Title: Annual report
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00100102/00005
 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: St. Eustatius National Parks Foundation. Sea Turtle Conservation Program
Publisher: St. Eustatius National Parks Foundation
Place of Publication: Gallows Bay, St. Eustatius, N.A.
Publication Date: 2007
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00100102
Volume ID: VID00005
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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St Eustatius Sea Turtle

Conservation Programme


Annual Revort 2007


Arturo Herrera
Programme Co-ordinator
St Eustatius National Parks Foundation
Gallows Bay, St Eustatius
Netherlands Antilles
www.statiapark. o r
mailto:research(astatiapark. org
semp(agoldenrocknet.cor












Table of Contents

TA B LE O F C ON TE N TS ...............................................................................................................................................................2

LIS T O F TA B LE S .......................................................................................................................................................................... 6

LIS T O F F IG UR E S ....................................................................................................................................................................... 6

LIST OFA CRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 7

S UM M A R Y................................................................................................................................................................. ............... 8

INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................................................... 15

PARTICIPATING ORGANISATIONS................................................................................................................... ............ 16

ST EUSTATIUS NATIONAL PARKS FOUNDATION (STENAPA) ........................................................................... 16

STENAPA Internship Program m e ............................................................................................ ......... ................ ........ 16

W working A broad Program m e Statia Conservation P roject................................................... ............................ 16

WIDER CARIBBEAN SEA TURTLE CONSERVATION NETWORK (WIDECAST)............................................ 17

DUTCH CARIBBEAN NATURE ALLIANCE (DCNA) ................................................................................................ 17

F U N D IN G A G E N C IE S A N D D O N O R S ................................................................................................................................. 17

S TUD Y SITE S............................................................................................................................................................................... 18

ST E U STA T IU S ........................................................................................................................................................................... 18

SE A TU R TL E N E ST IN G B E A C H E S...................................................................................................................................... 18

Zeelandia B each....................................................................................................................................... ...................... 19

Turtle B each ................................................................................ ............................................................................... 19

Lynch Bay ...................... .......................................... .............................. ..............................20

O ranje Bay ................................................................................. ................................................................................ 20

K ay B ay ................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

M E TH O D O L O G Y ........................................................................................................................................................................ 20

P R E -SE A SO N P R EP A R A TIO N S ............................................................................................................................................ 20

B each Preparation .......................................................... ........................ 20

Training of Volunteers........................ .... .......................................................................... .................. 21

O TH E R P R E P A R A TIO N S ........................................................................................................................................................ 21

Selection o P program m e C o-ordinator........................................................... ............................................... 21











M ONITORING AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................ 21

Track Surveys .......................................... ................................................................. 21

B each Patrols....................................................................................................................................................................... 22

Tagging M ethods.................................................................................................................................... ................ ........ 24

C arap ace M easurem ents...................................................................................................................................... ........... 25

N est Survival and H watching Success..................................................................................................... ........................ 26

In-w after Turtle Sightings...................... ................................ .......................... ..........................27

Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking P project 2005-2007................................................................................ .........................28

B each E erosion .............................................................................. ............................................................................. 29

COM MUNITY OUTREACH EVENTS ............................................................................................................................ 29

School A activities .................................................................................. 29

M edia Exposure and Public P resentations..................... ................................................................................................... 30

P articip action in M meetings, W workshops and Symposia................................................................ ........................... 30

R E S UL TS ...................................................................................................................................................................................... .30

P R E -SE A SO N P R EP A R A TIO N S ...................................................................................................................................... 30

B each P reparation ......................................................... ........................ 30

Training of Volunteers......................................................................................................................................................... 31

M ONITORING AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................ 31

Track Surveys .......................................... ................................................................. 31

B each Patrols....................................................................................................................................................................... 33

Tagging.................................................................................................................................................................. 34

C arap ace M easurem ents...................................................................................................................................... ........... 35

N est Survival and H watching Success......................................................................................................... .................... 36

In-W after Turtle Sightings........................................... ........................................................................... 38

Turtle Strandings .......................................................... ........................ 39

Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking P project 2007........................................................... ........................... .................. 40

R research A ctivities........................................................................................................................................ ................. 40

'Track the G reen turtle ........................................................ 40

B each E erosion ....................................................................................... ........................................................... ........ 41

Zeelandia B beautification Project....................................................................................................................................... 42

COM MUNITY OUTREACH EVENTS ............................................................................................................................ 43

School A activities .................................................................................. 43

School Vacation Programme .................................................................... 44











B each C lean-Ups .................. .................. .... ................................ .................................... 44

M edia Exposure and Public P resentations............................................................................................ ........................ 45

View ing o Turtles and H atchling R leases ............................................................................ .................. 46

P participation in M meetings, W workshops and Sym posia......................................................................... .................. 46

2007 A annual International Sea Turtle Sym posium ............................................................. ........................................... 46

D ISC USSION ................................................................................................................................................................................48

P R E -SE A SO N P R EP A R A TIO N S ...................................................................................................................................... 48

B each P reparation ......................................................... ........................ 48

Training of Volunteers......................................................................................................................................................... 48

M ONITORING AND RESEARCH ACTIVITIES ................................................................................................................ 48

Track Surveys...................................................................................................................................................................... 48

B each Patrols....................................................................................................................................................................... 49

Tagging M ethods........................................................................................................................................... ................. 50

C arap ace M easurem ents................................................ .......................................................................................... 50

N est Survival and H watching Success......................................................................................................... .................... 51

In-w after Turtle Sightings........................................... ........................................................................... 51

Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking P project 2005-7.......................................................... ................................................. 52

B each E erosion ....................................................................................... ........................................................... ........ 52

COM MUNITY OUTREACH EVENTS ............................................................................................................................ 53

School A activities ......................................................... ........................ 53

B each C lean-Ups .................. .................. .... ................................ .................................... 54

M edia Exposure and Public P resentations............................................................................................ ........................ 54

P participation in M meetings, W workshops and Sym posia......................................................................... .................. 55

Technical Reports......................................... 56
Technical R reports ................................................................................................................................................................ 56

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR 2008................................................ 56

P participation of volunteers................................................................................................................................. .... ....... 56

B each patrols........................................................................................................................................................................ 57

D evelopm ent of the research program m e .............................................................................................. ........................ 57

A C KN O W LE D G E M E N TS .......................................................................................................................................................... 58

R E FE R E N CE S .............................................................................................................................................................................58

A PPE N D ICE S .............................................................................................................................................................................. 60

A PP E N D IX 1 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 60


4












Tagging and N est Location D ata N est Excavation D ata.......................................................... ....................... 60

A PPEN D IX 2 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 60

IN -W A TER SIG H TIN G SH EET .............................................................................................................................................. 60

A PPEN D IX 3 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 61

A PPEN D IX 4 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 62

Excavation data for leatherback nests...................................................................... ................................................ 62

Excavation data for hawksbill nests ........................................................................................ ...................................... 62

A PPEN D IX 5 C O N TIN U ED ..................................................................................................................................................... 63

Excavation data for green turtle nests...................................................................... ................................................ 63

A PPEN D IX 6 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 64

Photos and Satellite inform ation for Track, the green turtle.............................................. ........................................... 64

A PPEN D IX 7 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 65

2007Education O outreach Environm mental Education ........................................................................... ....................... 65

A PPEN D IX 8 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 66

M ap and photos of Zeelandia Beautification Project in 2007 .............................................................. .................. 66

A PPEN D IX 9 ................................................................................................................................................................................ 66

2007M edia Articles...................................................................................................................................... .................. 66

A PPEN D IX 9 C O N TIN U ED ..................................................................................................................................................... 72

A PPEN D IX 10 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 72

Public outreach of a nesting :in, ~', It Iri,,. release on Zeelandia Beach............................................... ............... 72

A PPEN D IX 10 C O N TIN U ED ........................................................................................................................................... 73

A PPEN D IX 11 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 74

A PPEN D IX 12 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 75

Photos of Stranded Turtles and By-Catch Turtles during 2007 Season........................ .............................. 75

A PPEN D IX 13 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 76

International Coastal Cleanup D ay................................................................................................................................... 76

A PPEN D IX 13 .............................................................................................................................................................................. 77











Maps and Photos ofDCNA Satellite Tracking Project throughout 2007............................ ......................... 77



List of Tables

TABLE 1. SUMMARY OF TURTLE NESTING DATA COLLECTED DURING TRACK SURVEYS IN 2007 ............................................31
TABLE 2. CARAPACE MEASUREMENTS OF ALL LEATHERBACK TURTLES ENCOUNTERED IN 2007 .............................................35
TABLE 3. CARAPACE MEASUREMENTS OF ALL GREEN TURTLES ENCOUNTERED IN 2007. ...................................... ..........35
TABLE 4. CARAPACE MEASUREMENTS OF ALL HAWKSBILL TURTLES ENCOUNTERED IN 2007................................................35
TABLE 5. SUMMARY OF NEST SURVIVAL DATA FOR EACH MARKED 2007 LEATHERBACK NEST ........................................36
TABLE 6. SUMMARY OF NEST SURVIVAL DATA FOR EACH MARKED NEST OF HARD SHELL SPECIES....................................37
TABLE 7. SUM M ARY OF EXCAVATION DATA FROM 2007............................................................................... .........................37





List of Figures


FIGURE 1. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF STEUSTATIUS IN THE EASTERN CARIBBEAN................................................ 18
FIGURE 2. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF NESTING BEACHES ON ST EUSTATIUS .................................. .................... 19
FIGURE 3. TAGGING SITES FOR LEATHERBACKS... ... ... .. ............... ................................ 26
FIGURE 4. TAGGING SITE FOR H ARD SHELL SPECIES ............................................................................. ................................... 25
FIGURE 5. CARAPACE LENGTH LEATHERBACK ............... ................................................................... ............................ 25
FIGURE 6. CARAPACE W IDTH LEATHERBACK................ .................................................................... ............................ 25
FIGURE 7. C ARAPACE LENG TH -H ARD SH ELL .................................................................................................. ......................26
FIGURE 8. CARAPACE W IDTH HARD SHELL ...................................... .............................................................................. 26
FIGURE 9. DISTRIBUTION OF NESTS ON SAINT EUSTATIUS NESTING BEACHES IN 2007 ...................................................32
FIGURE 10. DISTRIBUTION OF FALSE CRAWLS ON SAINT EUSTATIUS NESTING BEACHES IN 2007..................................33
FIGURE 11: PRESENTATION GIVEN TO JUNIOR R ANGERS ..................................................... ..................................................65
FIGURE 12: STEN A PA SUM M ER CLUB 2007 ..................................................................................... ....................................65
FIGURE 13: PARK R ANGER G ADGET IN STALLING SIGN ................................................................................... ......................66
FIGURE 14: SOUTH SIGNS INSTALLED TO PREVENT VEHICLE ACCESS .......................................................................... 66
FIGURE 15: BEACHGOERS OBSERVING A HATCHLING RELEASE ON 20 JUNE 2007 ........................................ ..................72
FIGURE 16: STATIA RESIDENT AND STENAPA INTERN VIEW NESTING LEATHERBACK ............................... ..................73
FIGURE 17: Y ANN ARNAUD W ITH HATCHLING....................................................................................................... .............73
FIGURE 18: STRANDED LEATHERBACK ON 29 APRIL 2007 ....................................................................... .............................75
FIGURE 19: BY-CATCH JUVENILE HAW KSBILL IN 16 M AY 2007 ........................................... .................................................75
FIGURE 20: JUVENILE GREEN TURTLE FOUND 9 Nov 2007 ........................................................................... .................. 76
F IG U RE 2 1: P H O TO S O F IC C D A Y .................. ..........................................................................................................................76


6












F IG U RE 22 : A R TICLE O N IC C D A Y ....................................................................... ....................................................................76

FIGURE 23: MAP OF MIGRATION ROUTES OF LISA AND GRACE ........................................................................................ 77

FIGURE 24: TRACK RECEIVING HER SATELLITE TRANSM ITTER....................................................................... ........................77

FIGURE 25: TRACK W ITH TRANSM ITTER ........................................................................................................................................78

FIGURE 26: COMPETITION WINNERS FARAHA ISHAMEL (LEFT) AND LENARIA BROWN (RIGHT) .......................................78



List ofAcronyms andAbbreviations


AGM .. .. .. .. ... ............ ................ ............................ ......... ANNUAL GENERAL MEETING

ARGOS ..................................................................... ADVANCED RESEARCH AND GLOBAL OBSERVATION SATELLITE

AVID................................................................................ ............. AMERICAN VETERINARY IDENTIFICATION DEVICES

CCL ................................................ ............. CURVED CARAPACE LENGTH

CCL N-T .................................................................................................. CURVED CARAPACE LENGTH (NOTCH TO TIP)

CCW ........................................................................... CURVED CARAPACE WIDTH

C M ............... ................................................................................................................ ......... ...... C H E L O N IA M YD A S

D C ...................................................................... ...................................... .............................. D ERM O CH ELYS C O R IA CEA

DCNA ................ ................ ........................................ DUTCH CARIBBEAN NATURE ALLIANCE FOUNDATION

EI ......... ............................................ .. ......................... ..................... ERETMOCHELYS IMBRICA TA

GPS ........... ...................................... ............................................ GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

IUCN .............. ............. INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR THE CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES
(WORLD CONSERVATION UNION)

KNAP....................................................................... KLEINE NATUUR PROJECTEN FONDS, NEDERLANDSE ANTILLEN
(SMALL NATURE PROJECT FUNDS, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES)

M1 IN A ....................................... ............................................................. .............. A FDELING M ILIEU EN N ATUUR
(SECTION OF ENVIRONMENT AND NATURE OF THE MINISTRY OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT)

NACRI ...................................................... ....... ......................... NETHERLANDS ANTILLES CORAL REEF INITIATIVE

NOAA ............................................... NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ASSOCIATION

PERS. COM M .............. ...................................... ................................................ ...... .... PERSONAL COM M UNICATION

PIT ........................................................... .... .............................. ...... ........ ...... ... PASSIVE INTEGRATED TRANSPONDER

STENAPA ............................................................. .............. STEUSTATIUS NATIONAL PARKS FOUNDATION

SPA W .......................................................................... ........ .............. SPECIALLY PROTECTED AREAS AND W ILDLIFE

U s I ................ ... ........................... ..... ........................... ................... ......... U NITED STATES V IRGIN ISLAND S

UNEP....................................................... ..... ..... ............... ... UNITED NATIONS ENVIRONMENT PROGRAMME

WIDECAST......................................................................... WIDER CARIBBEAN SEA TURTLE CONSERVATION NETWORK

W TT .......................................................... ................. .................. ........ .................... ..W ORLD TURTLE TRUST, H AW AII










Summary

* The St Eustatius Sea Turtle Conservation Programme was initiated in 2001 due to concerns that
the island's sea turtle populations were being threatened due to habitat degradation and
destruction. The programme is managed by St Eustatius National Parks Foundation (STENAPA),
which is the main environmental non-governmental organization on the island.

* The Sea Turtle Conservation Programme is affiliated to the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservation Network (WIDECAST) and adopts its monitoring and tagging protocols.

* Since monitoring began, three species of sea turtles have been confirmed nesting on the island;
leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), green turtle (Chelonia mydas) and hawksbill (Eretmochelys
imbricata). There was an unconfirmed nesting by a fourth species, the loggerhead (Caretta
caretta), in 2004.

* Five nesting beaches have been identified; Zeelandia Beach, Turtle Beach, Lynch Bay, Oranje Bay
and Kay Bay. Zeelandia Beach is the primary nesting beach, and the only place where all three
species nest regularly; the other beaches are used occasionally by green and hawksbill turtles.

* Daily track surveys are carried out on Zeelandia Beach and Turtle Beach throughout the nesting
season. The other nesting beaches were monitored sporadically. Every track is identified to
species; categorised as a false crawl or a nest; all nest locations are recorded for inclusion in the
nest survival and hatching success study.

* In 2007:
o Track surveys were conducted daily from 8 March to 23 November; a total of 260 morning
surveys were completed.
o Leatherback nesting activity occurred from 30 March 18 May
o 5 leatherback nests (or probable nests) were recorded March June on Zeelandia
Beach; in addition, two false crawls and one non-nesting track were also observed on
Zeelandia and Oranje Bay.
o A leatherback nesting attempt was recorded on 18 May, 2007 on Oranje Bay. The turtle
attempted to nest but hit rocks and abandoned the attempt. The non-nesting track on Oranje
Bay was the first reported case of a leatherback attempt to nest on the Caribbean side of St.
Eustatius.
o All leatherback nests that were recorded were on Zeelandia Beach.
o A member of the public reported seeing turtle tracks on Oranje Bay behind a dive centre,
Dive Statia, on 11 May, 2007. The Marine Turtle Progamme Co-ordinator investigated
behind the dive centre but could not find any tracks or anything resembling a nesting site.
o Green turtles were recorded from 15 July until 16 September; 5 nests and 34 false crawls
were encountered; nesting was on Zeelandia Beach but false crawls were on Zeelandia,
Turtle Beach and Kay Bay.
o Hawksbill turtles were observed from the 8 July until 13 November. Two nests and 13 false
crawls were recorded. Hawksbills nested on Zeelandia (2 nests), but recorded false crawls
on Zeelandia and Crook's Castle.









* Night patrols are only conducted on Zeelandia Beach due to limited personnel and minimal nesting
on other beaches; patrols run from 9.00pm 4.00am. Each turtle encountered is identified to
species; tagged with external flipper tags and an internal PIT tag leatherbackss only); standard
carapace length and width measurements are taken; nest locations are recorded for inclusion in the
nest survival and hatching success study.

* In 2007:
o Night patrols were conducted from 30 March 26 September; 119 patrols were completed,
totalling 719.22 hours of monitoring.
o Three leatherback, one green turtle and two hawksbill turtles were encountered during
patrols; all leatherbacks received external flipper tags.
o The first green turtle was observed on 29 July. She successfully nested and had a tag which
showed that she was tagged previously in 2002. She was also observed in 2005. This turtle
nested approximately four times during the 2007 season including 2 September 2007 when
she was fitted with a satellite transmitter.
o No hawksbills were tagged during the 2007 season. Two hawksbills were seen but one did
not break the high tide line while the other was unable to be tagged.
o One green turtle during the night patrol was selected for satellite tracking in 2007. This was
the last satellite transmitter that was applied for the DCNA Turtle Tracking Project. This
has been the third consecutive year that the Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance Satellite
Tracking Project has been conducted and successfully accomplished.

* Average carapace measurements for females nesting in 2007:
o Leatherback: Curved carapace length (CCL) = 147.00 cm; Curved carapace width (CCW)
=110.3 cm
o Green: CCL = 110.0 cm; CCW = 105.5 cm
o Hawksbill: CCL = 88.0 cm; CCW = 73.0 cm.

