Questions for communication and review
Each group member should get a chance to answer.
"Diglossia and language conflict in Haiti," Albert Valdman
1. What does "bilingual" / "monolingual" mean? What are you?
2. What is a "diglossic" society?
3. What percentage of Haiti's population is bilingual?
4. What percentage of Haiti's population is monolingual?
5. What are the arguments for keeping French in Haitian schools? Can you
think of others?
6. What are the arguments for scraping French in Haitian schools? Can you
think of others?
7. Is Haiti officially a bilingual state like Canada?
8. Are Creole and French varieties of the same language like Dutch in the
Netherlands and Flemish in Belgium are?
9. What does "H" and "L" languages refer to?
10.What is a "function" when we talk about how languages are used?
11 .Do rural farmers or the urban proletariat have the chance to hear much
12.Define "vernacular," "vehicular," "referential," "magico-religious" and
symbolizationn of power" functions.
13 .Why do poor Haitian families want their children to study French?
14. How does the Haitian Creole-speaking majority display minority behavior
and attitudes toward Haitian Creole?
15. Why does Valdman call French a purchased language (achte).
Variation in Creole
Papa mwen an
Papa POSS D
Papa my the
Papa m nan
Papa POSS D
Sb mwen an
Sb m nan
Nan lek6l la
P school D
'in the school'
Progressive marker ap
M ap manje
1P ASP eat
Papa an mwen
Papa D POSS
Papa the my
Papa an m
Papa POSS D
Se ran mwen
Se ran m
nan lek6l la
'in the school'
m ape manje
1P ASP eat
nan lek6l la
P school D
'in the school'
Se lek6l la
PL school D
m pe manje
1P ASP eat
Questions for discussion & socialization
1. Define sub,\illuion and normalization in language-conflict theory. What are
the prospects for Haitian Creole.
2. What have been the main currents in the debate about the form that Haitian
Creole spelling should take? Which side has been victorious?
3. Identify differences below. What are they and why?
(a) "Nan konmansman, Bondi kr6y6 sidl la ak late-a. Min late pat gin f6m,
li pat gin angnin sou li"
(b) "Nan konmansman, Bondye kreye sydl la ak late a. Men late pa't gen
f6m, li pa't gen anyen sou li"
(a) "Mouin fouy6 pi nan p6yi moun 16t nasion vo." [2 Roua 19:24]
N adj nation PL
(b) "Mwen fouye pi nan peyi moun 16t nasyon yo"
I dug wells in the countries of people from other nations
4. What are two alternatives for language-planners in Haiti?
5. What are the deficiencies of the Haitian educational system and what does
that mean for language-planners?
6. What needs to happen to promote Haitian Creole in schools & the state?
Yves Dejean, An overview of the language situation in Haiti
Voice of America: www.voanews.com
Florida's high school graduation rate reached its highest point ever last year
at 75.4 percent, according to results released Nov. 20 by the Florida
Department of Education.
Table 1 2001 Pass, Re-take and Elimination Results for the Junior and Senior
Years in Public Schools in 3 Haitian Departments
A.Rhitorique L'Artibonite Northwest West
(Junior year) (5,670) (1,329) (52,599)
Passed 7.89% (448) 11.29% (150) 17.40% (9,152)
Re-take 24.48% (1,390) 34.84% (463) 35.69% (18,775)
Eliminated 67.64 (3,841) 53.88% (716) 46.91% (24,672)
B.Philosophie L'Artibonite Northwest West
(Senior year) (1,278) (448) (21,515)
Passed 43.18% (868) 41.07% (184) 50.75% (10,918)
Re-take 42.89% (862) 51.12% (229) 39.76% (8,555)
Eliminated 13.93% (280) 7.81% (35) 9.49% (2042)
Dejean (2006, p. 152)
The total population of the Artibonite Department is 293,530. See
http://www.citypopulation.de/Haiti/html for population data by department.
