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Title: Annual report
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 Material Information
Title: Annual report
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: St. Eustatius National Parks Foundation. Sea Turtle Conservation Program
Publisher: St. Eustatius National Parks Foundation
Place of Publication: Gallows Bay, St. Eustatius, N.A.
Publication Date: 2003
Copyright Date: 2010
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Bibliographic ID: UF00100102
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Summary
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Introduction
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Main
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
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Full Text





St Eustatius Sea Turtle Monitoring Programme


Annual Report, 2003


Rozenn Le scao and Nicole Esteban
St Eustatius National Parks Foundation (STENAPA)
Gallows Bay, St Eustatius, Netherlands Antilles
Semp(@goldenrocknet.com or +599 318 2884 (tel)
www.statiapark.org




STE*NA*PA FOUNDATION
St. Eustati Naonal Parks
4


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Table of contents

S u m m ary ................... ...................4.............................
Intro du action ................................................................................................ . . 6
P participating organisations.................................................................... .............. 7
St Eustatius N national Parks Foundation.................................. ........................ 7
STEN APA internship program m e .................................... ......................... .. ....... .. 7
W working Abroad program m e......................................................... .............. 7
M on itorin g m eth o d ology .................................................................................................... 9
M monitoring location .............. .......................................... .. ....... .. ............ 9
M monitoring dates ..................................... ............................... .......... 10
T rain in g ................................................... ....................................... 1 1
Staff training ................................ ........................ 11
Volunteer training ................. .............. ......... ... ... .............. 11
Quantitative and qualitative data collection............................. ........................ 11
Patrol A activities ......................................... 11
Tagging methods................................ .............. 11
Carapace m easurem ents............................ .................. ................. .............. 12
Track m easurem ents ......... .... ........................ ............ ..... .......... 12
Nest measurements ......................................... ................ 12
D ata sh e ets ......................... ................. ..................................................... 1 3
N ests success rate................................. ........... .............. 13
B each m apping............................ ............... ..... 13
E education ............................................. ................... .............. 13
Nest monitoring 2003 (phase 2).............................................. ......... 16
Underwater survey ................ ............ ............ ................. 16
Local wisdom (phase 2) ................................................ 16
R e su lts ....................... ... ............. ... .......................................................... 1 8
Turtle sightings ......................................... 18
F u n d ra isin g ............................................................................. 1 8
Patrol records .... ........................................ .............. 18
Carapace measurements and tagging results.......................................... 19
Track measurements ....................................... ..........................20
Nesting species on Zeelandia beach 2002-2003 ....................... .............. 22
N est m monitoring 2003 ...................................................... .............. 23
Threats to Sea Turtles Conservation .................... .......................... 26
B each erosion ............................. .............. ...... 26
Predation ................. ...... .......... ........... ........ ........... .............. 26
Recom m endations for 2004 ................................ .............................. .............. 29
Participation of Volunteers .............. .... ......... ............ 29
Patrols ........................................ .................... 29
Carapace length measurements ................. .............................. 29
E q u ip m e n t ................................................................. ...... ............................................ 2 9
Training of staff ........................................... ......... ..... ........ .............. 29
Sunset emergence monitoring............................. .............. 30
B e a ch M ap p in g .............................................................. ...... ....................................... 3 0


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Education ....................................... ....................... 30
W aste m anagem ent and roam ing anim als............................................... .... .. .............. 30
A know ledgem ents ......... ............................. .......... ..... .... .... ........... 3 1
References........................................ .............. 32

List of Tables
T able 1 C ode for nest data ............................................... .............................. 13
T able 2 P atrol records in 2003 ................................................................. ... 18
Table 3 Hawksbill Carapace measurements and tagging, 2003.............................. 20
Table 4 Green Carapace measurement and tagging, 2002................................... 20
Table 5 Track measurements 2003, Leatherback turtles.................. ........... 20
Table 6 Track measurements 2003, Green turtles.............................. ........... 21
Table 7 Track measurements 2003, Hawksbill turtles......................... ............ 21
Table 8 Track observation 2002, Green turtles................................ .................... 21
Table 9 Track observation 2002, Hawksbill turtles................................................ 22
Table 10 Track observation 2002, unidentified turtles ............................................ 22
Table 11 Nesting species in 2003, Zeelandia beach ........................................ ...... 22
Table 12 Nesting species in 2002, Zeelandia beach ........................................ ...... 23
Table 13 Nest m monitoring 2003, Zeelandia beach ................................... ................. 24
Table 14 Nest inventory Leatherback, 2003 (codes are defined in Table 1)............. 25
Table 15 N est inventory G reen, 2003 ........................................ ........ .............. 25

List of Figures
Figure 1 Location map of St Eustatius in the Eastern Caribbean.............................. 9
Figure 2 Location map of St Eustatius in the Eastern Caribbean............................ 10
Figure 3 Beach clean up, December 2003............................................... ............... 14
Figure 4 New sign to warn drivers not to drive on Zeelandia Beach....................... 15
Figure 5 Rescued Hawksbill hatchling, August 2003....................... ............... 23
Figure 6 Emerging Leatherback hatchlings, July 2003............................................. 24


List of Annexes
Annex 1 Training report-Leatherback Turtle Monitoring ........................................... 33
Annex 2 N testing data sheet ....................................................................... 34
Annex 3 Map of Zeelandia nesting beach, October 2003 ........................................... 35
Annex 4 Press articles about the turtle conservation programme ............................ 36
A nnex 5 Sm ith G ut landfill photos .......... ... ................................ .......... .......... 39
A nnex 6 B budget 2003-2004................................................... .......................... 40
A nnex 7 List of relevant legislation ........................................ ......... .............. 42


Cover Photo: Zeelandia Beach with Quill National Park in the background









Summary


* St Eustatius National Parks Foundation (STENAPA) is the only environmental
non-governmental organization on St Eustatius. In 1996, the Island Government
gave legal mandate to STENAPA to manage a new marine park.
* The Marine Park maintains dive and yacht moorings and conducts many
programs such as the Snorkel Club, the Junior Ranger club, surveys of marine
life, school educational activities and since 2002, the conservation of sea turtles
on St Eustatius.
* Until present, three species of marine turtles are nesting on the St Eustatius
beaches: the Leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea), the Green Turtle (Chelonia
mydas) and the Hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata).
* STENAPA's second annual turtle monitoring program started on April 17, 2003.
In June 2003, Nicole Esteban (STENAPA Manager) was appointed country
coordinator for WIDECAST to replace the previous manager.
* STENAPA has four permanent staff and is able to undertake projects such as the
sea turtle conservation thanks to two international volunteer programs that started
in 2001 and 2003.
* Methodology for the 2003 programme included:
o Volunteers participating in the programme receive a theoretical and
practical training on the sea turtle monitoring programme.
o When a sea turtle is observed nesting on Zeelandia Beach, the turtle width
and length is measured, location of the nest is recorded and measured and
the turtle is tagged by trained personnel who are in charge of nightly
patrols.
o STENAPA conducted video interviews of two elderly Statians in June
2003, to document historical information about the number and species of
turtles. Information is now known about turtle nesting and hunting as early
as the 1920's.
o Hatchling emergence from the nest is monitored and nests are inventoried.
o In 2003, staff used GPS mapping to monitor beach erosion, sand
movement and to identify nest location of sea turtles.
o In 2003, STENAPA arranged a series of beach clean ups, schools and
businesses presentations.
* Results for the 2002 and 2003 Sea Turtle Monitoring Programme are as follows:
o A minimum of 3 Greens and 1 Hawksbill nested in 2002.
o A minimum of between 3-10 Leatherbacks, 2-3 Greens, 2-5 Hawksbills
came and nested in 2003.