* All marked nests were included in a study of nest survival and hatching success. During track
surveys they are monitored for signs of disturbance or predation; close to the expected hatching
date the observers record signs ofhatchling emergence. Two days after hatchling tracks have been
recorded the nest is excavated to determine hatching and emerging success.

* In 2007:
o 12 nests were marked: five leatherbacks, five greens and two hawksbill nests.
o 2 nests were lost during the incubation period; both were leatherback nests lost due to high
tides near natural nests near stake 22-25.
o Mean incubation period for leatherbacks was 58 days, for greens 55.25 days and for
hawksbills was indeterminable since none survived.
o One hawksbill nest was laid on Zeelandia beach on 12 November. A local resident
observed hatchlings on 31 December but after 11 days of searching, the nest could not be
relocated and the nest (EI0702R) was declared "Partially Hatched".

* Excavations were performed on 12 nests; five leatherbacks, five greens and two hawksbill nests.
o Average egg chamber depth varied between the three species: leatherback = 64.67 cm,
green = 53.25cm and hawksbill = 53cm.









o Mean clutch size for each species: leatherback = 66 yolked + 30.7 yolkless eggs and green
= 130 yolked + 0.25 yolkless eggs. Hawksbills are indeterminable since none hatched
successfully.
o Five nests hatched or partly hatched leaving one that washed away by the tide
(CM0705); two that could not be located and three that failed to hatch.
o Leatherbacks showed identical hatching and emerging success rate from 2006; 21.16%
hatching success compared to 21.1%, but higher emerging success of 64.58% to just 15.3%
in 2006.
o Greens were more successful in 2006 and hatching success was 33.84% compared to
51.0% in 2006, but emerging success was 57.18% in 2007 and 46. 2006.
o The survival of nests varied but overall was not very high. All nests were laid on Zeelandia
Beach.
o In future years the practise of relocating nests laid erosion zones to safer sections of the
beach will continue.

* On 29 April, 2007, a stranded leatherback turtle was encountered by the Marine Park intern,
Mirella Wognum, on Zeelandia Beach during a morning track survey at approximately 08:15.
Lacking the necessary equipment to perform a necropsy turtle was moved above the surf line,
to ensure that it was not swept away by the tide. Later that day the remains the turtle washed
northward to stake number 1. The Programme Co-ordinator, assisted by Marine Park interns Liz
Hartel and Mirella Wognum, returned and performed a rudimentary necropsy to try and determine
the cause of death.

* On the morning of 16th of May, STENAPA staff came across a drowned Hawksbill on the City
Harbor. The juvenile hawksbill had been trapped in the net of a local fisherman and could not free
itself from the nets, subsequently drowning.

* On the 7th of November, a stranded Green Turtle was discovered by a local diver, Derrick
Goudrian, in Oranje Bay nearby dive site Blue Bead Hole. Mr. Goudrian presented the deceased
turtle to STENAPA staff which took photos and buried the juvenile Green nearby Zeelandia beach.
Unfortunately the Programme Coordinator was away on holiday and unable to perform a necropsy.

* A satellite tracking project was initiated in 2005 by the Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance (DCNA)
and concluded in 2007. This research was an inter-island collaboration between STENAPA and
the Nature Foundation St Maarten. Dr Robert van Dam was the lead biologist, providing expertise
and training in satellite telemetry methodology.

* The two turtles tracked by satellite since 2006 continued into 2007. In mid-September 2006, two
turtles received their tracking satellites. Lisa, a hawksbill turtle, was fitted with a satellite
transmitter while Grace, the green turtle, was fitted a transmitter. Lisa's last transmission was
1 February 2007. From the time of her nesting on Zeelandia beach until the time of her last
transmission, Lisa had traveled a total of 2870km. Grace transmitted from sea grass beds off the
waters of St. Kitts and Nevis. Grace's last transmission was on 6 June 2007 at 18:18:09. During
the lifetime for the transmission, Grace traveled a total of 4412km in her foraging grounds.
o On 1 September 2007, a green turtle arrived on Zeelandia Beach at 23:27. She was
previously recorded in 2002 and in 2005. The Green turtle, named "Track", attempted to
nest but found the area she chose too rocky. On her wa back to the water she was placed









in a turtle holding pen and her satellite transmitter was activated at 00:11. She was released
back into the ocean at 03:20, Sunday the 2nd of September.
o All STENAPA volunteers and interns, along with Arturo Marine Turtle
Programme Coordinator, as well as several local residents were present for this major
event. The entire process was videotaped by Dwight Ba and aired on Channel 15 on 6
September from 7:30 to 8:00pm.
o Track made a brief stop at Prickly Pear Island in the itish Virgin Islands. Track then
skimmed the northern coast of Puerto Rico and stopped the north-east coast of
Dominican Republic. At the time of writing this report, Track was currently in the same
feeding grounds of El Macao, Santo Domingo.
o STENAPA has been in contact with Yolanda Leon, a known turtle biologist from the
Dominican Republic. Ms Leon stated that there are many beaches in the area where Track
is located. Track entered an area of intense tourism development, however, there are nearby
areas with less developed beaches and offshore sea grass. One particular beach in this area
was a historically important leatherback nesting beach.
o Track's satellite transmitter stopped responding approximately 23 December 2007. At her
last transmission, she was still in the same feeding g s as previously indicated.
o In concurrence with attaching the final satellite transmitter, the Marine Turtle Programme
Coordinator visited all the island schools to give a brief presentation to all students. The
motive for these visits was to educate and inform the local students of two different
competitions in relation to this project.

* Beach erosion continued on Zeelandia Beach in 2007:
o Many of the numbered marker stakes were lost due to high tides. Approximately, 21 were
replaced.
o Beach mapping and erosion monitoring was continued this year. Data were collected
February, May, August and December. Data was compared for seasonal changes as well as
yearly changes. All months were compared for within the year changes. 28.13% of the
stakes had recorded a positional change from the cliffs that were less than 50cm from their
December positions. 40.63% of the stakes recorded a positional change of 50-100cm while
29.69% of the stakes recorded a change of over 100cm. Seventeen of the stakes moved
between one to two meters while two moved more than two meters. The data do point to
extensive cliff erosion, and possibly steady to accelerating erosion. Preliminary data stills
needs multiple year analyses before any tangible conclusions can be made.
o Sand mining compounds the erosion problem at the northern end of Zeelandia Beach.
Despite being an illegal activity, it occurred throughout 2007, in the gully and on the beach.
o Seven major cliff falls and 16 minor cliff falls were recorded from February to December.
o Monitoring of erosion will be a priority for 2008. A suggestion for 2008 is to monitor
erosion rates and create a water table study to see if there is a correlation.

* Several different community activities were conducted in 2007:
o In 2005 the "Help Out or Sea Turtles Miss Out" programme, teaching the local
communities about sea turtle conservation issues, with Education Officer Dominique
Vissenburg, was particularly successful. In 2006/7, the year the focus of the school
education programme was water.
o On 11 February, 2007 the Marine Turtle Program Co-ordinator gave a presentation to the
public. The title of the presentation was regarding the conservation of marine turtles on St









Eustatius. Among the persons present were eight University of St. Eustatius medical
students.
o On 21 March, 2007, a presentation was given to STENAPA's Junior Rangers regarding the
history of turtles in the Caribbean, their current threats and laws protecting them. The
presentation was called "Sea Turtle Conservation And Laws Protecting Them".
Furthermore, in the month of December, there were also sessions with Junior Ranger I and
II regarding marine turtles and their habitat.
o During July 2007, STENAPA started its inaugural STENAPA Summer Club. Twenty-four
children aged eight to 13 signed up for the club which included hiking, snorkeling and
turtle education activities. STENAPA's Summer Club ran from 2 July to 2 August every
Monday, Wednesday and Thursday.
o On 5 December, in conjunction, with the St. Eustatius Marine Park 10 year anniversary, a
one hour seminar for the general public was given on the Biology, Ecology and History of
Turtles in St. Eustatius Marine Park at the Golden Era Hotel.

* Twelve beach clean-ups were conducted on Zeelandia Beach. Cleanups were performed on
Zeelandia Beach, Turtle Beach, Lynch Beach and Oranje Bay. This was the first recorded time that
Lynch Beach had rubbish removed from its beach. The September cleanup coincided with Ocean
Conservancy's International Coastal CleanupTM Campaign on 15 September. Beach cleanup were
carried out by the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme Coordinator, STENAPA board, staff and
interns, Working Abroad volunteers, local citizens and BroadReach volunteers.
o A total of 22 trucks full of rubbish bags were removed, including a large mooring rope,
fishing nets, oil barrel, fishing ropes and buoys, several pallets.
o Local citizens were on hand in several beach cleanup (March, July and September).
o On 15 September 2007, volunteers gathered on Zeelandia Beach to participate in the largest
singular most successful worldwide volunteer movement, the International Coastal
Cleanup. This particular beach clean up was unique because it was the first time St.
Eustatius National Parks, STENAPA, collaborated with The Ocean Conservancy on this
event.
o During EnviroWeek in the week of 16 October the Junior Rangers, led by Parks Ranger
Hannah Leslie, a cleanup was conducted on Venus Bay. This was the first recorded cleanup
of Venus Bay by STENAPA.

* The Sea Turtle Conservation Programme was featured in regular articles in the local press,
Television and on the radio. The STENAPA quarterly newsletter included several features about
the research activities conducted in 2007 and the new website contains several pages dedicated to
the programme, with a focus on the culmination of the DCNA Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking
Project.

* A new approach was taken for the upcoming season in generating interest from the local
population of St. Eustatius. The Marine Turtle Program Co-ordinator spoke with several interested
members who were keen to view the nesting activity of turtle, nest exhumation or a hatchling
release. A turtle phone was purchased with a list of interested people to contact when there were
possibilities for seeing turtles. The new approach was popular avenue and a grassroots approach of
connecting with marine turtles.

* Staff participated in several regional and international meetings in 2007:









o The Programme Co-ordinator, Arturo Herrera, attended the 27th International Sea Turtle
Symposium in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina USA from 25 to 28 February 2007) and the
WIDECAST Annual General Meeting (23 24 February 2007).
o On the first week of December, STENAPA held its Ten Year Marine Park Celebration.
Many activities were included and one was the hour-long Marine Turtle presentation held
at the Golden Era Restaurant and Hotel on 5 December 2007.

* On 10 June, 2007, STENAPA greeted its first Marine Turtle Intern, Shizu Fukui to St Eustatius.
Shizu Fukui is the first Marine Turtle Intern and has d previous experience working with marine
turtles, especially, leatherback turtles, in 2006 in Gandoca Costa Rica. Her duties included
organizing the turtle aspect of the STENAPA Summer Club, creating a STENAPA Turtle
Volunteer Manual, and spearheading a Zeelandia Beach beautification project, as well as night
patrolling, morning beach surveys and habitat surveying dives.

* In June 2007, the Zeelandia beautification project commenced. The primary objective is to offer an
area on Zeelandia Beach where visitors can enjoy the beach. Another objective is to deter vehicles
from driving on the beach, stop sand mining and prevent further erosion. On 15 June 2007, a
visitor information board was installed at the primary entrance to Zeelandia Beach. 20 July 2007
was dedicated to the installation of plants and fencing at the prime Zeelandia entrances. On 7
September 2007, another Family Friday was dedicated to replanting of palm trees and yucca plants
that succumbed to the warm weather. Three signs have been strategically placed at the entrances.
The purpose of these signs is to educate the public about turtles that nest on the beach and remind
people not to drive on the beach. STENAPA intern for the Turtle Programme, Zoe Fukui lead this
project and hopes the signs will inform the public about the work of the Marine Park to protect
turtles by means of nightly turtle patrols, cleaning the beach and protecting the beach from erosion.

* The In-Water Survey and Monitoring project was initiated in January 2007 in order to provide
fundamental data on the populations and trends of resident and migrant turtle species that use the
surrounding waters of St. Eustatius. The information gathered will be used to monitor, detect
trends and assess the habitats where turtles rest, nest and feed. The objective is to build on existing
knowledge of the population demographics of marine turtles in the St Eustatius Marine Park.
There are no previous in-water studies about the resident sea turtle populations in the area.
Equipment such as ArcGIS 9.0 Software and Satellite Imagery was purchased to begin the habitat
mapping of the areas where resident turtles may reside. The first habitat map for the Marine Park
was produced in May 2007.

* Several recommendations are made for the 2008 season:
o Continued participation of volunteers, from Working Abroad and the STENAPA Intern
Programme.
o Foster public awareness of the Turtle Programme within the island of St Eustatius and the
Netherlands Antilles. Utilize the new television medium along with Dwight Barran to
videotape a nesting female turtle for a documentary on nesting females on St. Eustatius.
o Continue with month-long STENAPA Summer Club and have the Turtle Education feature
integrated into a fundamental component.
o Monitoring of nesting beaches to continue: daily track surveys on all beaches and night
patrols of the primary nesting beach.









o Further development of the research programme: expand the focus of the programme by
implementing an in-water survey of juvenile turtles and continue the satellite tracking
project.
o A proposal to extend the satellite tracking to leatherback turtles for DCNA.
o Monitoring of erosion should also become a priority. In addition, monitor the water table at
Zeelandia beach to determine if the subterranean water levels are causing possible egg
failure but more importantly accelerating possible beach erosion.
o As well as the monitoring of erosion, continue to develop the Zeelandia Beautification
Project to include a concrete turtle and possible a picnics area for individuals interested in
the beauty of Zeelandia Beach.
o Revitalize the in-water turtle sighting surveys with the local diving centres. This
information will help make more informed decisions regarding the in-water monitoring
programme.
o Create a turtle baseline study within the Marine Park and a carrying capacity survey.










Introduction

The St Eustatius National Parks Foundation (STENAPA) established the Sea Turtle Conservation
Programme following concerns that the island's sea turtle populations were being threatened by
anthropogenic disturbance and destruction of nesting beach habitats through sand mining, joy riding
and pollution.

A community outreach campaign was organised in 2001, to begin raising public awareness about sea
turtle conservation issues. Subsequent to this initiative, a beach monitoring programme was started in
2002, in affiliation with the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST). The
first year of the programme saw very limited and sporadic monitoring of the primary nesting beach
due to a lack of personnel; however, in 2003 regular night patrols were made possible following the
introduction of the Working Abroad Programme, which brings groups of international volunteers to
assist with projects in the National and Marine Parks. By 2004 the programme had expanded to
include daily patrols on several of the island's nesting beaches, with a dedicated vehicle and a full-
time project co-ordinator during the nesting season.

Data from the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme have shown that three species of sea turtle
regularly nest on St Eustatius; the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), the green (Chelonia mydas)
and the hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata), all of which are classified as either endangered or
critically endangered by the IUCN. There has also been an unconfirmed report of nesting by a fourth
species, the loggerhead (Caretta caretta), which is classed as threatened by the IUCN.

The ultimate objective of the St Eustatius Sea Turtle Conservation Programme is to promote the long-
term survival of the sea turtle populations on and around the island. This goal is achieved by
safeguarding critical sea turtle habitats; conducting research to provide policy and decision makers
with current, relevant data on the status of sea turtles in the region, and limiting environmental impacts
on nesting beaches and in near-shore waters. One of the most important factors to ensure the success
of the project is the direct involvement of the local community in the programme to promote a better
understanding of the importance of long-term conservation, not just for sea turtles but for other locally
threatened species.

The aims of this Annual Report include the following:
Summarise the activities of the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme conducted in 2007.
Review the accomplishments and deficiencies of the programme in 2007, and suggest
recommendations for 2008.
Provide a summary of the data from 2007 research initiatives.
Present information locally, regionally and internationally about the research and monitoring
programme on the island.
Produce a progress report for the Island Government, programme funding organizations, the
local community and international volunteers.










Participating organizations

St Eustatius National Parks Foundation (STENAPA)
The Sea Turtle Conservation Programme is co-ordinated by the St Eustatius National Parks
Foundation (STENAPA), which is the main non-governmental environmental organization on the
island of St Eustatius (known locally as Statia). In 1996, STENAPA was given a legal mandate by the
Island Government to administer a new Marine Park and, in 1998, for a new National Park;
STENAPA also manages the Miriam C. Schmidt Botanical Garden. The Marine Park surrounds St
Eustatius from the high water mark to the 30 metre depth contour; there are two marine reserves
within the Marine Park, which are designated no-take zones and are in place to protect marine habitats
and to reduce fishing pressures. The Marine Park staff conducts regular patrols and enforcement,
maintain dive, snorkel and yacht moorings and conduct many educational programmes, such as the
Snorkel Club and the Junior Ranger Club, in addition to research and monitoring activities such as the
Sea Turtle Conservation Programme.

STENAPA is a not-for-profit foundation, relying on government subsidies, grants and minimal income
from divers, yachts and hikers to conduct its activities. STENAPA has only eight staff and is reliant
on volunteers to run projects such as the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme. The organisation is
supported by two international volunteer programmes; the STENAPA Internship Programme and the
Working Abroad Programme, which are discussed in more detail below.

STENAPA Internship Programme
Since the inception of the Internship Programme in September 2001, over 43 interns from various
countries including Great Britain, the USA, Canada, Holland, Belgium, Hungary, Germany and New
Zealand have helped accomplish projects at the Botanical Garden, in the Quill National Park, in the
Marine Park; they have also assisted with educational programmes in the local schools. Interns are
responsible for overseeing the daily activities of volunteers from the Working Abroad Programme, in
addition to managing and completing individual assignments.

Interns are provided with a small monthly stipend, basic accommodation and the u of a truck during
their six-month stay; however, they are personally responsible for all travel costs, and living expenses
while on the island. The internships allow students and professionals to gain valuable practical
experience in their chosen field. Without these dedicated volunteers, STENAPA would not be able to
conduct many of its projects, since the Foundation could not afford such manpower or expertise.

Working Abroad Programme -Statia Conservation Project
Working Abroad is an international networking service based in UK that, since it was founded in
1997, has established volunteer projects in over 150 countries worldwide. S ENAPA started its
collaboration with the Working Abroad Programme in January 2003, and to date a total of 115
volunteers have been recruited via their organisation. On St Eustatius groups of up to eight volunteers
stay for two months and assist in the development of the Botanical Garden, conduct maintenance of
the National Park trails and, during turtle season, participate in night-time beach patrols. For their stay
each volunteer pays approximately US$1700 towards food, water, lodging, truck hire, fuel and a
project expenses fee (this does not include international travelling costs or personal living expenses
during their stay).









Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST)
The St Eustatius Sea Turtle Conservation Programme is affiliated the Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservation Network (WIDECAST). Founded in 1981, WIDECAST represents the largest network
of sea turtle research and conservation projects in the world; with members in over 30 Caribbean states
and territories. Affiliation provides access to a collaborative framework of organizations within the
region, with a strong emphasis on information exchange, training and active community participation.
WIDECAST promotes interaction between different stakeholder groups to ensure effective
management and conservation of turtle populations in the Caribbean.

