LOURDES MUGICA Y ANTONIO RODRIGUEZ
Faculty ofBiology, Universidad de La Habana, Calle 25 e/J e I, Vedado,
Ciudad de La Habana CP 10900, Cuba; e-mail macosta)afbio.uh.cu


WESTERN STRIPE-HEADED TANAGER (Spindalis
zena) is a common bird in forest and shrubland in
Cuba, Bahamas, Cayman Islands, and Cozumel.
Mexico (Raffaele et al. 1998). After Hurricane Isi-
dore crossed western Cuba in September 2002, we
began to see small flocks of the tanager in parts of
Ciudad de La Habana where they formerly did not
occur. We thought these were local movements of
individuals as a result of the difficult environmental
conditions in the aftermath of the hurricane. The
storm moved from the southern Caribbean region
and through western Cuba. Beginning 17 September
through 22 October, we saw many small flocks of
tanagers living in Vedado, in the center of La Ha-
bana, as well as Calvario, San Francisco de Paula,
and National Botanic Garden south of La Habana.
In general, the flocks were composed of from two
to 34 individuals and consisted of adult males, fe-
males, and immatures. The largest flock (34) was
observed in the coastal shrubland of the National
Botanic Garden on 19 October, when the members
were feeding on small fruits. This coastal shrubland


is unusual as tanager habitat in Cuba, where West-
ern Stripe-headed Tanager lives strictly in wood-
lands and cays far from the city of La Habana.
The cause of this dispersion is unknown. Perhaps
it is related to the hurricane, but several questions
remain, including: (1) why are these birds, typical
of forest and shrubland habitats, suddenly living in
the city?; (2) if they were forced to migrate because
of the tropical storm, why did not other forest birds
exhibit the same movement?; (3) why did the tana-
ger change its behavior?; and (4) because this is the
first time we have seen such a large flocks feeding
together in the same site, from where are they com-
ing ?


LITERATURE CITED
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 62












OBSERVATIONS OF RARE AND UNUSUAL BIRDS ON GRENADA


MARTIN D. FROST1 AND EDWARD B. MASSIAH2
1Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados; and 2Johnson Road, Fitts Village, St. James, Barbados



Abstract.-We present information on eight rare and unusual species observed during a visit to Grenada
in August 2001, including the first known occurrence in the West Indies of Channel-billed Toucan
(Ramphastos vitellinus), a species introduced to the island.
Key words: Channel-billed Toucan, Grenada, introduced species, Lesser Antilles, observations, Ram-
phastos vitellinus
Resumen.-OBSERVACIONES DE AVES RARAS O Poco USUALES EN GRANADA. Presentamos informa-
ci6n sobre ocho especies raras o poco usuales observadas durante una visita a Granada en agosto de 2001,
incluyendo el primer reporte de la existencia en las Indias Occidentales del Tucan Pico Acanalado
(Ramphastos vitellinus), una especie introducida a la isla.
Palabras clave: Antillas Menor, Granada, especies introducidas, observaci6n, Ramphastos vitellinus,
Tucdn Pico Acanalado


IN THIS NOTE, we report on eight rare and unusual
species observed during a visit to the island of Gre-
nada in mid August 2001 with additional notes from
other years. Our observations include two introduced
species, Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitel-
linus) and an Amazona parrot, which together with
Masked Duck (Nomonyx dominicus) are reported for
the first time from Grenada. Further information and
comments are presented for the remaining five spe-
cies, which have previously occurred.

OBSERVATIONS AND DISCUSSION
Tricolored Heron (Egretta tricolor).-Two, possi-
bly three, individuals were observed at Levera Pond
on 18 August, one of which had aigrettes on the back.
This species is not listed for Grenada by Devas
(1970), Groome (1970), Evans (1990), or Raffaele et
al. (1998). There is, however, an old record in the
British Museum a specimen collected in the 1890s
by D. W. Smith assigned to the race ruficollis (Bond
1959), whose range includes North American and
Caribbean birds, including those from northern Vene-
zuela (Voous 1983:52). It was considered rare in the
late 1970s and early 1980s, with individuals observed
at Levera Pond and Point Salines (J. Wunderle, pers.
comm.). More recently, single individuals were ob-
served on 31 May 1998 on the beach at the east end of
the defunct Pearls airstrip and at Lake Antoine (P. W.
and S. A. Smith, pers. comm.). The origin of the indi-
viduals occurring in Grenada is intriguing. Although
migratory North American individuals probably reach
the island periodically, it seems equally, if not more,


likely that wanderers from the south also occur. Our
brief views obtained did not permit identification to
subspecies but observers should carefully scrutinize
any birds in the southern Lesser Antilles for dark
chestnut (rather than white) chin and line down the
neck, which is indicative of rufimentum, the South
American race occurring as close as Trinidad
(ffrench 1991). The presence of several individuals
in summer months in two recent years raises the
possibility of future colonization by this species.
Masked Duck (Nomonyx dominicus).-A male
in high breeding plumage was observed at the edge
of reeds, preening and resting for up to 15 min on
two occasions at Palmiste Dam on 22 August. This
apparently represents the first occurrence on Gre-
nada. This species is not listed for Grenada by
Devas (1970), Evans (1990), or Raffaele et al.
(1998), although it is included with a question mark
by Groome (1970), apparently based on information
supplied by W. J. Plowden-Wardlaw, who collected
around bird 300 specimens on Grenada between
September and December 1955. This species occurs
to the north in other southern Lesser Antillean is-
lands (Raffaele et al. 1998) and to the south on
Trinidad (ffrench 1991), so its presence on Grenada
is expected. Three males in breeding plumage and
one female were observed at the same location on 7
August 2002.
Ruff (Philomachus pugnax).-A molting male
was observed on top of a dungpile at Mt. Hartman
on 12 August (EBM). We are aware of three previ-
ous occurrences for the island, all from Point Sa-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