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o In 2003, two measurements on two Hawksbill turtles were taken, and in
2002 two measurements on two Green turtles were collected.
o In 2003 one Hawksbill was tagged twice on the front right and the front
left flipper. In 2002, three Greens were tagged on the front flippers.
o A total number of 41 hatchlings were rescued in 2003.


* Recommendations for the 2004 programme include:
o Increased supervision of Working Abroad night crew members: either the
Sea Turtle Programme Coordinator or Marine Park Interns (Marine
Biologists) will be in charge of night patrols.
o Purchase of additional equipment to facilitate night patrols.
o Training of staff at international meetings.
o Monitoring of sunset emergence as soon as a dedicated truck for the turtle
programme can be purchased.
o Beach mapping to be conducted regularly to monitor changes and map
turtles.
o Continuation with the community education programme at schools and
local businesses.


* It is expected that, with a full time programme coordinator, improved monitoring
and increased number of volunteers, there will be increased numbers of turtles
monitored in 2004.


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Introduction


The purpose of the St Eustatius Marine Park Sea Turtle Conservation Project is as
follows:
To increase the nesting populations of Sea Turtle on St Eustatius
To increase hatchling survival rates
To obtain data on the sea turtle nesting population of St Eustatius
To obtain data on observed hatchling population of St Eustatius
To fully protect turtle nesting habitats
To monitor turtle foraging habitats
To apply international and national treaties and conventions (CITES, SPAW,
IAC)
To create an ongoing database of nesting and foraging marine turtles to be shared
regionally (WIDECAST) and worldwide
To educate local residents and tourists about the sea turtle conservation
programme
To encourage research about sea turtle populations to improve conservation on St
Eustatius.

The St Eustatius Sea Turtle Conservation Programme started in 2001. Until present,
three species of marine turtles are nesting on the St Eustatius beaches; the Leatherback
(Dermochelys coriacea), the Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas), the Hawksbill
(Eretmochelys imbricata). It is possible that the Loggerhead (Caretta caretta) nests on St
Eustatius as this as been recorded on other Antillian islands (Sybesma, 1992). STENAPA
started the programme by raising awareness on Sea Turtle protection and their habitats. In
October 2001, the St Eustatius Government closed Zeelandia beach to sand miners
following advice from STENAPA (Annex 4). Since 2002, STENAPA has been patrolling
this (and other) beaches and collecting data. In 2003, STENAPA additionally started to
monitor hatchlings and also to record in water sighting by divers, snorkellers and bathers.
To help with its conservation programme STENAPA uses assistance from international
volunteers. For the 2004 sea turtle conservation programme, STENAPA obtained funding
through Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation Network (WIDECAST), World Turtle
Trust (WTT), KNAP Fonds Netherlands Antilles and IdeaWild. Additionally, the
Working Abroad volunteer programme contributes funding to STENAPA as part as the
volunteer project expenses costs (Annex 6).

With this report we hope to:
Provide information locally and internationally about the STENAPA sea turtle
monitoring programme.
Maintain a database summary for the programme, to be analyzed each year.
Produce a progress report for the Island Government and local/international
volunteers.
Outline all activities of the sea turtle monitoring programme.
Outline all positive and negative points encountered by the programme.
Review activities in the past year, and suggest recommendation for 2004.


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Participating organizations


St Eustatius National Parks Foundation
St Eustatius National Parks Foundation (STENAPA) is the only environmental non-
governmental organization on St Eustatius. In 1996, the island government gave legal
mandate to STENAPA to manage a new marine park and in 1998 established two
National Parks to be also managed by STENAPA. STENAPA also manages the Miriam
C. Schmidt Botanical Garden. The marine park, surrounds the island of St Eustatius from
the high water mark to the 30 meter depth contour. Within the marine park are two
marine reserves, which are designated no-take zones and are in place to protect marine
life habitats and to reduce fishing pressure. The marine park maintains dive and yacht
moorings and conducts many programs such as the snorkel club, the Junior Ranger club,
surveys of marine life, school educational activities and since 2002, the conservation of
sea turtles on St Eustatius. STENAPA is a not-for-profit Foundation with no permanent
government subsidies, relying on grants and minimal income from divers and yachts to
carry out projects. STENAPA has four permanent staff and is able to carry on with
projects such as the sea turtle conservation thanks to two international volunteer
programs: the STENAPA Internship programme and Working Abroad programme started
in 2001 and 2003 respectively.

STENAPA internship programme
This programme started in September 2001, since then, over 20 interns have helped
STENAPA accomplishing projects at the botanical gardens, in the national park, in the
marine park, and also with educational programmes in the local schools and community.
Interns are often finishing a degree within the fields of biology, conservation or park
management. Interns are responsible for overseeing and accomplishing specific
assignments and overseeing volunteers from the Working Abroad programme in specific
projects.

Interns stay on St Eustatius for periods of up to six months at a time. STENAPA is able
to supply living quarters, drinking water, a truck and fuel, but is unable to cover costs for
a salary or travel. STENAPA' s internships allow students and professionals to gain good
practical experiences in the field of their study.
Without dedicated volunteers, STENAPA would not be able to carry out many of its
projects since it is impossible for the Foundation to afford such manpower and expertise.

Working Abroad programme
Working Abroad is an international networking service for volunteers, workers and
travelers on volunteer projects in over 150 countries worldwide. STENAPA started its
collaboration with Working Abroad programme in January 2003.
To participate in the programme, volunteers pay to STENAPA US$ 1267 each which
covers food and water, lodging, a truck, fuel, and a project expenses fee (this does not
include traveling costs). In 2003, a total of 34 volunteers were recruited through the
Working Abroad organization in the UK. Teams of up to eight volunteers stay for two
months at a time on St Eustatius and assist in the following projects: development of the


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botanical gardens, national park trail maintenance and, during turtle season, all volunteers
participate in day and night patrols.


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Monitoring methodology

In 2003, the monitoring of nesting sea turtles and their hatchlings took place at Zeelandia
beach, located on the northeast side of the island of St Eustatius and is exposed to strong
wind and waves of the Atlantic Ocean (Figure 1). For this report the monitoring is
divided into two phases. This was due to the fact that in the middle of the nesting season
the STENAPA Foundation changed management. This change in management brought a
review of the monitoring methodology and hence the division into phase 1 and phase 2.
Additionally the length of the patrolled area was reduced for safety of the crew. During
high sea levels in phase 2, cliff erosion and collapsing prevented patrol crews from
monitoring the full length of the beach and the monitoring area was revised.

Monitoring location

From April 14 to May 2, 2003 (phase 1) the area of beach patrolled extended from
the northernmost area of Zeelandia to Smith's Gut. This area of beach measures
approximately 1km in length (Figure 2)
From June 23 to August 23, 2003 (phase 2) the area monitored extended from the
northernmost part of Zeelandia beach to north of Smith's Gut (0.8 km south only).



Eastern Caribbean

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Figure 2 Location map of St Eustatius in the Eastern Caribbean


Monitoring dates

First phase (April 14 May 2, 2003)
The first night patrols were conducted with assistance from Working Abroad programme
and started with the second Working Abroad crew of eight arriving in St Eustatius in
April 2003. Night patrols began on April 17 with crews of four volunteers along with
STENAPA interns and staff. Night beach patrols were carried out 5 nights per week.
Each night 6 people were split up into three groups of two. Each group took turn in
patrolling the beach constantly for two hours intervals. This pattern was followed from
2000hrs to 0500hrs. At the time, Parks manager Kay Lynn Plummer was the only trained
person able to tag and monitor nesting turtles. When not patrolling, Kay Lynn Plummer
was on radio contact with night crew in the event that a turtle was observed nesting at the
beach.

