• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Overview
 Historic context
 Scholarly evaluation
 Fragile or short-lived resourc...
 Time
 Comparative evaluation
 Association with living person...
 Historic districts
 Conclusion
 Endnotes
 Bibliography
 Speaker and facilitator biogra...
 Recent past resource guide
 National Register listings in Florida...






Title: Public workshop : evaluating resources from the recent past in Florida, November 6-9, 2008
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100103/00001
 Material Information
Title: Public workshop : evaluating resources from the recent past in Florida, November 6-9, 2008
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Lambin, Jeanne ( Compiler )
Schulman, Allan
Gournay, Isabelle
Hylton, Morris III
Mattick, Barbara
Sies, Mary Corbin
Uguccioni, Ellen J.
Publisher: University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Copyright Date: 2008
 Subjects
Subject: Historic preservation
Recent past
Architecture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Architecture -- Caribbean Area   ( lcsh )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100103
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Introduction
        Page 7
    Overview
        Page 8
    Historic context
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Scholarly evaluation
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Fragile or short-lived resources
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Time
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Comparative evaluation
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Association with living persons
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Historic districts
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Conclusion
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Endnotes
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Bibliography
        Page 34
    Speaker and facilitator biographies
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Recent past resource guide
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
    National Register listings in Florida under criteria consideration G
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
Full Text
Roy Graham, FAIA,
Beinecke-Reeves Distinguished Professor, Director Historic Preservation
Programs, University of Florida
contributors:
Allan Schulman, FAIA, Isabelle Gournay, Ph.D., Morris Hylton III, Barbara Mattick, Ph.D., Mary Corbin Sies, Ph.D., Ellen J. Uguccioni
Prepared by: Jeanne M. Lambin


Table of Contents
AGENDA 4
INTRODUCTION 7
OVERVIEW 8
1. HISTORIC CONTEXT 9
Summary of Guideline 9
Case Study: American Beach Historic District 10
Description of Significance 1 1
Discussion 11
Recommendations 12
Prioritized Recommendations 12
2. SCHOLARLY EVALUATION 13
Summary of Guidelines 13
Case Study: The Fontainebleau Hotel 13
Description of Significance 14
Discussion 15
Participant Recommendations 16
3. FRAGILE OR SHORT-LIVED RESOURCES 16
Summary of Guideline 16
Case Study: Healy Guest House aka the Cocoon House 17
Description of Significance 17
Discussion 18
Participant Recommendations 18
Prioritized Recommendations 18
4. TIME 18
Summary of Guideline 18
Case Study: Various Sites of the Sarasota School of Architecture 19
Description of Significance 20
Discussion 20
Participant Recommendations 20
Prioritized Recommendations 20
5. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION 20
Summary of Guideline 20
Case Study: Lustine, Center 21
Description of Significance 21
Discussion 22
Participant Recommendations 23
Prioritized Recommendations 25
6. ASSOCIATION WITH LIVING PERSONS 25
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Summary of Guideline 25
Case Study: Warm Mineral Springs Hotel 26
Description of Significance and Guidelines 27
Challenges 27
Recommendations 28
7. HISTORIC DISTRICTS__28
Summary of Guideline 28
Case Study: Palm Grove Neighborhood Historic District 29
Description of Case Study 29
Participant Recommendations 30
Prioritized Recommendations 30
8. CONCLUSION_30
ENDNOTES__32
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
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THURSDAY NOVEMBER 6
9:00-12:00 FHC NATIONAL REGISTER REVIEW BOARD MEETING
McGuire Center (Butterfly Museum), Florida Museum of Natural History
1:00-5:00 FLORIDA HISTORICAL COMMISION MEETING
McGuire Center (Butterfly Museum), Florida Museum of Natural History
5:30-6:30 GATHERING
Hors d'ouvres and cash bar (wine and beer) Galleria, Ham Museum of Art
THURSDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 6
6:30-8:00 KEYNOTE TALKS
Allan Shulman, FAIA, Curator, "Promises of Paradise: Staging Mid-Century Miami," and Research Assistant Professor, School of Architecture, University of Miami
Co-sponsored by the UF School of Architecture
Jeanne Lambin, Author, Preserving Resources from the Recent Past and Professor, Savannah College of Art & Design
Chandler Auditorium, Ham Museum of Art
9:00-11:00 EXHIBITION
"Promises of Paradise: Staging Mid-Century Miami"
Rotunda and Gladys Gracy Ham Exhibition Hall, Ham Museum of Art
FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 7
8:00 ON-SITE REGISTRATION AND CHECK-IN
COFFEE
Galleria, Ham Museum of Art
9:00-9:45 WORKSHOP: EVALUATING THE RESOURCES OF THE RECENT PAST IN FLORIDA
Welcome
Rebecca Nagy, Ph.D., Director, Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art
Introduction
Jeanne Lambin, Chair
Chandler Auditorium, Harn Museum of Art
The workshop breaks into rotating sessions. You will be assigned to a group. These sessions will run continuously during the day with a break for lunch. A facilitator will lead the discussion in each session and each participant will be involved in all the subjects. The subjects are taken from the NRH Bulletin: Guidelines for Evaluating and Designating Resources of the Recent Past.
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"Properties in Historic Districts" Ellen Uguccioni, Facilitator
"Historic Context and Associations with Living Persons" Barbara Mattick, Ph.D., Facilitator
"Scholarly Evaluation" Allan Schulman, Facilitator
"Fragile/ Short-Lived Resources and Time" Morris Hylton, III, Facilitator
"Comparative Evaluation"
Mary Corbin Sies, Ph.D. and Isabelle Gournay, Ph.D., Facilitators
10:00-11:45 SESSIONS BY CRITERIUM
Classrooms, Florida Museum of Natural History and Harn Museum of Art (on lower level)
12:00-1:00 BOX LUNCH (charge event)
Boxes available in Galleria, Harn Museum of Art
1:15-5:00 SESSIONS BY CRITERIUM
Classrooms, Florida Museum of Natural History and Harn Museum of Art (on lower level)
FRIDAY EVENING, NOVEMBER 7
7:00-10:30 DINNER AND DISTINGUISHED LECTURE (charge event)
"African American Cultural Sites of the Recent Past in Florida" Marvin Dunn, Ph.D., Author, Historian
JAZZ CONCERT
Summer House, Kanapaha Botanical Gardens (see map at back of program for directions)
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 8
8:00-9:00 COFFEE
Galleria, Harn Museum of Art
9:00-12:00 WORKSHOP CONTINUES
"Plenary Session Repot from Facilitators" Jeanne Lambin, Chair
Chandler Auditorium, Harn Museum of Art
12:00-1:00 BOX LUNCH (charge event)
Boxes available in Galleria, Harn Museum of Art
1:15-3:30 TOUR RECENT PAST SITES AT UF (charge event) Preview: "Change within Context"
Susan Douglas Tate, AIA, Professor Emeritus, University of Florida, and Richard Sheildhouse
Chandler Auditorium, Harn Museum of Art
Departure by bus from Harn Museum of Art for tour of UF sites
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4:00-5:00 WORKSHOP CONCLUDES "White Paper Adoption" Jeanne Lambin, Chair
Chandler Auditorium, Harn Museum of Art
SUNDAY AFTERNOON, NOVEMBER 9
3:00 GALLERY TALK
Tour the Exhibition with Alfred Browning Parker, FAIA
Meet in Rotunda, Harn Museum of Art
4:00 RECEPTION FOLLOWING TALK
Galleria, Harn Museum of Art
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
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ntroduction
During the Postwar era of mid-twentieth century, Florida's built culture was at the forefront of the nation as the state's cities, suburbs, buildings and landscapes changed from the rural South to thriving centers of urbanism. Although southeastern Florida became legendary for its growth at that time, other regions of the state experienced the boom as well. Thousands of newcomers flocked to Gulf Coast metropolitan areas like Tampa and St. Petersburg, while many Gl's after the war settled in central and northern Florida cities such as Gainesville and Jacksonville. In fact, Northeast Florida's Duval County saw its population surge 1 61 % between 1 940 and 1 960, in large measure fueled by the growth of Navy facilities in the area and the county's absorption of the city of Jacksonville.
The number of recent past resources in Florida is staggering. It is estimated that in this state they make up approximately 90 percent of the built environment. In Florida, the decades following World War II witnessed an explosion of architectural, landscape, engineering, decorative arts, design innovation and great social change.
Buildings of the recent past face threats that earlier buildings do not, partially because preservationists themselves often disagree with the significance of the sites. Many throw up their hands in exasperation because of the sheer number. Because they may not yet be 50 years old, many of the cultural resources of this post-war period are often overlooked by preservationists as eligible for historic designation. Structures that were constructed with fragile, experimental or short-lived materials often deteriorate rapidly and their bad conditions make them targets for developer demolition.
In a partnership between the Center for World Heritage Research and Stewardship and the Samuel P. Harn Museum of Art on the campus of the University of Florida, a public workshop was held November 6-9, 2008, in conjunction with a traveling exhibit (from the Bass Museum in Miami Beach) called "Promises of Paradise: Staging Midcentury Miami." This forum took a serious look at these unique resources' precarious position in time too new to be considered "historic" by many because the cultural memory is too recent and yet old enough to be in danger of alteration and replacement. To continue this important dialogue, the initial participants of the workshop went on to invite scholars and experts from international, US and state organizations, including DOCOMOMO, the Florida Historical Commission and the Florida Historical Commission, and resulted in the White Paper at hand. It is hoped this document will facilitate the discussion of the protection of these valuable resources.
Roy Eugene Graham, FAIA
Beinecke-Reeves Distinguished Professor, Director CENTER FOR WORLD HERITAGE AND STEWARDSHIP College of Design, Construction and Planning University of Florida
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
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jverview
The "recent past" is a term commonly used to describe heritage resources younger than fifty years old. The fifty-year mark is based on the so-called "fifty year rule" which is the generally held belief that a property cannof be listed on the National Register of Historic Places unless it is at least fifty years old. In reality, younger properties can be listed on the register if they fall under Criteria Consideration G, which sates that properties younger than fifty years old can be listed on the National Register if they are of exceptional significance at the national, state or even local level. Even though younger resources can be listed on the register, they still represent only a small fraction of the total amount of properties listed. Most resources included in the register had already reached or surpassed the fifty-year mark at the time of their listing. Because with the passage of each passing year, a new group of resources crosses the fifty-year threshold, the term recent past encompasses a broad range of resources, from the nationally significant icons, to the locally significant landmarks. The term also reflects the wide variety of our more recent cultural heritage, not just Modern with a capital "M" but the historically significant, the vernacular, and the not so very high style and those things that don't fit into the narrow temporal window of post-war and mid-century. Because many local landmark designations programs are modeled after the National Register, underage resources are commonly not eligible for local designation programs either. Unlike the National Register, many local landmark Commissions do not have a provision for exceptional significance. This lack of protection is one of the many preservation challenges that these resources face. Too further complicate matters, many feel (even those in favor of preservation) that they are too recent to easily and properly categorized, evaluated and understood.
In this era of rapid development, many of these resources, like Alfred Browning Parker's Manus House (featured on the cover of this report), built in 1960 and demolished in 2008, do not make it to the fifty year mark, they are imploded, demolished or severely and unsympathetically altered before they become "historic," listed and potentially protected.
One of the first steps towards preserving these resources is survey and evaluation. Once a property has been identified it needs to be identified to evaluated to determine if it meets that criteria for National Register listing or local designation. Listing can provide some protections, incentives and also can provide credibility-a key tool for building public support, without which, advocating for a recent resources is even far more challenging.
Evaluating the significance of younger resources is by no means a new challenge. In 1 979, only thirteen years after the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act, the Department of the Interior released How to Guide No. 2: How to Evaluate and Nominate Potential National Register Properties that Have Achieved Significance Within the Last Fifty Years. The guide was written to "inform those who need to make recommendations for exceptional significance." At the time of its publication, 499 of the 21,834 properties listed, were listed under Criteria Consideration G. This list included the Pan American Sea-Plane Base and Terminal Building (1933), which was listed on the National Register in 1 975 for its association with transportation, industrial, military and commercial history. In 1 987, the guide was revised and re-issued to under its current name, National Register Bulletin No. 22: Guidelines for Evaluating and Nominating Properties that Have Achieved Significance Within the Past Fifty Years. The guide revised again in 1 998, offers directions for evaluating the significance of our recent heritage and provides instructions on preparing statements of significance for National Register nominations. Although these Guidelines were written for preparing National Register nominations, they can also be useful in helping to evaluate the significance of resources potentially eligible for local landmark designation. The bulletin sets out seven guidelines to help evaluate resources:
Historic context
Scholarly evaluation
Fragile or Short-live resources
Time
Comparative evaluation Association with living person Properties in Historic Districts
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The Bulletin, although useful, is by no means a comprehensive document. It is, as the title states, a guideline. The primary objective of the workshop was to provide participants an opportunity to apply the guidelines to an actual case study and in doing so, discuss the merits, deficits and challenges of each of them and to make recommendations to guide future evaluation efforts. The results of these sessions are captured in this white paper. Each section contains a summary of the guideline, a brief description of the case study examined, an overview of the discussion and a list of recommendations for application of the guideline. The appendices include the biographies of the facilitators, a recent past resource guide, a list of National Register listings in Florida significant under Criteria Consideration G and a copy of the National Register Bulletin.
Although preservation of the recent past poses many challenges, it is heartening to note that there is an ever increasing interest in the subject, new organizations are emerging, existing ones are realizing the importance of these resources, articles are being written, Web sites created and conferences held. It is hoped that this conference and resulting document will contribute to that ever-expanding body of knowledge and help to preserve our more recent heritage.
Summary of Guideline
All National Register nominations should be based upon an understanding of the historic context with which the nominated resource is related. Historic context refers to all of those historic circumstances and factors from which the property emerged. Knowledge of historic context permits us to understand the relative importance of the resource in question...an understanding of the context of a historic resource is based on knowledge of the time, historical theme, and geographical area with which the property is associated. This involves understanding, among other things, the social, political, economic, artistic, physical, architectural, or moral environment that accounted for the presence of, as well as the original and current nature of, the resource. Historic context will vary with resources. A thorough understanding of historic contexts for resources that have achieved significance in the past 50 years is essential for their evaluation. In evaluating and justifying exceptional importance, it is especially critical to identify the properties in a geographical area that portray the same values or associations and determine those that best illustrate or represent the architectural, cultural, or historical values being considered. Thus the first step in evaluating properties of recent significance is to establish and describe the historic context applicable to the resourced
Without understanding the context in which a property involved, it is impossible to evaluate the significance of a property. Since establishing a properties exceptional significance is necessary to get properties younger than fifty years old listed on the NR, developing a strong context statement is critical.
In evaluating the eligibility of any property for listing in the NR, three aspects must be considered:
age (generally at least fifty years old, but may be younger if exceptionally significant),
integrity (the degree to which it retains its historic character), and
significance (meets Criteria A, B, C, and/or D).
In order for a property to be considered eligible, it must satisfy all three aspects,, just like the proverbial three-legged stool, but the primary factor is significance. If a property is not significant, it does not matter how old it is, or how much integrity it retains. The nature of the significance is critical in considering whether a property is important, even though it is less than fifty years old, and in determining the property's period of significance and level of significance (local, state, national). The period of significance, in turn, is central in evaluating the impacts of alterations. Alterations that occurred during the period of significance may be considered historical and, therefore, not detrimental to the property's historic character. Level of significance is an important component of context. If your property is exceptionally significant at the national level your context statement must place the property in this larger context. If it is only local significance, you need only make a case for its