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FROST AND MASSIAH -RARE AND UNUSUAL BIRDS ON GRENADA


lines: an immature male obtained on 31 July 1935
(Danforth 1936), one on 8 August 1971 (Lack and
Lack 1973), and one in the late 1970s (J. Wunderle,
pers. comm.). This species is included in Robert
Leeds' unpublished list of Grenada birds compiled
between the 1960s and late 1970s but the details are
unknown.
Sandwich Tern (Sterna sandvicensis).-Five
adults and one juvenile were seen perched on rocks
a few meters offshore at Grand Roy on 21 August.
All birds belonged to the "Sandwich" subspecies,
evidenced by the black bills, tipped yellow in the
adults. Neither Devas (1970) nor Leeds (unpubl.)
made mention of this species, which is listed under
Grenada as "rare" by Raffaele et al. (1998). The
quality of information on the status of seabirds in
general for the island was rated as poor (van
Halewyn and Norton 1984:176) and this assessment
still seems to hold true. Observations were made of
this species in recent years from the nearby island of
Carriacou (politically part of Grenada): several near
the harbor at Hillsborough on 26 May 1998 (P. W.
and S. A. Smith, pers. comm.) and a total of six or
seven birds from several locations during the first
week of August 2002 (EBM and R. W. Burke). It is
likely that this species occurs more often than these
few observations suggest, but has been overlooked.
Parrot sp. (Amazona sp.).-Small numbers at
four locations: a flock of six at Mt. Hope on 18 Au-
gust; several heard at Temp6 on 21 August; several
parties totaling 11 birds at Grenville Vale,
Beaus6jour on 21 August; and several at Annandale
on 23 August. All individuals observed were in
flight. Adequate views of only a few individuals
were secured which were tentatively identified as
Orange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica),
based on the orange patch in the wing. During a pre-
vious visit to Grenada in July 1999, EBM observed
four parrots at La Sagesse Estate, which appeared to
be clearly Orange-winged Parrots. The introduction
of parrots on the island appears to be a relatively
recent phenomena, because Devas (1970) makes no
mention of their occurrence. Several parrots, all
identified as orange-winged, were released from a
Guyanese bird dealer's collection during 1989 (A.
Jeremiah, pers. comm.). Successful colonization
may be expected, if not already underway, based on
the numbers observed at these widely scattered lo-
cations.
White-collared Swift (Streptoprocne zonaris).-
We observed a flock of ca. 30 at Belle Isle, Requin
Estate, accompanied by a few Black Swifts
(Cypseloides niger) on 18 August and a single indi-


Page 64


vidual over the playing field at La Sagesse on 20
August. This species is known to occur in Grenada,
where its status is given as "uncommon" (Raffaele
et al. 1998). However, there seem to be few detailed
reports of such large flocks and its occurrence in
general on Grenada. This species was first reported
from Grenada by Wells (1887), who found a "large
flock" on 13 July 1882 at Tuilleries Estate and was
informed they frequent there every year, and subse-
quently saw "several" near Grenville on 9 August.
Devas (1952, 1970) considered this species a visitor
in July and August, although "I have no proof yet
that it comes every year," with Annandale Estate in
the mountains a favored location. Unfortunately
Devas makes no mention as to the numbers ob-
served. These swifts were observed annually during
three years residence (1978-79 and 1981) usually in
groups of 3 to 15 from August to September at vari-
ous lowland sites including Point Salines (J.
Wunderle, pers. comm.). A specimen in the British
Museum collected in October 1891 by D. W. Smith
belongs, as expected, to the South American sub-
species albicincta (Bond 1957). In summary, previ-
ous occurrences suggest that this species may be
expected at any elevation from July to October.
Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Tyrannus savana).-
An estimated 50 individuals roosted in white man-
groves (Laguncularia racemosa) at True Blue on
18, 20, and 24 August, which we believe to be an
unusually high number. The first birds were at the
roost by 17:45 h and small parties and individuals
continued to arrive from the west until around 18:30
h. Few details regarding the numbers of this species
occurring in Grenada appear to be published but
there are regular observations around the island's
southwestern tip in summer and fall; e.g., six birds
south of the airport on 17 July 1999 (EBM) and a
few individuals at several localities on the south-
western peninsula during 26 to 31 July 2000 with a
high count of 10 at True Blue on 26 July 2000 (F. E.
Hayes). Wells (1887) makes no mention of abun-
dance, although his species account suggests it was
not rare, but writing about neighboring Carriacou,
Wells (1902) states "a migrant, arriving in August
in considerable numbers." Devas (1970) states
"comes ... each year, July and August are the
months to expect half a dozen pairs," whereas
Groome (1970) indicates its frequency as
"commonly seen ... August to October," but does
not comment on its abundance. This species was not
found at True Blue on the afternoons of 7 to 9 Au-
gust 2002 or elsewhere on the island during early to
mid-August 2002 (EBM and R. Thorstrom), sug-
gesting that an above-normal influx was observed in

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1












August 2001.
Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitel-
linus).-Single individuals were seen at four sepa-
rate locations bordering the Grand Etang Nature
Reserve: Les Avocats Dam on 15 and 23 August
(EBM); Annandale on 16 August (heard only)
(EBM), Cocoa Hall Estate on 19 August, and Con-
cord Valley on 24 August. Massiah and Frost
(2003) provide further details and discuss the intro-
duction of this species on Grenada.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We thank R. W. Burke, F. E. Hayes, P. W. and S.
A. Smith, R. Thorstrom, and J. Wunderle for mak-
ing their Grenada observations available, providing
reference materials, and reviewing this note, and
Anthony Jeremiah, Grenada Forestry Division for
information relating to the introduction of the Chan-
nel-billed Toucan and parrots. A special thanks to
the Peregrine Fund for supporting our Hook-billed
Kite research on Grenada, during which time these
observations were made.


LITERATURE CITED
BOND, J. 1957. Second supplement to the Check-list
of birds of the West Indies (1956). Philadelphia,
PA: Academy of Natural Sciences.
BOND, J. 1959. Fourth supplement to the Check-list
of birds of the West Indies (1956). Philadelphia,
PA: Academy of Natural Sciences.
DANFORTH, S. T. 1936. The Ruff in Grenada, B. W.
I. Auk 53:80.
DEVAS, R. P. 1952. Birds of the West Indies. Car-
ibb. Q. 2:39-43


FROST AND MASSIAH -RARE AND UNUSUAL BIRDS ON GRENADA


DEVAS, R. P. 1970. Birds of Grenada, St. Vincent
and the Grenadines. 2nd ed. Grenada: Carenage
Press.
EVANS, P. G. H. 1990. Birds of the eastern Carib-
bean. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago. 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univer-
sity Press.
GROOME, J. R. 1970. A natural history of the island
of Grenada, West Indies. Trinidad: Caribbean
Printers Ltd.
LACK, D., AND A. LACK. 1973. Birds on Grenada.
Ibis 115:53-59.
MASSIAH, E. B., AND M. D. FROST. 2003. Is Chan-
nel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) estab-
lished on Grenada? J. Caribb. Omithol. 16:68-69.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.
VAN HALEWYN, R., AND R. L. NORTON. 1984. The
status and conservation of seabirds in the Carib-
bean. Pages 169-222 in Status and conservation
of the world's seabirds (Croxhall, J. P., P. G. H.
Evans, and R. W. Schreiber, Eds.) ICBP Techni-
cal Publication No. 2, Cambridge, UK.
Voous, K. H. 1983. Birds of the Netherland Antil-
les. 2nd ed. Utrecht, Netherlands: De Walburg
Pers.
WELLS, J. G. 1887. A catalogue of the birds of Gre-
nada, West Indies, with observations thereon.
Proc. US Natl. Mus. 9:609-633.
WELLS, J. G. 1902. The birds of the island of Carri-
acou. Auk 194:343-349.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


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OCCURRENCE OF AN OVER-WINTERING CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER
(DENDROICA PENSYLVANICA) ON ST. MARTIN, LESSER ANTILLES


ADAM C. BROWN1 AND NATALIA COLLIER
Environmental Protection in the Caribbean, 200 Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd.,
Riviera Beach, Florida, 33404, USA; 'abrown@epicislands.org