Second phase (June 2 -October 24,2003)
Night patrol resumed on June 2 with Working Abroad crew II. STENAPA interns and
staff were additionally helping with patrolling as needed. Patrol crews were on radio
contact with parks manager Nicole Esteban at all time. A change in patrol schedules was
made. The volunteers were split into two people crews. Each night a different crew would
patrol the beach from 2100hrs to 0400hrs. Monitoring was also changed to four nights a
week. The same two persons were on patrol all night. This solution worked better for the
crew well being and work schedule as well as the logistics of monitoring. This patrol
technique has become standard for STENAPA sea turtle monitoring programme.
Additional, weekly night patrols were conducted randomly between Working Abroad


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crew changes. In this instance, STENAPA was helped by local volunteers such as dive
shop staff. At all times when night patrols were not conducted, a daily patrol was
scheduled.

Training

Staff training
In May 2003, the management of STENAPA changed hands and Nicole Esteban was
hired as the new parks manager for the foundation. Although Nicole Esteban is a marine
biologist, she has not participated in a sea turtle monitoring programme before. With Kay
Lynn Plummer leaving, there was no one left with trained skills to tag and monitor sea
turtles. Nicole Esteban immediately obtained funding from WIDECAST, with assistance
from Dr Karen Eckert, and was able to participate in a Leatherback monitoring training in
St Croix. Additionally, staff Rozenn le Scao participated in this training, (funded by
STENAPA). The training took place from May 19 23 in Sandy Point Refuge, St Croix
(Annex 1).

Volunteer training
Upon their return to St Eustatius from training in St Croix, STENAPA staff drafted a
theoretical and practical training course for volunteers. This training includes a 30
minutes Microsoft Power Point presentation on nesting sea turtles of St Eustatius and on
the monitoring programme, a video footage of tagging and monitoring leatherback and
their nests (taken at St Croix refuge during STENAPA staff training), practical
knowledge and handling of monitoring equipment, data sheet introduction and visit of
Zeelandia beach monitoring site. The first theoretical training took place on May 30 and
it was followed by two more training courses on June 25 and on September 11. Training
courses are not aimed at STENAPA volunteers alone but also local residents eager to
learn about sea turtles and help with monitoring. Training will be applied in the same
manner for the 2004 nesting season.


Quantitative and qualitative data collection

Patrol Activities

Taqging methods
STENAPA uses metal flipper tags donated by Caribbean Sea Turtle Conservation
Network. All tag applicators are inspected and cleaned on a routine basis and discarded
when they cease to function properly.

STENAPA uses the same tagging method as St Croix, USVI. Tags are applied to the
fleshy skin located between the back flippers and the tail of nesting Leatherbacks, and on
the proximal part of the front flipper of Green, Hawksbill where the swimming stoke will
cause minimal up-and-down movement (Eckert et al., 1999). The turtle is tagged whilst
tamping and covering her nest right after she has finished laying. This is done so that the
turtle is not disturbed while preparing for laying and during laying. Two metal tags are


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attached to each turtle to minimize the effect of tag loss. For Leatherbacks only, two
different sorts of metal tags, one small one large to ascertain which tag size was optimum
for tagging. Only trained persons are allowed to tag turtles.

Carapace measurements
Length and width of shell of a nesting sea turtle are taken using a metric measure.
Measurements of the shell width and length are done using flexible metal tape (curved
measurement).

Greens, Hawksbill and Loggerhead:
The carapace length measurement used by STENAPA is the curves carapace length notch
to tip ( CCLn-t) (Eckert et al., 1999).
The tape is stretched from the most anterior medial notch of the carapace in a straight line
to the most posterior medial notch.

The carapace width measurement performed by STENAPA is the curves carapace width
(CCW) (Eckert et al., 1999). In this instance the tape is stretched from the widest point of
each side of the carapace in a straight line.

Leatherback:
Flexible tape is used to measure the length of the shell (CCL) and the width (CCW) in the
following manner:
Length: from the nuchal notch at the midline straight to the most posterior tip of the
caudal peduncle (Eckert, et al. 1999).
Width: from the ridge crest to the ridge crest at the widest point (Eckert et al., 1999).

Track measurements
Tracks are measured from one outer flipper edge mark to the opposite outer flipper edge
mark in a straight line. For each turtle track found, three different width measurements
are taken (phase 2 only). Upon entering the data in the spreadsheet the average of the
three measurements is computed. This technique allows for fewer mistakes in
measurement. Note that during phase 2, some tracks may not show three measurements
as a result of track loss.

Nest measurements
In June 2003 (phase 2), 40 recycled marker stakes were placed along at 20 meter intervals
on the highest part of the beach, for a distance of 0.8 km (the patrolling distance). Stakes
were numbered from 1 to 40, numbering starting from the northernmost part of the beach
at GPS 1730'480" N and 62o58'893" W.
When a turtle, a nest and/or tracks were recorded the stake numbers) were also recorded.
The nest location was measured in the following way:
Triangulation measurements are taken from stakes located nearest to the center of
the nest and/or area suspected to be a nest if a track only were sighted
Distance of center of nest and/or track from vegetation
Distance of center of nest and/or track from the high water line.
GPS marker of nest or track is recorded.


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Note: Records from April 29 to May 29 do not show GPS marker on recorded track/turtle
nests since the GPS was lost during a surprise tropical storm during a night beach patrol.

Data sheets
The data sheets used for our research are based on the St Croix Leatherback monitoring
programme data sheet. Data is immediately entered in Microsoft Access the day after
patrols are conducted and hard copies of data are kept in file. This year regular printing
paper was used for data sheets. (Annex 2)

Nests success rate
The content of each excavated nest (minimum 24 hrs after first emergence) was
categorized using existing protocol (Eckert et al., 1999) and categories from St Croix
Leatherback monitoring programme. Live hatchlings were released to sea and all
together to minimize predation effects.

Table 1 Code for nest data
Code Detail
E = Emerged Hatchling leaving or departed from nest
S = Shell Number of empty shells counted (>50% complete)
L = Live in nest Live hatchlings left among shells
D = Dead in nest Dead hatchlings that have left their shells
UD= Undeveloped Unhatched eggs with no obvious embryo
UH = Unhatched Unhatched eggs with obvious embryo (excluding UHT)
UHT= Unhatched term Unhatched apparently full term embryo in egg shell or pipped
(with a small amount of external yolk material)

Beach mapping
Beach mapping is important for the programme in the following ways:

Monitoring beach erosion
Monitoring sand movement
Identifying nest locations

In 2003 (phase 2), STENAPA conducted beach measurements (Annex 3). Two mappings
of the beach were conducted, data were compiled in Microsoft Excel and simple maps
were created using Microsoft Excel as well. The technique used for mapping is as
follows. A team minimum of two person records coordinates along the beach, at both the
high water line and the vegetation line intervals of five meters.

Education
STENAPA Foundation believes that educating local residents and tourists about sea turtle
monitoring and sea turtle conservation is key to the success of safeguarding marine



1 Alive in nest includes hatchlings found in the nest chamber and the neck of the nest.


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turtles and their habitats. Part of STENAPA's education curriculum includes the
following:

Beach clean ups
This year STENAPA sponsored a series of beach clean ups. Volunteers from the island
and abroad participated in the clean ups. The trash found on the beach ranges from plastic
debris, boat moorings line, fishing lines, boat foam filling, glass bottles, cans, syringes
(with needles) clothes and more. Some originated from the sea and the rest from land.
Removing the debris from sand helps turtles from getting injured whilst nesting and also
prevents hatchlings from being trapped and dying before reaching the sea.