exceptional significance at the local level. As stated, all three factors (age, integrity, and significance) must be met, but determining significance is foundational in evaluating the other two.
How do you determine significance? You have to start with the broader social and/or architectural context. As Bulletin 22 puts it, you must consider "all of those historic circumstances from which the property emerged," or put another way, context is the "interrelated conditions in which something exists or occurs." Such consideration is important because it "permits us to understand the relative importance of the resource in question." For example, how many other such properties exist at the local, state, or national level of significance? How does this particular property compare to other similar resources? How does it fit into the "social, political, economic, artistic, physical, architectural, or moral environment that accounted for the presence of, as well as the original and current nature of, the resource."2
Bulletin 22 and the Guidelines provide good direction on how to develop context, however, one of the biggest challenges to developing the context for these resources is the spotty nature of the scholarly materials. Some are extraordinarily well detailed and documented, others not so and still others somewhere in between.
As demonstrated by the following case study, the significance of these resources can often be easily overlooked, especially when it comes to historical significance. Developing the context can uncover important information about the property and reveal less documented but nonetheless important social, cultural and architectural history.
Case Study: American Beach Historic District
Figure 1: American Beach. Credit: Barbara Mattick, August, 3, 1990, on file in the Florida Master Site File
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Resource Name: American Beach Historic District, on Amelia Island, south of Fernandina Beach, FL
Architect(s): Unknown
Period of Significance: 1935-1965
Description of Significance
American Beach is an unincorporated, primarily African-American, community located at the south end of Amelia Island in Nassau County, Florida (north of Jacksonville). It was established in 1 935 by the Afro-American Insurance Company, which was the first insurance company in Florida, white or black. The Pension Bureau of the company acquired the land in three parcels between 1 935 and 1 946. An open pavilion for company outings and guesthouses were built on the property, in addition, the Pension Bureau had the parcels subdivided into lots to be sold for vacation homes. The Afro-American Insurance Company provided a beach resort for its employees because segregation, which was legally in force under the Jim Crow laws at that time, did not allow blacks to use other beaches. Around 1 25 acres of the platted sections of American Beach were eventually developed. American Beach became a major resort for other blacks from across the Southeast. Thousands would flock to American Beach to celebrate holidays or spend weekends. In addition to the private beach cottages built early on, small businesses, such as restaurants and motels, sprang up. American Beach was a thriving resort until the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1 964, which ended enforced segregation. No longer forced to use segregated beaches, the throngs began to diminish, and by 1 965, American Beach began to decline.
The American Beach Historic District was listed in the NR in 2002 under Criterion A for significance at the local level in the areas of Ethnic Heritage: Black and Community Planning and Development. American Beach met Criterion Consideration G as the largest of several segregated beaches that developed in Florida as a result of legislated segregation that lasted until the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the initial effects of which were felt in American Beach in 1 965. The period of significance, therefore, was 1935-1965, when American Beach was the most prominent of Florida's segregated beaches, having experienced the most extensive development, and, at the time of nomination, retaining the greatest concentration of historic resources.
In evaluating American Beach's historic resources, context played a key role. If the 50-year "rule" had been adhered to (counting as contributing only those built by 1 952 or before), only a handful of scattered resources would have been eligible for listing, and there would have been no district, resulting in a distorted and inaccurate evaluation of American Beach's role in black social history during the Jim Crow era and of the unanticipated consequences of the Civil Rights Act that led to the resort's decline. By evaluating the resort in its proper context, it was clear that the period of significance extended from 1935 to 1 965. As a result, 68 buildings were identified as contributing resources and the American Beach Historic District was listed in the National Register. American Beach is an unincorporated community, dependant on the county government for protection. The listing of the district added to the community's stature and has been a major factor in its preservation in spite of major development pressures.
This case study underscores the importance of context and its role in establishing significance. Many of the properties in the district are rather humble and underutilized structures, but they are significant for their history rather than their architecture. Based on appearance alone, it would be easy to overlook this important part of Florida's history. For some sites it is easy to "see" why they are important, but for others, context is key in revealing that important history. Context is the best tool to do that.
Discussion
In discussing the challenges or barriers to preserving properties from the recent past, we identified the following issues:
Lack of property owner education about the significance of their properties
Many recent resources are considered ugly.
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Not all recent past properties are tourist destinations and are still occupied. Because many recent past resources are still in use, where do changes that are still underway/continuing begin and end? Which can be supported and which cannot?
Does it have to be exciting? Where does emotion come into play?
Lack of community support
Ubiquity there are so many of them, especially of large-scale residential developments. The context is so massive.
On the one hand, civic power, as in local review boards, is limited. On the other hand, what can be done when local boards, building inspectors, and local commissions and councils don't see the significance of recent past resources?
Sometimes preservation conflicts with local government master plans for an area.
There is competition between land values/investments vs. historic and cultural values.
The perception that the recent past is unimportant, the idea that "if George Washington didn't sleep here, it's not historic."
Sometimes there is a desire to forget social/cultural/political strife.
Sometimes there is a lack of an understanding of context, resulting in too much emotion being attached to recent events.
There is too limited a scope of scholarship about recent past events.
Recommendations
The groups found that many of the barriers related to broader issues concerning historic preservation, but the recommendations concerning the topic of context included:
Provide better education to include the teaching of history contextually, from elementary school through college and professional education levels.
Begin working on local histories within an adequate level of contextual understanding (provide the missing scholarship).
Shift the focus of preservation away from high styles only (eliminate the bias against vernacular).
Cultivate advocacy.
Clearly define the tangible, rational value of history, curb perception of "hysterical preservationists."
Develop well-founded and clear statements of significance for the recent past based on good understanding of context.
Stimulate interest to gain value/significance.
Prioritized Recommendations
1. Educate those who have the power to preserve historic resources: a) owners, first and foremost, b) local officials, such as city/county commissions, building inspectors, fire marshals, planners, etc., and c) local preservation boards.
2. Cultivate advocacy by: a) teaching the importance of historic context from elementary through college levels, b) including historic preservation and the understanding of contextual significance in curricula for architects, lawyers, and real estate professionals, c) making historic preservation attractive to developers, and d) overcoming the perception of negative emotion (hysterical preservationists) through rational and tangible arguments of historic significance, and economic and environmental benefits.
3. Do your homework by a) developing a well-founded and clear statement of significance for the recent past based on a good understanding of context and b) if there is no contextual understanding, doing the research or facilitate the necessary scholarly work to develop the necessary contexts and histories.
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I. Scholarly Evaluation
Summary of Guidelines
A case can more readily be presented and accepted for a property that has achieved significance within the past 50 years if the type of architecture or the historic circumstances with which the property is associated have been the object of scholarly evaluation. The scholarly sources available to assist in evaluating properties from the post-World War II era are becoming plentiful. Journals of architectural history, social history, landscape architecture, landscaping, industrial archeology, and urban development offer solid scholarship on many kinds of resources likely to be encountered. Previous National Register nominations may assist in establishing appropriate context and additional scholarship. Papers presented at conferences may contain research and analysis useful for resources of recent origin. In short, the application of scholarshipnot popular social commentarydoes not demand the presence of a published book. A wide and growing array of scholarly interest in historic properties can greatly assist evaluation of recent properties.3
In recent years, there has been a proliferation of scholarly evaluation related to the resources of the recent past. Despite this recent increase, finding sources of scholarly evaluation can be challenging especially if the resources is not well known, regionally or locally significant or one-of-kind, such as the Fontinbleau Hotel in Miami. Although the hotel has been extensively documented, scholars tend to disagree about its larger significance.
Figure 2: The Fontainebleau Hotel, Miami Beach. Morris Lapidus, 1954 (later additions by Herbert A. Mathes, 1958-60). Credit:Postcard, Collection of Larry Wiggins
Resource Name: Fontainebleau Hotel, Miami Beach
Architect: Morris Lapidus (later additions by Herbert A. Mathes)
Date: 1954 (Mathes additions: 1958-60
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida 1 3