Abstract:-We report the first record of Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvanica) for St. Martin, Lesser
Antilles. On 12 February 2002 at Pic Paradis, the bird was trapped in a mist-net and banded. This species is rare in
the Greater Antilles and few records exist from the Lesser Antilles.
Key words: Chestnut-sided Warbler, Dendroica pensylvanica, Lesser Antilles, mist-netting,, record, St. Martin
Resumen:-PRESENCIA DE LA REINITA FLANQUICASTANA (DENDROICA PENSYLVANICA) EN SAN MARTIN, ANTI-
LLAS MENORES, FUERA DE LA EPOCA DE INVIERNO. Reportamos el primer registro de Dendroica pensylvanica en
San Martin, Antillas Menores. El 12 de febrero de 2002 el ave fue atrapada en Pic Paradis en una malla de niebla y
anillada. Esta especie es rara en las Antillas Mayores y muy pocos registros existen para las Antillas Menores.
Palabras clave: Antillas Menores, captura en malla de niebla, Dendroica pensylvanica, registro, Reinita Flanqui-
castafia, San Martin


ON 12 FEBRUARY 2002, while running a mist-
netting station for Environmental Protection in the
Caribbean (EPIC) at Pic Paradis, St. Martin, we
trapped a second-year female Chestnut-sided War-
bler (Dendroica pensylvanica) in one of our nets.
The bird was only observed while being banded and
was not seen before or after this event. The bird was
banded (USFWS band #2250-79431), measured,
photographed, and then released. This is the first
record of this species in St. Martin and is one of few
records for the Lesser Antilles.

DESCRIPTION
Having the bird in the hand gave us ample oppor-
tunity to check all field marks. This warbler species
was yellowish-green from the top of the head to the
rump area. The feathers on the lower back and on
the upper-tail coverts had indistinct black centers.
The upper-wing was also yellowish-green with
some darker green on the primaries. The wing
showed two relatively distinct white wing-bars. The
bird had a gray face with a distinct white eye-ring.
The chin of the bird, the chest, and upper belly were
a dull gray. The flanks were also gray with no hint
of chestnut. The main center belly and lower parts
were whiter than the chest region. The outer retrices
and outer primaries of the bird were truncate. The
bird's legs were ashen gray. There was little white
on the outer rectrices, indicating it as a second-year
female. No call was heard from the bird. The re-
laxed wing chord of the bird measured 58 mm. The
weight of the bird was 9.0 g and it had no apparent


Page 66


fat stores. The bird had no significant body molt or
flight feather molt. Flight feather wear was moder-
ate.

DISCUSSION
The Chestnut-sided Warbler is a long-distance
migrant that breeds in central-eastern North Amer-
ica and migrates either along the Gulf Coast of the
United States or flies across the Gulf of Mexico to
the Yucatan Peninsula. Over-wintering normally
takes place in Panama, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
The species has been recorded over-wintering as far
south as Ecuador, as east as Venezuela, and as far
north as Mexico (Curson et al. 1994, Dunn and
Garrett 1997). Additionally, the species has been
recorded with increasing regularity in the Greater
Antilles. Chestnut-sided Warbler is now considered
an uncommon over-wintering resident in Cuba, and
is recorded as rare, but regular in the Bahamas, Ja-
maica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and
the Cayman Islands. Chestnut-sided Warbler is ex-
ceedingly rare in the Lesser Antilles, where it has
been recorded on Antigua, Guadeloupe, Dominica,
Barbados, and St. Vincent. The bird also is recorded
regularly from Isla San Andr6s in the southwestern
Caribbean, where these birds are most likely stray-
ing from Central America and Venezuela (Curson et
al. 1994, Dunn and Garrett 1997, Raffaele 1989,
Raffaele et al. 1998, Bond 1985, Brudenell-Bruce
1975, Voous 1983, Evans 1990). West Indian re-
cords indicate this species in the region from as
early as 3 September and as late as 11 May (Bond


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









BROWN AND COLLIER-CHESTNUT-SIDED WARBLER (DENDROICA PENSYLVANICA) ON ST. MARTIN, LESSER ANTILLES


1985).
The Chestnut-sided Warbler banded on St. Martin
was trapped within a secondary dry forest, consist-
ing mainly of breadfruit trees (Artocarpus commu-
nis), cocoa (Theobroma casao), mango (Mangifera
indica), and royal palm (Roystonea regia) (Seddon
and Lennox 1980). Additionally, a seasonal stream
and a year-round spring are found within this forest.
On over-wintering grounds in Central America, the
Chestnut-sided Warbler prefers second-growth for-
est and is often found in second-growth habitat mar-
gins, within shrubs or cleared areas. They are usu-
ally found singly on over-wintering habitat (Curson
et al. 1994, Dunn and Garrett 1997). Within the
West Indies, the species is usually found in well-
forested areas (Raffaele 1989).
In North America, the Chestnut-sided Warbler
has experienced a steady decline in abundance on
its breeding grounds (Curson et al. 1994). The de-
cline of long-distance migrants because of frag-
mented habitat, less abundance of food sources than
in the past, and rampant pesticide use has been well
documented (Terborgh 1989, 1992; Hagen and
Johnston 1992; Finch and Stangel 1993).

CONCLUSIONS
Research into the status of long-distance migrants
that over-winter in the West Indies should be a pri-
ority. Banding studies coupled with regular stan-
dardized point counts should be conducted within
the region. Regional island officials should be made
increasingly aware of the role each island, and the
region as a whole, plays in the over-wintering re-
quirements of Neotropical-Nearctic species, such as
the Chestnut-sided Warbler. Increased study on
over-wintering migrant passerines in St. Martin has
indicated a greater abundance than was previously
recorded for many warbler species, including Black-
and-white Warbler (Mniotilta varia), Prothonotary
Warbler (Protonotaria citrea), Northern Parula
(Parula americana), Cape May Warbler (Dendroica
tigrina), Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica
caerulescens), Myrtle Warbler (Dendroica coro-
nata), Prairie Warbler (Dendroica discolor), Oven-
bird (Seiurus aurocapillus), Northern Waterthrush
(Seiurus noveboracensis), Hooded Warbler
(Wilsonia citrina), and American Redstart
(Setophaga ruticilla) (EPIC, unpub. data). The
abundance of these species might have been over-
looked in the past, or it might be due to an increased
presence of these birds in the region during the win-
ter. As more research programs begin within the
West Indies, we will not only gain knowledge about


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


the populations of over-wintering birds in the re-
gion, but will also begin to better manage their rap-
idly disappearing habitat.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
EPIC would like to thank the management of Lot-
terie Farm for providing access to the forest below
Pic Paradis. We would additionally like to thank the
Nature Foundation of Sint Maarten, and the Reserve
Naturelle de St. Martin for supporting EPIC's re-
search.