Five major factors impede access to French:
1. Haitian State has not got the money needed to train adequate numbers of
2. No neighboring states speak French so Haiti is geographically disconnected
from those communities.
3. The Haitian Creole-speaking majority is unreasonably expected to conform
to the French-speaking minority.
4. Given economic constraints, Haitians lack the time and the language-
infrastructural resources to successfully acquire French.
5. A minority of teachers (20%) master French, posing a serious pedagogical
barrier to French-language education (Efron 1973 , p. 229; Dejean
2006, pp. 244-255).
More discussion of diglossia: learning & socializing
1. Does French and HC have a "specialization" or
compartmentalizationn" of language function" in Haiti?
2. Can you think of any language pairs or situations that do
demonstrate "specialization" or compartmentalizationn"?
3. What made people think that there was "specialization" or
compartmentalizationn" of language function in Haiti?
4. Describe code-switching. Who uses it in Haiti?
5. What does code-switching indicate about competency in language?
6. Can Creole be heard in Haitian churches?
7. Does anybody not speak Creole in Haiti?
8. Haiti is considered a simple or a complex language situation?
Yves Dejean continued...
The linguistic debate (p. 77-).
"No contact, present or possible..."
Haiti's literacy programs: teaching French literacy in Haitian
Creole... massive failure (1961-1985)
Literary types, teachers, and authorities... display resolute
opposition to any type of reform (79)
Popular resistance to Creole education = "internalization of
the dominant ideology" (see Paulo Freire).
200 years of nonusage have a profound impact
The deliberate and sneaky mixing up of learning
French with school education itself.
French and Content are 2 different things. French cannot
replace Content. Content must replace French.
Questions for discussion
1. Had most teachers mastered Creole orthography 10 years after
2. What is the "diglossic" or "bilingual" fantasy that many
Haitians and observers have?
3. Why is contact important for developing language skills?
4. Why is there popular resistance to Creole education?
5. What is the "pedagogy of exclusion"
6. Explain Haiti's schools with the terms "majority language" and
Practice IPA transcription!
1. M ta renmen manje bannann
2. Li te
3. I te ban mwen y
3p PST give melO 3pDO
Today, find a new partner. Please work in groups of 2.
1. Make a list of Haitian Creole's "complex range"
based on Dejean's comments.
2. Is Haiti's situation simple or complex?
1. Regional dialects [geographic dialect]:
North: Okap (Kap-Ayisyen)
Center: P-au-P (Potoprens)
2. Bilingual minortiy of up to 5%
3. Ruling class urban Creole [Social dialect]
4. Working class urban Creole [Social dialect]
5. "Ludic Creole" involving massive borrowing from
6. Diasporic dialects:
The Dominican Republic
The eastern Caribbean lesser Antilles
Haitian Creole is as stable as English or French
The same phonological, syntactic, lexical, and
pragmatic description in 1990 as 1960.
Slaves modified French because exposure to Colonial
French was only minimal
"Creole is a language in its own right whose pronunciation,
grammar, and vocabulary, though grounded in French, show
the influence of African languages." (Valdman 2007:28).
But what if the pronunciation & vocabulary are grounded in
French and the grammar in African languages?
Li fe nou konnen li resevwa envitasvon nou voye ba li a
She let us know (that) she received invitation we sent for her the
Nou voye ba li envitasyonz anz
...Envitasyonz [nou voye ba li] az
The Haitian Creole article seems to mark the deep
structure/abstract position of the noun prior to transformations
What is the semantic difference between (a) and (b)?
(a) Kote manje mwen?
Where food my?
(b) Kote manje mwen an?
Where food my the?
Questions for learning & fun:
1. Why is lexicography one of the most important and best-
funded areas of linguistics?