Description of Significance
The Fontainebleau Hotel has recently been nominated for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. The property is associated with events that have made a significant contribution to broad patterns of our history. Property also embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction, represents the work of a master, or possesses high artistic values, or represents a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction. Its significance is in the areas of Architecture, Social History and Recreation.
The Fontainebleau Hotel is an American icon. Initially designed by Morris Lapidus and completed in 1954, this resort was larger and more complex than any resort hotel that had come before. It occupied a special position in the plan of Miami Beach, just north of the city's compact urban resort districts, on the expansive land formerly occupied by the Harvey Firestone estate. Its bold architectural forms, styled in the language of the International Style, dominated extensive gardens and a sprawling pool and cabana complex. The Fontainebleau expanded several times over the next 1 5 years, and functioned as a self-contained resort destination. It was a cultural phenomenon well into the early 1 970s and the center of a famous social scene documented in countless films and television broadcasts; it came to occupy an important role in resort architecture and American social history.
Several factors make the Fontainebleau a good example of scholarly evaluation. While the significance of the original Lapidus hotel may not be in doubt, the true nature of that significance is not clearly understood. Furthermore, the value of the hotel's many parts, including additions less than 50 years old and executed by other architects, needs further clarification. In any evaluation of the property, the architect's intentions, the building's novel construction, its eclectic styling and the interplay of its pieces need further consideration.
The original Fontainebleau was a built expression of the Morris Lapidus' well-documented manifesto: "an architecture of Joy." At the time of its completion, this fact was much commented on in both the architectural and popular press. It could even be termed an example of a new genre of postwar design: "sybaritic modernism."
The building was not simply larger than any other resort hotel, it was a new building type that responded contemporary trends in American tourism. The hotel, comprising nearly 550 rooms and suites, sat over an impressive commercial pedestal where the spatially fluid choreography of rooms led from the lobby to a variety of restaurants, bars, clubs, convention and meeting rooms, as well as a ground level shopping mall. An expansive array of amenities sprawled across its site, making the hotel a resort city in all but name.
The Fontainebleau Hotel was also technically innovative. Its extensive air-conditioning plant, state-of-the-art telephone network and multiple kitchens were remarkable and extensive described in period journals. It was programmed in a functional way that allowed the hotel to be serviced according to state-of-the-art hospitality standards. In spite of the extensive criticism the Fontainebleau and Lapidus received in the architectural press, the hotel won many plaudits in engineering journals and the popular press as a groundbreaking model resort hotel.
The complexity of the Fontainebleau's architectural styling may not be apparent today, but when the hotel was completed in 1 954, it was the subject of extensive coverage and searing critique. Lapidus' facade treatments were certainly modern, but they stretched the boundaries of understood modern design. The building's baroque curves and theatrical spatial configuration defied rational explanation. Further, its modern strip windows were a modernist quotation, but were sealed shut, and devoid of the tropicalist shading devices that would have tempered the building to its environment, a key concern of contemporary modernists. At the same time, these modern facades wrapped eclectic and historically themed interiors concocted of period French furnishings. The disconnect between building design and interior design provoked criticism that defined the initial understanding of the building.
A further complication is that the Fontainebleau was expanded several times, most famously toward the north between 1958-60. Because the hotel's original architect, Morris Lapidus, had broken with the Fontainebleau's
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ownership group, the additions were designed by A. Herbert Mathes. While Lapidus has attained international recognition for his work, Mathes remains a figure of mainly local importance. Furthermore, Mathes' work is often confused with Lapidus' contributions. The most acclaimed part of the Mathes addition is its "cheesehole wall," with bubbly circular apertures that repeat a theme often attributed to Morris Lapidus. The extent of Mathes' rework of Lapidus' original work is also not clearly defined.
The Fontainebleau's very complexity, the important cultural role it played over a period of several decades, its relevance to the architect's stated ideals, its complicated authorship, its technical innovations as well as its exotic and eclectic styling that defy easy definition make scholarly evaluation a crucial resource in establishing the significance of the hotel. The fact that important areas of the Fontainebleau complex were completed during the late 50s and early 60s, inside the 50 year "rule", further suggests the value of a more complete narrative of the building's significance.
Participants discussed the opportunities and challenges of scholarly evaluation.
Historians and preservationists wishing to establish historic significance based on scholarship may find the necessary resources are not available, or not easily searchable. There is a lack of scholarship on several important general themes of the postwar era, and sometimes a lack of well-documented comparative examples. It is especially difficult to find writing in the hand of the architect of the subject building, which would help clarify questions of intent and authorship.
Scholarly evaluation will be more helpful in the case of important or capital buildings, and less so with modest commercial or vernacular structures. One bright spot is that some thematic scholarship has been developed on the subject of commercial and vernacular architecture. However, more thematic scholarship is needed.
Scholarly evaluation seems especially helpful in establishing building context, and resolving paradoxes.
The types of resources vary according to building type, location and many other factors. However, a number of resources are available:
Monographs, biographies, period anthologies, books on building type
Essays, conference papers
Film and video archives
Popular social commentary
Ephemera brochures and postcards.
Aerial photos
Trade and industry journals
Engineering journals
Planning documents from local or regional sources
Oral histories finding residents, family...
Neighboring or similar buildings (cf. with comparative evaluation)
Award records, both local and national
Photography archives
Gaps in scholarly evaluation frequently include the architect's own descriptions of the subject work, or other first-hand accounts of design intentions.
Participants discussed how the difficulty of researching the recent past was balanced by the joy of the hunt, the pleasure of detective work to reveal unknown resources. The importance of exploring materials in libraries and other archives cannot be overstated.
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Participant Recommendations
1. Building scholarship.
More documentation and scholarship are required to interpret the resources of the postwar period. Scholarship is beginning to catch up with the vast quantity and diversity of postwar themes, but much work remains to be done. Scholarship will be a crucial part of future efforts to educate professionals and lay people on the specific issues related to architecture of the recent past. Academics and universities are often better able to devote resources to this task.
2. Understanding complexity.
Expanding the boundaries of modernism: In an era that characteristically rejected notions of style, and that re-invented building typology at a rapid pace, scholarly evaluation is a critical tool for understanding historic resources, and for building the case for their significance. In other words, scholarly research may be the only opportunity in cases where a building or resource can not easily be catalogued.
Building context: Scholarly evaluation is especially useful in exploring context, and establishing broad and deep relevance for building of the recent past. It can expand areas of significance, taking into account fields as diverse as cultural histories, ethnic histories, sociology, economics and urban planning. It can help locate potential resources within regional, national and international themes.
3. Cast a big net
Digital resources, like searchable archives, can help quickly identify a broad spectrum of scholarship, documentation and research. Often, digital resources miss the kind of contextual information provided by exploring printed material, and gathering a broader contextual understanding.
3. Fragile or Short-lived Resources Summary of Guideline
Some resources acquire historical qualities before the passage of 50 years because they either were not built to last that long, or, by their nature, are subject to circumstances that destroy their integrity before 50 years have elapsed. Such resources are viewed by scholars and by the public as "old" even before they are 50 years old. World War II frame temporary buildings were often constructed to meet temporary, intense demands for housing or office space and were not constructed to last long. While they tended to be viewed as automatically expendable, many in fact did survive for decades after the war. Mining structures in the Rocky Mountain West region have a short life-span both because the effects of weather and because entrepreneurs did not invest much in their construction in order to maximize gain and/or limit financial risks. Federal tax laws, competition within industry, changing transportation routes, and shifts in consumer tastes have jeopardized many early motel or motor court complexes, shopping centers, and other roadside buildings. Their rate of survival with integrity from the post-World War II era is very low. Many highways from that same era have undergone "improvements" that result in the loss of historic engineering qualities and original materials. The fact that a resource is jeopardized by a specific proposed project does not, in and of itself, render that resource more historically important than if it were not threatened. But one may evaluate whether a type or category of resourcesas a wholehas faced loss at such a rate that relatively young survivors can be viewed as exceptional and historic.4
While mere survival is not a guarantee of significance, in this era of rapid development and planned obsolescence, scarcity and rarity can be an important aspect of evaluating and establishing the importance of underage resources. In some instances, only elements or features of the original design are short-lived, this case study will impact how that can impact significance. It is critical that "improvements" do not obscure the qualities of the original.
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LdSe Muay: neaiy
se aka the Cocoon House
Figure 3: Hectly Guest ("Cocoon") House (1950), Sarasota, Florida by Paul Rudolph. Credit: ESTO
Resource Name: Healy Guest ("Cocoon") House Architect: Paul Rudolph Date: 1950
Description of Significance
The Healy Guest House is an early example of the celebrated Sarasota School of Architecture (ca.l 940-1 970). The small residence was designed by renowned architect Paul Rudolph (191 8-1997) who studied under Walter Gropius at Harvard University's Graduate School of Design and who would later become the Dean of the Yale School of Architecture.
Characteristics of the Sarasota School of Architecture exemplified by the Healey Guest House include its modest scale, an open plan, large expanses of plate glass that visually unite interior and exterior, and jalousie windows that help passively cool the unconditioned interior and control natural light.
The Healy Guest House's principal character defining feature is the technologically innovative catenary roof structure. Constructed of plywood laid over suspended cables, the original roof was covered with a saranan-vinyl plastic material called "cocoon." Rudolph was introduced to this new material while working at the Brooklyn Navy Yard during World War II. Like many designers from the era, Rudolph experimented with
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technologies developed during the war, such as "cocoon," as construction materials. However, the innovative roof material failed. It was replaced within 20 years after the building's construction, in 1970.
While the Healy House is a local landmark, it is not on the National Register of Historic Place. A potential nomination to the National Register could be jeopardized by the alteration of the building's most significant feature, its roof, and the replacement of original materials, which diminished, but did not completely compromise its architectural integrity because the shape of the roof was preserved. However, despite the loss of historic fabric, the architectural intent and concept are intact.
Should the focus be on conceptual or intangible, rather than material or tangible authenticity when evaluating resources of the recent past, which are often fragile and designed to be short-lived?
Discussion
A number of questions were posed by session participants:
If a resource was designed and constructed to be temporary, is a proper preservation approach documentation, rather than physical conservation?
Given the myriad of types and amount of recent past sites, how does the preservation community prioritize which ones receive the most attention and resources?
The defining characteristics of many recent past heritage sites are the very obstacles to their preservation. In order to sustain resources from the postwar period, the following will have to be addressed:
Experimentation: Development of experimental concepts, such as integration of interior and exterior through the introduction of sliding glass walls.
Industrialization: Use of manufactured systems with limited life-spans.
Integrity: Loss of historic fabric given experimental or limited-life-span nature of materials.
Standards: Changes in codes and guidelines.
Obsolescence: Loss of function and / or shifts in societal and cultural changes.
Perceptions: Lack of political and public understanding and awareness.
Participant Recommendations
The primary recommendations from the session on Fragile and Short-Lived Resources include:
Increase political and public awareness for recent past resources.
Promote rehabilitation and adaptive use over strategies like restoration and conversion of sties to cultural institutions like house museums.
Create standard tools, like survey forms, that can be distributed to professionals working in the field.
Develop statewide priorities for identifying, documenting, and preserving recent past resources.
Prioritized Recommendations
1. Standard tools for identification, survey, and evaluation of recent past site.
2. Preservation priorities for recent past developed by state working with local communities.
4. Time
Summary of Guideline
There are several specific issues relating to time that should be addressed in evaluating a less than 50-year-old property. The 50-year period is an arbitrary span of time, designed as a filter to ensure that enough time has passed to evaluate the property in a historic context. However, it was not designed to be mechanically applied on a year by year basis. Generally, our understanding of history does not advance a year at a time, but rather in periods of time which can logically be examined together. For example, events that relate to the Cold War can best be evaluated in relation to other events or properties from the same
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period. This means that our ability to evaluate properties moves forward in uneven leaps of years...It should be determined whether the period under consideration calls for a routine historical evaluation or whether the period needs to be viewed in the context of exceptional importance. Without such a determination, certain properties which have just passed the 50-year point might be given greater value, and those just less than 50 years old might be inappropriately ascribed less importance, when the resources
should have been evaluated together to determine their relative significance____A second consideration
regarding time is that the appropriate date from which to evaluate a property for exceptional significance is not always the date of construction, but rather, the point at which the property achieved significance. The significance of an architecturally important property can be charted from the time of its construction. But the significance of properties important for historical associations with important events or persons should be dated from the time of the event or the period of association with a historically important individual...Thus, although a property may be more than 50 years of age, if it is significant solely for a reason that dates from within the past 50 years, it must be exceptionally important to be listed in the National Register...Third, the more recently a property has achieved significance, generally, the more difficult it is to demonstrate exceptional importance. The case for exceptional importance is bolstered when there is a substantial amount of professional, documented materials on the resource and the resource type. A property listed in the National Register 70 or 7 5 years after it has achieved significance requires clear, widespread recognition of its value to demonstrate exceptional importance.5
There are many factors to consider in evaluating how much time, is enough time to adequately assess the significance of and develop an appropriate context for a historic property. How much time is enough? Scholarly evaluation can play a key role in making this determination, as demonstrated by the following case study.
Case Study: Various Sites of the Sarasota School of Architecture
Figure 4: Sarasota High School Addition (1959), Sarasota, Florida by Paul Rudolph. Credit: Paul Rudolph Foundation
Resource Name: Various Sites of the Sarasota School of Architecture Architects: Various Architects Date: ca.l 940-1 970
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Description of Significance
One of the critical factors in evaluating the significance of properties that have achieved significance within the past fifty years, according to the "Time" section of Bulletin No. 22, is that "...specific scholarly studies are available, or there exists general historical knowledge about the period or the significance of the resource."6 The Sarasota County History Center's project to nominate sites of the Sarasota School of Architecture is an example of one approach to dealing with the issue of time when evaluating resources of the recent past.
Following the publication of several scholarly studies, the Sarasota County History Center raised funds and commissioned a Multiple Resources Nomination to the National Register of Historic Places for the Sarasota School of Architecture. The celebrated Sarasota School of Architecture (ca.l 940-1 970) was a regional architectural movement whose designers adapted modernist principles to the climate, geography, and culture of Southern Florida's Gulf Coast. This nomination identified around 300 properties associated with the movement based on clearly articulated criteria, including physical characteristics and designers of the buildings. From this multiple resources nomination, individual sites, such as the Sarasota High School Addition (1959) by Paul Rudolph are being further studied, documented, and nominated to the National Register of Historic Places as individual landmarks.
Discussion
A number of questions were posed by session participants:
What studies or other resources are available to assist preservation specialists in identifying, assessing, and making decisions about recent past resources?
What are the most effective strategies for increasing public understanding of the significance of the recent past?
Participant Recommendations
The primary recommendations from the session on Time include:
Increase political and public awareness.
Implement education initiatives at the K-l 2 level.
Research and prepare thematic studies and descriptions of Florida's postwar period.
Prioritized Recommendations
1. Thematic studies of significant postwar resources.
2. Coalition of educational institutions collaborating on thematic studies and descriptions.
3. Public awareness campaign.
4. Educational program for K-l 2.
5. Comparative Evaluation
Summary of Guideline
After determining the theme and appropriate time or chronological period with which a property is associated, the geographic limits of the property's context must be established. Exceptional importance does not necessarily mean national significance; rather, it is a measure of a property's importance within the appropriate historic context, whether the geographic scale of that context is local, State, or national. In other words, is the property best understood within the framework of a community, a river valley, a region, the State, or the Nation? In evaluating and justifying exceptional importance, it is critical to identify the properties in a geographical context that portrays the same values or associations and determine those that best illustrate or represent the historical, architectural, cultural, engineering, or archeological values in question. The scope or level (local, State, or national) at which this evaluation is made is directly related to the geographic level or "scale" of the property's historic context. For example, properties whose importance relates only to local mining activities need only be compared to others found in that locality to determine their comparative value.7
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Comparative evaluation is a key component of developing a context statement and establishing significance. For recent past properties, it is critical to remember that properties need not be significant at the national level, properties can be significant at the state or even local level. Thus it is important to compare like and like, in terms of property type, style, geographical context, historic context and the myriad other ways that best illustrate or represent the property's value. The challenge is that the utility of comparative evaluation is often dependent on available documentation and for some property types precious little documentation is available. To further complicate matters, other examples of extant properties can be unknown or few and far between which is why, as is demonstrated by this case study, comparative evaluation and context go hand in hand.
Zase Study: Lustine, Center
Figure 5: Lustine Center, Hyattsville, MD, 2008. Credit: Isabelle Gournay.
Resource Name: Lustine Motors
Architect: F. Dano Jackley (b. 1900, d. 1 967)
Date: 1950-1972
Description of Significance
Comparative Evaluation was an essential tool for building the case for the significance of Lustine Motors.8 Lustine Motors was an immensely successful automobile dealership and service center that anchored what was the premier "automobile alley" in Prince George's County, Maryland, during the heyday of car culturethe 1 950s, '60s, and early 1 970s. It was located on a heavily traveled strip, Route 1, and was an important local and regional institution among many automobile related businesses on the strip.
The major architectural feature of Lustine Motors was the dramatic double curved glass curtain wall showroom under a sweeping canopy. The service center was a functional industrial building. To get one's car serviced, one entered through the porte cochere and parked the car outside the service entrance. Once the order was written, a uniformed car jockey would flamboyantly drive the car into the service building and down its center aisle, then out the rear entrance where the car would be parked until a mechanic was available to work on it. Accessible from the showroom, a staircase led up to a panoptic tower, where the service manager would approve the orders, received via pneumatic tubes, and survey all the bays in the service center so that he could assign cars to the appropriate mechanic, as soon as one became available.9 The interior of the showroom was
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immaculately polished and maintained during the period of significance. Adjacent to the showroom was a successful and high-volume parts department.
Lustine Motors is significant with reference to four contexts. Under criterion A (association with events "that have made a significant contribution to a broad pattern of our history"), we established its importance to transportation history, social history, and business historyat four scales: local, state, regional, and national. For transportation history, compared to its competitors, Lustine was one of the earliest and the last extant major automobile dealership on Route 1 in Prince George's County, MD. It remained the most potent reminder of downtown Hyattsville's automobile-induced historical development, covering six decades of the twentieth century. Lustine Motors also had a significant social history. It was the crowning achievement of Philip Lustine, one of the region's most prominent and entrepreneurial automobile dealers, who played a very active role in civic, political, and real estate affairs in the National Capital region. It embodied the automobile-centered suburban consumer Zeitgeist and culture of the years following World War II. In terms of business history, Lustine Motors was one of the most successful automobile and parts dealerships in the nation in sales volume and business practices.10 Trade magazines studied and published articles analyzing its procedures.
Under criterion C (embodiment of "the distinctive characteristics of a type, period or method of construction" or representative of "the work of a master or that possesses high artistic values" or representative of "a significant and distinguishable entity whose components lack individual distinction"), we argued for Lustine's architectural significance at four scales. Locally, Lustine Motors boasted the snazziest and most monumental showroom on the strip. In Prince George's County and the greater National Capital region, there was no new commercial vernacular building of comparable visual impact, glamour, elegance, and monumentality. Nationally, the Lustine dealership was based on merchandising studies;11 its design follows the guidelines that General Motors provided to its dealers, but it also departs from them in ways that make its design comparable with the most architecturally flamboyant dealerships nationwide, especially in its use of glass. The architect F. Dano Jackley's design was in conversation with European auto dealerships where automotive forms inspired avant-garde architects and where showrooms emerged as significant modernist icons.
Vigorous advocacy on the part of many residents and local officials helped to save the Lustine Showroom from the wrecking ball. It has been lovingly restored and adoptively reused as the community center and exercise gym for a new mixed used development, called Arts District Hyattsville and designed by EYA Associates. Before we could complete our National Register nomination, however, the service center was demolished to make way for residences. This case study underscores that it is misleading to evaluate buildings as disembodied monuments. They must be considered in the context of their surroundings and neighborhoods and in comparison to similar properties. Otherwise a unique example of mid-century modernism can suffer the Lustine Center's fate: it has become overwhelmed by a larger-scale development featuring a pastiche of Neo-Traditional styles. Our case study raises the issue of whether we should consider the preservation of the Lustine Showroom a success or a case of winning the preservation battle but losing the war.
Discussion
Comparative evaluation asks us to consider how a resource compares to other similar resources of the same type, time period, design, or category of significance.12 What are the appropriate contexts for framing the property's importance? What is the appropriate scale for comparison: local, state, regional, national, or international? An important caveat is that this guideline is interdependent with Context and Scholarly Evaluation. Undertaking effective comparative evaluation of the significance of a property, in other words, requires knowledge of the historic contexts of the resource and, if one is lucky, access to previous scholarly evaluation of this or similar kinds of resources.
Why is comparative analysis important for establishing the significance of resources from the Recent Past? Comparison helps preservationists articulate how the building may be like other buildings that have already been deemed exceptional. It also helps identify how the building is distinguishable from other comparable properties. Elements of comparison can be drawn from social, cultural, technological, and architectural history.
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They should encompass design characteristics including construction materials and techniques, programmatic requirements and iconicity. It is also important to determine who commissions and uses the building and to compare its uses and meanings with structures of similar type. Good comparative evaluation enables preservationists to make a sound case for prioritizing what should be saved when there are many examples of a similar resource or building type.
Participant Recommendations
Expand our knowledge of sources and research techniques and tools useful for comparative evaluation:
Search for sources using a variety of keywords and subject headings.
Target key dates for the resource and check local newspapers and magazines (for example, initial announcements, groundbreakings, dedications, official openings, etc.
Tap into the following online sources:
Statewide Preservation case study databases that are searchable and provide full text, such as the Florida Master's Site File
City- and county-wide surveys and collections, to locate special local resources, such as scanned planning documents, for example.
National Register Nominations on the National Park Service Site (www.nps.gov/nr/about.htm)
Academic indexes (Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, Art Index Retrospective, Periodicals Content Index, for example) available at research and some public libraries.
Proquest Historical Newspapers databases (twelve dailies, such as the Washington Post, New York Times, Chicago Tribune, Christian Science Monitor, Wall Street Journal, and nine black newspapers, such as the Baltimore Afro-American, the Chicago Defender, and the New York Amsterdam News) available at research and some public libraries.
Special subject websites (searchable Vernacular Architecture Forum (http://www.vernaculararchitectureforum.org/) bibliography, Richard Longstreth's Recent Past Network (http://www.recentpast.org/) bibliography, for example)
Library of Congress website www.loc.gov: American Memory; Prints and Photographs including Historic American Building Survey/ Historic American Engineering Record (HABS/HAER)
Docomomo International (www.docomomo.com) and Docomomo-US (www.docomomo-us.org)
Society of Architecturol Historions (SAH) (www.sgh.org)
Greot Buildings on Line (www.gregtbuildings.com)
Google, Google-eorth, Google-scholor gnd other seorch engines
Guru sites, creoted by gficionodos with speciol interests or expertise
EBoy (www.eboy.com) to purchase postcards, photographs and letterheads, for example. Look into other types of resources:
University libraries, archives and reference staff (including architectural libraries; look for books but also students' work)
Little known archives useful for historical and architectural evaluation of particular building types (for example, Archives of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of America in Elk Grove Village, Illinois)
Public libraries, especially vertical files
Trade and business magazines
Local and regional gazettes and magazines (including advertisements)
Plan books for modest dwellings
City and county offices, to locate surveys in hard copy
Lists of awards (including for craftsmanship) made by local and regional business and professional groups.
Develop Networking Strategies Among Scholars, Preservationists, and Appropriate Informants to Obtain Comparative Information. Contact:
Local historical and preservation societies
Local consultants
State Historic and other city and county Preservation Offices or Commissions
Chambers of commerce, local business people, knowledgeable local "experts"
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Special interest organizations (railroad buffs, diner advocates, etc.)
Existing listservs to post queries (VAF, SAH, Recent Past Preservation Network [RPPN], for example)
Encourage state and local agencies to create new listservs
Seek public speaking opportunities to publicize your topic and invite information. Special Cases Require Targeted Research Techniques
For example, comparative evaluation is especially difficult when dealing with rural resources where there is no municipality that maintains records, no nearby public library, and no previous survey or preservation research, and where local building owners have no information or are indifferent about the issue. Other examples are extremely vernacular resources and commercial resources that have a much shorter life span or a faster tendency to get renovated in ways that affect the building's integrity. Consult:
Sources like plan books
VAF bibliography for scholarly sources on vernacular properties
Trade catalogs or sales sources for materials
Oral histories
More effort is needed to identify comparative sources as well as research techniques and tools for these hard-to-research resources.
Expand the Scope of Comparative Evaluation
Researchers should investigate beyond architectural history or social history. When possible, we recommend adopting a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. Look for opportunities to make the case for significance in ways that especially resonate with the stakeholders and stewards of the resource. Additional perspectives and topics that might be useful include:
International scale of evaluation for both famous and vernacular buildings.
City and regional planning intentions or decisions (master plans, urban renewal reports, for example)
Landscape or hardscape features
History and nature of contiguous properties to identify the commonalities and differences.
Environmental approaches and policies and how they get expressed or implemented ("tree hugger" homebuilders, for example, implemented sustainability practices that were not labeled as such at the time but help preserve and shepherd resources)
Functional and programmatic aspects of a building
Technological competence, level of craftsmanship, and innovative or distinctive use of materials
Examination of comparable preserved buildings and how they have been adoptively used (as a source of ideas for how resources could be preserved through adaptation). Consider what other developers have done or are doing with similar kinds of properties.
Broader cultural, symbolic, and less tangible meanings of resources.
Scholarship of everyday life and how buildings participated in the lives of communities on a daily basis. (This is an important current trend in scholarship).
Sponsor Theme Studies
Sponsor theme studies to develop extensive contextual and comparative scholarship on particular building types important to a state or region. We recommend theme studies as opposed to surveys because they do not carry the burden of establishing an exhaustive inventory. Theme studies go into depth on context and comparative evaluation; consequently, they can be used repeatedly to establish a basis for comparison. SHPOs and preservation advocacy organizations are in a good position to sponsor and disseminate theme studies. Possible topics might include motor courts, public schools, Catholic churches, synagogue complexes, automobile dealerships, motels, etc. A possible model is Robert C. Chidester's A Historic Context for the Archaeology of Industrial Labor in the State of Maryland
(www.heritaae.umd.edu/chrsweb/associatedproiects/chidesterReport.htm).
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Organizations Already Involved with Preserving the Recent Past Should Create a Clearinghouse of Sources Helpful for Comparative Evaluation.
National, state, and local preservation organizations should prioritize converting their information to searchable databases, if they have not already. Organizations in a good position to implement this strategy include:
SHPO offices for statewide resources
Docomomo International and US
Vernacular Architecture Forum (VAF)
Recent Past Preservation Network (RPPN)
Connect Comparative Evaluation with Community Outreach
We recommend, for example, establishing community/university partnerships. Today's public and private universities emphasize public scholarship and community-engaged research. Stakeholders could work with preservation classes to develop hands-on projects doing comparative research to assist under-resourced agencies, firms, or communities. This kind of collaborative research involves working with community groups to establish priorities for their resources. University departments can offer workshops to train members of communities to provide volunteer research assistance.
A major outreach objective should be educating people about preserving recent past resources. This process takes time and effort. Where comparative evaluation can help with that process is giving stakeholders a broader or more multi-pronged understanding of how to establish significance. For example, if concerned citizens and decision makers are not familiar with issues of architectural quality, they may understand certain kinds of historical significance or, say, the value to their community of a certain kind of adaptive reuse.
Prioritized Recommendations
1. Create a clearinghouse for sources helpful for comparative evaluation.
2. Sponsor theme studies to develop extensive contextual and comparative scholarship on particular building types important to a state or region.
3. Expand the scope of comparative evaluation.
4. Expand our knowledge of sources and research techniques and tools useful for comparative evaluation.
5. Connect comparative evaluation with community outreach.
6. Association with Living Persons
Summary of Guideline
On rare occasions, properties associated with individuals still living have been listed in the National Register. However, the nomination of such properties is strongly discouraged in order to avoid use of the National Register listing to endorse the work or reputation of a living person. Periodically, however, sufficient scholarship and evidence of historical perspective exist to list a property associated with living persons whose active life in their field of endeavor is over. In these instances, sufficient time must have elapsed to assess both their field and their contribution in a historic perspective. For further guidance on this topic see National Register Bulletin: Guidelines for Evaluating and Documenting Properties Associated with Significant Persons.13
Generally speaking, regardless of the age, National Register listing of properties associated with a living significant person is discouraged, "in order to avoid use of the National Register listing to endorse the work or reputation of a living person."14
According to the Guidelines for Evaluating and Nominating Properties Associated with Significant Persons, the active life in a person's field of endeavor must be over, and it must be unlikely that they would produce additional works that would require a major re-evaluation their contribution. Even if the property is not being nominated under Criterion B for its association with a significant person, this can pose particular challenges with our more recent heritage since many of these significant people are still living.
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Indeed, this is especially problematic when considering resources from the recent past that are considered significant under Criterion C for their architecture because many of the architects of these resources are still practicing. According to Bulletin 22, nominators must be able to demonstrate that the architect's career is completed and that they no longer be producing designs. Evidence that architects have reached this stage in their lives might be that they have surrendered their professional licenses and/or that they are no longer actively seeking commissions. If the architect is still living, and if their career can be divided into distinct phases, their work could still be considered as long as the design concepts and philosophies are no longer employed. Phillip Johnson (1 906-2005) is an example of an architect whose work, the Glass House, completed in 1 949, was listed in 1 997 as a National Historic Landmark and in the National Register while he was still living. This nomination was accepted because Johnson's work was well enough known and had a body of scholarship to substantiate the claims of significance. A nomination must provide enough context about the architect's entire career to show how the property conveys the architect's significance at a particular time.
Criterion B may be used in nominating a property personally associated with architects, e.g., their own home or studio. An example of this application in Florida is Addison Mizner's (1 872 1933) home and studio, Via Mizner in Palm Beach (NR 1 993). This property, however, was fifty years old at the time of its nomination and Mizner had died years before. For Criterion B properties that are less than fifty years old, it is critical to be able to demonstrate that the architect's significance is widely acknowledged. This may be accomplished through their having received statewide awards, citations in trade publications and journals, or their inductions in "halls of fame." Care must be taken to focus on the significance of the property being nominated, and if nominated under Criteron B, its association with the person rather than the person with whom it is associated. In other words, the nomination is to be for the property, not the person.15
Case Study: Warm Mineral Springs Hotel
Figure 6: Warm Mineral Springs Motel, Florida, n.d. Credit: Lazycachers, Waymarking.com
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Resource Name: Warm Mineral Springs Motel Architect: Victor Lunby (1 923-J Date: 1958
Description of Significance and Guidelines
In Florida, many of the architects associated with the Sarasota School of Architecture, a movement that was influential in Florida from 1 941 to 1977, are still alive and continuing their architectural practices. In 2007, the Sarasota County preservation staff, with support from the Florida State Historic Preservation Office, developed a Multiple Property Submission1 cover, "Architectural Resources of the Sarasota School of Architecture." Sarasota County estimated that approximately eighty nominations could be submitted under the cover. Of the four nominations that have been considered so far, two have been listed, one is still in preparation, and one, the Warm Mineral Springs Motel, a one-story, International Style roadside motel built in 1 958, is on hold because its architect, Victor A. Lundy is still alive, and at age 81, is still practicing.
Victor Lundy was born in New York City in 1923. He received his Bachelor of Architecture degree from Harvard University after World War II and worked for several firms in New York City before receiving his architectural registration. He established his own firm in Sarasota in 1 954. Among his works in Sarasota are the Sarasota Chamber of Commerce Building (now the Sarasota Visitor Information Center), St. Paul's Lutheran Church, and the Herron House. Quoting from the Multiple Property Submission cover,
Among Lundy's most distinctive commercial designs is the 1958 Warm Mineral Springs Motel . south of Venice. Lundy was asked to produce a forceful and compelling entry to the attraction for passing motorists on U.S. 41. His design solution was a series of concrete parasol-shaped reef supports reminiscent of Frank Lloyd Wright's famous 'mushroom' columns at Johnson Wax in Racine, Wisconsin. The roofing section, in two heights, and arranged in a checkerboard fashion, gives the effect of a forest of architectural palms. At night the sections were lighted from below, producing a 'fountain' effect. The building won awards from Progressive Architecture, the American Institute of Architects, and the Florida Association of Architects.16
Further honors came when Lundy was made a fellow by the American Institute of Architects in 1967. He was visiting professor and lecturer at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, University of New Mexico at Albuquerque, Columbia University, Yale University, University of Arkansas, and University of California at Berkeley. Lundy was made an adjunct professor of architecture at University o Houston after he opened a firm there in 1 976. Lundy's works, found in various places around the country, are highly regarded, and he is honored as an AIA Fellow. Nevertheless, because he is still producing, the Florida SHPO has held off nominating the Warm Mineral Springs Motel.
Challenges
Lundy's longevity as a practicing architect is not unusual. Other examples include Alfred Browning Parker (b.l 916), one of Florida's most influential architects, who is still working at the age of 92. The problem for preservationists is that it is commonly accepted practice the significant works produced by such architects cannof be nominated even if the constructions are fifty years old. The result can be disastrous for these recent past resources, for, because they are not considered eligible for the National Register, they are often seen as being insignificant, and are therefore extremely vulnerable. A prime example of this is the Alfred Browning Parker-designed house used as theme for this workshop. Its owners, desiring a larger house, demolished the Parker-designed house within days of the workshop. National Register listing could not have prevented this demolition but NR listing can be a crucial advocacy tool in establishing the credible significance of a resource.
It is important to remember that the nomination of such properties is strongly discouraged but not prohibited. As stated in Bulletin 22, "periodically, however, sufficient scholarship and evidence of historical perspective exist to list a property associated with living persons whose active life in their field of endeavor is over. In these instances, sufficient time must have elapsed to assess both their field and their contribution in a historic
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
27