"Al -r


Figure 3


Beach clean up, December 2003


Lobbying
STENAPA have approached the Island Government a number of times to increase their
awareness of sea turtle conservation and the need to protect the beaches, particularly
Zeelandia Beach. In 2003, the amount of joy riding increased (due to local residents and
visiting medical students) and STENAPA requested that the Government approve for a
sign to be made to notify drivers that driving was not permitted, and to give explanation
reasons for this. In mid 2003, permission was granted to erect a sign saying Do not drive
on the beach.


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Figure 4 New sign to warn drivers not to drive on Zeelandia Beach

School presentations
At the end of every month, STENAPA gives presentations in all five island schools. To
give the presentations a power point projector and laptop are used. The presentation
topics differ each month and are based on programmes conducted by STENAPA on St
Eustatius. The presentations are created and given by staff and volunteers. This year two
different presentations on sea turtle conservation and biology were given to four local
schools.

Presentation at local company
In August 2003, STENAPA organized a series of four presentations on sea turtle
monitoring at Statia Terminals the largest local company employing over 100 island
residents. To give the presentations a power point projector and laptop are used. 2003
was the first year that STENAPA reached out to a local business. This programme was a
success and a lot of positive responses arose from the lectures. (Annex 4).

Broadreach (semester at sea students)
Every year, St Eustatius is visited by groups of US students of age range 14-18 years
from an educational programme call Broadreach. Part of the curriculum included in their
programme is community service. In 2003, 4 groups (of up to 16 students) helped with
clearing up Zeelandia beach and removing of debris endangering nesting sea turtles and
hatchlings. Visiting students were given lectures on the STENAPA monitoring and
conservation programme and track identification. As they removed debris from the sand,
students were asked to patrol for hatchling emergence and to look for possible dead
hatchlings and turtle tracks.


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Nest monitoring 2003 (phase 2)
When nests were recorded, STENAPA staff monitored nests five days prior to expected
emergence. Once an emergence is recorded, hatchlings are counted. 24hrs after the first
emergence is recorded the nest is excavated, trapped hatchlings are rescued, and a nest
inventory is conducted

During the season, three different reports of dead hatchlings observed on the beach were
brought to STENAPA staff's attention. Staff did not see the hatchlings each time that
they were reported and observers were not able to identify the species of hatchlings found
on the beach. However, sightings of (minimum four) dead Leatherback hatchlings
occurred early July and it is suspected that these hatchlings emerged in early morning and
became dehydrated in the sun (since the night patrol the previous night did not observe
any tracks).

Underwater survey
In December 2003, STENAPA started underwater sea turtle monitoring. Each of the three
dive shops of St Eustatius were given a form to complete for each sighting of marine
turtles by staff or customers. Data are collected and entered on a database. This will be an
additional reporting section in the next Annual Report.

Local wisdom (phase 2)
Knowledge of local wisdom is important to understand history of sea turtles on the
island. STENAPA conducted two video interviews in June 2003. Mr Johaness
Schrewhardt and Mr Clifford Gibbs Senior (both in their eighties) were asked
information about nesting turtle species on Statia and turtle hunting. Both men used to
catch turtles in their youth and also know a lot about nesting sea turtles.

Mr Schrewhardt recalled seeing the following turtles hunted:
the Green back or Green turtle
the Leatherback
the Hawksbill

Apparently in the 1920s and 1930s, a French man from St Barthelemy used to hunt turtles
at sea around St Eustatius. He would then sell turtles on Statia and abroad.

Nesting turtles were hunted along Lynch Beach until what is called the governors pool
located at Zeelandia beach. Additionally, turtle were captured at Corre Corre Bay.
According to Mr Schrewhardt all turtle species were hunted equally. Mr Schrewhardt
mentioned catching white and yellow eggs which could mean yolked and yolkless eggs
from the Leatherback turtle.

Mr Gibbs explained the cloud like track figure that poachers looked for in the sky. The
tracks signaled that a turtle would nest that same night and also the direction of the clouds
would give the direction of the area where the turtle would be laying. Mr Gibbs
mentioned that no more poaching has been performed (for over 10 years now) partly


-16-









because the shell of the hawksbill is not marketable like in the past. He also added that
the Green turtle, Leatherback and Hawksbill were hunted for the meat.

Neither man had ever seen a Loggerhead, although nesting Loggerhead turtles have been
recorded nesting in the Caribbean (Sybesma, 1992). According to Mr Gibbs, not much
poaching occurred in the past. He also added that some turtles were caught in fishermen
nets on the bay front whilst fishing for jacks. It appears that more turtles were found at
sea and nesting in the early 20th Century than at present and that numbers have decreased.


-17-









Results


This section includes results from the 2002-2003 nesting season due to the fact that there
was limited information in the 2002 Annual Report about the turtle programme.

Turtle sightings

The first nesting Leatherback was spotted returning to sea on April 24, 2003 (phase 1).
This was the first record ever of a Leatherback nesting on St Eustatius beaches by
STENAPA. Although, evidence of nesting Leatherbacks are mentioned in the literature
(Sybesma,1992). In addition to the Leatherback, the Green and Hawksbill nested on
Statia in 2003 (phase 2). The first Green turtle nested on the night of June 7-8 and same
for the Hawksbill only. This year staff was able to successfully tag one hawksbill.
Unfortunately the majority of turtles appeared to nest between hourly patrols or at
weekends

Fund raising

STENAPA staff could not be on patrol at all time in 2003 since a lot of fundraising had to
be done from May to December 2003 due to the financial problems of STENAPA. One
objective was to gain funding to ensure future activities of the sea turtle monitoring
programme. STENAPA was able to secure funding for 2004 monitoring, and has an
application pending for 2005-6. The turtle programme coordinator's salary is now funded
for 2004. This work will include overseeing 80 % of the night patrols and implementing
regular patrols. Equipment included in the grants are a GPS, additional radios, water
proof bags, a pit tagging kit, waterproof paper for data sheets, flashlights, etc. (Annex 6).


Patrol records

Table 2 highlights the patrols scheduled in 2003 for phase 1 and phase 2. This table
shows that more patrol hours were conducted with respect to the number of personnel
involved (during phase 2) after adopting the patrol method from Sandy Point Refuge
Leatherback Monitoring Programme in St Croix. No details of patrols were available for
2002 nesting season.


-18-











Table 2 Patrol records in 2003
Working Abroad crew No. of Date of No. of night No of day Total
(phase 1) dd/mm personnel patrols patrols (8hr patrols (1 hrs
on patrols dd/mm patrols) hr patrols)
WA crew II 12 17/04 05/06 8 64
(9/04-10/04)

14/04 -30/04 11 11


Total 12 8 11 75
No morning and night patrols conducted between May 1-12
Working Abroad crew No of Date of No of night No of day Total
(phase 2) dd/mm personnel patrols patrols (7 patrols (1 hr hrs
on patrols dd/mm hr patrols) patrols)
WA crew III 12 30/06- 23/08 39 273
(23 /06-23 /08)
16 16
WA crew IV 6 13/09 24/10 16 112
(10/09-5/11)
80 80

Random patrols 8 08/06- 29/06 5 35
between WA crew
change 16 16
Total 26 60 112 532


Carapace measurements and tagging results

In 2003, two measurements on Hawksbill turtles were taken, and in 2002 two
measurements on Green turtles were collected. In 2003 one Hawksbill was tagged twice
on the front right and the front left flipper. In 2002, three Greens were tagged on the front
flippers but no location of the tagging was recorded. STENAPA realizes that these results
are low, the programme is young and a list of recommendations for 2004 nesting season
is provided with this report. It is the goal of STENAPA to increase these results in the
future years.