In June 2003, STENAPA Manager Nicole Esteban was appointed WIDECAST Country Co-ordinator
for St Eustatius, following completion of a training course in St Croix (US Virgin Islands).
Subsequent to this, the St Eustatius Sea Turtle Conservation Programme implemented WIDECAST-
approved protocols for monitoring and data collection. WIDECAST has assisted the programme
through donation of tags and purchase of PIT tag applicator. The Sea Turtle Programme Co-ordinator
attended the WIDECAST Annual General Meetings in 2004, 2005 and 2006; with funding and
logistical assistance provided in part through WIDECAST.

Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance (DCNA)
The DCNA was founded in 2005, and represents a formal coalition of the six nature conservation
management organizations of the Netherlands Antilles and Aruba, with representation from
international agencies, central government and financial experts. Their main goals are to safeguard the
biodiversity and promote sustainable management of the natural resources of the islands, through the
establishment of long-term, sustainable funding sources. The Manager of STENAPA is currently the
chairperson of the DCNA.

Funding agencies and donors
To effectively run the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme, the STENAPA Manager and Project Co-
ordinator allocate approximately 10 to 30% of their time to raise funds to cover the annual programme
costs. Fundraising occurs both locally and internationally by soliciting specific organizations, and by
donation requests through newsletters and turtle awareness campaigns.

Organizations that have contributed (directly or indirectly) to the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme
in 2007 are:
Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance (DCNA)
Travel Committee of the International Sea Turtle Society
USONA Programme of the Netherlands Antilles
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), USA
World Turtle Trust (WTT), USA
Working Abroad Programme, France
Vecenergy, France

We also acknowledge those individuals who have contributed to the success of the programme by
donating their time or providing financial assistance.












Study Sites


St Eustatius
The island of St Eustatius is part of the Netherlands Antilles that includes Bonaire, Curagao, St
Maarten, Saba and St Eustatius. It lies in the North-eastern Caribbean, and is located in the Windward
Islands, lying within the longitude and latitude median of 1730 North and 6258 West; the sister
islands of Saba and St Maarten stretch out 30km north-west and 63km north, respectively (See Figure
1).

St Eustatius is 21km2 in size and is dominated by two volcanoes; an extinct volcano comprising the
"Northern Hills" (150 million years old) and a dormant volcano called the "Quill" in the south, formed
2200 to 3200 years ago. As a result of its volcanic origin, the beaches of St Eustatius all have dark
sand.


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Figure 1. Map showing location of St Eustatius in the Eastern Caribbean




Sea Turtle Nesting Beaches
Since the initiation of the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme in 2002, nesting activity has been
recorded at five beaches on St Eustatius: Zeelandia Beach, Turtle Beach and Lynch Bay on the
Atlantic side of the island, and Oranje Bay and Kay Bay on the Caribbean side (See Figure 2). There
follows a brief description of each of these beaches.


SOUTH AMERICA


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Auani Ocdfln












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p tir m













Figure 2. Map showing location of nesting beaches on St Eustatius

Zeelandia Beach
At over 1km this is the longest beach on St Eustatius; it is directly linked
to Turtle Beach at its southern end. It is quite a narrow beach backed by
cliffs, except in the northern 200m where these is a relatively sparse
border of Sea Grape trees (Coccoloba uvifera). In this region there are
also the remains of an abandoned hotel behind the beach and the principal
public access area. Ground vegetation is not extensive, limited to small
patches of Beach Morning Glory (Ipomoea pes-caprae) and an
unidentified succulent-type plant, which are both grazed by cows that
occasionally shelter under the sea grape trees. The beach is very dynamic with considerable sand
movement throughout the year; despite this it is still the most stable, permanent beach on the island.
Erosion is extensive close to the access area, especia ly following heavy rains; the problem is
exacerbated by sand removal in that region. Close to the southern end of the beach is a large storm
water gut which acts as the landfill for the island's household waste. It is the primary turtle nesting
beach hosting three species of turtle (green, leatherback and hawksbill), and the only place on the
island where leatherbacks have been recorded nesting. It is the only beach monitored at night by the
Sea Turtle Conservation Programme.

Turtle Beach
This is the second longest beach on the Atlantic side, measuring
approximately 400m. It links to Zeelandia Beach at its northern
point, and connects to Lynch Bay around a point to the south. It is a
steeply sloping bay, which is subject to considerable movement
especially during the hurricane season (June November). It is
backed by cliffs and there is virtually no vegetation for
occasional Sea Grape trees on the cliffs. There is a storm water gut
in the middle of the beach which was formerly used as land-fill
for the island; although not currently used this gut still contains a large amount of refuse and is open to









the beach. Nesting activity to date has been limited to green turtles. Unfortunately access to this
beach at night is often prohibited due to the tides, and therefore it is only patrolled during the day
except when conditions permit.

Lynch Bay
This very small, rocky beach is located around the point to the south of
Turtle Beach; it is approximately 200m long. There is considerable
ground vegetation cover, primarily Beach Morning Glory and it is
backed by a sloping cliff which provides the only access when tides
prohibit movement from Turtle Beach. Unlike many of the other
beaches on the island Lynch Bay is stable due to the adjacent reef
barrier that provides a natural shelter and also for sand retention. Green
and hawksbill nesting activity has been recorded at this beach, and it was the site of an unconfirmed
loggerhead nesting event in 2004 (I. Berkel, Pers. Comm.). Due to access issues, Lynch Bay can only
be monitored safely during the day.

Orange Bay
This is a very dynamic sandy beach on the Caribbean side of the
island; it experiences considerable sand movement throughout
the year. It stretches for almost 2km and runs into t ur at
its southern end. The beach is bordered by grass and he
occasional Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) in addition to several
hotels and shops; there are also ruins of warehouses on the sand
and in the near-shore waters along its entire length. Very little
nesting of green and hawksbill turtles has been observed, due to
which fact it is not monitored regularly.

Kay Bay
This is a short, rocky bay on the Caribbean side of the island;
approximately 200m long. It is backed by a high cliff, which has a few
Sea Grape trees; there is no other vegetation cover. Green and
hawksbill turtles have been recorded nesting on this beach. The only
access to Kay Bay is via private residential properties; the owners of one
property report any signs of turtle nesting activity to STENAPA as this
beach is not monitored on a regular basis.



Methodology

Pre-Season Preparations
The Sea Turtle Conservation Programme 2007 commenced with the following pre-season activities:

Beach Preparation
To prepare the primary nesting beach for patrols, numbered stakes were positioned at 20m intervals
along Zeelandia Beach; these stakes are used to mark the location of all nests or false crawls recorded









during day or night patrols. Each stake was placed as close as possible to the vegetation or cliff
behind the beach. Some stakes were remaining from the 2006 season, these were repainted; any that
were missing were replaced.

Training of Volunteers
The materials used for training volunteers about the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme were
reviewed before the first group from Working Abroad ar ived in February 2007. Two short
presentations were created; the first was a basic introduction to sea turtles, their biology and nesting
behaviour; the second focused on beach monitoring prot and the correct use of the data collection
sheets. Every volunteer received training before assisting with beach monitoring.


Other Preparations
At the conclusion of the 2007 nesting season, the following activities were performed:

Selection ofNew Programme Co-ordinator
In October the existing Programme Co-ordinator, Arturo Herrera, announced his resignation from the
position; he accepted a new job as the Project Director of a turtle conservation organisation in Costa
Rica. He remains in St Eustatius until February 2008 to oversee the end of the nesting season, begin
the in-water surveys and to train the new Programme Co-ordinator.

Monitoring and Research Activities
During the 2007 nesting season several different monitoring and research activities were conducted as
part of the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme:

Track Surveys
Daily track surveys were conducted on the primary nesting beach (Zeelandia Beach) and Turtle Beach;
surveys of other beaches were performed periodically when deemed necessary. These surveys provide
data on the temporal and spatial utilisation of previously identified turtle nesting beaches throughout
the nesting season. For each track observed the following information is recorded (See example of
data collection sheet in Appendix 1):
Observer Name of observer recording data.
Date
Weather Brief description of environmental conditions.
Moon phase Based on the previous night's moon; this information is recorded to determine
whether there is a relationship between moon phase and emergence.
Species If possible to determine from the track.
Track width Measured as the straight-line distance between the outer flipper edge marks;
taken to the nearest millimetre. For each track the width at three random locations
and the average used in analyses.
Track depth measured as a straight-line distance from the peduncle or cloacae (if turtle is
present to the bottom of the nest.
GPS location Measured either at the centre of the nest or at the apex of a false crawl track.
Locale name- Name of the beach.









Triangulation measurements to two landmarks Straight-line distance to the two nearest
numbered stakes; taken to the nearest centimetre. Measured either from the centre of the nest
or at the apex of a false crawl track.
Distance to vegetation Straight-line distance to the vegetation behind the beach or to the cliff
if no vegetation; taken to the nearest centimetre. Measured either from the centre of the nest or
at the apex of a false crawl track.
Distance to high tide line Straight-line distance to the most recent high-tide line; taken to the
nearest centimetre. Measured either from the centre of the nest or at the of a false crawl
track.
Number of unsuccessful nest cavities If the turtle made more than one attempt at nesting
during the same emergence.
Result of nesting attempt Recorded as either lay, probable lay, false crawl (when some
nesting activity observed) or track only (no nesting activity at all).

All marked nests were monitored daily and their status recorded; any disturbed or destroyed nests
were noted. After the data have been recorded a line is drawn in the sand through both tracks to
indicate that it has been registered, ensuring that data are not collected twice for the same track.
Surveys were conducted as early as possible in the morning to prevent tracks from being disturbed or
washed away. For continuity, and to increase the accuracy of data collection, surveys were conducted
by the Programme Co-ordinator or trained personnel in her absence.

Beach Patrols
Nightly beach patrols were conducted on Zeelandia Beach and, when tidal conditions permitted, Turtle
Beach; data from previous years show very low nesting densities at other beaches, making it an
inefficient use of resources to carry out night patrols at these other locations. Each patrol consisted of
a minimum of two people; including either the Programme Co-ordinator or an intern when possible,
although occasionally two Working Abroad volunteers co ucted a patrol together. A stretch of beach
approximately 1km in length was monitored on Zeelandia Beach (up to 1.6km when Turtle Beach was
included) from the cliffs at the northern end to just south of Smith' Gut; hourly patrols of this section
were conducted between 9.00pm 4.00am.

The primary objective of the beach patrols was to encounter as many nesting turtles as possible; to tag
them with flipper and/or internal tags as appropriate, collect carapace measurements, mark the location
of the nest for inclusion in a nesting success survey d relocate any nests laid in designated erosion
zones. For each turtle observed the following data were recorded (See example of data collection
sheet in Appendix 1):
Observer Name of observer recording data.
Date Patrols span two dates but to avoid confusion the first date is used throughout the entire
patrol.
Time At the moment the turtle is first encountered
Weather Brief description of environmental conditions.
Moon phase This information is recorded to determine whether there is a relationship
between moon phase and nesting emergence.
Species If the turtle is not observed the species is determined from the track, where possible.
Gender
Tag information See detailed description below of data recorded.









* Activity At the moment the turtle is first encountered. Classed as emerging, searching, body
pitting, digging egg chamber, laying, covering, disguising, gone (used if turtle has returned to
the sea).
* Carapace Length See detailed description below of measurements taken for each species.
* Carapace Width See detailed description below of measurements taken for each species.
* Parasites/Ectobiota The presence of any parasites on the turtle are recorded, with a brief
description of the parasite; its location is indicated on a diagram on the data collection sheet.
* Injuries Any injury to the turtle is described and the location indicated on a diagram on the
data collection sheet.
* Notes Any additional pertinent information about the turtle or their behaviour is recorded
here.
* Track width This is only recorded if the turtle is not observed during the patrol. Measured
as the straight-line distance between the outer flipper edge marks; taken to the nearest
millimetre. For each track the width is measured at three random locations and the average
used in analyses.
* Track depth measured as a straight-line distance from the peduncle or cloacae (if turtle
present to the bottom of the nest.
* GPS location Measured either at the centre of the nest or at the apex of a false crawl track.
When possible this is taken while the turtle is laying, when the egg chamber is open and the
exact location of the eggs is known.
* Locale name- Name of the beach.
* Triangulation measurements to two landmarks Straight-line distance to the two nearest
numbered stakes; taken to the nearest centimetre. Measured either from the centre of the nest
or at the apex of a false crawl track. When possible these measurements are made while the
turtle is laying so that the exact location of the eggs is known.
* Distance to vegetation Straight-line distance to the vegetation behind the beach or to the cliff
if no vegetation; taken to the nearest centimetre. Measured either from the centre of the nest or
at the apex of a false crawl track. When possible this measurement is made while the turtle is
laying so that the exact location of the eggs is known.
* Distance to high tide line Straight-line distance to the most recent high-tide line; taken to the
nearest centimetre. Measured either from the centre of the nest or at the apex of a false crawl
track. When possible this measurement is made while the turtle is laying so that the
location of the eggs is known.
* Number of unsuccessful nest cavities If the turtle made more than one attempt at nesting
during the same emergence.
* Result of nesting attempt Recorded as either lay (when the turtle was seen laying), probable
lay (if the nest site suggests that the turtle laid but n eggs were seen), false crawl (when some
disturbed sand observed) or track only (no nesting activity at all, no disturbed sand).
* Relocation data If the nest is deemed to have been laid in an unsuitable location which is
prone to erosion or flooding the eggs are relocated to a more secure section of the beach. The
following data are recorded for this new nest site.
o New GPS location Taken at the centre of the new egg chamber.
o Triangulation measurements to two landmarks Straight-line distance to the two
numbered stakes closest to the new nest location; taken from the centre of the new egg
chamber.
o Distance to vegetation Taken from the centre of the new egg chamber.









o Distance to high tide line Taken from the centre of the new egg chamber.
o The number of eggs The total number of eggs; also recorded separately are the
number of yolked and yolkless eggs.
o Time eggs laid The time the turtle began to lay eggs.
o Time eggs reburied The time the eggs were placed in the new egg chamber.

All data were collected either while the turtle was laying or immediately afterwards, when she was
covering the nest site; no turtle was touched before she had started laying.

Once the turtle had returned to the sea, a line was drawn in the sand through both tracks to indicate to
the person conducting the track survey the following morning that data had been collected, preventing
data repetition for the same track or nest.

Tagging Methods

Flipper Tags
Metal flipper tags (National Band and Tag Company, MONEL Style #49: WC251 WC350 and
INCONEL Style #681: WE1 WE100) were donated by the Marine Turtle Tagging Centre, Barbados,
which is affiliated with WIDECAST. All tag applicators are inspected and cleaned on a routine basis
and replaced when they cease to function properly.

Standard tagging methods are used, based on the protocols of the Turtle Monitoring Programme in St
Croix, USVI. For leatherbacks, external flipper tags are applied to the centre of the fleshy skin located
between the back flipper and the tail (See Figure 3). For hard shell species, tags are applied adjacent
to the first large scale on the proximal part of the front flipper (See Figure 4), where the swimming
stroke will cause minimal tag movement (Balazs, G. H, 1999). Tags are applied while the turtle is
covering her nest, immediately after she has finished laying eggs; this is done so that the turtle is not
disturbed prior to laying. Two metal tags are attached to each turtle, both leatherbacks and hard-
shelled species; this is to ensure that even if one tag is lost the individual can still be recognized.
External flipper tags were only applied by trained personnel, either the Programme Co-ordinator or a
Marine Park intern.

Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) Tags
PIT tags were purchased by the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme with funding from KNAP Fund,
MINA. For leatherbacks only, in addition to the two external flipper tags, one PIT tag is also applied
to each individual. A PIT tag is a small microprocessor which transmits a unique identification
number when read using a hand-held scanner. While the turtle is laying, a single PIT tag is inserted
under the skin in the front shoulder muscle of the turtle using an applicator (See Figure 3). All
leatherbacks encountered were scanned for the presence of PIT tags using an AVID scanner before a
PIT tag was inserted, to avoid double-tagging individuals. Only the Programme Co-ordinator and
STENAPA Manager were trained to apply PIT tags.


























Figure 4. Tagging site for hard shell species


Carapace Measurements
Standard carapace length and width measurements (as of Bolten, 1999) were taken of each nesting
turtle encountered, after she had finished laying. Measurements were made using a flexible metal or
fibreglass tape measure; each measurement was taken once, to the nearest millimetre.


Leatherback

Curved carapace length (CCL) was measured from the nuchal notch
(the anterior edge of the carapace where it meets the in a straight
line to the most posterior tip of the caudal When the caudal projection
is not symmetrical the measurement is made to the longest point (any
such irregularity would be noted on the data collection sheet as
influencing the measurement). Measurements were taken just to the
right of the central ridge, not along its crest, to avoid errors associated
with carapace surface irregularities. Figure 5. Carapace length leatherback


~v1


Curved carapace width (CCW) is measured at the widest oint, but
are no standard features delineating the end points (See Figure 6). The
measure passes over the ridges and does not follow their contours.

Figure 6. Carapace width leatherback


Hard shell species


Cu-ved
Carapace
Length
Notch to
Tip
(V'CL n-t)


For green and hawksbill turtles the
carapace length notch to tip (CCL n-t)
measured. It is measured in a straight


t'urvid ( M"Ni.h camW)


there
tape







curved
was
line


Figure 3. Tagging sites for leatherbacks


...-......a









from the anterior point at the mid-line (where the carapace and skin meet) to the posterior tip of the
supracaudal scutes (See Figure 7). As the supracaudals are often asymmetrical CCL n-t is taken to the
longest tip.




Figure 7. Carapace length -hard shell i

Curved carapace width (CCW) is measured in a straight line between the
widest points of the carapace (See Figure 8); there are no anatomical features
marking the end points. Can Carap
Wldth (CC'\)


Figure 8. Carapace width hard shell
Nest Survival and Hatching Success
All nests recorded were included in a study on nest survival and hatching success. Every day during
morning track surveys the status of each marked nest was observed; a record was made if a nest was
deemed disturbed, destroyed or washed away. Close to the predicted hatching dates (at around 50
days) the triangulation data were used to mark the site of the egg chamber; to prevent the surveyor
having to re-measure the nest each day a small "V" of sticks was placed on the sand behind the nest
site. This area was closely monitored for evidence of hatching; a depression, hatchling tracks or
hatchlings. When any signs of hatching were observed nest was excavated after 48 hours; if no
signs of hatching were recorded the nest was excavated after at least 70 days from the date the eggs
were laid. All excavations were conducted by the Programme Co-ordinator or trained personnel to
ensure accuracy of data collection.