LITERATURE CITED
BOND, J. 1985. Birds of the West Indies. Hong
Kong: South China Printing Co.
BRUDENELL-BRUCE, P. G. C. 1975. The birds of
New Providence and the Bahama Islands. Lon-
don: Collins Press.
CURSON, J., D. QUINN, AND D. BEADLE. 1994. War-
blers of the Americas. Boston, MA: Houghton
Mifflin Co.
DUNN, J., AND K. GARRETT. 1997. A field guide to
the warblers of North America. Boston, MA:
Houghton Mifflin Co.
EVANS, P. G. H. 1990. Birds of the eastern Carib-
bean. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
FINCH, D. M., AND P. W. STANGEL (Eds.). 1993.
Status and management of Neotropical migratory
birds. Pp. 237-244 in USDA Forest Serv. Publ.
Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-229.
HAGAN, J. M., AND D. W. JOHNSTON (Eds.). 1992.
Ecology and conservation of Neotropical migrant
landbirds. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institu-
tion.
RAFFAELE, H. A. 1989. A guide to the birds of
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Princeton, NJ:
Princeton University Press.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univer-
sity Press.
SEDDON, S. A., AND G. W. LENNOX. 1980. Trees of
the Caribbean. London: Macmillan Education
Ltd.
TERBORGH, J. 1989. Where have all the birds gone?
Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
TERBORGH, J. 1992. Why American songbirds are
vanishing. Scientific American 266:98-104.
Voous, K. H. 1983. Birds of the Netherlands Antil-
les. Utrecht: De Walburg Press.


Page 67












IS CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (RAMPHASTOS VITELLINUS) ESTABLISHED ON GRENADA?


EDWARD B. MASSIAH1 AND MARTIN D. FROST2
'Johnson Road, Fitts Village, St. James, Barbados; and 2Featherbed Lane, St. John, Barbados

Abstract. We describe the discovery of Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitellinus) in Grenada during Au-
gust 2001 and its introduction into the island.
Key words: Channel-billed Toucan, Grenada, introduced species, Ramphastos vitellinus
Resumen.- ,SE HA ESTABLECIDO EL TUCAN PICO ACANALADO (RAMPHASTOS VITELLINUS) EN GRANADA? De-
scribimos el descubrimiento del Tucan Pico Acanalado (Ramphastos vitellinus) en Granada durante agosto de 2001
y su introducci6n a la isla.
Palabras clave: especies introducidas, Granada, Ramphastos vitellinus, Tuccin Pico Acanalado


WE VISITED GRENADA from 12 to 25 August
2001 to study the distribution of Hook-billed Kites
(Chondrohierax uncinatus mirus). During this time
we explored a wide area of the country to assess the
kite's occurrence, particularly in forest habitats.
At 07:45 h on 15 August EBM, was reconnoiter-
ing forest north of Les Avocats Dam, bordering Mt.
Sinai, when he heard a mysterious far-carrying call
coming from an area of emergent canopy trees on
the richly forested ridge (ca. 520 m elevation) on
the western side of the valley approximately 0.4 km
away. The call sounded vaguely familiar and was
repeated at intervals, but the most likely candidate
that sprang to mind was the introduced Mona mon-
key (Cercopithecus mona).
A quick scan through a telescope, however, pro-
duced a surprising discovery. The large, long-tailed
silhouette that was located turned briefly to reveal
the characteristic bill shape, pale upper-chest and
red gorget of a toucan species before it vanished.
From the evidence, the most likely species appeared
to be Channel-billed Toucan (Ramphastos vitel-
linus), whose nearest populations are in Trinidad
and northern South America.
The following day EBM visited a lookout north
of Annandale Dam on the southwestern edge of the
Grand Etang National Park and was surprised to
hear again the quite distant but recognizable call of
a toucan vocalizing from the highest rainforest
ridge (ca. 365 m elevation), between 07:30 and
08:00 h, but the bird was too distant to be located.
The location was 3.5 km northwest of the first bird
at Les Avocats Dam.
On 19 August at 09:20 h we located a much
closer toucan at Cocoa Hall Estate (ca. 300 m ele-
vation) on the western side of the island. The bird
was watched as it clambered about in a fruiting


Page 68


golden apple tree (Spondias cytherea) about 80 m
away in abandoned plantation habitat. It was at this
stage that we were able to exclude any other species
and confirm all the features of Channel-billed Tou-
can. The location was about 2.6 km northwest of
the Annandale forest bird.
The Les Avocat Dam toucan was heard again in
the same area on 23 August. Our final observation
of Channel-billed Toucan was a single individual
on 24 August in the Concord Valley (ca 180 m ele-
vation) in a golden apple tree close to the road
about 0.5 km due north of the Cocoa Hall Estate
sighting. A local reported that he had previously
seen a "small group" of toucans in the area.
On 17 August EBM met with Mr. Anthony
Jeremiah, Officer at the Forestry Division, and
mentioned that he encountered a strange bird in the
forest. Before EBM could go any further, Jeremiah
immediately asked whether the strange bird was a
toucan and described seeing one several years be-
fore near Paraclete in the east of the island. Most
importantly, the mystery of how toucans got to Gre-
nada was explained. During the 1980s a Guyanese
bird-dealer set up an aviary in the Botanical Gar-
dens and stocked it with a variety of South Ameri-
can species. The activities of the dealer soon met
with the disapproval of the government of Grenada,
because the aviary was alleged to have been used
for an illegal bird smuggling operation. The aviary
was dismantled in 1989 and several exotic species
including an unknown number of toucans and Or-
ange-winged Parrots (Amazona amazonica), were
released into the wild; thus about 12 years had
elapsed between the releases and our sightings.
The four localities where toucans were observed
all border or are within the Grand Etang Forest Re-
serve; one on the southern edge, one in the west-


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









MASSIAH AND FROST-CHANNEL-BILLED TOUCAN (RAMPHASTOS VITELLINUS) IN GRENADA


central area, and two on the western edge, all within
a range of about 7 km. On this evidence we suggest
that Channel-billed Toucans may already have es-
tablished a breeding presence in the forests of Gre-
nada, although this is yet to be proven. In Trinidad
the breeding season is listed as being from March to
June (ffrench 1991). In discussing these sightings it
is also relevant to point out that the Orange-winged
Parrot may also have become established in the for-
ests of Grenada, although it does not appear to be
common (Frost and Massiah 2003).
There are large areas of suitable forest habitat in
Grenada that are infrequently visited by birdwatch-
ers and it is not too surprising that a small popula-
tion of toucans could remain largely hidden and
unreported, especially in the more remote locations.
We did not have time to investigate our toucan
sightings more thoroughly and we urge others to


look for this species in Grenada. Since then, in early
August 2002, EBM paid a short visit to the island
and again located a calling Channel-billed Toucan
in forest above Les Avocat Dam.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank Russell Thorstrom and the Peregrine
Fund for making our trip to Grenada possible, and
Anthony Jeremiah of the Grenada Forestry Division
for his recollections and contribution to this note.