-19-










Hawksbill Carapace measurements and tagging, 2003


Table 4 Green Carapace measurement and tagging, 2002
Date (dd/mm) Length (m) Width (m) Flipper tag
21/08 1.12 0.60 WE4
21/08 1.23 0.63 WE2
07/08 WE25


Track measurements

Firstly, it is important to note that we know that a greater number of turtles nested than is
shown by track measurement records. This is because nests emergence happened at
places were tracks had not been observed. Minimum numbers of individuals have been
assessed by calculating the nesting date intervals.

Based on results shown in Table 5, it could be said that a minimum of between 3-10
Leatherbacks came and nested in 2003.


Table 5


Track measurements 2003, Leatherback turtles


Leatherback Date (dd/mm)4 Width (m) Width (m) Width (m) Average
(m)
1 22/06-23/06 1.80 1.84 1.82
2 14/06-15/06 1.80 1.72 1.78 1.76
3 01/06-02/06 1.60 1.60
4 29/05 1.92 1.92
5 24/05 1.84 1.84
6 19/05 1.93 1.93
7 13/05 1.73 1.73
8 30/04 1.95 1.95
9 29/04 1.79 1.79
10 24/04 -

Data shown in Tables 5, 6 and 7 demonstrate that a minimum of 7-18 individuals from
three different species came and nested on Zeelandia beach in 2003.


2 RF = Right front
3 LF = Left front
4 The system of recording date changed in phase 2. Dates in April and May refer to the date of the first half
of the night patrol.


-20-


Table 3









Table 6 shows that 2-3 Greens nested. From Table 7, it is clear that at least 2-5
hawksbills nested in 2003.


Table 6


Track measurements 2003, Green turtles


Green Date (dd/mm) Width 1 (m) Width 2 (m) Width 3 (m) Average
(m)
1 29/06-30/06 1.60 1.55 1.20 1.45
2 24/06-25/06 0.90 0.90
3 08/06-09/06 1.07 1.01 1.09 1.056


Table 7 Track measurements 2003, Hawksbill turtles
Hawksbill Date (dd/mm) Width 1 (m) Width 2 (m) Width 3 (m) Average
(m)
1 07/10 0.65 0.65 0.61 0.636
2 14/09 0.80 0.80
15/09
3 08/09 0.73 0.73
09/09
4 05/07
06/07
5 08/06 0.70 0.67 0.685
09/06

Tables 8, 9 and 10 show data for turtles nesting on Zeelandia beach in 2002. Table 8
reveals that a minimum of 3 Greens nested on Zeelandia.


Table 8


Track observation 2002, Green turtles


Green Date
dd/mm
1 21/08
2 21/08
3 13/08
4 09/08
5 07/08
6 07/08


Table 9 documents that 1 Hawksbill nested in 2002. Table 10 lists unidentified track
results. No estimate of nesting turtles has been evaluated with this report since many of
the species of the nesting turtles are unknown.


-21 -










Track observation 2002, Hawksbill turtles


Hawksbill Date
dd/mm
1 21/08


Table 10


Track observation 2002, unidentified turtles


Unknown Date
1 01/08
2 05/08
3 05/08
4 06/08
5 06/08
6 06/08
7 08/08
8 13/08
9 26/07


Nesting species on Zeelandia beach 2002-2003

This section provides an overview of nesting data for 2002-3 and is based on results
presented in Table 3-8. Table 11 demonstrates that in 2003 STENAPA personnel were
able to identify all species of sea turtles that nested on the beach. Table 11 also shows
that three nesting species of marine turtle are using St Eustatius beaches as a nesting
ground. In 2002 however, STENAPA was able to identify two species of nesting sea
turtle the Green and the Hawksbill. It is suspected that many nests/tracks for Green and
Hawksbill were not observed in 2003. This is due to the fact that most Greens and
Hawksbills nested in the area of the cliff landslide in 2002.


Table 11


Nesting species in 2003, Zeelandia beach


Species Turtle Tracks Nests/ First turtle/track Last turtle/ track
sighting probable observed observed (dd/mm)
lay (dd/mm)
Leatherback 2 9 10 24/04 23/06
Green 3 3 8/06 29/06
Hawksbill 2 3 4 8/06 3/09
Loggerhead -


-22-


Table 9










Table 12 Nesting species in 2002, Zeelandia beach
Species Turtle Tracks Nests/ First turtle/data Date of last track/
sighting probable observed turtle observed
lay (dd/mm) (dd/mm)
Leatherback -
Green 1 5 -07/08 21/08
Hawksbill 1 21/08 21/08
Loggerhead -
Unknown 9 -26/07 13/08


Nest monitoring 2003

Table 13 shows that a total number of 41 hatchlings were rescued in 2003 (Figure 5).
These were hatchlings that were still within the nest cavity 24 hours after first emergence.
Many were stuck below large rocks. On July 30, (after hurricane waves passed)
STENAPA relocated 9 rescued (partially) hatched eggs and monitored the relocated
nests. On August 6 2003, 9 emergence tracks were recorded from the relocated nest of
nine to the sea. As the programme progresses staff are getting acquainted with eroding
zones and hope to limit nest wash out in years to come.


Figure 5
Figure 5


Rescued Hawksbill hatchling, August 2003.


- 23 -











Table 13 Nest monitoring 2003, Zeelandia beach


Species Recorded Recorded hatching Nb of rescued Relocated
nests emergence hatchlings nests
Leatherback 10 5 31
Green 3 1
Hawksbill 4 2 9 1
Unknown 6


Table 14 shows that personnel were able to inventory 5 Leatherback nests and 1 Green
nest. In 2003, neither the Green nor the Leatherback turtles were tagged therefore it is
impossible to link these nests with a particular turtle. Based on nests inventoried and
from the hatching dates (Table 14), it is possible to deduct that as few as two individual
Leatherback turtles nested on Zeelandia. Figure 6 shows emerging Leatherback
hatchlings and also the dark colour of the volcanic sand on Zeelandia Beach. It is difficult
to spot hatchlings emerging most nights (except for full moon) and, for this reason,
funding is sought for night vision binoculars.


Figure 6 Emerging Leatherback hatchlings, July 2003.


-24-












Nest inventory Leatherback, 2003 (codes are defined in Table 1)


Date dd/mm Coordinates E UD UH UHT Yolkless S Ls D

25/06-26/06 17030.350' N 15 17 44 11 4
62058.798' W
03/07-04/07 170 30.353' N 3 5 6 56 9 8
62058.797'W
10/07 17030.380'N 24 12 27 37 5 3
62058.829' W
30/07 17030.361' N 3
62058.815' W
31/07 -_ 12 19 26 35 6 5


Table 15 Nest inventory Green, 2003
Date dd/mm Coordinates E UD UH UHT S L D
04/07 17030.303' N -7 2 112 1 6
62058.753' W


5 Alive in nest includes hatchlings found in the nest chamber and above the neck of the nest.


-25-


Table 14









Threats to Sea Turtles Conservation


Beach erosion

Sand miners have destroyed natural sea grapes on dunes to facilitate access to the beach
with their heavy excavating machinery. This in turn has dramatically increased dune and
beach erosion. As torrential rain washes downslope, it forms guts where sea-grape dunes
were formally in place preventing erosion. From the 10 November 2003, there were 8
successive days of torrential rain. During this period beach features changed drastically
and around 30 broken empty sea turtle eggs were observed on the sand. There is no
reason to believe that these eggs had not hatched already and some could have been
unhatched eggs from hatched clutches. Additionally, no nesting sites were recorded in the
area where the majority of these eggs were found. Furthermore, when staff surveyed the
site where eggs shells were found, broken small size eggs (yolkless eggs) were found
among larger broken egg shells, suggesting that the eggs were from a previously hatched
leatherback nest.