2. What are "lexical resources"?
3. What is "nomenclature"
4. What is the difference between a headwordd" and a
5. What is "microstructure"?
6. Can you think of any Haitian Creole or English homonyms
7. Why are homonyms and polysemes "semantic" concepts?
8. Can you name all the regions where French-based creole
languages are spoken?
9. What is a side-effect of having a phonological spelling
system like Haitian Creole?
Haitian Creole Phonological Puzzle
Using the notions of "vowel," "consonant," "nasal vowel"
and "nasal consonant," try to figure what phonological
environments trigger the form taken by the definite article
Kay la 'the house'
Fi a 'the girl'
Gason an 'the boy'
Fim nan 'the film'
Mont lan 'the watch' [myAt la]
How should the word really be transcribed?
Leu m we yon oportunite kom sa, keu m kontan
Lb m we yon op6tinite konsa,
kb m kontan
Grese/grese; ansasen/asasen; anvan/avan; soti/soti/sot/sot;
Valdman's grammatical sketch
Discussion activity with your partner: please avoid looking at the text.
1. What is a determiner?
2. Indefinite determiner?
3. Demonstrative determiner?
4. What are the two positions of HC adjectives? What is the order in
5. What are the two basic kinds of HC pronouns?
6. What is a possessive adjective?
7. What is a pre-verbal particle? What do these markers do to the
8. How many pre-verbal particles can you stack up?
9. What are aspectual and modal verbs? Are their orders the same as
10. What is a serial verb?
11. What is the copula and what is different about the HC
copula compared with English?
12. What is the imperative? What does it do?
13. What is negation?
14. What are interrogatives for? Can you produce a HC or
15. How does HC make yes-no questions?
16. What are coordination and subordination?
Modal verbs and CP (ex. d, page 36 Valdman 2007)
(a) Pinga ou al pale sa!
(b) *Ou pinga al pale sa!
(a) Don't you go and tell that!
(b)You don't go and tell that!
[c [c Pinga [ip ou [i [VP [v
Pinga does not move
Don't does move
al... pale sa!]]]]
[cP [c Don'tx [ip you [I tx [vp [v go... and tell that]]]]]
[CP [IP [VP]]]
(a) He took it
He did take it
What did he take
(d) Why did he take it?
Li pran 1.
3p V 3p
Li te pran 1.
3p PST V 3p
Kisa li te pran?
Wh 3pPST V
Poukisa li te pran 1?
Wh 3pPST V 3p
1. What are the major differences between HC and English with
regard to interrogative constructions?
2. How can we use CP to represent this difference? What do we have
to assume about syntax? (hint: movement).
3. How does the English in (c) make use of the head and specifier but
in HC (c) only the specifier?
4. What is the difference between the interrogative in (c) and (d)?
Question: how does HC go from the basic structure to the
emphatic structure? Explain.
Li se yon timoun
She is a child
'She is a child'
Se yon timoun
It's a child
'She's really a child.'
Tense, aspect and mood = INFLEXIONS = I1 Split IP (Pollock
Si m te pati ye, m pa t ap bouke jodia.
If I had left yesterday, I NEG PAST PROG tired today
'I I had left yesterday, I wouldn't be tired today'
1. Valdman 43 end:
2. What is a gloss?
3. What is an "illustrative example" versus a "definition"?
What kind of dictionary uses the one and or the other?
4. What is a headword and a subentry?
5. What is a cross-reference?
6. Give an English or Creole example of a preposition,
conjunction, interjection and onomatopoeia.
7. How are subentries with variants shown?
a. e.g., Dan doukla
8. How are optional parts of an expression shown?
a. e.g., Diri kole
Diri kole ak pwa
9. What is a synonym? How does Valdman's dictionary treat
Kate Howe, 291- 294
1. What is language planning?
2. Describe Haitian Creole and French using the terms
"minority" and "majority" languages. What is the ironic
thing about Haitian Creole?