If a depression or other sign of hatching was present excavator carefully dug down at this point
until the first egg was encountered; if hatching had not been observed the triangulation data were used
to locate the expected site of the egg chamber where digging commenced. Using gloves, the nest
contents were carefully removed from the egg chamber and inventoried. The following data were
recorded for each excavated nest (See example of data collection sheet in Appendix 1):
Nest code Each nest was given a unique identification number.
Observers Names of people present during excavation.
Date The date the nest was laid; when hatching was observed and the date the excavation
was conducted.
Number of empty shells Only shells corresponding to more than 50% of the egg were
counted; representing the number of hatched eggs.
Number of hatchlings Any hatchlings found in the egg chamber were recorded; dead or
alive.
Number of unhatched eggs Eggs were opened to search for the presence of embryos and
categorised as:
o No embryo No obvious embryo present.
o Embryo Embryo present; includes all stages of development.
o Full embryo Embryo in final stages of development and ready to hatch.









Number of pipped eggs Eggs where hatchling had broken the egg shell but failed to hatch;
characterized by triangular hole in the shell. Whether hatchling was alive or dead was also
recorded.
Number of predated eggs If possible the type of predator was noted; often characterized by a
circular hole in the shell.
Number of deformed embryos Any deformities were recorded such as missing flippers,
additional scutes on carapace, albinism or the presence of multiple embryos in a single egg
Number of yolkless eggs Small, yolkless eggs were counted separately.
Notes Any additional pertinent information was recorded.
Depth of nest To the top of the egg chamber (first egg encountered) and the bottom of the
egg chamber (after final egg removed); measure to nearest centimetre.

Any hatchlings found alive were released to the sea. the inventory was complete the nest
contents were returned to the egg chamber and reburied.

In-water Turtle Sightings
To obtain information on in-water sightings of turtles, data collection forms were given to the three
dive centres on St Eustatius: Dive Statia, Golden Rock Dive Centre and Scubaqua as well as visiting
live-aboard dive vessel Caribbean Explorer (See example of data sheet in Appendix 2). The data form
was redesigned in October to have a different focus that would coincide with the habitat
mapping and in-water survey programme that will be instated for the upcoming year. The following
data were recorded for each sighting:
Dive Site Location where turtle was seen.
Date
Time Time of sighting.
Dive Centre --- Who the dive centre was when the turtle was sighted.
Dive Master
Species of turtle Green, hawksbill, loggerhead or leatherback.
Size of turtle Less than 10cm, 10 50cm, 50 100cm, more than 100cm.
Did the tail extend more than 15cm past the shell? Yes, no, don't know.
Condition of the turtle Alive, dead, injured. If injury, a description of the injury.
Distance from the turtle less than 3 metres, 3-5 metres, 5-10 metres, over 10 metres.
Visibility clarity of the water.
What depth was the turtle seen -metres.
Where was the turtle On the surface, in the water column or at the bottom.
What was the environment Sand, sea grass, coral reef, and rock or other (cave, wreck, etc.).
What was the turtle doing- Resting, mating, swimming or eating?
Were tags present Yes, No or Unsure.
Any other comments

Originally divers were asked to complete the forms whenever they e entered a turtle while diving.
Due to the fact that many people could be completing the form for just one turtle, it was decided to let
the Dive Master fill out the form. The Programme Co-ordinator visited the dive centres periodically
throughout the 2007 season to collect any completed forms.









Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking Project 2005-2007
In June 2005, funding was confirmed from the DCNA to initiate a multiple-year sea turtle tracking
project in the Dutch Caribbean. This project was an inter-island initiative between the DCNA,
STENAPA and the Nature Foundation St Maarten; led by sea turtle biologist Dr Robert van Dam. The
objective was to learn the geographical range of adult female green and hawksbill turtles nesting on St
Eustatius and St Maarten, by determining their migratory movements and the location of their feeding
grounds. Another important aspect of the project was as a forum to engage local communities in sea
turtle conservation issues, by illustrating turtle migratory behaviour from the islands.


Basic Satellite Telemetry
Satellite telemetry involves attaching a small transmitter to the carapace of a turtle; each time the turtle
surfaces to breathe, a signal is sent to an ARGOS receiver on-board a polar orbiting NOAA satellite.
This signal provides information about the
location of the turtle; the signal is classified
into one of five location classes depending
on its accuracy. This will vary depending on
several factors including environmental
conditions and relative location of
transmitter and satellite. Using satellite
transmitters it is possible to follow sEST
individuals and gain detailed information ARI JnF PARc
about turtle migration and migratory i~t..
behaviour patterns. By knowing where
turtles are going and the routes they use
between breeding and feeding areas,
researchers can determine potential threats in
all areas frequented by turtles and so focus
conservation efforts where most needed.

Satellite transmitters are small and lightweight; the Telonics ST-18 used on St Eustatius measured
12cm by 5cm and weighed approximately 200g. Essentially they are electronic components and a
battery housed inside a hard plastic casing, with an external antenna at one end. They are designed to
be hydrodynamic and so cause minimal disruption to a turtle's swimming and diving
behaviours. For hard shell species transmitters lie on a layer of elastomer that cushions between the
transmitter and the carapace; it is then secured using layers of fibreglass resin.
The fibreglass creates a protective casing for the transmitter against damage on reefs or other hard
surfaces during its time in the ocean. Transmitters will normally last several months until the battery
fails, the antenna is broken, or it is dislodged from the carapace.

Education and Media Activities
In 2005 the "Help Out or Sea Turtles Miss Out" programme, teaching the local communities about sea
turtle conservation issues, with Education Officer Dominique Vissenburg, was particularly successful.
In 2006/7, the year the focus of the school education programme was water. Each month, the
Education Officer visited the four island primary schools and looks at a specific topic related to the
main theme; while on St Eustatius she is provided with logistical support from STENAPA staff.










On 11 February, 2007 the Marine Turtle Program Co-ordinator gave a presentation to the public. The
title of the presentation was regarding the conservation of marine turtles on St Eustatius. Among the
persons present were eight University of St. Eustatius medical students.

On 21 March, 2007, a presentation was given to STENAPA's Junior Rangers regarding the history of
turtles in the Caribbean, their current threats and laws protecting them. The presentation was called
"Sea Turtle Conservation And Laws Protecting Them". The Junior Rangers seemed to enjoy the
presentation and asked many questions that the Marine le Program Co-ordinator was happy to
answer.

During the month of July 2007, STENAPA started with its inaugural Summer Club. Thirty children
aged eight to 13 signed up for the club which included hiking, snorkeling and turtle education
activities. The Summer Club encouraged local children be more active, while learning more about
some of the plants, animals and marine life that can be found n their island. The Summer Club ran
from 2 July to 2 August every Monday, Wednesday and Thursday. The club was coordinated by
STENAPA staff and assisted by interns and volunteers. Every Wednesday and Thursday, a three hour
seminar with hands-on activities about turtles (in classroom and on the beach) was presented to the
class.

To raise public awareness of the Sea Turtle Conservation Project, different media events were
arranged; these included radio interviews in May, June, July and September, articles in the local
newspaper, the quarterly STENAPA newsletter, features regarding satellite tracking on the STENAPA
website, and three television features during the government programme on St Eustatius Cable TV
Channel 15.

Beach Erosion
When the numbered stakes were placed along Zeelandia Beach before the start of night patrol season,
the distance from the stake to the cliff or vegetation was recorded to monitor the extent of erosion
along the monitored section of beach. This estimate of erosion has taken place since 2004.

If a significant landslide or cliff fall was encountered during a patrol on any nesting beach, the
following data were recorded; the date, time (if known), amount of cliff affected and a description of
the damage, including a photograph whenever possible.

Community Outreach Events
Raising community awareness of the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme is a fundamental part of the
programme. Various activities were arranged during 2007, which are described below:

School Activities
The Education Officer for the Windward Islands of the Antilles, Dominique Vissenberg,
visited St Eustatius monthly to coordinate the education activities in schools from January through
June. The 2007 theme was water. Other activities, such as satellite tracking competition and
STENAPA summer club, were organised.

Beach Clean-Ups









Zeelandia Beach was chosen for Beach Clean-ups as it is the primary turtle nesting beach on the
island, and the beach where the majority of the turtle research activities occur. These events were
conducted with the aid of staff, interns, volunteers and members of the public. Each clean-up was
advertised in advance to encourage participation by the local community. A record was made of the
number of participants at each clean-up and the amount and type of rubbish collected. All rubbish was
disposed of at the Smith's Gut landfill site.

Media Exposure and Public Presentations
Whenever possible the events of the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme 2007 were publicised in the
local newspaper, STENAPA newsletter, on local radio or via the STENAPA website. Public
presentations were also given to different groups on t and.

Viewing of nesting turtles and hatchling releases
A new approach was taken for the 2007 season in generating interest from the local population of St.
Eustatius. The Marine Turtle Program Co-ordinator spoke with several interested members who were
keen to view the nesting activity of a turtle, nest ex mation or a hatchling release. The new approach
took on a life of its own and has given a different perspective on turtles on St Eustatius while giving
the local community a first hand glimpse of nesting turtles or hatchlings.

Participation in Meetings, Workshops and Symposia
In an effort to broadcast the work of the St Eustatius Sea Turtle Conservation Programme to as wide
an audience as possible, the Programme Co-ordinator tried to attend any relevant meetings, workshops
or symposia relating to turtle biology, research or conservation issues. Such gatherings create ideal
opportunities to establish regional and international contacts within the sea turtle community; these
contacts may provide guidance or support to expand and develop the programme on St Eustatius in the
future.


Results

Pre-Season Preparations

Beach Preparation
On 3rd March, the Turtle Programme Co-ordinator, and Marine Park intern prepared the numbered
beach stakes that were lost between the 2006 to 2007 season. Twenty-one were lost in total as stake 47
was found later. The stakes 54-63 minus 55, stakes 43-49, and stakes 28-33. A total of 65 stakes were
prepared and/or reinserted by the Programme Co-ordinator and Marine Park intern; each stake had a
number engraved and then painted white. A band of reflective tape was applied to help locate them on
the beach at night using a flashlight. Stake 1 was located at the northern limit of Zeelandia Beach and
they ended at stake 65, half-way along Turtle Beach.. Only part of Turtle Beach was marked in April
as no leatherback nesting had been observed on that beach in previous years; in August temporary
stakes were placed on the remainder of Turtle Beach, when green turtle nesting activity was recorded.
Over the course of the nesting season some of the stakes were lost due to high tides and beach erosion;
these were replaced using temporary markers. Over the course of the season, most stakes have been
lost by November 2007.









Training of Volunteers
The Programme Co-ordinator conducted the first training session on 17 March 2007; present were
three St Eustatius medical students and all interns. On 23 March, Working Abroad volunteers and all
interns were subject to another set of presentations and night patrol training. Each of the three
successive groups of Working Abroad volunteers received an identical orientation. In addition to the
two theoretical presentations on sea turtle biology and data collection, they received practical training
on nest marking methodology and carapace measurements.

All interns received training in external flipper tagging protocols on 23 March; it was hoped that they
could tag turtles encountered on nights when the Programme Co-ordinator was not leading beach
patrols. However, during the monitoring period, all turtles requiring tags were actually observed on
patrols led by the Programme Co-ordinator.


Monitoring and Research Activities
The following is a summary of the data collected during the 2007 monitoring and nesting activities of
the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme.

Track Surveys

Daily morning track surveys were conducted between 8 March and 23 November; a total of 261
surveys were completed. The Programme Co-ordinator conducted 68% of the track surveys (177)
while interns carried out the surveys in his absence.

Zeelandia Beach was always included in the survey; Turtle Beach was surveyed 211 days, Oranje Bay
was surveyed 8 days, Kay Bay 3 days and Lynch Beach was surveyed on 15 occasions during the
season. For the last 30 days surveys were limited to Zeelandia and Turtle Beach as nesting activity
had ceased; morning surveys were only conducted to monitor marked nests for hatching activity.

The first track was observed on 30 March: a leatherback nest was recorded on Zeelandia Beach. This
nest was recorded by Arturo Herrera since no night patrols were being conducted at that time. The last
nesting activity was recorded on 13 November when a hawksbill turtle nested on Zeelandia Beach.

Three species of turtle were recorded nesting in 2007; leatherback, green and hawksbill. Leatherback
nesting occurred from 30 March to 18 May; green turtle nesting activity was recorded from 15 July
until 16 September; two hawksbill nests were recorded, 17 July and 13 November. A total of 12 nests
and 49 false crawls for all three species were recorded in 2007. Zeelandia Beach was the primary
nesting beach with all nests.
Table 1. Summary of turtle nesting data collected during track surveys in 2007

Species Number Location Number of Location of
Species
of Nests of Nests False Crawls False Crawls
Turtle Beach
Leatherback 5 All Zeelandia Beach 2
Oranje Bay












All Zeelandia Beach




All Zeelandia Beach


(25) Zeelandia
(8) Turtle Beach
(1) Kay Bay

(10) Zeelandia
(2) Turtle Beach
(1)Crook's Castle


Nest Distribution For 2007


Leatherback
* Hawksbill
* Green


1 4 7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31 34 37 40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67 70 73 76 79


Figure 9. Distribution of nests on St Eustatius Nesting Beaches in 2007


Green




Hawksbill










False Crawl Distribution 2007


Kay Bay
4
3
2
1-
0, ii1 11.1. .1. 1 1,,,,!, 1 i1 .1. i I I



GrLeatherback
1 Green
mHawksbill Stake Number


Figure 10. Distribution of false crawls on St Eustatius nesting beaches in 2007
Leatherback nesting activity occurred on Zeelandia Beach and both false crawls were observed on
Oranje Bay and Turtle Beach. Nesting was limited to sporadic stretches (See Figures 10 and 11). In
Figure 10, it is interesting to note that stakes 8 to are congruent with the main beach entrances.
Furthermore, this area has a high density of light pollution emanating from the oil terminal. One
possible reason for the limited activity is the amount of light pollution within this area. All turtles used
Zeelandia Beach three exclusively for nesting. Green turtles used three beaches for false crawl
activities most emergences were on Zeelandia Beach (26) and Turtle Beach (8). The rest of the
activities were distributed Kay Bay (1). In contrast, leatherbacks activity was more concentrated than
green turtles. There were very few tracks and nests north of marker 24, with activity clustered between
markers 4 and 50. Few nests were found north of marker 27. (See Figures 10). Hawksbill activity was
confirmed on three of the nesting beaches; Zeelandia one nest near marker 24 one laid in 53. Both
were relocated. The false crawls were recorded on Zeelandia (10), Turtle Beach (2) and one on
Crooks' Castle.

Beach Patrols
In 2007 monitoring of Zeelandia Beach was performed seven nights per week, to include weekends.
Patrols commenced at 9.00pm and ended around 4.00 am; they were conducted along the entire length
of Zeelandia Beach and occasionally on Turtle Beach, when tidal conditions permitted.

Night patrols were conducted between 30 March and 26 September; patrols ended on this date as no
nesting activity had been observed for 20 consecutive days and it was assumed that the season had
finished. In total, 119 patrols were conducted with approximately 719.22 hours of patrol time logged.
If insufficient personnel were available patrols were cancelled. This occurred on four occasions:
patrols were cancelled or terminated early due to bad weather causing dangerous conditions on the
beach. Patrols were cancelled 54 times on account of lack of activity. The Programme Co-









ordinator led 45.38 % of patrols, assisted by interns and volunteers; when not on patrol the Programme
Co-ordinator was on stand-by to assist the team on the beach if necessary.

Turtles were encountered on 12 separate nights; approximately 10.8% of patrols, or an encounter rate
of 1 turtle every 10 nights. The first leatherback was recorded on 30 March, but the first female
encountered was on 9 April. The last recorded leatherback was on the 18 May. The first hawksbill
turtle was recorded by Programme Co-ordinator, Arturo Herrera, during a morning survey on July
but the first observed hawksbill was seen on 23 July. lly, the first green individual was recorded
on 28 July, and the first observed was on 29 July. The last recorded and observed green turtle was 16
September.

The times of encountering a turtle varied throughout the night. The earliest a turtle was encountered
was at 21:06 during a night patrol on 23 July. The turtle was a hawksbill that was untagged. The turtle
was digging its egg chamber but abandoned its attempt after finding its location unsuitable. Most night
encounters were between 9.06pm and 4.25am with peaks between 21:26 to the hours of 23:47. The
latest a turtle was recorded was 4:25am which was a green false crawl on 18 August.

Three leatherback, one green turtle and two hawksbill were encountered during patrols; one
leatherback was seen twice, the second which was a false crawl. The average inter-nesting interval for
the leatherback was 11.16 days (with a range of 10 27 days). Of the only green turtle that nested, she
recorded five nests and possibly all false crawls. Since no positive identification was made off all false
crawls and the turtle was not seen, it cannot be positively ascertained whether or not the one female
green turtle made all false crawls. The average in-nesting interval was 15 days.

Visitors were always welcome on night patrols, both tourists and members of the local community.
However, very few people joined researchers in 2007 for a full patrol; only 14 people in total,
comprising two staff members, three medical students, two journalists and 7 interested members of the
public. This does not include the public that requested to be to view a nesting turtle or a release
of hatchlings. In addition, on two separate nights, a total of 13 students from the Caribbean Marine
Reserves Programme (part of the Broadreach Programme) joined patrols on two separate nights. This
programme brings groups of high school students from the United States to study how marine reserves
are managed and also participate in hands-on field research.

Tagging
Of the six individual females encountered on beach patrols during the 2007 nesting season (See above)
only one had tags from previous years. The leatherback turtles that were encountered had no tags (PIT
or back flipper tags) when first encountered and were given two external flipper tags in both rear
flippers and a single PIT tag in the right-hand shoulder muscle. The green turtle encountered was
already tagged. The previously-tagged turtle was a returning green that had been recorded in 2002 and
2005 and returned to nest in 2007. This turtle nested approximately four times during the 2007 season
including 2 September 2007 when she was fitted with a lite transmitter. No hawksbills were
tagged during the 2007 season. Two hawksbills were seen but one did not break the high tide line
while the other was unable to be tagged. All tagging of turtles was performed by the Programme Co-
ordinator.









Carapace Measurements
Standard carapace measurements were taken for each female that was tagged; some individuals were
measured more than once, if they were encountered multiple times during the season. Table 2 Table 3
and Table 4 show the curved carapace length (CCL) and width (CCW) measurements for each
leatherback and green turtle encountered, and the mean for each species.

In Table 2, each leatherback turtle encountered was measured only once as none re-nested during the
2007 season; CCL measurements showed 4cm of variability on all leatherbacks, ranging from 145cm
to 149cm with a mean of 147.00cm. Width also varied 19cm for all leatherbacks encountered in
2007; CCW = 101.0cm 120.0cm, with a mean of 110.3cm

Table 2. Carapace measurements of all leatherback turtles encountered in 2007.


Turtle Identification
Number
WC 322/WC 323
WC 324/WC 325
WC 318/WC 319
Species Mean


Curved Carapace
Length (CCL) / cm
I 147.00
I 145.00
I 149.00
I 147.00


Curved Carapace
Width1 (CCW) / cm
120.00
110.00
101.00
110.3


Table 3. Carapace measurements of all green turtles encountered in 2007.