Joy riding on the beach also impacts on nests, and STENAPA applied to the Island
Government for permission to ban driving on the beach. Permission was granted in July
and STENAPA erected a sign (Figure 4). Volunteers also ask joy riders to leave the
beach and explain the reason to do so.

Predation

Fish predation
Based on reports from fishermen it is known that the Atlantic coast of the island harbours
barracuda, shark, tuna and other pelagic fishes alike which could mean that, at sea,
predation is high for hatchlings entering from Zeelandia beach nesting site. So far no at
sea predation surveys have been conducted.

Bird predation
On June 23, a report of frenzied emergence by Leatherback hatchlings was brought to
STENAPA's attention. The observers mentioned scaring away birds predating on the
hatchlings on Zeelandia. The emergence occurred at sunset. This event happened a few
days before STENAPA staff were notified. No measurements were thus taken since the
exact location of the nest could not be identified. No bird predation was recorded by
STENAPA staff during night patrols while hatchling emergence occurred.

Crab predation
Shore crabs are another known predator of hatchlings. On July 7, a shore crab was
observed attacking a Green hatchling as it emerged from a nest. Volunteers are trained to
watch for crabs around emerging nests.

Poaching
Only one incident was recorded by STENAPA in 2003. One nest appeared to have been
poached in May 2003 (Northern end of the beach). Although rumors of eggs selling on


-26-









the market were brought to our attention, however we did not find any proof or see any
signs of poaching during that period. We have reason to believe that STENAPA's
presence at night on Zeelandia beach has had a positive effect on limiting poaching of sea
turtles and their eggs, as well as preventing joy riding and sand mining.

Sand mining
Limited sand mining occurred on the beach in 2003. One leatherback nest was destroyed
directly by sand mining and reported to the police. As mentioned previously, past sand
mining activities have affected Zeelandia beach feature, and possibly nesting sites.
However, the frequency of sand mining as decreases as awareness of turtle conservation
and beach erosion has increased.

Beach lighting
Light disorientation is low on Zeelandia beach and there are sources of light around the
beach perimeter. One is located on the road about 150 meters away from the beach
entrance (street light) and the second, shines horizontally from the cliff top 20 meters
above the beach. Potential development of a hotel destroyed by hurricane Lenny (1999),
may also affect turtle conservation.

Smith Gut solid waste landfill
In 1995 the Government of St Eustatius developed a project for relocating the waste
disposal site of St Eustatius to a site called Smith Gut, a natural rainwater channel
directly above the beach. Despite advice from STENAPA not to relocate the disposal site
to Smith Gut, in 2002 the government contracted Windward Roads to construct and
maintain the new landfill at Smith Gut. Unfortunately, the site is now having adverse
impacts on the marine and terrestrial environment.

Constant debris such as plastic bags is transported to the sea with the wind. Every time
there is heavy rainfall debris washes down through the gut in to the ocean (Annex 4
presents photographs). Smith Gut landfill is the second waste disposal site located on the
Atlantic site of the island and exactly the same problem occurred at the first site.

There is no waste recycling facility on the island and solid waste causes an environmental
hazard. Additionally, St Eustatius hosts a medical school with 200 students living on St
Eustatius on a temporary basis. Increased import of US products contributes to the waste
issue of St Eustatius. There are no batteries or waste oil recycling plans on the island.
STENAPA hopes to work with the government and obtain funding to help educate and
reduce waste problems on the island.

Roaming animals
It is illegal for a resident to let animals roam wild on St Eustatius. However many goats,
cows, horses, sheep, pigs and donkeys roam on public and private lands, cliffs and
beaches. These roaming livestock are an environmental disaster, a health hazard, an
economic problem as well as a public health concern. STENAPA is greatly concerned
with environmental damage that roaming animals are causing. They eat vegetation
including endangered plants that stabilize cliffs and land in place. They eat the waste at


-27-









the landfill (on the sea side) or from rubbish bins of private houses leaving the streets full
of household rubbish. Plastic bags are torn apart by the animals for their content and
plastic is found floating in the air to the sea. No young shoots are able to grow and
develop into fully mature trees except for invasive species of plants such as the Mexican
Creeper. Roaming animals contribute to loss of trees such as sea grapes that stabilize
sand dunes and therefore protect the beach from erosion. Lots of cattle footprints and
faeces are left on the sand of protected beaches like the Zeelandia nesting ground.


-28-









Recommendations for 2004


Participation of Volunteers

The Working Abroad volunteer programme started in 2003. Without assistance from
these volunteers, the sea turtle monitoring programme could not continue as intensely as
currently planned.

At the end of each Working Abroad crew rotation we obtain constructive reports from the
volunteers. From crew III reports, it was clear that some individuals had not been
consistent with hourly patrols. Additionally, some management difficulty occurred with
crew IV and at the end of their volunteering period we had ample, reasons to believe that
many night patrols were not conducted properly by certain unmotivated individuals.

STENAPA will continue with its Internship Programme and with Working Abroad
volunteer programme. Working Abroad volunteer supervision during patrols will be
increase in 2004 by full time turtle coordinator, staff and interns. Only interns will be
trained for the tagging of sea turtles. Working Abroad volunteers will assist staff and
interns with patrols, measurements, data collection and hatchling rescue.

Patrols

2004 patrols will be conducted in the same way as 2003 (phase 2) patrols were
conducted. STENAPA will also conduct regular sunset patrols for hatchling emergence in
accordance with nesting timings. Corrie Corrie Bay, Lynch Beach and Crooks Castle
Beach will be also monitored for nests.

Carapace length measurements

In 2004, the curved carapace length minimum (CCLmin) will be added to the data
measurements.

Equipment

STENAPA will purchase fiberglass flexible metric tapes for properly measuring the
shells of nesting turtles. In addition, a GPS will be purchased to be used specifically by
the monitoring programme only. Data will be collected on waterproof paper and a
waterproof backpack will also be purchased. STENAPA will also purchase a passive
integrated transponder tagging kit.

Training of staff

In 2004, staff will keep up to date with monitoring and conservation technique.
Additionally staff will aim to gain funding to attend important meetings and conferences
abroad pertaining to Sea Turtle Conservation. The Sea Turtle Programme Coordinator


-29-









will also attend the WIDECAST Annual General Meeting and Sea Turtle Symposium in
Costa Rica.

Sunset emergence monitoring

In 2003, STENAPA did not conduct many sunset patrols to monitor nest emergence
frenzy; the main reason for this was the lack of vehicle to get to the nesting area.

However night emergences where recorded. Hatchlings were followed to the sea and any
debris were removed from their path, if a hatchling became disoriented or had turned
over on its back (which happened a numbered of times), it was assisted and redirected
towards the sea. It is hoped that funding for a new vehicle will be granted and that
STENAPA will be able to extend hatchling monitoring in 2004.

Beach Mapping

STENAPA will continue with mapping of the beach. Data will be gathered and will be
entered in Microsoft Excel. It is hoped that staff will acquire expertise to produce more
advanced maps in future.

Education

STENAPA will continue with its educational programmes (School and business
presentation). In 2004, STENAPA will be present for the first time at Week of the Future
which is a business week organized by the local senior school 'Gwendolyn Van Putten'.
Island businesses and organizations present their activities to graduating students that are
about to choose a career. STENAPA will continue to host job training programmes for
high-school students. Students participate in all activities of the STENAPA Foundation
including in 2004, the sea turtle conservation and monitoring programme.

Waste management and roaming animals

STENAPA hopes to collaborate with the government to find solutions to the waste and
recycling issue on Saint Eustatius. The Foundation will continue with beach clean ups.
STENAPA will continue to raise awareness about roaming animals on the island.