perspective." This one of the biggest challenges is breaking the perceptual barriers to listing and advance the body of scholarship so that a case for exceptional significance can be clearly made.
A bright note about the case of the Warm Mineral Springs Motel is that discussions about this issue with the office of the Keeper of the National Register during the preparation of this white paper have led to the recommendation that enough is known about Victor Lundy's early work, in light of his entire career to date, to proceed with nominating the motel. The lesson: works of living architects should be evaluated on a case by case basis, using the guidelines in Bulletin 22, but also in consultation with the Office of the Keeper of the National Register.
Recommendations
1. Educate owners and local officials about the exceptional significance of the properties, even though they are not yet likely candidates for listing in the National Register of Historic Places.
2. Provide the scholarship necessary to understand the context of a property within an architect's full body of work. Is it a good example from a particular phase of their career?
3. Determine what recognition the architect's work has already garnered, as original work, or as the application of the ideas and philosophies of an already well established master, e.g., someone who studied under a widely acknowledged master and then expertly demonstrated the master's ideas in their own work.
7. Historic Districts
Summary of Guideline
Under the National Register Criteria there are two ways that a property that has achieved significance within the past 50 years can be eligible for the National Register. First, as discussed above, a property can be individually listed if it is exceptionally important. Properties can also qualify if they are an "integral part" of a historic district that qualifies for National Register listing. Properties that are integral parts of a district do not need to be individually eligible for the National Register or of individual exceptional importance. An explicit explanation must, however, be given as to how they qualify as integral parts of the district. This is demonstrated by documenting that the property dates from within the district's defined period of significance and that it is associated with one or more of the district's defined areas of significance. Properties less than 50 years old may be integral parts of a district when there is sufficient perspective to consider the properties as historic. This is accomplished by demonstrating that: (a) the district's period of significance is justified as a discrete period with a defined beginning and end; (b) the character of the district's historic resources is clearly defined and assessed; (c) specific resources in the district are demonstrated to date from that discrete era; and, (d) the majority of district properties are over 50 years old. In these instances it is not necessary to prove exceptional importance of either the district itself or of the less-than-50-year-old properties. Exceptional importance still must be demonstrated for districts where the majority of properties or the major period of significance is less than 50 years old, and for less-than 50-year-old properties that are nominated individually.17
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
28