Turtle Identification Curved Carapace Curved Carapace
Number Length (CCL n-t) / cm Width1 (CCW) / cm


WE 24/ WE 25
N/A
N/A
N/A
Species Mean


F 110.00
I 114.00
I 112.00
I 108.00
I 111.00


105.00
107.00
105.00


105.5


Individual green turtles showed variation in both carapace length and width than leatherbacks (See
Table 3) but the same green turtle was measured four times over the 2007 season; CCL n-t ranged
from 114.0 cm 108.0 cm, with a mean of 111 cm; CCW ranged from 105.0cm 107.0cm, mean =
105.5.
Table 4. Carapace measurements of all hawksbill turtles encountered in 2007.




1If a turtle was encountered on more than one occasion the average of all measurements taken are shown









Turtle Identification Curved Carapace Curved Carapace
Number Length (CCL n-t) / cm Width1 (CCW) / cm


N/A


88


73


I Species Mean I 88 | 73

In Table 4, two hawksbill turtles were encountered throughout the course of the 2007 season.
Unfortunately, one did not break the surf and therefore was not measured. There were not enough
multiple data sets to have repeated measures and deter nations in CCL and CCW.

Nest Survival and Hatching Success
Twelve nests were marked for inclusion in the nest survival hatching success study; five
leatherbacks, five green turtles and two hawksbills. Tables 5 and 6 provide a summary of the nest
survival data obtained from each marked nest of 2007; each table details, for leatherbacks and hard
shell species respectively, nest code, turtle identification number, location of the nest, fate of the nest,
incubation period in days (if known), and whether the nest was excavated or not.
Table 5. Summary of nest survival data for each marked 2007 leatherback nest.

Nest Turtle Id Incubation /
CNLocation Fate of Nest Excavated
Code Number days
DC0701 N/A Zeelandia Partly hatched 56 Yes
DC0702 WC322/WC323 Zeelandia Nest not found1 N/A1 No
DC0703 WC324/WC325 Zeelandia Partly hatched 60 Yes
DC0704 WC322/WC323 Zeelandia Nest not found1 N/A1 No
DC0705 WC318/WC319 Zeelandia Failure N/A1 Yes
The survival of nests varied but overall was not very high. All nests were laid on Zeelandia Beach;
five nests hatched or partly hatched leaving one that was washed away by the tide (CM0705), two that
could not be located and three that failed to hatch.

Evidence of hatching was only observed for the five mentioned marked nests; three green nests and
two leatherback nests. This was either hatching tracks in the sand or hatchlings encountered on the
beach, and therefore it was only possible to calculate the incubation period for these nests. For both
leatherbacks and greens, incubation period was determined from multiple nests; 58 days and 55.25
days, respectively.

Excavations were conducted on three leatherbacks, four greens and a hawksbill nest. Three nests, two
leatherbacks, and a green, could not be found; on some occasions the nest was marked after the turtle
had left the beach, and an approximate location of the egg chamber was known. For all of these nests
no signs of hatching were observed, thus exacerbating this lack of information about the exact location

1 "N/A" indicates that the data of incubation was unknown either due to an unknown nesting date or the clutch did not
hatch for several reasons described in "Fate of Nest".









of the eggs Only when this procedure had been performed, no eggs were encountered, was the
attempt abandoned and the nest classified as "Could not find".
Table 6. Summary of nest survival data for each marked nest of hard shell species.


Nest Turtle ID Incubation / Nest
Location Fate of Nest
Code Number days, Excavated

CM0701R Unknown2 Zeelandia Partly Hatched 57 Yes

CM0702R WE24/WE25 Zeelandia Partly Hatched 50 Yes

CM0703R WE24/WE25 Zeelandia Failure Unknown1 Yes

CM0704 Unknown2 Zeelandia Hatched 52 Yes

CM0705 Unknown2 Zeelandia Failure1 Unknown1 No

EI0701R Unknown2 Zeelandia Failure N/A4 Yes

EI0702R Unknown2 Zeelandia Partly Hatched4 47 No

The excavation data from all marked nests are detailed in Appendix 4 with some of the data
summarised. The depth of nests differed considerably between the t species, with leatherbacks
digging deeper nests than either greens or hawksbills; mean depth to bottom of egg chamber was
64.67cm compared to 55.25 cm for greens and 53cm for hawksbills. On average, green turtle nests are
55cm and an average leatherback digs to an average of 60 cm. Leatherbacks laid much fewer yolked
eggs per nest than greens or hawksbills; range was 54 79 for leatherbacks, 123 139 for greens and
139 for hawksbills. Mean number of eggs per nest for each species was 66 eggs for leatherbacks, 130
for greens and 139 for hawksbills, although the sample size for the Hawksbill species is incomplete as
one nest was not found, there remained unexcavated. Hatchlings re observed by locals on a day the
Co-ordinator was unavailable. EI0702R was searched for a period 11 days but unable to be located.
Table 7. Summary of excavation data from 2007

Mean Depth Mean # Eggs Mean % Mean %
Species
to Bottom/cm /Nest Hatching Emergence

Leatherback 64.67 66 + 30.673 21.16 64.58

Green 53.25 130+0.251 33.84 57.18



"Unknown" indicates that no signs of hatching were observed. Also the hatching date was unknown, so it was impossible
to calculate an incubation period.
2 Turtle not observed and so identity and tagging information was unknown.
3 Yolkless eggs
4 A nest could not be found during excavation, therefore it was infeasible to determine the incubation period.










Hawksbill 53 133 0.02 0.02

The three species showed great variability in both hatching and emerging success; hatching success
was calculated as the number of hatchlings that made it out of the shell the egg chamber;
emerging success was the number of hatchlings that made it out of the nest. Leatherbacks showed
identical hatching and emerging success rate from 2006; 21.16% hatching success compared to 21.1%,
but higher emerging success of 64.58% to just 15.3% in 2006. Two leatherback nests were completely
unhatched. Greens were more successful in 2006 in hatching success was 33.84% compared to 51.0%
in 2006, but emerging success was 57.18% in 2007 and 46.4% for 2006.

When unhatched eggs were opened it was found that leatherbacks had fewer eggs with no visible
embryo present; these eggs were assumed not to have been fertilised properly and no embryo
developed. The mean percentage of eggs with no embryo for each species was 66.1% for
leatherbacks, 63.4% for greens.

Several nests contained pipped eggs; 1 leatherback and 123 green eggs, with a total of 124 eggs, 2 of
which were dead. Very few eggs showed signs of predation; only 24 in totals and it impossible to
determine the type of predator. Deformed embryos were rare; three hatchlings from nest CM0701R
had deformed carapaces.

Five nests were relocated, due to the likelihood of it being washed away if left in place; two hawksbill
and three green turtles. All nests that were relocated were laid in an area previously thought to be safe
but as the beach profile and high tide line changed, the area was no longer deemed safe. All nests were
relocated between stakes 2-3 or stakes 6-7. One green nest was washed away. All hawksbill nests were
relocated due to possible runoff from nearby cliffs or high tide areas. Most nests were relocated during
a night patrol as the egg clutches were being eroded by waves.

In-Water Turtle Sightings


The In-Water Survey and Monitoring project was initiated in January 2007 to provide fundamental
data on the populations and trends of resident and migrant turtle species that use the surrounding
waters of St. Eustatius. The information gathered is used to monitor, detect trends and assess the
habitats where turtles rest, nest and feed. The majority of the marine turtle research is focused on
nesting females and little is known regarding resident turtles that occupy the St. Eustatius Marine
Park.

The in-water survey and monitoring will build on existing anecdotal knowledge of the population
demographics of marine turtles in the St Eustatius Marine Park. The project will determine population
abundance, trends and threats to the population. There are two phases to this project; one is the
mapping of the underground topography of the Marine Park and the other is the population assessment
of sea turtles within St. Eustatius Marine Park. These two phases do not run independently of each
other, and can ideally be executed concurrently with each other. In addition to the in-water survey, the
habitat of the Marine Park will also be documented to if and where aggregations of turtles
occur. The underwater mapping of the Marine Park, also called benthic mapping, will consist of the
first phase of the project. The benthic mapping will g an idea to the habitats that turtles may utilize
and perhaps determine where they spend their time foraging, resting or mating. The second stage of









this project is the actual in-water survey of the population found in the Marine Park. The second phase
will assess the population and abundance of turtles inhabiting the Marine Park. Individual sea turtles
will be counted in a transect survey and information will be taken from each sighted turtle.

Equipment such as ArcGIS 9.0 Software and Satellite Imagery was purchased to begin the habitat
mapping of the areas where resident turtles may reside. Fifty eight 58 dives have been performed and
over eight individual turtles have been sighted and recorded during the Habitat Mapping Phase of the
Project

In-water turtle sights were still lightly conducted. A revised form was introduced and distributed to the
local dive centres; Dive Statia, ScubAqua and Golden Rock Dive Centre. The form included the Dive
Master as the primary contact point. The reason for this was that diver might be less experienced in
accurately identifying a turtle underwater and so more prone to error. The rest of the basic data
(condition of turtle, where it was seen, etc.) remained unchanged from 2006 (See Appendix 2).

Turtle Strandings
On 29 April, 2007, a dead leatherback turtle was encountered by the Marine Park intern, Mirella
Wognum, on Zeelandia Beach during a morning track survey at approximately 8:15. Lacking the
necessary equipment to perform a necropsy the turtle was moved above the surf line, to ensure that it
was not swept away by the tide. Later that day the remains of the turtle washed northward to stake
number 1. The Programme Co-ordinator, assisted by Marine Park interns Liz Harte and Mirella
Wognum, returned and performed a rudimentary necropsy try and determine the cause of death.
(See Photos at Appendix 12)
The Programme Co-ordinator was not able to conduct a necropsy; No plastron or many
internal organs were observed. It was possibly eaten by marine animals. Parts of the
lungs were observed.
Both kidneys were observed and fully intact.
Carapace length was 144cm and the carapace width was 106.4 (noted that part of area
carapace normally measured had been eaten). There was plastron length attempted
since there was no plastron.
The reproductive organs showed her to be female. Furthermore, she was a breeding
adult Female. This leatherback was observed nesting on 19 April 2007. She was
identified by barnacle on top of her left middle carapace.
Fresh wounds were present all around the remaining part of shell. Numerous bite marks
ranging from 24 43 cm diameter were apparent, some being possible teeth marks.
Photos were taken.
Unfortunately no definitive answer as to the cause of h was determined from the
necropsy.

On the 7th of November, a stranded Green Turtle was discovered by a local diver, Derrick Goudrian, in
Oranje Bay nearby dive site Blue Bead Hole. Mr. Goudrian presented the deceased turtle to
STENAPA staff which took photos and buried the juvenile Green nearby Zeelandia beach.
Unfortunately the Programme Coordinator was away on holiday and unable to perform a necropsy.
(See Photos at Appendix 12)

Bycatch Turtle









On the morning of 16th of May, STENAPA staff came across a drowned Hawksbill on the City
Harbor. The juvenile hawksbill had been trapped in the net of a local fisherman and could not free
itself from the nets, subsequently drowning.

The hawksbill that was found last Wednesday was commonly seen in Statian waters and considered a
resident of the local waters. It had been measured at more than 50 cm. It could not be determined
how long the turtle was trapped in the net, but STENAPA staff determined that the turtle drowned
before they reached it and had an opportunity to free The fisherman had no knowledge of its
incidental capture. (See Photos at Appendix 12)


Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking Project 2007
The following is a summary of the research activities that were conducted as part of the Sea Turtle
Satellite Tracking Project 2007.

Research Activities

A short training session on the methods for applying the transmitters was given to the Programme Co-
ordinator, and turtle intern in July and another in August. Dr Emma Harrison. In 2005, Dr Robert van
Dam left instructions on equipment to purchase and the design of a wooden holding box that was to be
constructed. These materials were purchased in August. The preliminary schedule for attachment was
organised for the month of September; with an initial plan for the final transmitter to be deployed.


'Track' the Green turtle


On Saturday 1 September 2007, a green turtle arrived on Zeelandia Beach at 11:27pm.. This turtle has
been recorded on Statia for the last five years and had already come up to nest four times during the
2007 season. She was previously recorded in 2002 and in 2005. The Green Turtle, named "Track",
attempted to nest but found the area she chose too rocky. On her way back to the water she was placed
in a turtle holding pen where her head was covered to the stress of the procedure. The satellite
transmitter was activated at 12:11am as the work to attach the transmitter began. After all the work
was completed (fiberglass dried and tested), she was released back into the ocean at 3: am, Sunday
the 2nd of September.

"Track" is an average sized green turtle with a carapace length of 1.12 meters and width of 1.07
meters. She has flipper tags that show she was previously tagged by the STENAPA turtle project.
This basic information is easily collected and compiled in the National Parks office. The satellite will
give more detailed information that could have never been collected without the help and funding of
DCNA (Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance).

This turtle was using Zeelandia Beach as her home base for the nesting phase of her life. This makes
the data being collected more valuable to see what waters she frequents for other periods of the year.
The point of the sea turtle tracking is exactly this where are these turtles when not nesting Green
turtles lay an average of five nests per season and she only has four confirmed nests for the term

All STENAPA volunteers and interns, along with Arturo Marine Turtle Programme









Coordinator, as well as several local residents were present for this major event. The entire process
was videotaped by Dwight Barran and aired on Government Channel 15 on 6 September from 7:30 to
8:00pm.

Track made a brief stop at Prickly Pear Island in the British Virgin Islands in mid-September. Track
then skimmed the northern coast of Puerto Rico and stopped off the northeastern coast of Dominican
Republic. Track has covered over 605 km in two weeks, going over 43 km per day to reach
suitable feeding grounds. Track is still at her foraging grounds near the coastal town of El Macao,
Santo Domingo. Track is approximately 586 kilometers from her nesting areas and since acquiring her
transmitter in early September, traveling a total of 2238 kilometers.

STENAPA has been in contact with Yolanda Leon, a known turtle biologist from the Dominican
Republic. Ms Leon states that there are many beaches in the area where Track is located. It appears
that Track is currently entering an area of intense tourism development along the beach, however,
there are nearby areas with less developed beaches and offshore sea grass. One particular beach in this
area was a historically important leatherback nesting beach. Track's satellite transmitter stopped
signaling on 23 December 2007 but returned to signal again in early January 2008.

Beach Erosion
Of 52 stakes that had been placed in 2006, approximately 31 still remained at the start of 2006; 21 had
been lost in total as stake # 47 was found later. The stakes that needs to be replaced were mostly south
of Smith's Gut (Stakes 54-63 minus 55 and Stakes 43-49). For the remaining 31 the distance between
the stake and the cliff was measured as an indicator of cliff erosion along Zeelandia Beach. A new
method of beach mapping and erosion was implemented in 2006 and continued in 2007. Figures were
compared from information taken February 2007 to figures collected in early December 2007.
Nineteen stakes were in exactly the same location as February to May 2007 suggesting minimal cliff
erosion for that period. In total, 18 (28.13%) stakes had a positional change of 50cm or less from their
final location; 26 stakes displayed cliff erosion of 50 100cm from the December location (46.3%); 19
(29.79%) recorded over Im of cliff erosion since the December mapping. Of these 19, two (3.13%)
was recorded 2m in front of where it had been previously. The mean distance between the stake and
the cliff was 0.87m; the range was 0.00 m 4.51 m. Erosion was concentrated in several areas; from
stakes 13-39 and between stakes 46 53. The first of these areas is close to the public acc at the
northern end of Zeelandia and the other is about half-way along the beach, past Smith's Gut. Although
the data does not suggest the dramatic cliff erosion there was between 2004 and 2005, the data does
indicate accelerating steady erosion. Preliminary data still needs multiple year analyses before any
tangible conclusions can be made.

During 2007, 23 cliff falls were observed on Zeelandia Beach. Seven were considered major (more
than five in diameter) while the rest were minor cliff falls. Observed evidence shows that the major
cliff falls occurred in the ending phase of the nesting season, six in August, two in September and two
in October. Nine occurred just north and south of Smith's Gut and the largest of the cliff falls occurred
in this area which made negotiating these areas during night patrols dif icult, especially when coupled
with the nightly tides.

On five occasions the section of cliff which fell was equal or more than 10m in length; the la st
(recorded on 29 October) was approximately 22 metres long and extended to the high tide line 18
metres away. A very large section of the cliff, consisting of boulders and small rocks, was found to









have fallen between markers 49 and 62 (covering 50 and 51) on 8 May and was 26 metres by 8 metres
in dimension. Another cliff fall recorded on 23 April as 13 by 6 metres. During the month of
February, two separate falls were recorded, all regarded as minor and ranging between one to three
meters. The last two cliff falls occurred during the last week of the year. One was on Boxing Day and
was approximately 14 by 10 meters between markers 35 to 37 and the final cliff fall was on 31
December 2007 and was 20 by 12 metres in diameter.

Zeelandia Beautification Project
The main objectives of the Zeelandia beautification project are multi-faceted. The primary objective is
to offer an area on Zeelandia Beach where visitors can enjoy Zeelandia Beach. Another objective is to
deter vehicles from driving on the beach, stop sand mining and prevent further erosion. Both of these
issues go hand in hand. In June 2007, the Zeelandia beautification project commenced. On 15 June
2007, a visitor information board was installed at the primary entrance to Zeelandia Beach. 20 July
2007 was dedicated to the installation of plants
and fencing at the prime Zeelandia entrances.
On 7 September 2007, another Family Friday
was dedicated to replanting of palm trees and
yucca plants that succumbed to the warm
weather.

The main short-term goals for the signs and
transplanting plants at the entrances to
Zeelandia beach are to provide an information
focal point and improve the visual appeal of the
entrance while preventing vehicles from driving
on the beach. The placement of the signs will
give the beautification process key points to
work around

Figure 11: One of three Zeelandia Beach Signs installed

The longevity of the plants, however, is uncertain. Since 12 July, 70 different plants from six different
species of palms, succulents and groundcover have been placed in the ground on the slopes around the
entrances to Zeelandia beach. The different plants provide shade, erosion control and designation of
the paths. The most plentiful of the plants were the coconut all 25 of them donated by Daniel
Eaton. All other plants were grown at the Botanical Ga The plants are still very young and need
to be protected; hence the fence surrounding them until they are large enough to fend for themselves.
Boulders could be beneficial to the project if they could be moved from their current resting site onto
the beach. These rocks would need to be large enough they could not be washed away in a
sudden rainstorm while providing a natural repellent in which cars could not drive over them or people
could not remove them. The boulders would be far superior in terms of visual appeal to fencing and
less dangerous to pedestrians









Community Outreach Events


School Activities
In 2005 the "Help Out or Sea Turtles Miss Out" programme, teaching the local communities about sea
turtle conservation issues, with Education Officer Dominique Vissenburg, was particularly successful.
In 2006/7, the year the focus of the school education programme was water. This curriculum did not
focus on marine turtles.