-30-









Acknowledgements


STENAPA Foundation wishes to recognize the following persons that have contributed
and offered support to the 2003 sea turtle conservation and monitoring programme

The St Eustatius Sea Turtle Conservation programme would not be operational without
financial assistance from IdeaWild, KNAP Fund, WIDECAST, Working Abroad and
World Turtle Trust. Additionally we would like thank Statia Terminals and St Eustatius
School of Medicine for their support and donations towards the programme.

This programme would not be in force without the involvement of STENAPA staff and
board members and local and international volunteers therefore we wish to recognize the
following people: Gershon Lopes, Walter Blair, Peter Esteban, Ine Boogeart, Curt Coker,
Alastair Cole, Julie Davis, Armanita Dhooghe, Liz Evan, Mieke Ficher, Andrew
Hallewell, Katie Hotchkiss, Sylvie Huguet, Adam Keatts, Caroline Kull, Adam Levy,
Aidan MacNamara, Marco Maeder, Ross Mc Murtry, Natasha Michel, Mary Millington,
Joseph Morpeth, Elizabeth Murphy, Jeanne Panuczak, Craig Parrett, Devon Patrick,
Norwin and Diana Richards, Peter Shields, Kath Silkerck, Joanne Smith, Jim Taggart,
Joanna White. We also thank the Director of Working Abroad (UK): Victoria McNeil.

For sharing their expertise in sea turtle monitoring we would to thank Dr William Coles,
Endangered Species Coordinator, US Fish and Wildlife Agency, St Croix and his field
staff.

For sharing their knowledge we would to specially thank the following local residents of
St Eustatius Mr. Clifford Gibbs Senior and Mr. Johaness Schrewhardt.

For many advice, recommendations and support we wish to specially thank Dr Karen
Eckert (WIDECAST), Paul Hoetjes (MINA/VOMIL) and Laura Sasaky (WTT).


-31-









References


Eckert K.L., K.A. Bjorndal, Abreu-Grobois, M. Donnelly (Editors). 1999.
Research and Management Techniques for the Conservation of Sea Turtles. IUCN/SSC
Marine Turtle Specialist Group Publication No 4.

Sybesma, Jeffrey. 1992. WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for the
Netherlands Antilles (Karen L. Eckert, Editor). CEP Technical Report No. 11. UNEP
Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica. 63 P.


-32-










Training report-Leatherback Turtle Monitoring


ATTENDEES: Nicole Esteban, Rozenn Le Scao, STENAPA, St Eustatius
DATES: Monday 19 Friday 23 May 2003
LOCATION: Sandy Point Refuge, St Croix, US Virgin Islands
AGENCY: US Fish and Wildlife Agency
CONTACT: Dr William Coles, Endangered Species Coordinator


Objectives:
The aim of the training was to learn about the leatherback turtle monitoring programme
that has been in existence since the early 1980s in St Croix. During this time, a volunteer
programme from Earthwatch has provided groups of volunteers during the turtle nesting
season (April August/September). Three scientists coordinate the programme.

Achievements:
We were trained in the following skills:
Data collection
o Measuring turtle size parameters
o Counting eggs/determining hatchling success
o Determining nest specifics and location
o Datasheet entry
Turtle tagging
o PIT tags (internal tags)
o Metal tags (external metal tags)
Nest relocation
o Catching eggs from nesting turtle and relocating them
o Digging nests
o Tamping and disguising nests
Beach monitoring practices
Nest monitoring
o Digging up to assess hatchling success
o Protecting hatchlings from predation during entry to sea
Volunteer training activities
General information on biology and reproduction of turtles

End results:
We were able to video different activities taking place for use in training of
volunteers.
We attended volunteer training so that we are able to follow standardized
procedures in training of our volunteers.
We collected St Croix education materials for use in our school programmes.
We are now able to continue the turtle monitoring programme on Zeelandia beach
(training will take place w/c 26 May and monitoring to commence w/c 2 June).


-33 -


Annex 1












Nesting data sheet


Record NurmbeI Turtle Identification,


Observer ,

Date I

Time

Weather I

Moon Phase I


o x r
Wa ng P WaFing
Ciaumt Quirtn Gibbous



Pull Waning Lt
Moon Gibbouw Quarter

rM I


Size and Health


Nesting/Sighting Information
Longitude (W)
Latitude (N) Z


Species Locale name I
Gender I
Tag Nb Triangulation (m):
Landmark 1 I [
Tag location L___andmark 2 I I T
New tag Nb IL k 2I
Tag location I I Highwater (m)
Vegetation (m)
Activity 1 unsuccessful nest cavities I I
arriving; body pitting, digging, Result
nesting, tamping, disguising. i
leaving, gone Lay, probable lay, dry run, track only
Length Car. I m Nest Relocation...
Width Car. I km New Longitude (W
New Latitude (N)


iarapactve UDamage

Parasites
Ectobiota


Injuries



Notes


w__


In absence of turtle


Track width (m) I


Locale Name
Triangulation (
Landmark 1 I 1I i
Landmark 2
Highwater (m)
Vegetation (m) rI
Number ol ERR
Yolked: I
Yolkless
Time Laid
Time Removed
Time Reburied z z


-34-


Annex 2









































300


40017 3000


600


700


-HWL
-Vegetation
Leatherback2003
Hawksbill 2003
0 Green 2003
Green 2002
Hawksbill 2002
A Unknown 2002
Leatherback nest 2003
Green nest 03
Unknown nest


800


900


-35 -


Map of Zeelandia nesting beach, October 2003


PA1


00
LC)

(D
800




650




500 *




350




200


200


Annex 3













Press articles about the turtle conservation programme


.Islands


Stations monitor, assist

with sea turtle nesting


THE DAILY HERALD, Friday June 27,


ST. EUSTATIUS-Staff of
hlie St. Eustatius National
Parks Foundation Stenapa
Ls assisting with preserving
tie nests of the four species
,t sea turtles known to nest
,n the island from April
throughh November.
They also strive to protect
baby turtles as they emerge
'rom the nests and make
'heir way to the sea. The
:iur species are the huge
.eutherback turtle, hawksbill
turtle, green turtle and log-
!erhead turtle, which are
protected under the Cunven-
lion on International Trade
.,I Endangered Species Wild
Iora and Faunm (CITES).
signedd bx the Netherlands
Antilles and many other na-
*Ons,
Stenapa members recently
. tended leatherback turtle
monitoring workshop in St.
Croix and are now putting
t hat they learned into prac-
Sice. Workers and volunteers
%walk the beach from
Zeelandia to Lynch every
nighi from 9:0Upm until
:lll0am looking-for signs of
turtle nesting and monitor-
'wi the location and condi-
liln of nests. Last week
HiiMtri and Sari Tonkopi
',, tchedthetirst latherhack
Iittchling emergence trom
1ihe sand,
anotherr leatherback nest
.i., observed hatching
`\cdnesday night, with 15
:'.La turtles making it into
eic water. The Slenapa
:', ple went back Thursday
m:irning to find one dead
ILtchlng on top of the nest.
I was noted that one leath-


erback nest had been de-
stroyed by sand mining,
which is a serious infraction
of the CITES treaty and must
be reported to international
authorities.
Stenapa reminds everyone
that sand mining is illegal.
When the Stenapa workers
find that a nest is beginning
to hatch, they dig into it to
help the weaker hatchlings
make it to the surface. They
may also carrn tie hatchlings
to within a few feet of the
high water mark and shoo
birds away to ensure a higher
survival rate among the tinm
turtles.
Stenapa also asks to people
refrain trom driving on the
beach, as vehicle tires tend
to pack the sand. making it
more difficult for the
hatchlings to dig themselves
out.
The workers are also tag-
ging and measuring turtles
and gathering data about the
number, size and variety of
turtles that come on the