Case Study: Palm Grove Neighborhood Historic District
The Palm Grove Neighborhood Historic District
PRELIMINARY DESIGNATION REPORT
Figure 7: Report Cover Illustrating the Geographic location of the potential district and images of mid-century homes
Resource Name: Palm Grove Neighborhood Historic District, Upper East Side, Miami, Florida Architect (if known): Unknown
Dates: 1 924-1 957 (the survey was completed in 2007) Description ot t*ase Dtuuy
The case study involved a Miami neighborhood which includes some forty blocks and contains over 650 resources. The boundaries were defined by members of a neighborhood association called "Palm Grove." The neighborhood is characterized by single and multi-family homes, and the period of significance (suggested by a consultant) extends from 1924 through 1957. The consultant who prepared the report extended the significance so that it was exactly 50 years before the year the report was prepared.
This is a modest neighborhood with generally one-story masonry homes with the highest concentration of them built during the late 1 930s. The recent past is represented in those single-family homes, duplexes and four-plexes that were built in the 1950s, when the basic building form and level of design and ornamentation had dramatically changed. No context or justification was provided for those 1950s properties to qualitatively or historically link them as a "distinguishable entity." Further in many of the 1950s homes their context had been changed by paving over the front yards and erecting wooden and chain link fences that obscured all views to the houses. The issue was whether or not the mid century properties were legitimately classified as contributing to the value of the historic district.
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
29


Participant Recommendations
Of the four groups that participated in the discussions, two of the groups were of the opinion that the 1 950s homes could be included within the district because they continue the social and demographic themes of the neighborhood as a working class enclave. Further, they determined that the size, scale, massing and materials of the infill (1 950s houses) were very similar, and continued the overall pattern of housing throughout the district, even though their design was very different from the homes that had been constructed during the 1 920s and 1 930s which expressed Spanish Colonial (Mediterranean Revival) and Art Deco/Moderne design.
The other two groups were of the opinion that the 1 950s shared very little in common with the other houses in the district, and that there were more dissimilarities than there were commonalities. The neighborhood, through their eyes, possessed little to distinguish it from other established neighborhoodsand in their minds the case for the local historic designation could NOT be made unless a comparative evaluation was made to determine whether or not this was one of the best working class neighborhoods in the City. The participants agreed on some recommendations and these suggestions came up repeatedly.
Analyze the characteristics of the different types of homes and establish a typology. Without a common vocabulary and an understanding of the types, it is difficult to agree on the relative significance of the properties.
Prepare a context ( history) for each of the decades represented and the forms the houses took during those decades. The contexts must support the reasons for the significance of the properties.
Create a time line incorporating the time frame represented in the district, and tie the political, economic, social and technological advances and conditions that influenced the building types that are constructed.
Consider other factors for significance besides architecture; as the social and political (etc) events of the period may have influenced Post WW II housing.
Establish the archetypes for each of the forms/types of housing so that it serves to "set the bar," allowing a comparative and qualitative evaluation of other homes of that type.
When there is a preponderance of areas which display the same kinds of characteristics, determine the best of the types as a way to set priorities. (This assumes the information about similar areas is available).
Prioritized Recommendations
The pressure to identify those mid-century resources that express something important about the American culture and our way of life is increasing. Presently, huge numbers of these buildings exist. With limited resources and time, it is imperative that we agree on a method of classifying the buildings from the era. Without a common language, our ability to communicate and reach consensus is seriously compromised. The following are recommendations for the examination of areas for historic district designation.
Analyze and characterize the properties by type; share with colleagues, state officials and interested parties with a goal towards achieving a common language.
Establish the context by investigating the social, technological, political and economic trends of the community, and create a timeline.
Consider other contextual factors that may justify the creation of a historic district; architectural distinction is not the sole criterion.
Use a critical eye when there are many of the same type of mid century resources within a community. With thousands of residences that express similar characteristics the need for comparative evaluation of others of its type on a local, and perhaps state and national level, may help in making difficult choices.
8. Conclusion
In 1 978 Chester Liebs wrote an article for Historic Preservation magazine, entitled "Preserving Our Not Too Distant Past," in which he advocated for the preservation of roadside and commercial architecture. In his article, Mr. Lieb posed the question, "will historic preservation be able to accept and selectively conserve the
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
30


architectural species of the modern era?" Over thirty years later, many of the resources he wrote about are gone and preservationists are still grappling with that very same question. Yet, pondering acceptance is a luxury the movement can little afford. The not-so-distant past is rapidly disappearing. Indeed a 2004 study by the Brookings Institute, Toward a New Metropolis, the Opportunity to Rebuild America, predicted that by the year 2030, 50% of the buildings in which we live and work in will have been built after 2030. They estimate that 20 million housing units will be lost to this new development. The study estimates that Florida will losel ,373,465 exiting units to accommodate new growth.18 If preservationists are not proactive, much more of our more recent heritage will be lost. To preserve our future, we should not forget our past. Throughout the history of the preservation movement, preservationists have advocated for the preservation of younger resources. Many important preservation battles, like the battle to save the famed Pennsylvania Station were fought for buildings that were just nearing the fifty-year mark. Much has been learned since that battle, laws have been passed to protect historic resources and the movement has grown significantly. Preservationists have an unprecedented opportunity to apply the lessons learned in order to selectively conserve our more recent cultural heritage. It is hoped that this white paper will be a significant step in that process in Florida.
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida
31


i ci notes
1 United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register, National Register Bulletin No. 22: Guidelines for Evaluating and Nominating Properties that Have Achieved Significance in the Past Fifty Years by Marcella Sherfy and W. Ray Luce, Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1998, 3
2 United States Department of the Interior, 1 998, 3.
3 Ibid, 4.
4 Ibid, 5.
5 Ibid, 6.
6 Ibid.
7 Ibid, 8.
8 Isabelle Gournay, Benjamin Riniker, Mary Corbin Sies, and Christopher Perez. Lustine Motors in Hyattsville
1950-1972. National Register level documentation prepared for the Maryland Historical Trust, The Modern Movement In Maryland Survey, Phase Three, June 2008. MIHP-PG-68-41 -45, Crownsville, MD.
9 Bill Brode, telephone interview by Mary Corbin Sies, College Park, MD, September 9, 2005.
10 "Daily Sales Report is Leadership Barometer at Maryland Dealership," News From the Profit Area 2, June 1959: 1-2.
11 General Motors Corporation, Planning Automobile Dealer Properties. Detroit: General Motors Corporation, 1948.
12 Jeanne Lambin, Preserving Resources from the Recent Past (Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2007, 14.
13 United States Department of the Interior, 9.
14 Ibid.
15 Jim Gabbert, reviewer, Office of the Keeper of the National Register, Washington, D.C. to Barbara Mattick, Florida State Historic Preservation Office, telephone conversation, November 2008.
16 Patty Jo Rice, Ph.D., consultant, and Carl Shiver, Ph.D., Historic Preservationist, Florida State Historic Preservation Office, 2007, pp. E-l 3-14).
17 United States Department of the Interior, 1 0.
18 Arthur C. Nelson, "Toward a New Metropolis: The Opportunity to Rebuild America." Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 2004.


Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Bibliography
General Motors Corporation, Planning Automobile Dealer Properties. Detroit: General Motors Corporation, 1948.
Gournay, Isabelle, et al. Lustine Motors in Hyattsville 1950-1972. National Register level documentation
prepared for the Maryland Historical Trust, The Modern Movement In Maryland Survey, Phase Three, June 2008. MIHP. Crownsville, MD.
Lambin, Jeanne. Preserving Resources from the Recent Past. Washington, D.C.: National Trust for Historic Preservation, 2007.
Nelson, Arthur C. "Toward a New Metropolis: The Opportunity to Rebuild America." Brookings Institution, Washington, DC, 2004.
United States Department of the Interior. National Park Service. National Register. National Register Bulletin No. 22: Guidelines for Evaluating and Nominating Properties that Have Achieved Significance in the Past Fifty Years by Marcella Sherfy and W. Ray Luce. Washington DC: Government Printing Office, 1 998.