3. In what ways does Haitian Creole "isolate" Haitians?
4. In what ways does French "isolate" Haitians?
5. Describe legal changes that have altered the status of HC.
6. Make a list of pro-French and pro-Creole arguments.
7. Are monolingual parents complicit in Haiti's educational
language policy? If so, why?
8. Give an example of a change in function.
9. Give an example of a change in form.
10. Give an example of a change in status.
11. What is necessary for standardization? What group
and what sentiments/attitudes are needed?
12. Growth in Ausbau [uitbouw] decreases Abstand
[afstand] between 'high' and 'low' languages-explain.
13. Does a language like Creole need a 'target' to imitate
(like French) in order to develop?
14. What kind of deliberate and unconcsious changes
should occur in HC in the coming years?
15. What is a "norm"? What is a spoken "norm"? What is
a written "norm"? Can you think of some examples? What
is the consequence of the formation of a "norm"?
Ki kote moun sa a soti?
Ki sa ki te pase anba pyebwa sa a?
Michel DeGraff 2003, part 1
1. What are the assumptions creolists have made about Creole languages
that DeGraff is denouncing?
2. Where do these demoded conceptions come from?
3. What is DeGraff s definition of a Creole language or of
creolization? How does that differ from the traditional approach?
4. What is the uniformitarian approach to language-learning and
5. Are some humans more capable of creating or using language? Is
there anything inherently greater about language A over language B?
6. What are the "linguistic modules"?
7. What are "canonical tropes"?
8. What is a superstrate language versus a substrate language.
9. What is "minoration linguistique"?
10. What is the lexifier?
11. What are some of ways that colonialists characterized Creoles?
sui generis -
3.Inter alia -
5.Creole as an
ostensive label -
11. vitiate the fact that
Bwe I bwe kleren an, ti gason an bay djapot.
Koumatiboulout! M sezi net monche!
Peyi a anboulatcha akoz adjipopo sa yo.
Questions for discussion:
1. What is "interlanguage"? (396)
2.Did the creators of HC have access to abstract properties of
French phonology, lexicon, morphosyntax, or semantics? (396)
3.What is the hypothetical "Pidgin to Creole life-cycle"?
4.How is the "broken transmission" theory of creolization
rejected by DeGraff?
5.Is French closer to Latin or Haitian Creole? On what basis
does DeGraff make this argument (399).
6. What is "proto-language"?
DeGraff questions on pp. 401-404
1. What is colonial, neocolonial and postcolonial?
2. What kind of a tool is Francophilia/Creolophobia in Haiti?
3. What is symbolic language 'capital'?
4. What does postcolonial creolistics want to do?
5. Explain: "species uniform properties of brain/mind" (402)
6. What is "epistemology"?
7. What is DeGraff frustrated about in a few words?
8. What dooms Creole languages first and foremost?
9. How can theoretical work like DeGraff (2003) positively
impact applied linguistic work on Creole languages?
Questions for communication & review
1. What are some of the benefits that Scrabble could have in
2. How does Scrabble differ from the methods of traditional
3. What is "ergonomic" about Scrabble and why is this of
particular interest in Haiti?
4. How can Scrabble be "a defense and illustration" of a given
5. Describe the basic rules of Scrabble.
6. Can words be misspelled in Scrabble? What is a "spelling
7. What are "bonus letters" versus "bonus words."
8. Slaves under the French colony had one kind of contact
with literacy, what was it?
9. Describe the development of education in Haiti.
10. What is the difference between a "language of
instruction" (French) and a "tool of education" (Creole)?
11. How should HC Scrabble differ from French &
English Scrabble in terms of orthography?