LITERATURE CITED
FFRENCH, R. 1991. A guide to the birds of Trinidad
and Tobago. 2nd ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univer-
sity Press.
FROST, M. D., AND E. B. MASSIAH. 2003. Observa-
tions of rare and unusual birds on Grenada. J.
Caribb. Omithol. 16:63-65.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 69












PRESENCIA DURANTE TODO EL ANO DE LA PIZPITA DE MANGLE
(SEIUR US NO VEBORA CENSIS) EN PUERTO RICO


RAUL A. PEREZ-RIVERA, LIMARY RAMIREZ, JOSE VELAZQUEZ Y ALBERTO MOLINA
Programa Manejo de Vida Silvestre, Departamento de Biologia, Universidad de Puerto Rico, Humacao, PR 00791

Resumen.-Llevamos a cabo censos bimensuales en la Finca Hoyo-Mula, Carolina, Puerto Rico desde el 10 de
mayo hasta el 21 de diciembre de 2002. Por lo menos un individuo de Pizpita de Mangle (Seiurus noveboracen-
sis) fue escuchado desde el 14 de mayo al 6 de diciembre de 2002. Estas observaciones extienden la presencia de
esta especie en Puerto Rico a trav6s de todos los meses del afio.
Palabras clave: manglar, migrante, Pizpita de Mangle, Puerto Rico, registro, Seiurus noveboracensis
Abstract.-YEAR-ROUND PRESENCE OF NORTHERN WATERTHRUSH (SEIURUS NOVEBORACENSIS) IN PUERTO
Rico. We conducted bimonthly surveys at Finca Hoyo-Mula, Carolina, Puerto Rico, from 10 May to 21 Decem-
ber 2002. At least one Northern Waterthrush (Seiurus noveboracensis) was heard or observed from 14 May to 6
December 2002. These observations extended the presence of this species in Puerto Rico throughout the year.
Key words: migrant, mangrove, Northern Waterthrush, Puerto Rico, record, Seiurus noveboracensis


LA PIZPITA DE MANGLE (Seiurus noveboracensis)
es una de las especies de reinitas migratorias mis
conspicuas de Puerto Rico. La misma anuncia su
presencia con una clara y fuerte Ilamada descrita
como un "tchip" (Raffaele 1990) o un
"chink" (Dunn y Garrett 1997). Una linea conspicua
amarilla bronceada sobre el ojo, manchas en la gar-
ganta y patas mis oscuras la distinguen de la Pizpita
de Rio (S. motacilla). Su peculiar movimiento de la
parte trasera, es otra caracteristica distintiva. El
nombre comiin de esta ave en Puerto Rico, Pizpita
de Mangle, esti asociado a su presencia, casi exclu-
siva, en las partes inundadas de los manglares
(Danforth 1936, Biaggi 1974).
En mayo de 2002 comenzamos a hacer trabajos
sobre la avifauna en la Finca Hoyo-Mula, Carolina,
Puerto Rico. Esta finca, la cual tiene 370 cuerdas de
mangle, colinda con la parte sur con el Bosque de
Pifiones-Torrecilla. El lugar se visit6 al menos bi-
mensualmente desde el 10 de mayo hasta el 21 de
diciembre de 2002. El 14 de mayo de 2002 mientras
llevabamos a cabo un censo, creimos haber escu-
chado un individuo de Pizpita de Mangle en dicho
manglar. De igual forma el 19 de junio. Finalmente
el 26 de junio logramos observar claramente a un
individuo de Pizpita de Mangle, en el area donde
previamente le habiamos escuchado. Decidimos
entonces, poner especial atenci6n para tratar de de-
terminar la presencia de otros individuos en el man-
glar. De esta forma el 19 de julio, llegamos a contar
al menos cinco individuos adicionales, uno de estos
en el Canal Blasina, lugar que tambidn colinda con
la propiedad. De esta forma se siguieron observando


Page 70


o escuchando individuos de Pizpita de Mangle du-
rante los otros meses de trabajo hasta el censo del 7
de diciembre. El conteo mayor de individuos fue de
siete que se detectaron en el censo del 11 de octu-
bre.
Previa a estas observaciones la Pizpita de Mangle
habia sido informada en Puerto Rico, desde abril
hasta septiembre (Danforth 1936, Biaggi 1974, Raf-
faele 1990). Nuestras observaciones denotan la pre-
sencia de la especie en la isla durante todos los me-
ses del afio. Bond (1980) informa a la especie en las
Antillas desde el 13 de agosto hasta el 28 de mayo.
Por su parte Raffaele et al. (1998) indican que hay
records para la presencia de esta especie en las Anti-
llas durante todos los meses del afio sin ofrecer ma-
yores detalles. Una posible explicaci6n a nuestros
avistamientos es la probabilidad de que algunos in-
dividuos nacidos al final de la temporada reproduc-
tiva, permanezcan en sus lugares invernales hasta
adquirir su madurez sexual.

RECONOCIMIENTOS
Los autores quieren agradecer al Programa AMP
de la Universidad de Puerto Rico-Rio Piedras, por la
beca otorgada a los estudiantes para que pudieran
hacer investigaci6n durante el verano del 2002.

LITERATURA CITADA
BIAGGI, V. 1974. Las aves de Puerto Rico. 2nda ed.
San Juan, PR: Editorial de la Universidad de
Puerto Rico.
BOND, J. 1980. Birds of the West Indies. 4ta ed.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1









PEREZ-RIVERA ETAL.-PRESENCIA DE LA PIZPITA DE MANGLE (SEIURUS NOVEBORACENSIS) EN PUERTO RICO


London, England: Houghton-Mifflin Co.
DANFORTH, S. 1936. Los pdjaros de Puerto Rico.
New York, NY: Rand McNally y Co.
DUNN, J. L. Y K. L. GARRETT. 1997. A field guide
to warblers of North America. Boston, MA:
Houghton-Mifflin y Co.
RAFFAELE, H. A. 1990. Una guia a las aves de Puer-


to Rico y las Islas Virgenes. 2nda. ed. Santurce,
Puerto Rico: Publishing Resources Inc.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH Y
J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of the
West Indies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University
Press.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 71












FIRST RECORD OF NUTMEG MANNIKIN
LONCHURA PUNCTULATA (AVES:ESTRILDIDAE) FOR CUBA

YARODDY RODRIGUEZ1, ORLANDO H. GARRIDO2, AND ARTURO KIRKCONNELL3
aCalle H entre 2y 3 No.370, Reparto Lugones, Ciego de Avila, Cuba; 2Calle 60 No. 1706
entre 17y 19, Marianao 13, La Habana, Cuba; and 3Museo Nacional de Historia Natural
de Cuba, Calle Obispo 61, Habana Vieja, Cuba


THE FIRST RECORD of the Nutmeg Mannikin
(Lonchura punctulata) for Cuba is an individual
collected by Yaroddy Rodriguez on 6 March 2003
in the outskirts of the city of Ciego de Avila. For
several years before then, however, Lonchura punc-
tulata was known in Cuba (Garrido 1997). Garrido
(1997) had reported several flocks of this species in
the province of Guantdnamo (near Vilorio). Further-
more, some "pijareros" had captured and kept sev-
eral individuals in captivity. This bird is locally
known as "Damero," because of its resemblance to
a chessboard.
At present, we are aware of Lonchura punctulata
only in the oriental provinces, but we do not doubt
that the bird has dispersed to several other regions
of Cuba; i.e., wherever they find a suitable habitat
in rice and other plantations where running water is
present.