Appendix A: Speaker and Facilitator Biographies


MARVIN DUNN, Ph.D.
Dr. Marvin Dunn taught in the Department of Psychology at Florida International University for thirty-four years, retiring as head of the department in 2006. While at FIU, Dr. Dunn began such innovative programs as the Cultural and Human Interaction Center, which addressed racially motivated violence in the Dade County schools of the early 1 970s. In 1 981, he founded the Academy for Community Education, an innovative program addressing the needs of youth at risk. Throughout his career Dr. Dunn has worked for positive change and social justice.
Dr. Dunn's The Miami Riots of 1980: Crossing the Bounds, co-authored with Bruce Porter, is the definitive work on this event. In 1 997, his book, Black Miami in the Twentieth Century, was published, the only comprehensive history of the presence of blacks in Miami. Black Miami in the Twentieth Century is available at the Harn Museum Shop.
JEANNE LAMBIN
Jeanne Lambin is a Professor of Historic Preservation at the Savannah College of Art & Design and author of the National Trust Booklet, Preserving the Resources from the Recent Past. She was the Program Officer for the Wisconsin Field Office of the National Trust for Historic Preservation. Ms. Lambin worked as a preservation planner for the Commission on Chicago Landmarks. She conducted a reconnaissance level survey of post-1 940 architecture in Chicago. Currently Ms. Lambin is working with the National Alliance of Historic Preservation Commissions to establish a standardized survey form and methodology to assist local historic preservation commissions in their efforts to survey and document the recent past. She holds a B.S. in Anthropology from Loyola University of Chicago and a Masters degree in Historic Preservation from the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and is currently a board member of the National Alliance of Historic Preservation Commissions.
ALLAN T. SHULMAN
Allan Shulman has twenty years of experience in architecture, urban design and historic preservation. He holds a Bachelor of Architecture from Cornell University and a Master of Architecture in Suburb and Town Planning from the University of Miami. A Research Assistant Professor at the University of Miami's School of Architecture, Allan Has focused on themes of regional architecture and urbanism, housing, and historic preservation. He is also active as an author, editor, and curator, most recently editing an anthology called Miami Modern Metropolis: Paradox and Paradise in Mid-Century Architecture, being published in late 2008 through Balcony Press and the Bass Museum of Art. "Interama: Miami and the Pan-American Dream," an exhibit co-curated by Allan and Jean-Francois Lejeune, is now on view at the Historical Museum of Southern Florida.
His firm, Shulman + Associates was founded in 1996. His firm's award-winning projects merge modern design with a strongly contextual approach, finding inspiration in local context and often incorporating and adapting historic buildings.
ISABELLE GOURNAY, Ph.D.
A native of France and a resident of Historic Greenbelt, Isabelle Gournay received a professional degree in architecture from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux-Arts and a doctorate in art history from Yale University. She co-edited Paris on the Potomac. The French Influence on the Architecture and Art of Washington, D.C. Ohio University Press, 2007 and authored The New Trocadero (Pierre Mardaga Institut Francois d'Architecture, 1 985) and the A.I.A. Guide to the Architecture of Atlanta (University of Georgia Press, 1 992), as well as numerous articles, book chapters and encyclopedia entries published in the U.S., France, Great Britain, Canada, Italy and Holland. On behalf of the Canadian Center for Architecture, she guest curated the exhibition Ernest Cormier and the Universite de Montreal (1 990) and Montreal Metropolis 1 880-1 930 (with France Vanlaethem, 1998) and edited their companion publications. Many of her publications explore connections between urbanism, architecture and housing in France and the United States, such as the impact of the U.S. home builder Levitt around Paris. Prof. Gournay co-curated the exhibition Affordable
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Housing: Designing an American Asset on behalf of the National Building Museum (2004) and has been the lead researcher (with Professor Mary Corbin Sies, American Studies) for a groundbreaking study of the Modern Movement in Maryland sponsored by the Maryland Historical Trust. With the help of graduate students in Historic Preservation, Profs. Sies and Gournay have authored many National Register nominations, some on landmarks of modernism threatened with demolition.
MORRIS HYLTON III
Morris (Marty) Hylton is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Interior Design and is assuming leadership at the summer program Preservation Institute: Nantucket. Marty holds Bachelor Degrees in Architecture and Art History from the University of Kentucky and a Master of Science in Historic Preservation from Columbia University. For six years, Marty practiced design with a historic preservation focus in New York City. As an Associate at Page Ayres Cowley Architects, he serves as project designer and manager on the restoration of a number of State and National Register Landmark buildings and interiors, including the Grill Room of the New York Yacht Club (1 900), the entrance and narthex of Madison Avenue Presbyterian Church (1 899), and the North Family site of Mount Lebanon Shaker Village (1 824-1 860). Prior to his appointment at the University of Florida, Marty held the position of Initiatives Manager at the World Monument Fund (WMF), a New York City based nonprofit dedicated to conserving endangered cultural heritage sites internationally. At WMF, Marty developed and directed education-based initiatives to address global issues impacting the field of cultural heritage preservation. From 1 999-2007 Marty also served as an adjunct professor in the Interior Design Department of the School of Visual Arts teaching seminars and third-year design studio. His studio coursework addressed preserving and adoptively using historic interiors.
BARBARA E, MATTICK, Ph.D.
Barbara Mattick grew up in Fort Lauderdale. In 1972 she received a B.A. in American History from Emory University, in 1 976 a M.A. in American History and in 1 985 a M.S. in Library Science both from Florida State University.
She began historic preservation work at the Assistant Historian for the 1902 Capitol Restoration in 1 978-79. From 1 980-1 988 she was a research librarian in the Florida Collection at the State Library of Florida, a position she left to become the Historic Sites Specialist in the Bureau of Historic Preservation, specializing in the preparation of National Register nominations for North Florida and eventually for all archaeological nominations. She completed a Masters Degree in Anthropology at Florida State University in 1 998, emphasizing historical archaeology. In 1 994 she became the supervisor of the Survey& Registration Section, responsible for Florida's National Register Program, a position also designated as the Deputy State Historic Preservation Officer for Survey & Registration. In August 2004 she was appointed Acting Bureau Chief for the Bureau of Historic Preservation, and began teaching at Florida State University. In 2005 she became Bureau Chief. In April 2008 she completed her Ph.D. in American History at Florida State University.
MARY CORBIN SIES, Ph.D.
Mary Corbin Sies is Director of Graduate Studies and Associate Professor in American Studies at the University of Maryland, College Park, where she is also a faculty affiliate in Women's Studies, African American Studies, Historic Preservation, and the National Center for Smart Growth Research and Education. She received her Ph.D. in American Culture from the University of Michigan, focusing on architectural, social, cultural, and planning history. With Christopher Silver, she co-edited Planning the Twentieth Century American City, published by Johns Hopkins University Press. Over the past ten years she has published articles in such scholarly journals as Planning Perspectives, Journal of Urban History, Journal of Planning History, and Urban History Review, as well as a number of book chapters, most recently a collaborative essay with Isabelle Gournay in Housing Washington: Two Centuries of Tradition and Innovation in the Nation's Capital and Surrounding Counties (2009). In 2005 she was awarded the Laurence C. Gerckens Prize for Lifetime Achievement in Planning History Education. Earlier, she received a National Endowment for the Humanities Fellowship to study at the Winterthur Museum and Gardens. She is currently collaborating with Isabelle
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Gournay on a survey of the Modern Movement in Maryland (MoMoMa), funded by three grants from the Maryland Historical Trust.
ELLEN J. UGUCCIONI
Ellen J. Uguccioni is the Preservation Officer for the City of Miami. During her thirty-year career, Ellen worked with the Kansas City Landmarks Commission and joined staff of the City of Coral Gables' Historic Preservation Division in 1 986. She was promoted to Director after the creation of a City Department in 1994, retiring in2000. She received her Masters Degree in Art and Architectural History from the University of Missouri at Kansas City in 1 982. Ms. Uguccioni has written and lectured extensively about historic preservation to local, state and national audiences. She has served three terms on the Florida National Register Review Board as the architectural historian member, and has recently been reappointed to the Florida Historical Commission by Governor Crist. Her many awards include: the Distinguished Service Award from the Florida Trust for Historic Preservation, the Distinguished Service Award from The Villagers, Inc., Excellence in Writing about Architecture from the Miami Chapter of the American Institute of Architects, National History Medal from the Coral Gables Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, the Lifetime Achievement Award from the Dade Heritage Trust for Historic Preservation, and was named a "Woman of Impact" in 2007 by the Miami-Dade Women's History Coalition.
A prolific writer, Ms. Uguccioni has contributed numerous articles about preservation, including an address at the first Preserving the Recent Past conference. Her books include The Biltmore HotelThe Legacy Continues (with Samuel D. LaRoue); Coral Gables in Postcards (with Samuel D. LaRoue); Coral Gables, Miami's Riviera; An Architectural Guidebook (with Aristides Millas); Fountains of Kansas City: A History and Love Affair (with Sherry Piland); and First Families in Residence: Life at the Florida Governor's Mansion.
Student Assistants
Matthew Armstrong (Properties in Historic Districts)
Matthew Demers, Matthew Mariner (Historic Context)
David Ozawa, Eric Seymour (Scholarly Evaluation)
Tram Tran, lleana Olmos (Fragile/Short-lived Resources)
Joe Shaughnessy, John Beaty (Comparative Evaluation_
Ann Baird (roaming)
All student assistants are graduate students in the Historic Preservation Program at the University of Florida School of Design, Construction and Planning. In addition, they are all members of the class on Evaluating the Recent Past, a graduate seminar taught by Roy Eugene Graham, FAIA, Beinecke-Reeves Distinguished Professor, and Director, UF's Historic Preservation Programs, and Guest Lecturer Jeanne Lambin, Professor of Historic Preservation, Savannah College of Art and Design.
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Appendix B: Recent Past Resource Guide


Recent years have witnessed an astonishing increase in the number and quality web sites and publications relating to the architecture of the recent past, documenting everything from Howard Johnson's Restaurants (http://www.hoioland.homestead.com/index.html) to drive-in movie theaters (http://www.driveintheater.com/index.htm). This guide is by no means exhaustive, rather it is intended to serve as a starting point for those interested in understanding, documenting, surveying, evaluating, preserving and pondering the recent past.
Indicates that the resource listed is available on-line
GENERAL:
Richard Longstreth's annually updated, A Historical Bibliography of Architecture Landscape and Urbanism in the United States Since World War II. Available for download at: http://www.recentpast.ora/biblioaraphy/index2003.html. This is a veritable treasure trove of information.
Cultural Resource Management, Vol. 1 8, no.8, Preserving the Recent Past. Interesting range of articles. Available for download at: http://crm.cr.nps.aov/issue.cfm?volume= 1 8&number=08
Cultural Resource Management, Vol. 1 6, no.3, Cultural Resources from the Recent Past. Available for download at: http://crm.cr.nps.qov/issue.cfm?volume= 1 6&number=06
Lee, Yvonne. "The Dilemma of Listing Modern Buildings," printed in CONTEXT the official magazine of the UK based Institute of Historic Building Conservation. It provides news and views on all aspects of building conservation with regular articles by the foremost protagonists in the field. A copy of the article can be downloaded from http://www.ihbc.ora.uk/context archive/44/Yvonnelee dir/Yvonnelee s.htm
Macdonald, Susan. "20th Century Heritage: Recognition, Protection and Practical Challenges." From ICOMOS: World Report, 2002-2003 on Monuments and Sites in Danger. Interesting international perspective on preserving 20th century resources. Available for download at: http://www.international.icomos.ora/risk/2002/20th2002.htm
Schull, Carol and Beth Savage. "From the Glass House to Stonewall: National Register Recognition of the Recent Past."
Originally presented at the Preserving the Recent Past Conference, Chicago, 1995. Available for download at: http://www.cr.nps.aov/nr/publications/bulletins/01 workshop/a lasshouses.htm
Liebs, Chester H., "Remember Our Not-So-Distant Past?" Historic Preservation 30 (Spring 1978), 30-35. Proving that there is nothing new under the sun, this is an article written thirty years ago on the subject of preserving our not-so-distant past.
Lambin, Jeanne, Preserving Resources from the Recent Past. Available for purchase on the National Trust Web site at www.preservationbooks.org
National Trust for Historic Preservation Forum Journal, Volume 10, No.l, Fall 1995, Preserving the Recent Past. Available for purchase on the National Trust Web site at www.preservationbooks.org
National Trust for Historic Preservgtion Forum Journgl, Volume 1 8, No. 4, Summer 2004, Rallying Support for Resources from the Recent
Past. Avgilgble for purchgse on the Ngtiongl Trust Web site gt www.preservgtionbooks.org
Ngtiongl Trust for Historic Preservgtion. Forum Journgl, Volume 20, Fall 20005, Preservationists Debate the Recent Past. Avgilgble for purchgse on the Ngtiongl Trust Web site gt www.preservgtionbooks.org
MATERIALS:
Jester, Tom, editor. Twentieth Century Building Materials: History and Conservation McGrgw-Hill Prof essiongl Publishing, 1 993. Out-of-print gnd difficult to find but well worth the effort.
Mgcdongld, Susgn. Preserving Post-war Heritage: The Care and Conservation of Mid-Twentieth Century Architecture. Shgftsbury, Donhegd Publishing, 2001. First published in 1996. Excellent bibliogrgphy for mgterigls bgsed resources.
Mgcdongld, Susgn, et al. edsPreserving Post-war Heritage: The Care and Conservation of Mid-Twentieth Century Architecture.
Shgftsbury, Donhegd Publishing, 2007. Order g copy gt: http://www.donhegd.com/conservgtion modern grchitecture.htm
Preserving Post-war Heritage: The Care and Conservation of Mid-Twentieth Century Architecture. Shgftsbury, Donhegd Publishing, 2001. First published in 1996. Excellent bibliogrgphy for mgterigls bgsed resources.
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Preservation Brief #12: The Preservation of Historic Structural Pigmented Glass (Vitrohte and Carrara Glass). Available for download at: http://www.nps.aov/riistory/rips/tps/briefs/brief 1 2.htm
Preservation Brief #13: The Repair and Thermal Upgrading of Historic Steel Windows. Available for Download at http://www.nps.aov/history/hps/tps/briefs/briefl 3.htm
Preservation Brief #14: Preservation of Historic Concrete Problems and General Approaches. Available for download at: http://www.nps.aov/history/hps/tps/briefs/brief 15.htm
Preservation Brief #25: The Preservation of Historic Signs. Available for download at: http://www.nps.aov/history/hps/tps/briefs/brief25.htm
TYPES:
Be sure to check out Richard Longstreth's bibliography, listed under GENERAL, it contains many great sources for information on specific building types.
11 icui y
The Notion of Type in Architecture http://www.salle.url.edu/~madrazo/ethz/phd/introduction/intro.html
Archaeological Sites
20th Century Archeological Sites and Redundant Resources: Why Should We Identify and Record 20th Century Resources, http://www.cr.nps.qov/nr/publications/bulletins/01workshop/20 century.htm
Domestic
Ranch Houses Are All Not the Same, by David Bricker. Available for download at: http://www.cr.nps.aov/nr/publications/bulletins/suburbs/Bricker.pdf
Call It Home, the House that Private Enterprise Built. CALL IT HOME is a laserdisc history of suburbia from 1 934-1 960. It collects 55 minutes of running footage from government, industrial and educational films with 3000 stills from related official and ephemeral documents. The disc explores the hyper-capitalistic partnership between the federal government and private enterprise in the 30's wherein suburban residential fabric became a currency, an economic indicator, and major U.S. industry not unlike the automobile. This site is composed of stills and text from the disc. Visit: http://www.columbia.edu/cu/asapp/ pro js/call-it-home/html/
Historic Residential Suburbs: Guidelines for Evaluation and Documentation for the National Register of Historic Places. Great "Resources" section. Available for download at: http://www.cr.nps.aov/nr/publications/bulletins/suburbs/suburbs-start.htm
A-Frame. "The Mania For A-Frames." Informative article on this unique building type by Chad Randl, author of the book A-Frame. http://www.oldhousejournal.com/maaazine/2004/july/aframes.shtml
"Bright Impertinences": A History of the Mid-20th Century Plywood Vacation Home Fad" is another great article by the A-Frame authority, http://www.apawood.orq/level b.cfm?content=pub ewj arch f04 plywood
Gringeri-Brown, Michele. Atomic Ranch: Design Ideas for Stylish Homes. Gibbs Smith, Salt Lake City, 2006. Contemporary take on historic building type but also includes information on preservation.
Atomic Ranch Magazine. Atomic Ranch is a new quarterly devoted to 1940s-1970s ranch homes and tract homes. As accurately stated on the magazine's Web site, "they're cooler than you think." Subscription information can be found at: http: //www.atomic-ranch.com/Merchant2/merchant.mvc
Goldstein, Carolyn M., Do It Yourself: Home Improvement in 20th-century America, Washington: National Building Museum, and New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1998. Lots of great illustrations.
Hess, Alan. The Ranch House, Harry Abrams, Inc., New York, 2004. Good overview of the history and evolution of ranch houses. Lots of illustrations.
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Commercial
<& Shopping Mall History
http://www.easternct.edu/depts/amerst/MallsHistory.ritm
As stated on the site, "this page is intended as a starting point for research into shopping mall history, primarily in the United States. Many shopping centers maintain their own web sites and some include brief historical sketches. The selected links on this page are primarily to general web sites that provide historical overviews. The separate Bibliography provides leads to additional information about shopping centers and mall history." Good bibliography section.
<& Dead Malls
http: //www.degdm glls.com
Deadmalls.com is a non-for-profit endeavor designed to promote the history of the malls as well as their nature, whether thriving or declining, and the impact of time and competition on these establishments.
@ Did You Bring Bottles: Supermarket History and Architecture
http://www.aroceteria.net
This site is a testament to the non-professional preservationist. Thus far in my career, I have encountered only one endangered supermarket. At the time I didn't know about this resource. Site author, David Gwynn's thoughtful and thorough documentation of a rapidly disappearing building type is an excellent model for a type based survey. Great photos too.
Roadside Peek. On-line catalog of Roadside Resources. Search by region and type, http://www.roadsidepeek.com/
\2 The Patent Room. Features selected images from original patent drawings filed for diners, gas stations and novelty buildings. Good source to locate drawings, then you can search the United States Government Patent and Trademark Office Website
http://www.uspto.aov/patft/index.html and see the full-text and drawings.
Valentine Diners.
http://www.kshs.ora/diners/index.htm
Valentines were small diners manufactured in Wichita, Kansas from the late 1 930s into the mid-1 970s. Sales of the buildings expanded nationwide, and Valentines soon were all over the United States. The diners often were located along major highways, and many of them are still in use today. Great example of documenting extant examples of a specific property type. Lots of great images.
Jakle, John, and Keith A. Sculle, Fast Food: Roadside Restaurants in the Automobile Age, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1999.
Jakle, John, and Keith A. Sculle, The Gas Station in America: Creating the North American Landscape, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. Excellent book tracing the history and evolution of the gas station. Excellent for understanding context.
Jakle, John, and Keith A. Sculle and Jefferson Rogers, The Motel in America, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996
Langdon, Philip, Orange Roofs, Golden Arches: The Architecture of American Chain Restaurants, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1 986
Liebs, Chester, Main Street to Miracle Mile: American Roadside Architecture, 1 985, reprint ed., Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1 995
Mattson, Richard, "Store Front Remodeling on Main Street," Journal of Cultural Geography 3 (Spring-Summer 1 983), 41 -55
Landscape
Birnbaum, Charles A., "Contemporary Landscape Architecture for Western Living: Preserving and Interpreting an 'Invisible Legacy',1' Forum Journal 15 (Fall 2000), 48-56
Birnbaum, Charles A., Preserving Modern Landscape Architecture. Cgmbridge, Mgss.: Spgcemgker Press, 1 999. Gregt overview of the preservgtion of Modern Lgndscgpes. Order from: http://www.tclf.org/pubs modern.htm
Birnbaum, Charles A., Preserving Modern Landscape Architecture II: Making Postwar Landscapes Visibl.: Spacemaker Press,
2004. Order from: http://www.tclf.org/pubs modern.htm
Olin, Lgurie. Preserve Some, Yes, but also Improve, Add to, and Let Some Go, pgper presented gt Wave Hill Conference: Preserving Modern Lgndscgpe Architecture & Mgking Post War Design Visible http://www.tclf.org/conf pgpers/Pgper-Olin.doc
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