"Day in the Life of A Turtle" and "Marine Turtle and Their Homes" Competitions
In concurrence with attaching the final satellite transmitter to "Track", a nesting green female turtle,
the Marine Turtle Coordinator visited all island schools to give presentation to all students. The motive
was to inform the local students of two different competitions relating to this project. The competitions
were designed to make students think about where the turtles may go during their migration to feeding
grounds and dangers they may face.

The first of these was the "Day In The Life Of A Turtle" essay competition. The concept was for
students to write an essay, no more than two pages, discussing the day in the life of a marine turtle.
The purpose was to describe what sea turtles do and where they go. This competition was geared
towards students Grade 6 or higher. The "Marine Turtles and Their Homes" Art Competition was for
children below Grade 6 level. The idea behind this competition was for students to produce a piece of
art depicting a turtle in its marine habitat, or home.

The winner of the Art Competition was Lenaria Brown, aged 8, while Faraha Ishmael, age 15, won
the Essay competition. Lenaria Brown, a student of the Golden Rock School, produced a very detailed
clay model of a seashore depicting a nesting turtle with a satellite transmitter returning to the ocean,
hatchlings emerging from their eggs and some hatchlings struggling to reach the sea. Miss Faraha
Ishmael, a student at the Statia Terminals School, composed an essay on which kind of turtle she
would like to be and what she would see on her voyage St. Eustatius to her feeding grounds.
Lenaria Brown's artwork was selected out of 22 quality entries while Faraha's essay was chosen out of
10 entries. Ms. Lenaria and Ms. Faraha both won free participation at the Marine Park Snorkel Club, a
Marine Turtle Program T-Shirt and a turtle Necklace. Entries from Ninoushka Busby and Teagan
Stewart were also highly commended.

STENAPA SUMMER CLUB 2007
During the month of July 2007, St Eustatius National Parks (STENAPA) started its inaugural
STENAPA Summer Club. Twenty-four children aged eight to 13 signed up for the club h
included hiking, snorkeling and turtle education activities. The Summer Club encouraged local
children to be more active, while learning more about ome of the plants, animals and marine life that
can be found on their island. STENAPA's Summer Club ran from 2 July to 2 August every Monday,
Wednesday and Thursday. The turtle camp phase was conducted every Wednesday and Thursday. The
first week was a PowerPoint presentation on Marine Turtles. Sea Turtle Journals were created to
record facts interesting to the participants as well as Turtle Name Tags. The second week focused on
nesting behavior and identifying turtle tracks. Students learned how sea turtles nested and details of
the hatching process. On the third week, students learned of the many natural predators sea turtles face
during different life stages, how weather and erosion destroy nests and how natural nests may
affect survival. Games such as a food game web were applied to make connections and explain cause-
and-effect relationship between sea turtles, their predators and the environment around them. In the









fourth week, students learned how humans impact turtles in the Caribbean, negatively or positively.
Games such as THREATS (version of Sea Turtle BINGO) and Sea Turtle Jeopardy illustrated how
people of all ages can participate meaningfully in sea turtle conservation.

Each child received a free Stenapa t-shirt and snorkeling equipment. Participation in the c was
higher than expected thanks to financial support from hn and Danielle Wiginton of Vecenergy
Resources, who felt the course was a great incentive and agreed to sponsor up to 30 children.
o During July 2007, STENAPA started its inaugural STENAPA Summer Club. Thirty
children aged eight to 13 signed up for the club which included hiking, snorkeling and
turtle education activities. STENAPA's Summer Club ran from 2 July to 2 August every
Monday, Wednesday and Thursday.


School Vacation Programme
This programme was implemented by the Island Government in 2004; recent graduates, who are
continuing their studies overseas, are given work placements with local businesses during their
summer vacation. In 2007, Jonathon Rogers participated for the month of November. He was not
involved directly with the Turtle Conservation Programme.

Beach Clean-Ups
Twelve beach clean-ups were organised during the 2007 turtle nesting season; every month except for
the month of May and November. Some beach clean-ups were conducted on the weekends to draw
assistance from the local community. The response from the local community has improved from
2006; in the twelve clean-ups that were organised, local volunteers participated in three cleanup.

On 30 June, BroadReach, along with STENAPA staff, interns, volunteers and three members of the
public joined together in a collaborative effort to clean up Zeelandia Beach. BroadReach is a volunteer
organization that sails around the Caribbean and offers summer adventures for teenagers, including
scuba, sailing, marine biology, academic and wilderness programs that span the globe. Furthermore,
the BroadReach group provides opportunities for these to learn new skills while providing a
valuable community services such as beach cleanup, trail building, road clearing and neighborhood
cleanup beautification projects.

On Saturday, 15 September 2007, 22 volunteers gathered on Zeelandia Beach to participate in the
largest singular most successful worldwide volunteer movement, the International Coastal Cleanup.
This particular beach clean up was unique because it was the first time St. Eustatius National Parks,
STENAPA, collaborated with The Ocean Conservancy on this event. Over 75 kilograms of debris was
collected and removed from the beach. The volunteers included at least three Statia Terminal
employees, several St. Eustatius Medical School students, concerned Statian citizens and STENAPA
staff and interns. Flyers were distributed in local stores around the island to involve the local
community with this cleanup. The ICC is the single largest one day cleanup event in the USA, and
possibly the world. These cleanup occur in 56 countries and over 50 U.S. states and territories. It is
hoped that Statia will be able to attract more volunteers for next year and have a larger impact.









Media Exposure and Public Presentations
To ensure that the Sea Turtle Conservation Programme reaches as wide an audience as the
Programme Co-ordinator maintained regular exposure in the press and on local radio. Many press
releases were published during 2007. A total of nineteen media articles were submitted and published
in the Daily Herald. The topics ranged from the two 2006 satellite tracked turtles, Lisa and Grace, to
their respective foraging grounds, the start of the nesting season, stranded turtles, hatchlings,
International Coastal Cleanup and the start of the 2007 satellite tracking project (See Appendix 9).

The Marine Turtle Programme was also featured in several monthly radio interviews on the
programme "Nature on Statia". In May, the death of the two turtles (stranded leatherback and bycatch
hawksbill) that occurred was mentioned. In addition, there was an update on Grace, the green turtle. In
June, the Turtle Co-ordinator was on the radio to provide and update of the turtle programme In July,
the host mentioned the first hawksbill nest, signaling the start of the second group of nesting turtles. In
September, the radio program featured an interview with Turtle program coordinator Mr. Arturo
Herrera and Zoe Fukui, Turtle Programme intern. The interview went into detail regarding the Turtle
Programme, daily duties, rules and regulations of the beaches, the start of the in-water
monitoring program, Summer Club and results thus far.

To maximise the exposure that the St. Eustatius Turtle Programme receives internationally as well as
locally, the STENAPA newsletter also featured an articles about turtles in every edition in 2007 (See
Appendix 12). This quarterly newsletter is sent electronically to interested parties and ex-volunteers.
The STENAPA website (http://www.statiapark.org) has several pages dedicated to the St. Eustatius
Turtle Programme activities which are updated regularly. Not only do the web pages focus on the
Conservation Programme, but the site also has several pages dedicated to the Sea Turtle Satellite
Tracking Project in 2007 with links to location maps on http://www.seaturtle.org.

In a new phase of media exposure, the television medium was used by STENAPA to air itself in local
channel 15, a government education services channel. In June a exhumation was recorded and shown
on 20 June. In July, local cameraman Dwight Barran filmed a necropsy of a stranded Leatherback
turtle found on 29 April 2007. This TV documentary was not aired until 15 July 07 and featured
baby hatchlings of the stranded leatherback being rele on 19 June 2007. In addition to the
hatchling release, the satellite transmitter attachment of Track was also videotaped by Mr. Barran.
This occasion was of significant importance since it was the final transmitter and the opportunity did
not go to waste. The episode aired on 6 September 2007 from 7:30 to 8:00pm. Mr. Barran presented
the Turtle Programme with a DVD copy of the documentary in addition to the July hatchling release
DVD. A 22 minute documentary about the activities of St Eustatius National Parks was recorded
between September and October 2007, and launched on local Cable TV Channel during the week of
the Marine Park 10 year anniversary. The documentary featured interviews with the Sea Turtle
Coordinator, Sea Turtle intern and activities such as turtle, hatchlings emerging and the
September monthly beach clean-up.

In 5 December, in conjunction, with the St. Eustatius Marine Park 10 year anniversary, a one hour
seminar was given on the Biology, Ecology and History of Turt in St. Eustatius Marine Park.









Viewing ofNesting Turtles and Hatchling Releases
A new approach was taken for the upcoming season in generating interest from the local population of
St. Eustatius. The Marine Turtle Program Co-ordinator spoke with several interested members who
were keen to view the nesting activity of a turtle, nest exhumation or a hatchling release. The new
approach took on a life of its own and has given a different perspecti es on St Eustatius while
giving the local community a first hand glimpse of nesting turtles or hatchlings.

On 10 April, 2007, the first turtle observed was seen by STENAPA staff, interns and Working Abroad
volunteers. Furthermore, several members of the St. Eustatius Medical School and local residents
witnessed the nesting process of a leatherback turtle. The second observed turtle was witnessed by
members of the STENAPA Board, owners of two local Dive Centres, four Divemasters of these Dive
Centres and several interested members of the public, were approximately, 15 members present.
The third nesting female was observed by a wide range people, including STENAPA staff,
STENAPA interns, roughly 12 students of the St. Eustatius Medical School, the St. Eustatius Police
Korps and concerned members of the local population. The third viewing had approximately 30
members to view the nesting turtle. There were approximately, 60 members who witnessed the nesting
activity of a marine turtle during the 2nd quarter. On Track's satellite transmitter attachment, all
STENAPA volunteers and interns, along with as well as ral local residents were present. The
entire process was videotaped by local cameraman Dwight Barran.

There were two hatchling releases in the 2nd quarter of 2007. On 25 May, approximately thirty
individuals witnessed the release of 20 hatchlings. Furthermore, on 19 June, about 50 people
witnessed the release of 10 hatchlings. In September, Green hatchlings were exhumed and there e
approximately 15 people present such as local citizens, two Divemasters from Golden Rock Dive
Centre and tourists from Holland. Those who came out throughout the year included members of the
Statia Police, Dwight Barran who filmed the scene, local D and head of the Fisherman's
Association, Renaldo Redan, STENAPA's Junior Ranger Gr members of the St Eustatius
Medical School and Dutch tourists.

Over 170 members of the public ranging from tourists, STENAPA staff, interns and volunteers, the
local police and interested members of the community viewed a hatchling release, a nesting female or
both during the 2007 season.


Participation in Meetings, Workshops and Syiiijjn \i,

2007 Annual International Sea Turtle Symposium
The Marine Turtle Programme Co-ordinator, Arturo Herrera, attended the 27th International
Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation on behalf of STENAPA. The symposium was
held in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina Kingston Plantation Embassy Suites from 22 28 February
2007.

The Sea Turtle Symposium began with a plenary session n sea turtles in the Carolinas. These two
sessions displayed nearly 400 outstanding oral and poster presentations on a wide variety of topics
related to marine turtles. It was thought that over 1000 sea turtle biologists from 47 different countries
participated in the symposium.









Arturo Herrera also took part in the Annual General Me of WIDECAST (the Wider Caribbean
Sea Turtle Conservation Network), prior to the main symposium. This meeting, which lasted from the
23rd to the 24th of February, brought together all those in the WIDECAST organization involved in
turtle research and conservation within the region, to discuss topics that have specific bearing on
turtles in the Caribbean. The symposium, but especially the WIDECAST meeting was an ideal
opportunity to forge relationships with other turtle projects, establishing a valuable network of
contacts for future reference. There was also the chance to broadcast the findings of the St Eustatius
Sea Turtle Conservation and Monitoring Programme to interested parties, and to seek guidance about
on-going research projects from experienced sea turtle biologists. Arturo also presented the 2006
Annual Report for St. Eustatius and 2006 DCNA Satellite Track Report to Dr. Karen Eckert.
Furthermore, an announcement was made for a possibility of an intern to further develop the fisheries
baseline study. Also, the invitation was extended of University of Exeter students via Dr. Brendan
Godley

The logo for the 27th Annual Symposium incorporated the tracks of more than 700 individual turtles
and the combined work of hundreds of people and more than 40 organizations. This incredible effort
highlighted some amazing work, identified remaining gaps in knowledge and provided a glimpse at
the possibilities that arise when we all work together.

The ISTS ended with a focus on sea turtle movement which investigated a critical look at the methods
used and what we have learned about the how, what and why of where sea turtles go. On the 27th,
there was a plenary session for the Conservation of Migratory Vertebrates sponsored by Inter-
Research. A number of experts in the tracking of a var of migratory marine vertebrates provided
relevant background and insights from their own taxa.

These meetings were very productive with respect to making contact with other turtle biologists in the
Caribbean region. Many regional turtle conservation and monitoring projects were present.
Establishing links with neighboring islands, and other Dutch Caribbean islands, was one of the
objectives of participating at the WIDECAST meeting. Mr. Herrera agreed to participate in the pilot
testing of the OBIS-SEAMAP website/database created at Duke University and spearheaded by
Wendy Dow (see section below). Attendance at local, regional and international meetings, symposia
and conferences is important for the continuing success of the St Eustatius Turtle Programme. Such
gatherings provide a forum in which to broadcast the work being done by STENAPA with regard to
turtle conservation on the island, while also facilitating links with other sea turtle researchers that may
be beneficial in the future. The Annual Symposium on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation is the
largest of these meetings within the field of turtle research, and so it is important that the Coordinator
of the St Eustatius programme be permitted to participate in future years.

Participation in OBIS-SEAMAP
The Marine Turtle Programme Co-ordinator, Arturo Herrera, agreed with Wendy Dow, graduate
student of Duke University along with Karen Eckert, WIDCAST Director, to pilot test the OBIS-
SEAMAP website for future use within WIDECAST. This event was planned, discussed and agreed
on at the WIDECAST AGM. The Ocean Biogeographic Information System obisS), led by Andrew
Read of Duke University, is a digital database of marine mammal, seabird, and sea urtle distribution
and abundance. Partners with Duke include UC San Diego, University of Washington, College of the
Atlantic, St. Andrews University, British Antarctic Survey, SAHFOS and NMFS Southeast Fisheries
Center. The web-based system will allow the interactive display, query, and analysis of Digital









Archive in conjunction with environmental data. The data will be incorporated into OBIS-SEAMAP
(Ocean Biogeographic Information System Spatial Ecological Analysis of Mega vertebrate
Populations) website http://seamap.env.duke.edu/, where researches and country coordinators will
have access to a suite of online tools that will enable us to more fully utilize datasets for research and
management purposes. The purpose of the OBIS-SEAMP is to facilitate the study of potential impacts
on threatened species, enhance the ability to test hypothesis about biogeography and biodiversity
models, support modeling efforts to predict distribution changes in response to environmental change
and develop a strong public outreach component. Arturo Herrera piloted the website from May until
early July and gave relevant comments and opinions to Wendy Dow.



Discussion

Pre-Season Preparations

Beach Preparation
The system of marking the primary nesting beach (Zeelandia Beach) with numbered wooden stakes
remains the most cost effective method, due to the high probability of losing the markers as a result of
high tides and cliff falls outside the nesting season. They are easy to replace or repaint at the start of
each season. Reflective tape is very beneficial and greatly facilitates finding the stakes when
measuring nests in the dark. A recommendation is to extend the markers to include all of Turtle
Beach, as several turtles used that beach during the 2007 season and temporary stakes had to be
positioned to mark nests.

Training of Volunteers
A review of the volunteer training materials was undertaken before the arrival of the first group of
Working Abroad volunteers in March, 2007. The Programme Co-ordinator wanted to ensure that
everyone involved in night patrol activities was given sufficient training in all aspects of the data
collection protocols, both theoretical and practical. Additional training in tagging methods was
provided for interns who were expected to lead patrols when the Programme Co-ordinator was not
available. The level of training given to all volunteers adequate for them to be able to collect the
required data, as under normal circumstances they were not expected to undertake patrols without the
Programme Co-ordinator or an intern present. It is suggested that the same training and orientation
activities continue in 2008.

Monitoring and Research Activities

Track Surveys
In 2007 it was not always possible to conduct track surveys every morning, due to schedule conflicts
and lack of personnel; however, surveys were completed for Zeelandia Beach morning
throughout the nesting season. They are an effective for surveying nesting beaches not
patrolled at night, to give an indication of spatial distribution of nesting around the island. Similar to
previous years, three species of turtle were recorded on St Eustatius; leatherback, green and
hawksbill, no evidence of loggerhead turtles was found. Although there was an unconfirmed sighting
in 2004 of a loggerhead turtle, they have not been recorded since then.










As also observed previously, Zeelandia Beach remains the primary nesting beach for all three species.
In total, nests and false crawls were lower for all three species in 2007 compared to 2006; 5
leatherback nests in 2007 compared to 10 in 2006; 5 green nests in 2007, 34 green nests in 2006 and
two hawksbill nests in 2007 compared to 5 in 2006. No nesting trends can be inferred from just a few
years of data; given the long-term life cycle of each of the three species, continued long-term
monitoring is essential before any assessments can be de about population trends on the island's
nesting beaches. With the implementation of regular surveys throughout the nesting season it will be
possible to start between-year comparisons in the future.

As for many locations in the Caribbean, leatherbacks on St Eustatius nest earlier than either of the hard
shell species; between April and May, compared to July to November for greens and hawksbills. In
2007 leatherbacks and green turtle species were reported nesting later than in 2006; 30 days later for
Green turtles and 10 days later for leatherbacks. For hawksbills, nesting in 2007 started later than
2006; 7 July in 2007 compared to 1 June 2006. Nesting terminated on 12 November, 2007 and 8
October for the 2006 season. These dates show major variation of the end of the nesting season. The
start to the season may be the result of differing env conditions between the years; in
preceding years, water temperatures in the Caribbean were higher than normal, marked by extensive
coral bleaching in the region from August 2005 (Esteban, Kooistra and Caballero, 2005). With just a
few years of data, however, it is difficult to determine a "normal" nesting season for St Eustatius, and
so further monitoring is required to create a better evaluation.

With this in mind, it is proposed that more attention is given to morning track surveys; they should be
conducted as early as possible in the day to ensure that all tracks and nests are undisturbed, and carried
out as extensively as possible on all identified nesting beaches on the island. They should only be
conducted by the Programme Co-ordinator or trained personnel in their absence, this reduces observer
bias in the data and minimises data collection errors by untrained observers. No unidentified tracks
were recorded in 2007; all tracks could be identified as a particular species, showing that sufficient
training in track recognition had been received.