Four specimens are deposited in the National Mu-
seum of Natural History of Cuba (MNHNC-Nos.
1668, 1669, 1670, 1671). Rodriguez captured the
first bird from among a flock of Lonchura malacca,
a species that has been increasing rapidly in num-
bers in several provinces of Cuba. In 2003, Pedro
Cuadrado donated three birds that he had captured
near Gibara, Holguin Province, and kept in captiv-
ity. Although L. punctulata is also widespread and
increasing in numbers, its settlement in Cuba is
more recent than L. malacca.

LITERATURE CITED
GARRIDO, O. H. 1997. Sicalisflaveola (Aves: Em-
berizidae)-nueva especie para la avifauna cuba-
na. Pitirre 10:55.


RECENT SIGHTINGS OF WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON AND BLACK SWIFT ON NEVIS


JULIAN FRANCIS
65 Fleet Street, London EC4Y 1HS, England

Abstract.-White-crowned Pigeon (Columba leucocephala) and Black Swift (Cypseloides niger) were
sighted on Nevis on 16 April 2003.
Key words: Black Swift, Columba leucocephala, Cypseloides niger, Nevis, White-crowned Pigeon


WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON (Columba leuco-
cephala) and Black Swift (Cypseloides niger) are
both mentioned in The birds of Nevis (Hilder 1989).
White-crowned Pigeon is recorded as having been
seen only once in February. No clear details are pro-
vided of the frequency or the time of year of sight-
ings in relation to Black Swift. Raffaele et al.
(1998) give ranges which would include Nevis for
both these birds but no other specific details for Ne-
vis. Accordingly, my sightings of both these birds
on 16 April 2003 are of value. A White-crowned
Pigeon was seen in a palm next to Nelson Spring (a
Page 72


small lake just behind Pinneys Beach in northwest-
ern Nevis). Three Black Swifts were seen flying
east over Gingerland (a village in southwestern Ne-
vis) in stormy weather.

LITERATURE CITED
HILDER, H. 1989. The birds of Nevis. Charlestown:
Nevis Historical and Conservation Society.
RAFFAELE, H., J. WILEY, O. GARRIDO, A. KEITH,
AND J. RAFFAELE. 1998. A guide to the birds of
the West Indies. London: Helm.

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1












THREE UNUSUAL BIRD NESTS FROM THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


ELADIO M. FERNANDEZ' AND ALLAN R. KEITH2
1Alberto Larancuent #23, Edificio Stephanie Marie 1, Naco, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic;
and 2Turtle Brook Farm, PO Box 247, Chilmark, A4 02535, USA



Abstract-We report unusual nests of Black Swift (Cypseloides niger), Palmchat (Dulus dominicus), and
Golden Swallow (Tachycineta euchrysea), all in southwestern Dominican Republic.
Key words: Black Swift, Cypseloides niger, Dominican Republic, Dulus domincus, Golden Swallow, nests,
Palmchat, Tachycineta euchrysea,
Resumen-Reportamos tres nidos inusuales de Vencejo Negro (Cypseloides niger), Cigua Palmera (Dulus
dominicus) y Golondrina Verde (Tachycineta euchrysea), todos en la region suroeste de la Republica Domini-
cana.
Palabras clave: Cigua Palmera, Cypseloides niger, Dulus dominicus, Golondrina Verde, Reptblica Domini-
cana, Tachycineta euchrysea, Vencejo Negro


ON 21 JUNE 2002, Nicolas Corona, a local bird-
watcher from Pedernales, informed Danilo Mejia of
The Society for the Conservation and Study of Car-
ibbean Birds about a "swallow" nesting on the wall
of a canyon near Nicolas' property in Los Arroyos,
Pedernales Province, on the southern slope of Sierra
de Bahoruco. The next day Danilo Mejia, Vinicio
Mejia, Mirasabel Paulino, and the senior author vis-
ited the site. It is about 1500 m in elevation in thick,
wet broadleaf forest just below the pine forest zone.
The canyon is narrow, relatively dark, rather long,
with smooth, nearly vertical sides in several parts.
The floor of the canyon is covered with tree ferns,
moss, vines, and other vegetation typical of humid
forest. The walls of the canyon were damp, but the
water did not appear to flow from anywhere in par-
ticular.
The first two nests both had adult Black Swifts
(Cypseloides niger) sitting on them. One was about
3 m from the ground, the second only about 2 m
above the canyon floor, and were about 3 m apart.
Both nests were built of dark brown moss attached
directly to the canyon wall. One bird was photo-
graphed on the nest by the senior author; this color
photograph will appear in Keith et al. (in press) and
represents the first proved breeding record for His-
paniola. Examination of the contents of the two
nests revealed one egg in the first nest and one
hatchling in the second nest. Further investigation
revealed 11 more nests on the canyon wall, some of
which appeared to be abandoned and may have
been used in prior years. Other nests also had adults
sitting on them; all the other nests were relatively
close together.

Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


The site is not part of the nearby National Park
system. It is hoped that measures can be taken by
local authorities to protect the site and a buffer zone
of surrounding property.
The Palmchat (Dulus dominicus) has previously
been reported only nesting in trees, most often
Royal Palms (Roystonea hispaniolana), or very
rarely on poles. Usually the large stick nests are
used by several pairs. Here we report an exceptional
nest built on a rock in the ocean just off the edge of
the shoreline at the old Alcoa Hotel at Cabo Rojo,
Pedemales Province (Fig. 1). This appears to be the
first documented terrestrial nest of this species. The
nest was discovered by John Prather and was photo-
graphed by the senior author in October 2001. Only
a single pair of birds was observed entering and
leaving the nest.


Fig. 1. Palmchat nest on a seaside rock,
Domininican Republic.


Page 73









FERNANDEZ AND KEITH-UNUSUAL BIRD NESTS FROM THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC


Fig. 2. Golden Swallow in nest within a crevice along the
side of an open pit bauxite mine, Acetillar, Sierra de Ba-
horuco, Dominican Republic.


Golden Swallows (Tachycineta euchrysea) typi-
cally nest in old woodpecker holes, more rarely un-
der the eaves of houses or just inside cave en-
trances, and are often colonial. Here we report an


unusual nest site of a single pair in a crevice only
about 0.2 m above ground level along the side of an
open pit bauxite mine at 1200 m elevation at Acetil-
lar, Sierra de Bahoruco, Pedernales Province (Fig.
2). The entrance to the mine is about 350 m off the
main Acetillar road and the nest site is about 150 m
inside the mine entrance at the far end of the pit.
The pit is surrounded by pine forest. Vinicio Mejia
and the senior author discovered the nest on 23 June
2002 after Marisabel Paulino had become suspi-
cious earlier that month that the birds might have a
nest nearby. This appears to be the first reported
virtually terrestrial nest of this species.