STYLES and STYLE GUIDES:
Many popular architectural style guides stop at 1940 or thereabouts. If they do cover the postwar period, it is often cursory. In my humble opinion (and without delving into the debate of type vs. style and other digressions), a singular useful, definitive comprehensive style guide has not been published. Each of the items listed below have some useful information or sections which could be useful in helping to identify and describe styles. If you are wresting with style issues period architecture magazines, trade journals, and popular magazines can be good sources of information.
Introduction to Postwar Modern Housing Architectural Styles. Brought to you by the city of Scottsdale, Arizona. http://www.scottsdaleaz.aov/historiczonina/neiahborhoods/ pdf/lntroPostwa rHousinaStyle.pdf
Hess, Alan, Googie: Fifties Coffee Shop Architecture, San Francisco: Chronicle Books, 1 985
Melvin, Jeremy. ...ISMS: Understanding Architectural Styles, New York, Universe Publishing, c.2000.
Rifkind, Carol, A Field Guide to American Architecture, New York: New American Library, 1 980
Rifkind, Carol, A Field Guide to Contemporary Architecture, New York: Penguin Group, 1 998.
Walker, Lester, American Shelter: An Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Home, Woodstock, NY: The Overlook Press, 1 981
HANDYMAN/WOMAN GUIDES:
Wright, Russel and Mary, Guide to Easier Living, Salt Lake City, UT: Gibbs Smith, 2003 (reprint, originally published 1950) Oldham, Todd with Julia Szabo, Handmade Modern: Mid-Century Inspired Products for Your Home. Regan Books, 2005.
ORGANIZATIONS
There are a number of national organizations, which focus on the study, documentation, and preservation of underage resources. Some include:
NATIONAL TRUST FOR HISTORIC PRESERVATION
www.nthp.org
The National Trust works at both the regional and national level to preserve the resources from the recent past. In addition, two of the Trust's historic sites, Philip Johnson's Glass House and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth House are two of the most iconic examples of Modern architecture. The Trust's website contains lots of useful information on a variety of subjects ranging from the financial assistance programs of the to Advocacy. To find out what is happening in your region or to contact a regional office to discuss a preservation issue, visit http://www.nationaltrust.ora/regional offices/index.html
Eleven most
America's 1 1 Most Endangered Places is the National Trusts annual program to identify and raise awareness of historic sites at risk. Since it was established in 1988, more than 200 significant resources have been listed, including a number of resources from the recent past such as: the Doo-Wop Motels, Wildwood, New Jersey (2006); the Gold Dome Bank, Oklahoma City (2002); the Guthrie Theatre, Minneapolis (2002); the Cigna Campus, Bloomfield, Connecticut (2001); TWA Terminal, New York (2003); 2 Columbus Circle (2004). For more information visit: http://www.nationaltrust.ora/1 1 Most
Glass House
Philip Johnson's Glass House was a remarkable achievement when it was completed in 1949. Inspired by the plans of Mies van der Rohe's Farnsworth House in Illinois, its exterior walls are of glass with no interior walls touching the exterior, a radical departure from houses of the time. Over the next fifty years a Guest House, Lake Pavilion, Painting Gallery, Sculpture Gallery, Ghost House, Studio, and Visitors Pavilionwere added to the landscape. For Tours and ticket info visit, http://www.philipjohnsonalasshouse.ora/
Farnsworth House
Designed by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for Edith Farnsworth, and located near Piano, Illinois, the Farnsworth House, built in 1 951, is one of the most famous examples of modernist domestic architecture and was considered unprecedented in its day. The Farnsworth House is owned by the National Trust and is operated as a house museum by the Landmarks Illinois The National Trust and Landmarks Illinois with financial support from hundreds of contributors
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


including the Friends of the Farnsworth House were able to purchase the house for $7.5 million at an auction in 2003. The house is now open for tours, http://www.farnsworthhouse.ora/index.htm
Recent Past Preservation Network
http://www.recentpast.org
Web site is an excellent gnd currently unpgrglleled Web site, it could be sub-titled Preserving the Recent Pgst 101. The site provides excellent technicgl informgtion, gdvocgcy gssistgnce, mgintgins g list of endgngered properties, gnd hgs g list-serve for its members. The list-serve is an excellent source of informgtion.
Society of Architectural Historians.
www.sgh.org. They usuglly fegture an grticle gbout more recent grchitecture in their journgl.
DoCoMoMo (Documentgtion gnd Conservgtion of the Modern Movement www.docomomo us.com. Both the US newsletter gnd Interngtiongl Journgl gre full of useful grticles. http://www.docomomofl.org/ DOCMOMO Florida
The Society for the Commercial Archaeology
www.scg-rogdside.org. Estgblished in 1977, the SCA is the oldest ngtiongl orggnizgtion devoted to the buildings, grtifgcts, structures, signs, gnd symbols of the 20th-century commercigl Igndscgpe. Gregt journgl. Website fegtures g discussion bogrd for members.
31AI tWIUt rKtjtKVA IIUIM UKuAIMIZA I IUIMO
Mgny stgtewide preservgtion orggnizgtions hgve copious gmounts of informgtion on preserving the recent pgst on their websites. Some, like the Connecticut preservgtion trust hgve g short description of resources gnd g short list of links.
Connecticut Trust for Historic Preservation: Recent Past Architecture Preservation
http://www.cttrust.org /d/2004/1 1 / l 5/7326
Landmarks Illinois.Check out the fgbulous Illinois Initiative on Recent Past Architecture http://www.landmarks.ora/surveys.htm
STATE HISTORIC PRESERVATION OFFICE WEBSITES
Colorado Historical Society Office of History and Historic Preservation. The Survey and Inventory section of their website includes a special section on Post WWII Documents. It is a veritable treasure trove of useful information. Available documents include: the Database of the Denver Area Annual Parade of Homes, Selected Post-WWII Architectural Styles, Sample Reconnaissance Level Survey Forms, Local Landmark Designation reports and a PDF of the National Register form for Arapahoe Acres. http://www.coloradohistory-oahp.org/prog ram a reas/infom an 7pwwll.htm
LOCAL ORGANIZATIONS/HISTORIC PRESERVATION COMMISSIONS
Check out the list maintained by the Recent Past Preservation Network here: http://www.recentpast.ora/research/surveys/index.html
The L.A. Conservancy Modern Committee
http://www.modcom .org
Their Web Site is g model site for any gdvocgcy bgsed orggnizgtion. It provides an excellent overview of the bgsics of preservgtion gnd does an outstgnding job linking gpprecigtion with gdvocgcy (which unfortungtely some other RP focused orggnizgtions faiI to do). It is informgtive, egsy to ngviggte, gnd glwgys expgnding. Mgke sure to check out their regding list which hgs g staggering grrgy of links.
Houston Modern Committee Houston Mod is a non-profit, 501(C)(3), membership orggnizgtion dedicgted to promoting knowledge gnd gpprecigtion of modern grchitecture gnd design in Houston gnd Texgs. Houston Mod gdvocgtes the preservgtion of this culturgl leggcy gnd seeks support from its members gnd the general public in gchieving this gogl. http://www.houstonmod.org/defgult.htm
The Sarasota Architectural Foundation
(SAF) is the outgrowth of "An Americgn Leggcy: The Sgrgsotg School of Architecture Tour gnd Symposium," g five-dgy showcgse of Sgrgsotg County's unique mid-century modern grchitecture known gs the Sgrgsotg School of Architecture. Developed by members of the Fine Arts Society of Sgrgsotg, Inc. (FASS), the 2001 Tour was gttended by over 1,000 design professiongls, scholgrs, gnd individugls from ground the world, gnd comprised scholgrly lectures, guided bus gnd bogt tours, g documentgry, exhibitions gnd socigl events. A core group of Tour orggnizers subsequently formed SAF to focus on the ongoing preservgtion gnd celebration of the
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Sarasota School structures, and the promotion of architectural excellence within the Sarasota community. http://www.safonline.ora/about.cfm
TUSCON ARIZONA MODERN ARCHITECTURE PRESERVATION PROJECT
http:// www.sakel lar.com / m apptucson /
City of Scottsdale, Arizona
Has scads of great information on their website. http://www.scottsdaleaz.aov/historiczonina/HistoricResources.asp Modern Phoenix Neighborhood Network, http://www.modernphoenix.net/
KJ I ntn v-/1M~LI IM l\L JUUlxLLj
The web can provide an excellent introduction to preserving the recent past and an outstanding overview of the styles, types, variety and density of resources out there. If you are not familiar with the architecture of the mid-century, the Web can be a great place to start learning more. For those of you that are more familiar with the architecture of the mid-century, on-line resources can be an excellent source for contextual information and comparative evaluation. For example, there are a number of sites which feature inventories of certain property types or styles, while other sites that document the known examples of an architects work. The following is a short list of web sites with which to start:
The National Park Service's Recent Past Initiative
http://www2.cr.nps.aov/tps/ recent past /index.htm
Buildings from the 20th century are disappearing from the American landscape. While older structures have long been the focus of popular appreciation and preservation efforts, the value of properties from the recent past has not been widely embraced. Those interested in ensuring that 20th century places will still be available to future generations have responded by looking anew at the properties that represent this era and finding new ways to protect them.
@ Great Buildings Online
http://www.areatbuildinas.com/
Great Buildings Online is considered one of the leading architecture sites on the web. It is a gateway to architecture around the world and across history. The site documents a thousand buildings and hundreds of leading architects, with 3D models, photographic images and architectural drawings, commentaries, bibliographies, web links, and more. This is a great way to locate examples of the work of a known architect in your community. It is searchable by a number of fields including architect, type, style, location, and construction style. The index includes bibliographic information including books, articles and on-line resources.
SURVEYS, LISTS, and CONTEXTS
@ National Register Bulletin No. 15: How to Apply the National Register Criteria for Evaluation. Available for download at: http://www.cr.nps.aov/nr/ publications/bulletins/nrb 15/
@ Guidelines for Local Surveys: A Basis for Preservation Planning (formerly National Register Bulletin 24). Anne Derry, H. Ward Jandl, Carol D. Shull, and Jan Thorman; revised by Patricia L. Parker. Guidance for communities, organizations, federal and state agencies, and individuals undertaking surveys of historic resources and incorporating survey results into planning. 1 12 pages. 1 985. Available for download at http://www.cr.nps.aov/nr/publications/bulletins/nrb24/
Q Embarking on a survey? Be sure to check out the Recommended Minimum Standards for Identification & Evaluation of Postwar Subdivisions put out by the Colorado Office of Archeaeology and Historic Preservation.
' Charlotte, North Carolina. Final Report: Post World War Two Survey. Site includes images of NR Eligible properties, context statement, very useful typology and list of identifying features of Modernism, http: / /www.cmhpf.org/surveybytopicworldwar2.htm
@ Eugene, Oregon. Eugene Modernism Context 1935-65 Context Statement
http://www.hp-nw.com/modernism.htm
THE PHILADELPHIA CHAPTER OF THE AMERICAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS A LIST OF PHILADELPHIA'S MODERN MONUMENTS, http://www.brynmawr.edu/iconoa/modern.html
NYC Municipal Art Society's 30 Under Thirty :
http://www.mas.ora/Advocacy/ preservation.cfm?ContlD= 1 36&Full=Yes#Story 1 36
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Aurora, Illinois, Preservation of the Recent Past. Includes examples of locally significant buildings http: / /www.aurora-il.org/communitydevelopment/historicpreservation/hist_recentpast.asp
Making the Case for a Comprehensive Los Angeles Survey, from the Getty Institute: http://www.aetty.edu/conservation/publications/pdf publications/lasurvey.pdf
@ Dallas, Texas. Discover Dallas! Historical Resources Survey, http://preservationdallas.org/new site/survey/
v}-' On the Road, Kentucky's Roadside Commercial Architecture, 1920-1960 an on-line exhibit sponsored by the Kentucky Heritage Council, http://www.state.ky.us/aqencies/khc/roadside.htm
' Raleigh Comprehensive Architectural Survey Final Report.
http://www.raleiqhcitymuseum.org/arch survey/Phase2/survey.shtml
@- Field Guide to Gas Stations in Texas.
http://www.dot.state.tx.us/publications/environmental affairs/fieldauide gas stations .pdf
' Growth, Efficiency and Modernism: GSA Buildings of the 1950s, 60s and 70s. Book detailing the results of a study by GSA to, "better understand this era of Federal construction within Its context in American architectural history and the history of the Federal public building construction." Study also created context for evaluating historic and architectural significance of GSA's mid-century Modern buildings. Includes great Assessment Tool which details how to evaluate the buildings using the NR criteria. All 118 pages available for download at: http://www.asa.aov/asa/cm attachments/GSA DOCUMENT/Modern R2-v01-t 0Z5RDZ-J34K-
pR.pdf#search=%22Growth%2C%20Efficency%20and%20Modernism%3A%20GSA%20Buildinas%20of%20the%201950s% 2C%2060s%20and%2070s%22
V&' Database of the Denver Area Annual Parade of Homes
http://www.coloradohistory-oahp.ora/ proa ram a reas/infom an/pwwl I/DB Pa radeofHomes.pdf. This database is intended to assist those seeking to gain a better understanding of Post-WWII residential architectural styles and types. The eleven-year span of the database provides an opportunity to observe changes over time.
Evaluation
From Taste to Judgment, Multiple Criteria in the Evaluation of Architecture. William Saunders, Harvard Design Magazine, Winter/Spring 1 999, No. 7. Available for download at:
http://www.asd.harvard.edu/ research/ publ i cations /hdm /back /7saunders. pdf
Evaluating Cultural Resources: Challenging Issues for the 21s1 Century. Carol D. Schull. CRM 7, 2001. Available for download at: http://crm.cr.nps.aov/archive/24-07/24-07-1 3.pdf
Architecture of the Great Society, Assessing the GSA Portfolio of Buildings Constructed During the 1960s and 1970s.
Summary of comments from a meeting convened at Yale University's Center for British Art, December 5, 2000. http://www.asa.aov/asa/cm attachments/GSA DOCUMENT/areat society R2-v02E 0Z5RDZ-i34K-pR.pdf
DoCoMoMo_US. How to Evaluate Modern Buildings, http://www.docomomo-s.ora/buildinas how to evaluate.shtml
Local Designation Forms and Statements of Significance/ National Register Nomination Forms/National Historic Landmark Nomination Forms
The Recent Past Preservation Network has an excellent assortment of National Register forms available on their website including: the Friendship Shopping Center, the Gettysburg Cyclorama, and the Guthrie Theater. The site also includes a list of the 2,000+ properties listed according to Criteria Consideration G. http://www.recentpast.ora/research/natreq/index.html
DESIGN GUIDELINES
Most of the design guidelines listed are not solely for mid-century styles, rather they are included in the inventory of styles for a particular district.
http://www.mydelraybeach.eom/N R/ rdonlyres/eydwhwvcko23ufm2ebn2p62lxjbknx3cnbcdlsktzajlwqn2347dour7rrmqqo6tjquqnxp ytaqytthk2wvk73yf6zh/historic guidelines section 4.pdf
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