Beach Patrols
The 2005 expansion of the night patrol schedule to cover weekends has continued to be successful as
several females were encountered on Friday and Saturday nights during the 2007 season; two
leatherbacks and two green turtles where one was given a satellite transmitter. Prior to the 2005
nesting season, these turtles would not have been observed and the data assigned to "unknown"
female. Nightly patrols should be continued in future nesting seasons and the marine turtle intern be
given the bulk of the nightly patrols.

A lower number of turtles were encountered on night patrols in 2007 than 2006 (12 compared to 14,
respectively). This indicates that slightly more nesting females emerged in 2006. The patrol schedule,
of one patrol every hour between 9.00pm and 4.00am, remains feasible, and almost guarantees that
any turtle nesting during the patrol period will be encountered. In 2007, the turtle encounter rate was
10.08 % of night patrols. Another suggestion is to extend the section of beach patrolled at night;
although tide conditions often prohibit patrols along Turtle Beach. Whenever possible, particularly
during months when green turtles and hawksbills are nesting, patrols should cover Turtle beach in
addition to Zeelandia Beach.









Tagging Methods
In 2005, the tagging protocol was changed slightly from 2004; all turtles, irrespective of species, were
double tagged with external flipper tags. This practice was used 2007 and will continue to be
used in the foreseeable future, complying with WIDECAST protocols. The reason is to maximise the
probability of being able to positively identify the individual if she returned to nest and thus
minimising the effect of tag loss. If only one flipper tag is applied, a turtle could be categorised as a
new recruit in error if that tag is lost. Leatherback turtles also had one internal PIT tag inserted, in
addition to the two flipper tags; to standardise the protocol, each PIT tag was placed in the right
shoulder. No previously tagged leatherbacks were encountered. The green turtle had tags when first
encountered; she carried flipper tags that had been originally applied on Zeelandia Beach in 2002.

As leatherback turtles are often prone to high levels flipper tag loss it is advisable to continue the
double flipper tagging protocol as well as using PIT tags which are less likely to be Green turtles
and hawksbills should also have two flipper tags applied, proximal to the last scale on the trailing edge
of the front flippers; this tag location causes least drag and hence improved tag retention.

Only trained personnel should be allowed to apply tags, either flipper or PIT; this will usually be the
Programme Co-ordinator or a STENAPA intern, preferable the Marine Turtle intern. The procedure
established in 2005 to cover the nights when the Programme Co-ordinator was not scheduled for beach
patrol was that the Co-ordinator would be on stand-by and could join the patrol crew to assist with
tagging and data collection if they encountered a turtle. This had mixed results in 2007 and will
require careful co-ordination of equipment to ensure that they are fully prior to the patrol. It is
the recommendation that the Programme Co-ordinator to double-check the patrol equipment prior to
the patrol leaving for their nightly patrols. On a number of occasions, it was noted that the patrol had
not checked the patrol bag, leaving equipment, depleted equipment, or the patrol bag behind.

Carapace Measurements
The leatherbacks encountered in 2007 were smaller than those observed in 2006; mean CCL was
1.47m in 2007 compared to 1.58m in 2006 with CCW of 1.10 in 2007 to 1.14m in 2006. A similar
situation was shown for green turtles; mean CCL n-t was 1.1 m in 2007 compared to 2006 which was
1.07m; mean CCW measurements were 105.5 in 2007, 0.98m in 2006 and 1.00m in 2005. In 2007,
only one hawksbill was measured so comparisons could not be made.

This difference may be a result of observer bias, or a difference in the size of turtles observed;
it will be interesting to compare these results with 2008. There was also some minor confusion by the
Programme Co-ordinator as to what CCL measurements had actually been taken in 2004, compared to
2006 or 2007, as the description in the annual report did not correspond to the actual measurements
taken; this could account for the quite large differences observed between the two years. Hopefully,
this minor problem will be corrected in the future. Practical training with a real carapace was
conducted with volunteers in 2006, to give them an indication of the position of the tape measure on
the carapace during measurements. Great care must be taken when training volunteers how take
carapace measurements, as there is scope for considerable variation in the placement of the tape
measure, particularly for CCW where there are no clearly defined end-points to measure between.
Measurements of leatherback turtles should be taken by two people, as it is impractical for one person
to reach the front and rear of the carapace. It is also important to carefully position the tape measure
alongside the central ridge, not along the top of it, as these can also greatly effect measurements.









Nest Survival and Hatching Success


Nest survival was mixed for the 2007 season. As stated previously, one hawksbill nest did not survive
the incubation period. The other hawksbill nest had hatchlings observed but the nest itself was not
found. Leatherbacks showed identical hatching and emerging success rate from 2006 but higher
emerging success than 2006. Two leatherback nests were completely unhatched. Greens were more
successful in 2006 in hatching success but emerging success was higher in 2007 than 2006. In 2005, a
green turtle nest was buried under a cliff fall, but in 2007 no cliff falls were culpable in the loss of any
nests. Emerging success was 64.8% for leatherbacks, the highest for all species. Leatherbacks
demonstrated improved in hatching success from the 2005 season of just 3.5% to 21.1% in 2006 and
21.6% in 2007. An increase in emerging success was displayed from 2.1% in the 2005 season to
15.3% in 2006 to 64.58% in 2007. Green turtle nests showed a decrease from the previous seasons,
with a hatching success of 76.8% and emerging success 70.1% in 2005, compared to 51.0% and
46.4% in 2006, and 33.84% and 57.18% in 2007, respectively.

Five nests were relocated, due to the likelihood of it being washed away if left in place; two hawksbill
and three green turtles. All nests that were relocated were laid in an area previously deemed safe but as
the beach profile and high tide line changed, the area was no longer safe. All nests were relocated
between stakes 2-3 or stakes 6-7. One green nest was washed away. All hawksbill nests were relocated
due to runoff from the nearby cliff after a heavy rain causing erosion. Most nests were relocated
during a night patrol as the egg clutches were being eroded by waves.

Although, emerging success improved markedly from the 2005 season, the low biomass of nests is
cause for concern. Although the data indicates that the numbers are usually low, the inception of this
conservation programme is relatively young and it will take several more seasons and raw data to
make a more accurate assessment of the success of leatherback nests in St. Eustatius.

In-water Turtle Sightings

The In-Water Survey and Monitoring project was initiated in January 2007 to provide fundamental
data on the populations and trends of resident and migrant turtle species that use the surrounding
waters of St. Eustatius. The information gathered is used to monitor, detect trends and assess the
habitats where turtles rest, nest and feed. The majority of the marine turtle research is focused on
nesting females and little is known regarding resident turtles that occupy the St. Eustatius Marine
Park. Currently, the in-water survey is underway whilst the mapping of the underwater topography has
been completed and is awaiting review. It is hoped that the in-water will continue in the foreseeable
future to give essential information on

The forms given to the dive centres have had a successful impact. Important information about the
turtles using the near-shore waters around the island; such data collection has been incorporated into
the monitoring schedule of the Programme.





18
16
E 14
Z 12
10
F-
8
6
E 4
Z 2
0


It is also hoped to include
dive centres on Saba, to gain
data from a wider area within
the Netherlands Antilles. It
will be encouraging to receive
support from the dive centres
on St Eustatius and the
support of the local
community for the St.
Eustatius Turtle Programme
which will always be
appreciated.


The raw data does point out that turtle sightings are relatively common in the waters und St
Eustatius, and it is these observations that will assist to shape the in-water surveying programme in
2008. Using the data from the diver sighting forms and the ongoing in-water surveys, locations will
be considered to conduct regular dive surveys to collect data on species composition, size classes and
habitat utilisation.

Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking Project 2005-7
The implementation of a satellite tracking project in 2005 was a major development for the Sea Turtle
Conservation Programme on St Eustatius. The tracking project was completed in 2007 and considered
a success. This joint initiative with St Maarten, funded by the DCNA, was planned to not only provide
information on the feeding grounds and migratory pathways of turtles that nest in the Netherlands
Antilles, but also to engage the local communities on both islands in sea turtle conservation issues.
The satellite tracking project was an enormous conservation, public and scientific success. It is the
opinion that the satellite tracking project continue with a leatherback turtle if the funds, means and
interest is available.

Beach Erosion
Erosion continued on Zeelandia Beach in 2007. An analysis was done within the year as well as year-
to-year comparison. During the pre-season preparations, the numbered markers that had been lost were
replaced and the distance from their 2006 location measured. Erosion was exacerbated by several large
cliff falls in the beginning of the nesting season (April July). The majority occurred in the ending
phase of the nesting season, six in August, two in September, two in October and two in December.
These are not only extremely hazardous to researchers 1 occurred at night when beach patrols
were being undertaken), but also a risk to turtles and nests close to the cliff Nine of the 21 cliff falls
was directly in front of the landfill site at Smith's machinery is used to regularly compress
the rubbish at the site, it is feasible that the vibrations of these machines, in conjunction with heavy
rain weakening the structure of the cliff, could cause the cliff to give way.

In 2008, further detailed investigations will be conducted on the extent of beach erosion on Zeelandia
Beach. The marker stakes are a useful method of rapidly assessing erosion along the cliff base. These
studies will be complemented by photograph documentation of the beach, showing sand deposition
and erosion during the year. The findings from these surveys will be presented in a report hat will
discuss rates of beach erosion in the last three years; this report should be finalised in the summer of


'V H5 t:.,ill
---------------------------------- i ~ r
-----------------------------L.:.gg-.r. 3.3


l IJI E I EI









2008. It is also recommended that a water table survey be carried out to complement the beach erosion
study.

Another compounding factor affecting beach erosion in ne particular section of Zeelandia Beach is
sand mining. Although illegal since 2001, it still occurs regularly, the sand being used in construction
around the island. Most sand is taken from behind the beach, in a gulley that has been created from
storm water run-off; this is close to the main public access at the north end of Zeelandia Beach. Some
sand, however, is still being taken directly off the beach in front of the access area, as it was possible
to drive a truck on the sand. Only through improved enforcement of regulations can t situation
improve. Several members of STENAPA staff were sworn in as Special Agents of Police in
September 2006 after completing a training course in December 2005. This status gives them authority
to charge people in breach of environmental laws on St Eustatius. Hopefully with additional personnel
to assist them, the police will be better able to regulate these illegal activities. A recommendation for
2008 is to monitor sand mining activities more comprehensively, especially in months outside the
nesting season when it is known that STENAPA personnel are not actively patrolling Zeelandia Beach
and mining has been observed to intensify.

The implementation of the Zeelandia Beach Project should continue. The second phase should be to
replace the plants that have surrendered to the temperature. One suggestion is to replace some plants
with species that are resistant to the salt blasts and temperatures encountered on Zeelandia. Another is
the fortification of a permanent barrier to prevent entrance for trucks and recreational vehicles.
Boulders could be beneficial to the project if they could be moved from their current resting site onto
the beach. These rocks would need to be large enough that they would not be washed away in a
sudden rainstorm while providing a natural repellent in which cars could not drive over them or people
could not remove them. At most, they would have a two-foot diameter, and replace the acacia bushes
that are presently protecting the yucca and agave. The boulders would be far superior in terms of
visual appeal and less dangerous to pedestrians. Moving the boulders to the beach presents a logistical
issue but the acquisition of them is not.

Community Outreach Events

School Activities
While the schools continued to support the Sea Turtle Programme during 2007, with the
Marine Turtle Art/Essay competition, Junior Rangers, beach cleanup, STENAPA Summer Club,
there is still scope for further active participation among the students. Principals and teachers were
extremely supportive of all involvement with the programme, facilitating the activities whenever
possible. The students all enjoyed the activities, and appear to be remembering the underlying
messages being given; their knowledge of turtles, their biology, threats and the need to conserve them
is vastly improving. Overall, the junior rangers learned a vast amount about the life cycle of a sea
turtle and the threats that they face in each stage. Furthermore, they learned that they could make a
difference in a turtle's life by not littering in the environment or beach and reducing possible
hazards they face. By teaching the children, we hope t encourage them to become more active in
environmental issues, not only currently but in the future as well.

However, it is hoped that in 2008 there will be further involvement of students in research and
monitoring activities. One area that has been suggested is to take small groups of students on night
patrols whenever possible; obviously this would require careful organisation, planning and









supervision, but the impact that would be achieved by students witness a turtle nesting would
be overwhelming. One possibility is to use the Junior Rangers Program as a pilot run over the course
of a weekend. Another possibility is to have students participate in early morning survey patrols to
search for emerging nests; this would be easier to arrange than a night-time activity, affording another
opportunity to see an amazing natural phenomena as hatchlings crawl to the sea.

Engaging students in other activities, such as the monthly beach-cleans was accomplished for 2007 but
this came as a personal commitment and not endorsed as a classroom activity. Following the success
of the satellite tracking competitions in 2005, 2006 and 2007, it is hoped to establish an inter-school
contest to see which school collects the most rubbish over the year. Perhaps this can be done on World
Oceans Day or a short period of time.

Hopefully, a continued effort to teach about sea turtles will furnish students with a better awareness of
the marine environment and a deeper understanding of the need to protect natural resources; it is also
hoped that they will appreciate what nature has to offer in general, and how they can be personally
involved in conservation initiatives on their own island.

Beach Clean-Ups
Regular monthly clean-ups of Zeelandia Beach were organised during the 2007 turtle nesting season.
The majority of the rubbish collected was plastics, and household waste that had presumably come
from the landfill site at Smith's Gut, although large fishing nets and lines were also enco these
are extremely hazardous to turtles as they can easily become entangled and die.

To encourage the participation of the local community the clean-ups in 2008, the Programme Co-
ordinator is hoping to improve notification of clean-ups, possibly by publicising events in the local
press or on the radio. The Co-ordinator also plans to approach large employers on the island, such as
the oil terminal, to enquire about their support for such activities, by donating man-power or resources.

Additionally, the International Coastal Clean-up organised each September by the Ocean Conservancy
was a great success and was well-publicised throughout the island. This global event highlights
marine pollution problems, and would hopefully be a great means of generating local support for the
beach clean-ups on the island. Volunteers record specific types of marine debris being found, allowing
The Ocean Conservancy to compile, analyse and track this data year-by-year and make discoveries
about the behaviours that cause the debris. It is proposed that the International Coastal Clean-up
campaign is continued with STENAPA being the local country coordinator.

In relation to the beach clean-up activities, with respect to waste management on the island in general;
it is vital to try to raise awareness in the community about recycling, reducing waste and other
associated waste issues. One troublesome issue on the island is the Smith's Gut landfill site; it
requires immediate and drastic attention because if an alternative solution is not found quickly it could
rapidly become an uncontrollable disaster. STENAPA continues to alert the Island Government to this
environmental hazard with regular letters about the landfill.

Media Exposure and Public Presentations
The St Eustatius Turtle Programme received a considerable amount of exposure in the media during
2007. In total 21 articles were published in the Daily Herald featuring leatherbacks, hatchlings, public
viewing of nesting turtles, International Coastal Cleanup Day as well as regular cleanup,









satellite transmitter attachment and the research and monitoring activities of 2007. The numerous radio
interviews and updates also gave good publicity to the programme. Additionally, the three television
segments that were shown in Channel 15 during the nesting season gave an unprecedented medium
that should be strongly explored for the 2008 season. avenue would prove ideal for giving
unfettered access to a nesting female and possibly spur interest for the local community (see Appendix
10).

It is important for all significant events to be broadcast to the local community, to ensure that they
remain fully informed about all the work being achieved as part of the St Eustatius Turtle Programme.
In addition, any activities that allow the results of monitoring and conservation programme to be
published to locally should be encouraged, such as public talks or presentations with different sectors
of the community, such as church groups.

The STENAPA newsletter and website also provide the ideal forum to reach an international audience,
and inform them about the work of the St Eustatius Turtle Programme; the website in particular is a
great medium in which to inform the wider pubic about he work being done for sea turtle
conservation on St Eustatius, as it can be regularly updated with news, research activities and data.

Participation in Meetings, Workshops and Syiipln \i,
Participation in local, regional and international events is important for the work of the Sea Turtle
Conservation Programme on St Eustatius to be recognized within the wider sea turtle community.

The Annual International Sea Turtle Symposium is an ideal forum to exchange information with
leading experts in all fields of sea turtle biology and conservation; the WIDECAST meetings, held at
the same time as this symposium, bring together the majority of sea turtle projects from the
Caribbean. They facilitate contact with other turtle conservation and research organizations from the
area, and serve as a perfect arena in which develop and maintain regional contacts. The affiliation that
the St Eustatius Turtle Programme has with the WIDECAST network is a beneficial one, as it provides
this small island initiative access to more established projects, who can share their experiences with
developing programmes such as ours. In future it is hoped that the Co-ordinator can
continue to attend the symposium, and it is anticipated that, as the St Eustatius Turtle Programme
develops, we will be able to present more of our research findings at this important event.

The invitation of the Programme Co-ordinator to participate in Bonaire Sea Turtle in-water capture
programme was a great occasion to acquire new techniques and information beneficial the programme.
Although, due to Arturo Herrera announcing his resignation in October and the invitation was in
November, the invitation to represent STENAPA had to be rescinded. While it is agreed that the
population of turtles nesting on the island is very small and that monitoring activities is in its infancy,
it is still beneficial to gain knowledge regarding various methods of in-water capture and monitoring.
Furthermore, it was another opportunity to disseminate information about the project to researchers
working in the region, and important international contacts were made. It was also possible to attend
an in-water tagging and capture training session in St. Kitts as well, but the start of the patrol season
was a conflicting issue (April). It is the recommendation the next Programme Co-ordinator attend one
of the two sessions.









Technical Reports
The writing and editing of technical reports, manuals articles are a necessary element to the
progress and establishment of the sea turtle conservation programme. In 2007, there were two reports
created. In July, a sea turtle volunteer manual was created for future volunteers. The objective of this
manual is to familiarize the incoming volunteers and interns on the history of St. Eustatius, the marine
turtle programme and protocols of the monitoring programme. The report was created by the marine
turtle intern and the 11 page manual can be found on t Turtle Programme folder of the STENNET
Research directory. In early February, a habitat mapping procedure and protocol technical report was
created. The objectives of this report was to give specific and general objectives of habitat mapping,
methodologies, rules of habitat mapping and equipment o take while conducting a habitat mapping
survey. In late November, a St. Eustatius In-Water Survey & Monitoring Project Outline technical
report was written. The report underlines the objective of understanding the population dynamics of
sea turtle species surrounding St. Eustatius' waters. This report was similar to the habitat mapping
technical report in outline. Both report detail the objectives, methodologies, data collection, rules and
equipment when undertaking this type of survey. Both reports can be found at the STENNET
Research In-Water Survey directory (\\Stennet\research\Marine Park\Turtle Programme\In-Water
Survey\Survey Techniques).