LITERATURE CITED
KEITH, A. R., J. W. WILEY, S. C. LATTA, AND J. A.
OTTENWALDER. In press. The birds of His-
paniola Dominican Republic and Haiti. BOU
Checklist No. 21. London: British Ornithologists'
Union.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 74









BOOK REVIEW


A BIRDWATCHING GUIDE TO BERMUDA.-Andrew
Dobson. 2002. Arlequin Press, Essex, United King-
dom. ISBN 1900159716. 176 pp. Maps and color
photographs. 13.95. Paper.
How many bird-finding guides offer specifica-
tions for building nest-igloos for White-tailed
Tropicbirds?
The uniqueness of Andrew Dobson's new book,
A birdwatching guide to Bermuda, is intimated in its
title: a birdwatching guide. This book, perhaps the
most comprehensive text covering a geographic
area of its scope (some 55 km2 a few well-
watched "patches" in England excepted), orients the
naturalist not just toward bird-finding but to all as-
pects of bird-watching; that is, the prolonged obser-
vation, study, and appreciation of birds. The care in
preparation of this text is evident on every page, and
its distinctiveness within its genre (the tropicbird
igloo is merely the tip of the iceberg) and fidelity to
the charming archipelago that forms its subject will
please even the armchair traveler with no plans to
visit Bermuda.
Dobson has left the critic precious little opportu-
nity to find fault with his work, which covers in
minute detail virtually every aspect of Bermudian
birdlife that the visiting or resident naturalist could
find of interest: local bird conservation; plantings
and nest-boxes for birds; travel by air, land, and sea;
lodgings for birders; wheelchair-accessible birding
sites; geography and climate; relevant web-sites;
hints for novices, tour guides, and groups; and much
more. As would any true naturalist, Dobson cannot
resist compiling and including complete lists of Ber-
muda's mammals, reptiles, amphibians, butterflies,
damselflies, and dragonflies.
For a non-resident in particular, having all this
information together in a single (very handsomely
laid out) text is manna from heaven. In the past, one
had to surf the World Wide Web endlessly to locate
even a small part of this material; and a decade or so
ago, the visiting birder could turn only to David
Wingate's brief but pioneering A checklist and
guide to the birds of Bermuda (1973), now out of
print, and to correspondence with local naturalists.
Dobson has answered virtually every potential ques-
tion about Bermudian travel and logistics in his in-
troductory material.
The remainder of the book treats the location by
habitat, site, and season of Bermuda's birds. As
with Eric J. R. Amos's 1991 book, A guide to the
birds of Bermuda, also now out of print, Dobson
wisely separates treatments of the breeding from the


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


nonbreeding species, offers commentary on the four
seasons' birding potential, and discusses the habitats
and birding sites of each parish in easy-to-follow
sections arranged naturally, in the order in which
they might be birded. Where Amos's book used
original artwork to illustrate habitats and species,
Dobson's employs color photographs, mostly by the
author. Both books are gems, but Dobson's is the
more exhaustive and up-to-date of the two, and his
maps are nonpareil for a birding guide.
There are aspects of this book both useful and
informative that deserve special mention. The maps
make a fine example. If one turns, for instance, to
the map for Spittal Pond, a lovely freshwater body
that holds a good diversity of waterfowl and waders
over the course of a year, one finds the numbers one
through 16 on the map. These numbers are keyed to
a legend that points the birder toward a key sea-
watching site, a permanent population of monarch
butterflies, and a small patch known for wintering
wood-warblers, among many other tips. This level
of detail will be appreciated by even a casual ob-
server, and it is rather remarkable for a nine-acre
pond!
Bermuda has a healthy population of wintering
American wood-warblers, often over 25 species,
and these will be seen in numbers by birders, espe-
cially in autumn visits but also in winter. But how
common are the various species? Under the section
"Wintering warblers in Bermuda," all 38 species
known from Bermuda are classed by their estimated
wintering populations, whether 300+ (Yellow-
rumped Warbler and Ovenbird only), 100-299, 50-
99, 10-49, or the rarest of the rare, some 16 species
that number from one to nine per year, such as
Golden-winged, Connecticut, and Swainson's war-
blers. With this table, birders can quickly assess the
relative abundance of the warblers they discover,
can decide whether extensive notes, sketches, and
photographs are needed-and finally whether local
birders should be contacted (contact information is
provided at the end of the guide). Very few site
guides provide this nuanced sort of ranking, much
less a numerical guide borne of decades of record-
keeping and good communication among the is-
land's birders.
Another advantage for visiting birders is the con-
cluding section entitled "Where to find non-resident
sought-after birds," which treats difficult groups
such as gulls and tubenoses. Here Dobson offers the
insider's micro-strategies for finding birds both
regular and rare, saving the visitor the pain of trial-
and-error birding in unfamiliar terrain. (For these, as


Page 75









BRINKLEY REVIEW OF A BIRDWATCHING GUIDE TO BERMUDA BY DOBSON


well as for other seabirds, shorebirds, and wading
birds, a spotting scope is clearly essential for the
visiting birder, not to mention for the Snow Bun-
tings, Whimbrel, and American Golden-Plovers that
might turn up beyond the closed fences of the Inter-
national Airport!)
What more could one hope for? The list is short.
As with Cornelius Hazevoet's The birds of the Cape
Verde Islands (British Ornithologists' Union, 1995),
here too one searches in vain for an image of the
island's star endemic petrel, which is in Dobson's
book represented only by a fluffy nestling Bermuda
Petrel, or "Cahow," as Bermuda's residents have
named their bird. Now that this species is docu-
mented annually off the coast of North America
(specifically, off North Carolina), good photographs
of birds in flight are available, and this guide would
be an ideal venue for such an image, inasmuch as
standard field guides such as David Sibley's Sibley
guide to North American birds (Knopf, 2000) do not
even mention the Cahow, and good photographs
have been published only in a few American maga-
zines and journals. Thankfully, Dobson offers the
visiting birder several potentially successful strate-
gies for seeing this famous, attractive, and critically
endangered seabird, either from an afternoon sea-
watch or a short pelagic trip-the first birding guide
to do so.
Another area of the text in which one hankers for
more is the section entitled "Rare bird sightings
since 1990." It is only comparatively recently that
Bermudian bird records have been collectively com-
piled; older records are scattered among observers'
notes dating back a half-century or more. Though
rarities are not the focus of this or any other bird-
finding guide, it would be marvelous to see such a


section expanded to an annotated checklist contain-
ing all records of extralimital or vagrant species (the
book's checklist sometimes provides a year or dec-
ade for pre-1990 vagrants, but the curious birder
will thirst for greater detail). Even with all available
published information on Bermuda's birds
(including David Wingate's Checklist and guide) at
hand, it is not possible to get a full picture of the
status and distribution of the 365 species docu-
mented to have appeared on the island. Wingate's
and Amos's texts attempted to qualify and quantify
this information graphically, with bar graphs of sev-
eral sorts for regular species (a popular way to rep-
resent seasonal relative abundance in American
guides). Dobson, in his guide's checklist, offers col-
umns for overall status and abundance by the four
seasons, which can be more difficult to interpret.
This lacuna in the ornithological literature on Ber-
muda will hopefully be remedied by a monograph
on the island's birds in the future, a project worthy
of such a well-studied and idyllic place.
A glance at Dobson's efforts in his admirable
book can be dangerous-birding Bermuda can be-
come addictive, and the House Wren or Red-tailed
Hawk that scarcely occasions a raised binocular on
the mainland can become the occasion for a raised
pint in one of St. George's popular pubs! (And who
knows what sort of celebration visitors to Bermuda
such as Booted Eagle, Siberian Flycatcher, Ferrugi-
nous Duck, Large-billed Tern, Gyrfalcon, Bohe-
mian Waxwing, Corn Crake, or Common House-
Martin might have occasioned?) The reader peruses
the book and its tempting topics at peril!-EDWARD
S. BRINKLEY, Editor, North American Birds, 9
Randolph Avenue, Cape Charles, VA 23310, USA.