INTERNATIONAL
THE MEDAN PROJECT
"Setting a frame work for understanding Modern Heritage in Asia." Fascintantin project, covering numerous contries and a range of definitions of modern heritage. Interesting section on Criteria. About the project: http://medan.m-
heritaae.org/about project/index.html
ICOMOS
Twentieth Century Heritage Conservation Montreal Action Plan. http://www.international.icomos.ora/20th heritage/montreal plan.htm
UNESCO
van Oers, R., and Haraguchi, S., eds., Identification and Documentation of Modern Heritage, World Heritage Papers 5, Paris: World Heritage Centre, UNECSO, 2003. A fascinating look at international preservation. Available for download at: http: //whc.unesco.ora /en /series 15/
COLLABORATIVE PROJECTS
At the start of 2001 the UNESCO World Heritage Centre, ICOMOS (International Council on Monuments and Sites) and DOCOMOMO (Working Party for the Documentation and Conservation of buildings, sites and neighbourhoods of the Modern Movement) launched a joint programme for the identification, documentation and promotion of the built heritage of the 19th and 20th centuries the Programme on Modern Heritage. With financial support from the government of the Netherlands, this programme focuses on raising awareness concerning the heritage of architecture, town planning and landscape design of the modern era, which is considered to be particularly vulnerable because of weak legal protection and low appreciation among the general public. The Programme on Modern Heritage aims to establish a framework of conceptual thinking on the significance of this heritage, its preservation and some of the pivotal issues concerning identification and valorisation. This framework is being developed through the various Regional Meetings on Modern Heritage, which have been implemented by the World Heritage Centre, and should facilitate further, more concrete studies and exercises undertaken by the States Parties concerned. http://worldheritaae-forum.net/en/2006/03/modern heritage programme
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Preserving Modern Residences Great one-page guide from the LA Conservancy. http://www.laconservancy.org/ preservation /YourModernHome.htm I
Profiting From Preservation of Modern Structures. Brief one-pager from LA Conservancy, http://www.modcom.org/profit.shtml
Responsibilities of Owners of, and Those Who Care About, Historic Architecture from the Pglm Springs Modern Committee. http://www.psmodcom.com/Responsibilities.html
TOURS
Nifty from the Lgst Fifty, http://www.historicsegttle.org/preservgtionsegttle/publicpolicy/defgultgugust2.htm
20th CENTURY HOUSE MUSEUMS, SITES and NOTEABLE BUILDINGS
Recent Past Preservation Network
Mgintgins g list of homes, sites gnd buildings open to the public. Wilson Art House, Temple Texas
Designed for Rglph Wilson Sr., founder of Wilson Art Interngtiongl to showcgse the Igmingtes mgnufgctured by his compgny. The house, completed in 1959, the house is an exgmple of both modern gnd rgnch style building. The house was purchgsed by Wilsongrt Interngtiongl from Rglph Wilson's widow in 1997, gnd hgs been restored to its essentigl gppegrgnce in 1959. It is g striking commentgry on the durability of Igmingte, negrly o 11 of the origingl Igmingte remgins in excellent condition, preserving this moment in interior design history It was plgced on the Ngtiongl Register of Historic Plgces in 1998 gnd received the 1999 Preservgtion Awgrd from the Ngtiongl Trust for Historic Preservgtion. Open only by gppointment. http://www.wilsongrt.com/corporgte/history/wilson house/wilsonhouse history.gsp
Rolling Meadows Historical Museum, Rolling Meadows, Illinois
The newly built Historicgl Museum was designed gs g replicg of the first ranch-style homes constructed in the community by Rolling Megdows founder, Kimbgll Hill in 1953. Displgys of dongted historicgl documents, photos gnd furnishings of the '50's erg gre combined to cregte guthentic interior spgces within the home. The objective was to cregte g museum thgt did not feel like g museum. Visitors who enter the house will feel they hgve been transported through time to the gctugl home of g 1 950's Rolling Megdows homemgker. The exhibit in the Kimbgll Hill Fgmily Educgtiongl Center contgins informgtion on Kimbgll Hill, egrly dgys in the development of the City of Rolling Megdows, gnd displgys of '50's memorabilig. (Hgndicgpped Accessible).
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


http://www.ci.rollinq-meadows.il.us/riistorical museum.htm
1950s All Electric House, Shawnee, Kansas
Built by the General Electric Company in 1953, the "All Electric House" was the dream home of the future, full of electrical innovations meant to make life easier for a suburban family. It was a model home featuring everything from an electrical washer and dryer to a remote control to open and close the blinds. It was also built for the purpose of deciding if electrical appliances would work better than gas ones. The Emery Bird Thayer (EBT) department store was responsible for decorating and furnishing the house for the period when it was open for exhibition. People came from all over the area to come and gawk at this new revolutionary house. It was moved to the Johnson County Historical Museum to save it from demolition. http://www.iocomuseum.ora/electrichouse.htm
IMAGES
Arcaid Picture Library, Classic Homes of the 20th Century. Beautiful images of high-style homes with international focus. http://www.arcaid.captureweb.co.uk/classified/ pages/Classic-Horn es.htm?SearchPa ram =housina
rUK rUIN
Eurobad Welcome to EUROBAD '74, an exhibition of Europe's worst interiors of 1974 (actually a lot of them are pretty cool). http://www.omodern.com/Eurobad/euro.html
Preserving Resources from the Recent Past in Florida


Appendix C: National Register Listings in Florida Under Criteria Consideration G


County Name Address City Comments
Alachua County Dixie Hotel, Hotel Kelley 408 W. University Ave. Gainesville
Alachua County Hotel Thomas Bounded by N.E. 2nd and 5th Sts. and N.E. 6th and 7th Aves. Gainesville
Alachua County Library East Murphree Way Gainesville
Alachua County Rawlings, Marjorie Kinnan, House FL 325, S of Cross Creek Cross Creek
Brevard County Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Pads 5, 6, 1 3, 1 4, 1 9, 26, 34 and Mission Control Center Cocoa
Brevard County Central Instrumentation Facility NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Crawlerway NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Headquarters Building NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Launch Complex 39 Kennedy Space Center Titusville John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Launch Complex 39--Pad A NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Launch Complex 39--Pad B NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Launch Control Center NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Missile Crawler Transporter Facilities NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Operations and Checkout Building NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Press Site--Clock and Flag Pole NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Brevard County Vehicle Assembly Building--High Bay and Low Bay NASA, John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center John F. Kennedy Space Center MPS
Broward County Dillard High School, Old 1001 NW. Fourth St. Ft. Lauderdale
Broward County U.S. Car. No. 1 3398 SW. 9th Ave. Fort Lauderdale
Collier County Seaboard Coast Line Railroad Depot 1 051 5th Ave., South Naples
Duval County Woman's Club of Jacksonville 861 Riverside Ave. Jacksonville
Escambia County Crystal Ice Company Building 2024 N. Davis St. Pensacola
Escambia County Perdido Key Historic District S of Warrington Warrington
Flagler County Marine Studios CT A1A, Box 122 Marineland
Hamilton County White Springs Historic District Roughly bounded by River, First, Suwannee, and Hewitt Sts., FL 25A, US 81 and Suwannee R. White Springs
Hillsborough County SS AMERICAN VICTORY (Victory ship) 705 Channelside Dr, Berth 271 Tampa


County Name Address City Comments
Indian River County Driftwood Inn and Restaurant 3150 Ocean Dr. Vero Beach
Indian River County Vero Beach Community Building, Old 2146 14th Ave. Vero Beach
Leon County Lewis House N of Tallahassee at 31 17 Okeeheepkee Rd. Tallahassee vicintiy
Leon County Three Stars 1111 Paul Russell Rd. Tallahassee
Manatee County Kreissle Forge 7947 Tamiami Trail Sarasota
Marion County Coca-Cola Bottling Plant 939 N. Magnolia Ave. Ocala
Marion County Fessenden Academy Historic District, Old 4200 NW. 90th St. Ocala
Miami-Dade County Allen, Hervey, Study 8251 S.W. 52nd Ave. South Miami
Miami-Dade County Beth Jacob Social Hall and Congregation 301 and 31 1 Washington Ave. Miami Beach
Miami-Dade County Coral Gables City Hall 405 Biltmore Way Coral Gables
Miami-Dade County Coral Gables Police and Fire Station 2325 Salzedo St. Coral Gables
Miami-Dade County Douglas Entrance Jet. of Douglas Rd. and 8th St. SW. Coral Gables
Miami-Dade County DuPont, Alfred 1., Building 169 E. Flagler St. Miami Downtown Miami MRA
Miami-Dade County Hialeah Park Race Track E. 4th Ave. Hialeah
Miami-Dade County Miami Beach Architectural District Roughly bounded by Atlantic Ocean, Miami Beach Blvd., Alton Rd. and Collins Canal Miami Beach
Miami-Dade County Miami Women's Club 1737 N. Bayshore Dr. Miami
Miami-Dade County Pan American Seaplane Base and Terminal Building 3500 Pan American Dr. Miami
Monroe County AFRICAN QUEEN 99701 Overseas Hwy. Key Largo
Monroe County HA. 1 9 (Japanese Midget Submarine) NAS Key West Key West
Monroe County Hemingway, Ernest, House 907 Whitehead St. Key West
Monroe County John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park and Reserve U.S. 1 Key Largo
Monroe County Key West Historic District Bounded approximately by White, Angela, Windsor, Passover, Thomas and Whitehead Sts., and the Gulf of Mexico Key West
Monroe County Little White House Naval Station Key West
Monroe County Overseas Highway and Railway Bridges Bridges on U.S. 1 between Long and Conch Key, Knight and Little Duck Key, and Bahia Honda and Spanish Key Florida Keys
Nassau County American Beach Historic District Roughly bounded by Gregg, Lewis, Leonard, Main and James Sts., and Ocean Blvd. American Beach


County Name Address City Comments
Okaloosa County McKinley Climatic Laboratory Building 440, Eglin Air Force Base Fort Walton Beach
Okeechobee County Freedman-Raulerson House 600 S. Parrot Ave. Okeechobee
Orange County Brewer, Edward Hill, House 240 Trismen Terrace Winter Park
Orange County Polasek, Al bin, House and Studio 633 Osceola Ave. Winter Park
Osceola County Desert Inn 5570 S. Kenansville Rd. Yeehaw Junction
Palm Beach County Breakers Hotel Complex S. County Rd. Palm Beach
Palm Beach County Old Palm Beach Junior College Building 81 3 Gardenia Ave. West Palm Beach
Palm Beach County Paramount Theatre Building 145 N. County Rd. Palm Beach
Palm Beach County Seaboard Coastline Railroad Passenger Station Tamarind Ave. at Datura St. West Palm Beach
Palm Beach County US Post Office 95 N. County Rd. Palm Beach
Pinellas County Casa Coe da Sol 510 Park St. St. Petersburg
Pinellas County Cleveland Street Post Office 650 Cleveland St. Clea rwater
Pinellas County Don Ce Sar Hotel 3400 Gulf Blvd. St. Petersburg Beach
Pinellas County GEORGE N. CRETEKOS (Sponge Diving Boat) Tarpon Springs Sponge Docks at Dodecanese Blvd. Tarpon Springs Tarpon Springs Sponge Boats MPS
Pinellas County Roebling, Donald, Estate 700 Orange Ave. Clea rwater
Pinellas County ST. NICHOLAS III (Sponge Diving Boat) Tarpon Springs Sponge Docks at Dodecanese Blvd. Tarpon Springs Tarpon Springs Sponge Boats MPS
Pinellas County ST. NICHOLAS VI (Sponge Diving Boat) Tarpon Springs Sponge Docks at Dodecanese Blvd. Tarpon Springs Tarpon Springs Sponge Boats MPS
Pinellas County Tarpon Springs City Hall, Old 101 S. Pinellas Ave. Tarpon Springs
Pinellas County Tarpon Springs Historic District Roughly bounded by Read St., Hibiscus St., Orange St., Levis Ave., Lemon St. and Spring Bayou Tarpon Springs
Polk County Florida Southern College Architectural District McDonald and Johnson Aves. Lakeland
Santa Rosa County Bagdad Village Historic District Roughly bounded by Main, Water, & Oak Sts., Cobb & Woodville Rds., Cemetery, Pooley, & School Sts. Bagdad
Sarasota County Johnson Chapel Missionary Baptist Church 506 Church St. Laurel
Sarasota County Leech, Hilton, House and Amagansett Art School 1 666 Hillview St. Sarasota
Sarasota County Sanderling Beach Club 1 05 Beach Rd. Sarasota
St. Johns County Lincolnville Historic District Bounded by Cedar, Riberia, Cerro and Washington Sts. and DeSoto PI. St. Augustine
St. Lucie County Hurston, Zora Neale, House 1 734 School Ct. Fort Pierce


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