In late November, Marine turtle intern, Zoe "Shizu" Fukui, completed her final report which was the
history of turtles in and around St. Eustatius. Her 45 page report covered many aspects including
current conservation efforts, a survey of various demographic types about people's past and present
feelings towards sea turtles, consumption, commercial consumption, safeguarding critical habitat, laws
regarding marine turtles and potential income. Her report is currently located in the Manager's Office
but will shortly be relocated to the dedicated marine turtle bookshelves.


Recommendationsfor 2008

Several recommendations are proposed for the St Eustatius Turtle Programme in 2008; these
suggestions are given following an assessment of the achievements and deficiencies of the project in
2007. Many of these recommendations have been mentioned previously in the relevant section of the
discussion; however, those that were not, which relate more to the programme in general, are listed
below.

Participation of volunteers
Without the continued assistance of volunteers from these two mes the St Eustatius Turtle
Programme could not conduct its intensive research and monitoring activity It is therefore
recommended that for 2007 volunteers continue to participate in all aspects of the project; care should
be taken to ensure that all volunteers receive adequate training prior to participating in any research
activities. Also, local volunteers should be actively recruited and invited to participate in beach
patrols or other project events, thus increasing local involvement in the programme.

Furthermore, although the nesting season was not as busy as expected, it is recommended that a
dedicated Sea Turtle Intern be appointed for 2008 to aid the Programme Co-ordinator. The Sea Turtle
Intern should have previous turtle experience, responsible and self-motivated.









Beach patrols
The daily monitoring of the nesting beaches should continue in 2008. The continuation of nightly
patrols in 2007 proved successful, and should be maintained providing that sufficient personnel are
available to assist the Programme Co-ordinator and STENAPA staff The inclusion of a dedicated Sea
Turtle intern for the nesting season should remedy the personnel situation. As mentioned above, more
focus should be place on morning track surveys, especially on beaches other than Zeelandia Beach,
which are not monitored at night.

Early morning patrols were performed in 2007; this is one activity that should be continued
indefinitely, especially during hatchling season. It provides increased data on the hatching dates of
marked nests, thus enabling the incubation period to be determined more accurately, but it is an ideal
means of involving interested members of the public in research activities. In particular, students could
be invited to participate in these patrols, which would be logistically much easier to organise than a
night-time patrol. Patrols could be organised for days close to the predicted hatching date of a nest,
especially if signs of imminent hatching have been witnessed. They also provide an excellent
education opportunity; the chance to teach the public what to do, or not to do, if they observe a
turtle nest hatching.

Additionally, the protocol of the turtle truck when the Programme Co-ordinator is not patrolling is it
should be with the turtle patrol. This created issues when the Co-ordinator was needed in-situ and the
turtle truck was allocated to the patrol and other vehicles did not arrive in a timely manner. There were
time issues in reaching the patrol when the Programme o-ordinator was needed and had to find other
means to reach the patrol. On more than one occasion the Program Co-ordinator had to ask for a ride
from neighbours to reach Zeelandia. Furthermore, it was observed on several occasions that volunteers
or interns were using the turtle truck for reasons not related to work or patrols or indiscriminatingly
switching between trucks for their benefit. For the upcoming 2008 season, it is strongly recommended
that the policy of the dedicated turtle vehicle be reviewed.

Development of the research programme
In addition to the monitoring activities conducted on nesting beaches, the expansion of the
progamme has forged to in-water surveying for the St Eustatius Turtle Programme in 2008. To date
the focus has been on adult females nesting on the island's beaches; however, it is known that there
are juvenile turtles using the in-shore waters within the Marine Park. An in-water survey of these
turtles is underway for 2008 with the groundwork currently being laid out. The in-water monitoring
programme will run indefinitely and quantify the data currently being received from divers about turtle
sightings. Ideally an in-water tagging programme would be hopefully developed to monitor movement
of individuals from juvenile feeding grounds to adult ing areas; this would require extensive
training on in-water methods, which would be facilitated by the closer links being developed with
other turtle projects in the region. This tagging phase will not be implemented until 2009 at the earliest
as in-water surveying guidelines and method becomes more established and familiar. One aspect of
the in-water programme is the benthic mapping of the entire Marine Park. It is recommended that the
habitat map generated in 2007 be reviewed and optimized to its fullest capacity.










Acknowledgements
The project recognizes the continued assistance of STENAPA staff and board members, without
whom it could not continue its research and conservation efforts.

The intensive monitoring schedule could not be accomplished without the hard work and dedication of
STENAPA interns, international Working Abroad participants and local volunteers.

We received financial assistance during 2007 from the Travel Committee of the International Sea
Turtle Society, USONA, Working Abroad and the World Turtle Trust; these awards and donations
covered operational expenses and travel costs to participate in international meetings and symposia.

For sharing his expertise, and providing training on satellite telemetry methods, we wish to especially
thank Dr Robert van Dam, without whom the Sea Turtle Tracking Project 2007 would not have been
possible.

The project also recognizes Dr Emma Harrison, previous Sea Turtle Programme Co-ordinator, for her
training of satellite telemetry techniques in August as well as invaluable insight throughout the year.

For her guidance and continued support of the St Eustatius Turtle Programme in her role as
WIDECAST Director, we would also like to thank Dr Karen Eckert. She was instrumental in our
collaboration with Alicia B. Marin who provided us with the materials for the Sea Turtle facet of the
STENAPA Summer Club.

The project recognizes Alicia B. Marin who provided us with the materials for the Sea Turtle facet of
the STENAPA Summer Club.

For sponsoring Stenapa's Summer Club in July, STENAPA and the St Eustatius Turtle Programme
wishes to thank Vecenergy for their support in helping make the club a success.

Special thanks to Dr Jan and Corrie van Duren, for their assistance in monitoring Kay Bay.


References

Balazs, G. H. 1999
"Factors to consider in the tagging of sea turtles". In Eckert K.L., Bjomdal, K. A., Abreu-Grobois,
F. A. & Donnelly, M (Editors) "Research and Management Techniques for the Conservation of Sea
Turtles". IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication No 4. Pp. 101 109

Bolten,A. 1999
"Techniques for measuring sea turtles". In Eckert K.L., Bjomdal, K. A., Abreu-Grobois, F. A. &
Donnelly, M (Editors) "Research and Management Techniquesfor the Conservati of Sea Turtles".
IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication No 4. Pp. 110 114

Esteban, N., Kooistra, D. & Caballero, A. 2005









"Report on observations of coral bleaching in St Eustatius Marine Park, Saba Mari Park and St
Maarten Marine Park".
Unpublished report produced for the St Eustatius National Parks Foundation, Saba Marine Park and St
Maarten Marine Park


Harrison, E. 2005
"Activity Report on the Dutch Caribbean Nature Alliance Sea Turtle Satellite Tracking Project 2006 ".
Unpublished report produced for the St Eustatius National Parks Foundation

Pritchard, P. C.H. & Mortimer, J. A. 1999
"Taxonomy, external morphology and species identificat n ". In Eckert K.L., Bjomdal, K. A., Abreu-
Grobois, F. A. & Donnelly, M (Editors) "Research and Management Techniquesfor the Conservati n
of Sea Turtles". IUCN/SSC Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication No 4. Pp. 21 38

le Scao, R. & Esteban, N. 2004
Annual Report of the St Eustatius National Parks Sea Turtle Conservation Programme, St Eustatius
Netherlands Antilles

Staatsbosbeheer. 2000
Management Plan for the Quill/Boven National Park 2000-2004

Sybesma,J. 1992
WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for the Netherlands Antilles (Ed. K. L. Eckert). CEP
Technical Report No. 11. UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica. Pp.63











Appendices


Appendix 1

Examples of data collection sheets updated or created in 2007.

Tagging and Nest Location Data
Excavation Data


Appendix 2

In-Water Sih tinv Sheet


Example of the in-water turtle sighting form given to dive centres in St Eustatius in 2007.


Nest


NEST EXCAVATION DATA SHEET
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51 Eusatius Tuwle Programnm
.., kI.n-Wor Turtle SiCghUng Foann

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Appendix 3

Underwater Topography of St. Eustatius Marine Park
r5 Af Sa;alu Maie ark sss
O~Lead









Appendix 4

Excavation data for leatherback nests

Nest Hatchlings Unhatched Eggs Pipped YlklDepth / cm
Empty Pipped Yolkles % %
Code Dad Shells E yo Embryo TF Eggtal s Eggs Hatched Emerged Tp Bottom
Cd Embryo NEmbryo

DC0070
1 0 0 22 31 11 1 0 14 65 33.85 100.00 60 70

DC0703 0 1 16 10 20 8 1 54 54 29.63 93.8 58 67
DC0705 0 09 0 79 0 0 0 24 79 00.00 00.00 3757

Excavation data for hal'kbhill nests


Unhatched
Nest Hatchlings Empty UnhatchedYolkless % Depth
eECode S nEggs Pipped Predated Deformed Yolklss Depth'
Code Shells Eggs Eggs Hatched Emerged
Alive Dead NO E FE Top Bottom
EI0701R 0 0 0 1284 0 1 0 0 133 0.0 0.0 45 53












1 Depth from surface of sand to first egg (Top) and bottom of egg chamber.
2 NO = No Embryo; E = Embryo; FE = Full Embryo.
















Appendix 5 Continued

Excavation data for preen turtle nests


Unhatched
Nest Hatchlings Empty Eggs1 Pi d P d D d Yolkless Total % % Depth /
Eggs Pipped Predated Deformed
Code Shells Eggs Eggs Hatched Emerged
Alive Dead NO E FE lTop Bottoi
CM0701R 1 3 12 38 16 49 1 21 3 0 139 8.6 66.7 36 51
CM0702R 12 1 35 20 44 55 0 0 0 1 127 27.6 62.9 37 52

CM0703R 0 0 0 131 0 0 0 0 0 0 131 0 0 31 55

CM0704 0 1 122 1 0 122 0 0 0 123 99.2 99.2 34 55


1 NO = No Embryo; E = Embryo; FE = Full Embryo.
2 Depth from surface of sand to first egg (Top) and bottom of egg chamber.











Appendix 6


Photos and Satellite information for Track, the green turtle

Photographs of the attachment of a satellite transmitter to a hawksbill turtle on 1 September 2007.


*J.
- -. r Ur


Map showing some of the location points received from the hawksbill turtle "Track" from St
Eustatius; points show the route taken by the hawksbil after her release from Zeelandia Beach.
Track's last signal was on 23-12-2007.
fm yc 1-g
-7SM -V. M. -W kr AV
'Tro t .'.








Mr K lfora









Appendix 7
2007Education Outreach/Environmental Education


Sea Turtle Conservation
And Laws Protecting Them







Arturo Herrera .,.
St Eustatius National Parks Foundation

Figure 12: Presentation given to Junior Rangers


Figure 13: STENAPA Summer Club 2007













Appendix 8


Map and photos ofZeelandia Beautification Project in 2007


Figure 14: Park Ranger Gadget installing sign


Figure 15: South signs installed via interns to prevent vehicle access


- Q ; "0
A

"* *


'itt11r(11


7,r





a,* 0 *0
*t r


A


Appendix 9


2007 Media Articles

Copy of newspaper articles from the Daily Herald which features some of the topics covered during
the 2007 year.


;?~
CI ~~'L1"
~ ~,C
9,
9 O
ihlr.

~'13


X. Q
P
9
ii


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RMe tfirnlt twS SeS Mtrlels Irom Staa








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} 7tj.-*4*4
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n -~ -C %a I


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aul tr mu a an
~ flat a a-

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a -.a ou---


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~rrci. - ann

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Tracked Turlas ftn Statfia are Truckin'



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1 -






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--- .:. c -., .+ .,, ,. +,


Stemp deems up

ZeelaldioBeac


,sry~- -yu~r rye- -
tL tu(4*bik- i me h-me awho i 6 itkm re pu

.* As ame a as. hqySa. ysewa n ap-am I..
k a- as- - E -- *m# 9 ma . f am |
i- b I t.4b- m i1 4 4 .-a pame

- 4 a- a-u tO IFyC S r -
man ~ e in H *.s sp IM a r ^ 9 1 t ha * Wm
*. *_. 4. m m n in a s th
L'- IT S em M p ia Il s I
*6 ~a tsaa I Aahe
S - '* a-u LsIM .6.. m.-ar s
4 *---& .4.--N L... L
4- s..mm -a- '*r-c"


,Ie- r ..r 31 lm ba l


-- 4 -Ce M M
U - If- n* ( me T TP

















Appendix 9 Continued

Copy of newspaper articles from the Daily Herald which features some of the topics covered during

the 2007 year.


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r t..~r aa a t~ Mi W
seaLL*- m4^*ij-!^ Jss_-


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Appendix 9 Continued
Copy of newspaper articles from the Daily Herald which features some of the topics covered during
the 2007 year.


TI LYH tVERDA, .SFakSr,a




4~1


of mIr hId Ilic


Ct PFl!1.MtILKS-M
Am th -a1ts *tuPs



'fW winmJ i-Frin %ffy
in Ihtk ftkrrq
ad *nty.*reAd Macn
TRMa *ilrl ( aD t it
TDari Vao i 4if t6 W
S%%" hinw. )WMMS 8i-


$at dw 146 at H
lan IaI LI KIad
TINAFWe limtmit Ra(^
.yit4c. pw*40f S4
4um=& P- O"wn |Uw
M tb Ul'ftnm rI kb

atj hewhi RJs aBWhO
hipt tt. ad AnWar ia
a Lrap ta ( s)uv-
-1 I~11mw4nd


i~~'rBt M sS ~r l a5t~

4Tbi~ ~PIE~














Appendix 9 Continued

Copy of newspaper articles from the Daily Herald which features some of the topics covered during
the 2007 year.
Isands -.


Sftrap summer dub

tar.t off with a bang


-*n p rt W4 f thur. 'U= _W A0 0 1 7a t-4.



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FWi l~f *A ^ Ib i I -l
m-. k n *. bJW^, .. | .a sh 4
it I u'ah. *i-+ I a IIi. k Ih. -



4s-' r * e tt rk rIse h@* -U 4.J
rruruft~j
.4v%.s~carer cu -


of IllN 1"I I"








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Wp INIO MOM clff
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WallW






ss^-taa.- efc as
-Wkm w anw 11W toaa
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"ss ftVW'ft l rsiW4N s
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^bk>*'*M -- C re-!-

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Sllfcsfc~=0 ^'*s 9y mJ

MOM u
t./i~fai *m~
*ft dUKJ ^ WW *
;ta v^^












Appendix 9 Continued
Copy of newspaper articles from the Daily Herald which features some of the topics covered during
the 2007 year.

















'A.








mrpt mL-r



dm e-mw








t ne, fi. i _ -
SIR i







ANs
-oer to b,. as -an








wf as _oa__ __














Appendix 9 Continued

Copy of newspaper articles from the Daily Herald which features some of the topics covered during

the 2007 year.


.T)I V O A IV D. Satniy. &ctbuiA. CO7


Tracked turle located off

Doami ia Republic eAst


1OF r&h %Y pm ar
'*e Irc* Im jn
I..a -ikran. -
ral Ma P.,.

bank '


.*u. h.L Wa.
wiirbd nl lrm

.k 14. mfy.s
w& LN ~C


M-Ml

that ha. WUrcnd


kge m.rr .Ir

-a -- a M
SLa blat -ky


MA I -0-40
EIl JIaI rwi u




fa -a mr n


IC' ag. ak l T

f .t'frn. .av

aur hau "aIM
-a. -- SW -t

-r agu.n.mn

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111 4=L4 1 11 a-Udk
low 0....aW O'MW

ft 1 1
ab.rmd Suh |lM



ai iIa -. a


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Sl.hSAv. I .p'9hwm&e


k..a 1% mat
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triai, E Bag h
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WvK. s, h .I.t ^


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a dik


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T se Ia .a un. ma ~ ~









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bL. mp. hma -a
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- -tIrA


Appendix 10



Public outreach of a nesting turtle/hatchlint release on Zeelandia Beach


Figure 16: Beachgoers observing a hatchling release on 20 June

2007


- ~q



t


lrif










Appendix 10 Continued


Figure 17: Statia resident and STENAPA intern view nesting leatherback


Figure 18: Yann Arnaud with hatchling




















Appendix 11


Copies of2007 STENAPA Newsletters featuring articles about the Sea Turtle Satellite


Tracking Project.


STENAPA Up-date

Usa I Mlsslinaj







*- ; =-_. +=


I
lo~
"~"~~
Iwa~e*.~uea
(--.H-i----
CI-r;l=rT

-~-"""-~ ~~,C
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9 -lr(-ZI~I


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~rl--rr-ln
Ilerrr*nr~-=
''~"lu-L- BIP.


STENAPA Update -:

F1INl Hoin)!tw ur 2167 imonw m B w




n,. , .....^ ,., ,: -j -

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S ,.... --.












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...........a-


Children's Programmes To Start This Month


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t; '~"' "










Appendix 12

Photos of Stranded Turtles and Bv-Catch Turtles during 2007 Season


Figure 19: Stranded Leatherback on 29 April 2007


Figure 20: By-catch juvenile hawksbill in 16 May 2007 (photos below)


















Ii


Figure 21: Juvenile Green Turtle found 9 Nov 2007


Appendix 13



International Coastal Cleanun Day


TE M.V aEtW1 FRYI f Sapr ItI

_m.fh Idm-,,m mI

wd doemp S-wmdy
11 V rLfHrU-U r.-
ILWl41eR tIt1l I I Ar TU &C It Jr k r
M aL .Im b lm. wi *. IMa' ti am N
- M u r m ul e dJ: m hM Ai n or ( i
W m-MlW I[h nlId "m .- a s
-w CaiJ *qn.ar *u .J wr ftiLmta La thm a k f.tfa 1 -: A*.4 I
re tai ..L. m,. I.. I we* .ur haa
S na 11 ru t w. a.1 r aj i-S"
IM -Ifr t I r| r- amj & ita l nio -l r.
4f .mnr P rwUml w w um" hi B.4


*-w ohm C" 1 ICfl : 411. u*
Ft dar. iI .m . Xt -h
Sm twa k% n ipel r"C .. a l

hAifin tbi.q i*n t slh t. a..4h rs. a .iJ
*Mr* s 7r ^- ^ i ^*,. i
- e 4 -t- l.-- W4 :1 L. *' 1

ma M It I n U p W 11 0 4Mtw

rUu 4 MAn 4a d i.na 11 yish1-s assir III
slrl M BI tt =Nf rr -k -.
I1fw^-u at re
<}wp* EW %


Figure 22: Photos of ICC Day


Figure 23: Article on ICC day











Appendix 13


Maps and Photos


ofDCNA Satellite Tracking Project thr ghout 2007
tleMtrlandisAntIllIs Turtlo Tracking 2006

Iram
LiBB


Figure 25: Track receiving her satellite transmitter


7Okm
71I it.hin 17I htw fl.




































Figure 26: Track with transmitter


Figure 27: Competition

Winners Faraha

Ishamel (left) and

Lenaria Brown (right)




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