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 76









FOR THE OLD-TIMERS


PARTICIPANTS AT THE FIRST SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN
ORNITHOLOGY MEETING
ST. CROIX, VIRGIN ISLANDS
1988


First President, Jorge Moreno, and The Bell


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


WIR~BBO~B~BPa9~j~a~


Page 77









FIRST SCO MEETING ST. CROIX, 1988


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 78









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Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 79












JUST PUBLISHED


Journal of Caribbean Ornithology Vol. 16 No. 1


Page 80











THE SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS


PRESIDENT: Mr. Eric Carey
VICE PRESIDENT: Mr. Leo Douglas
SECRETARY: Dr. Anne Haynes Sutton
TREASURER: Dr. Rosemarie S. Gnam



THE SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN Birds is a non-profit organization whose
goals are to promote the scientific study and conservation of Caribbean birds and their habitats, to provide a link
among island ornithologists and those elsewhere, to provide a written forum for researchers in the region, and to
provide data or technical aid to conservation groups in the Caribbean.


LA SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS es una organizaci6n sin fines de
lucro cuyas metas son promover el estudio cientifico y la conservaci6n de la avifauna caribefia, auspiciar un simpo-
sio anual sobre la ornitologia caribefia, ser una fuente de comunicaci6n entre ornit6logos caribefios y en otras areas
y proveer ayuda t6cnica o datos a grupos de conservaci6n en el caribe.


LA SOCIETE POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L'ETUDE DES OISEAUX DE LA CARAIBE est une organisation A but non
lucratif, dont les objectifs sont de promouvoir les 6tudes scientifiques et la conservation des oiseaux de la Caraibe
et de leurs habitats, afin d'assurer un lien entre les ornithologistes des iles et ceux venus d'ailleurs, dans l'objectif
de mettre en place un groupe de discussion pour les chercheurs de la region, et pour fournir des donndes ou une
aide technique A la conservation de groupes d'esp&ces dans la Caraibe.


MEMBERSHIP AND SUBSCRIPTIONS

Any person interested in West Indian birds may become a member of the Society for the Conservation and
Study of Caribbean Birds (SCSCB). All members receive the Society's journal, The Journal of Caribbean Orni-
thology. Annual individual membership dues are $20.00 (U.S.). Annual institutional membership dues are $120
(U.S.) for U.S. and European based institutions and $50.00 (U.S.) for Caribbean based institutions. Life Member-
ships are also available for $300 (U.S.) and this fee is payable in three annual installments contact the Treasurer
for further details. Send check or money order in U. S. funds with complete name and address to: Dr. Rosemarie
S. Gnam, PO Box 863208, Ridgewood, NY 11386 USA.
Toute personne int6ress6e par les oiseaux des Antilles peut devenir un membre de la Soci&td pour la Conserva-
tion et l'Etude des Oiseaux de la Caraibe (SCEOC). Tous les membres recoivent Le Journal de l'Ornithologie Ca-
ribeenne. La cotisation annuelle des membres (individuels) est de 20 (USD). La cotisation annuelle des membres
(institutionnels) bass aux Etats Unis et en Europe est de 120 (USD), et de 50 (USD) pour les institutions bases
dans la Caraibe. La quality de membre permanent est aussi possible pour un montant de 300 USD, et cette cotisa-
tion est payable en trois versements annuels contacter la Tr6sori&re pour plus de details. Priere envoyer cheques
ou especes A l'ordre de U.S. funds avec votre nom et votre adresse complete A : Dr Rosemarie S. Gnam, PO Box
863208, Ridgerwood, NY 11386 USA.
This year the SCSCB Executive Officers are asking members to sponsor a SCSCB member in the Caribbean
that has a keen interest in the Society's mission but is unable to afford membership at this time. These members
will be active in SCSCB activities and will work on their respective islands to conserve birds. The cost of a spon-
sorship is $20.00 (US.). Sponsorship awards these persons full benefits of SCSCB membership, including the right
to vote in SCSCB. Thank you for your help.


























CONTENTS (CONTINUED FROM FRONT COVER)


FIRST RECORD OF NUTMEG MANNIKIN LONCHURA PUNCTULATA (AVES:ESTRILDIDAE) FOR CUBA.
Yaroddy Rodriguez, Orlando H. Garrido, andArturo Kirkconnell ....................................................... 72
RECENT SIGHTINGS OF WHITE-CROWNED PIGEON AND BLACK SWIFT ON NEVIS. Julian Francis ................. 72
THREE UNUSUAL BIRD NESTS FROM THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC. Eladio M Fernandez andAllan R. Keith .... 73
A BIRDWATCHING GUIDE TO BERMUDA.-Andrew Dobson. 2002. Arlequin Press, Essex, United
Kingdom. ISBN 1900159716. 176 pp. Maps and color photographs. 13.95. Paper. Edward S. Brinkley ... 75
THE FIRST SOCIETY OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY MEETING, ST. CROIX, VIRGIN ISLANDS, 1988 -
PHOTOGRAPHIC MEMORIES. ...................................................... 77
A D V ER TISEM EN T ............................................... .......... ..................................................................... 79
JUST PUBLISHED: A VESDE CUBA, EDITED BY HIRAM GONZALEZ ALONSO ............................... ............ 80















The Society for the Conservation and Study of Caribbean Birds thanks Winged Ambassadors and the Division
of International Conservation of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for their support
We thank the Coereba Society (www.coereba.org) for their editorial and translation assistance.
A special thanks to Alma Ramirez and Shawn O'Brien for their help with this issue.
The outgoing Editor thanks all who have contributed to the development of the Society's bulletin
over the first 15 years, through their submission of manuscripts and notices, reviews, translations,
suggestions, and, especially, their moral support and friendship.


THE JOURNAL OF CARIBBEAN ORNITHOLOGY

SOCIETY FOR THE CONSERVATION AND STUDY OF CARIBBEAN BIRDS
,ji "SOCIEDAD PARA LA CONSERVACION Y ESTUDIO DE LAS AVES CARIBENAS
SOCIETE POUR LA CONSERVATION ET L'ETUDE DE LA CARAIBE

SSpring 2003 Vol. 16, No. 1




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