Sienapa workers Gershon Lopes and Rozenn LeScao pre-
pare to walk dhe beach lookingfor signs of sea turtle nesting

beach. So far this year, three invitesanyone to participate
ofthe fourspecieshave been in the monitoring
seen. programme, for which the.
Stenapa requests the coop- can contact Gershon Lopes.
eralion of tourists and locals Rozenn LeScao. or Nicole
in preserving and protecting Esteban at the Marine Park
the native sea turtles, and Office in Lower Town


-36-


Annex 4













Islands


11


Stenapa workers oatend

turre monitoring workshop


ST. EUSTATIUS-Nicol
Estebanand Rozenr Le Scao
of St. Eutatiu Nature Parks
Stenapa returned Saturday
from a one-week training
workshop on leatherback
turtle monitoring at Sandy
Point Refuge in St Croix, US
Virgin Islmids
The objective of the training
was to learn about the leath-
erback turtle monitoring
programme that has been
ongoing in St Croi for 20
years, so that similar methods
can be used in St Eustatius.
Their trip was made possible
through a grant from the
Wider Caribbean Sea Turtle
Conservation Network
Widecast Although our spe-


ties of sa turtle a found
near Statia, only the leather-
back is on the endangered
species li and this species
was the focus of their studies
in St Croi.
Esteban said that among the
things they had learned were
data collection, including
meauring turte size param-
eters, counting eggs, deter-
mining bathing sucem and
deterninng nest spectficand
location, turtle tagging, nest
relocation, beach monitoring
practices nest monitoring and
volunteer training.
They photographed various
activities and collected mate-
rials in preparation for con-
tinuing the monitoring


programmbegun tlsyear at
Zeelandia Beach in Statia.
The Statia monitoring
programme will begin the
week of June 2 with training
for volunteers beginning this
week. Esteban asks anyone
who wants to participate in
the program to contact the
Stenapa Marine Park office
for specifics. She particularly
requested that peonsrefrain
from driving on the beach or
removing sand during this
nesting period.
She said they had already
observed several signs of
eatherback nesting activities
on the beach and will be pa-
trolling regularly to monitor
this activity.


vicowe swepan (f) fI ana twImM Le acao aspray a waecast murie power
I1


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I)












Statia 7enmia4W SEmaloWee News Zetter

august 2003


Safety Meeting
The subject for the month of August was ongoing activities on the Island of St.
Eustatius to preserve and improve the natural environment on the Island. Nicole
Esteban, Gershon Lopes and Rozenn Le Scao of STENAPA made presentations
here during this month. STENAPA is the ST. Eustatius NAtional PArks, which
includes the marine park under the waters of St. Eustatius out to 100ft depth, the
Botanical Gardens on the East side of the Quill and the Northern Mountains area.
Since much of this work is out of the public eye, STENAPA personnel work with
the Island community to make public presentations to raise awareness of
environmental issues, steps that STENAPA is taking to help preserve, protect, and
restore the natural environment and provide information on how everyone that has
an interest in preserving the natural heritage of Statia can help in these efforts.

In addition to this introduction to STENAPA and the invitation to all to come and
see the progress that the volunteers are making in developing the botanical gardens,
much of this months talk was based on the "Turtle Program" a topic that has been
shared with many of our children through STENAPA presentations at our schools.
We learned that there are 4 kinds of sea turtles that are present in the Statian waters
and each of these turtles face serious challenges that require our help and attention
if they are to survive for present and future generations to appreciate. These special
creatures live and breed in this area because Statia is special to them also. Long
before any people were in the Caribbean the Leatherback, Green, Hawksbill and
Loggerhead turtles were here because the reefs provide lots of food (hard and soft
corals, sea grasses, algae, sponges and jelly fish) and the right kind of sandy
beaches such as at Zeelandia, close to deep water with good areas for burying egg
nests. The height of the nesting season runs April through September but turtles
may nest as early as January and as late as November.

As part of the turtle program trained volunteers patrol the beaches at night tagging
and identifying turtles as part of ongoing scientific study. Nest locations are
mapped and dated so volunteers can assists the turtles when they hatch by helping
them get to the sea, and in some cases, relocated nests within 4 hours of the eggs
being laid if the nest is seen to be in a spot that may wash out before the eggs are
ready to hatch, which is about 60 days after they are laid. Artificial lights that can
cause the turtles to head for land rather than for sea, trash on the beach and sand
mining threaten turtle survival. Helping with beach patrols and beach clean up, not
driving on the beach and not mining sand in nesting areas are ways that were
identified for us to help turtles survive. For more call STENAPA 3182884


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Smith Gut landfill photos


rnoto oy U. Lopes. 11- INOV-UI3 1noto Dy N. lsteOan 12- INOv-U3

Left:
Smith Gut flooded and the trash is floating inside the dump

Right:
The wall is broken and trash is flowing on the beach into the sea.


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Annex 5










Annex 6 Budget 2003-2004


Operating budget 2003
DETAILS INCOME US $ EXPENSES US$
Income
Grants
WIDECAST 250
KNAP 4300
Donors
Medical School 100
Working Abroad (project 1900
expenses)
Expenses
WIDECAST
Trip to St Croix 250
KNAP
Salary + wage taxes 3000
Programme expenses + 1300
shipping costs (radio, GPS,
batteries + Digital video
casing)
Working Abroad
Fuel + truck maintenance 500
Project costs 700
STENAPA
Fuel + truck maintenance 300
Office costs (paper, 500
internet, phone, ink, etc.)
TOTAL US $ 6550 6550


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* This budget may change pending additional grants approval.


-41 -


Operating Budget 2004*
DETAILS INCOME US $ EXPENSES US$
Income
Grants
KNAP 2933.33
World Turtle Trust (WTT) 18550
Working Abroad 2400
Ideawild 1000
Expenses
KNAP
Salary + wage taxes 2933.33
WTT
Salary + taxes 13500
Project costs ( GPS, Radio, 5050
tagging supplies, batteries,
lamp, educational
materials, vehicle
maintenance)
Working Abroad
Fuel + truck maintenance 800
Project costs 1600
STENAPA
Office costs (paper, 1000
internet, phone, ink)
TOTAL US $ 24883.33 24883.33










List of relevant legislation


International legislation signed by the kingdom of the Netherlands Antilles:

*Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (C.I.T.E.S)
Chelonia mydas (Linnaeus, 1758)
Eretmochelys imbricata (Linnaeus, 1766)
Dermochelys coriacea (Vandelli, 1761)

Additional information about C.I.T.E.S Endangered Species list for the Netherlands Antilles can be found
at: mhp % %\ %\ .cites.org/eng/resources/species.html

The Protocol Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife of the Cartagena
Convention (the SPAW Protocol).

Additional information about the SPAW Protocol for the Netherlands Antilles can be found at:
http://grid2.cr.usgs.gov/cepnet/pubs/legislation/spawnut.html

The Inter-American Convention for the protection and Conservation of Sea
Turtles (IAC)
Additional information about the IAC Convention can be found at:
Ihp in "\\ .sinac.go.cr/otros/coptortuga/i-index.htm

The Convention of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (also known as CMS or
the Bonn Convention)

Additional information about the CMS Convention: huIp \ \\ \\ .wcmc.org.uk/cms/



National legislation:

Island Territory of Sint Eustatius
Marine Environment Ordinance Sint Eustatius 1996 NR.3

Protection of Fauna and Flora, 1998


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Annex 7




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