Quiz # 2 on HC Scrabble (2 points each)
1. What is wari or kay?
(a) a game with dried beans (b) A variant of Scrabble (c) a variant of dominoes
2. Which of these digraphs does Hebblethwaite recommend for Scrabble?
(a) an (b) en (c) ch (d) on
3. Hebblethwaite does recommend keeping HC accents (i.e. a, 6, 6).
(a) True (b) False
4. What is the justification for using a digraph like ui on a single tile?
(a) It makes the game more compact (b) u is never realized on its own in HC
(c) To make the game more fun
5. Generally speaking, in work on HC there has been an emphasis on:
(a) Language planning (b) Applied linguistics (c) Theoretical linguistics
6. What is anagramming?
(a) Retrieving words from memory (b) Crosswording
(c) Deciphering visual letter cues (d) Deciphering subconscious letter cues
7. What is unique about the Thai game Enjoy Words?
(a) More bonus squares (b) More letter tiles (c) Single & compound letters used
8. Impressive quantitative research was provided by the makers of:
(a) Albanian Scrabble (b) Latin Scrabble (c) Czech Scrabble
9. Slaves in Saint Domingue had absolutely no exposure to letters, writing or
literacy (Fouchard 1953):
(a) True (b) False
10. This Haitian president invited the Catholic Church back into Haiti in 1860 and
gave it permission to establish schools:
(a) PNtion (b) Boyer (c) Soulouque (c) Geffrard
Quiz # 1 (3 points each). Please be clear & concise!
1. What is the copula and what is different about the HC
copula compared with the English one? Write a HC or English
2. What are interrogatives? Write a HC or English sentence with an
3. How does HC or English make yes-no questions? Write an
example in HC or English.
4. What is coordination? Write a sentence with an English or HC
5. What is an XP (or a VP, IP)? Please draw one. Indicate where the
"head" is and where the specifierr" is.
6. How are optional parts of an expression shown in Valdman's
(2007) dictionary? Below "ak pwa" is optional in (b), show me
how Valdman makes this clear?
(a) Diri kole
(b) Diri kole ak pwa
7. In what ways does Haitian Creole "isolate" Haitians?
8. In what ways does French "isolate" Haitians?
Haitian Creole and Guadeloupian Creole Mysteries
k'ay [ka + ay]
prale [ap + ale]
1. What are differences in the pronominal system?
2. What are differences in terms of syntax? How many areas of
syntax show difference?
3. In what ways is GC more similar to Cape Haitian HC?
Discussion & Questions on Lefebvre, Claire 1998
1. What is Lefebvre's arguments about HC DP/NP
2. What does anaphoric versus cataphoric mean? Can you give
Examples of words or structures that are one or the other?
3. What does the difference mean?
Jan manje pen HC
K6ku du bledi Fongbe
Jean mange du pain French
John eats bread
4. What is phonologically similar about Fongbe's determiners
compared to HC's?
5. Do French DP/NPs have any structure that resembles HC?
6. What do words like these suggest to Lefebvre?
Larivye a 'the river' la riviere
Lakay la 'the home' la case
Late a 'the land' la terre
Dlo a 'the water' 'eau
Diri a 'the rice' le riz
7. How do the Fongbe & HC relative clause resemble each other
compared to French?
8. Explain: "The copied lexical entry corresponding to the Fongbe
determiner 6 was relabelled on the basis of the phonetic matrix of
the French form la yielding the Haitian determiner la" (83). Could
you make a different argument?
1. Talk about why the HC form YO stands out. How does it
2. Where do some scholars claim YO comes from?
3. Explain "dialect leveling"
4. Examine and explain:
Krab yo Yo pati
Crab PL 6p leave
'the crabs' 'they leave'
As6n le Ye yi
Crab pl 6p leave
Les crabes Ils parent / Eux, ils parent
PI crabs 6p leave / As for them, they leave
5. Several West African languages demonstrate homophony in
what relevant grammatical categories?
6. What about indefinite determiners?
7. What is the indefinite thought not to be the head of D?
Yon krab de krab HC
A crab two crabs
As6n de Ason we Fongbe
Crab a crab two
Un crab deux crabes French
A crab two crabs
Haitian Creole determiner / pronoun data
M we fre yo
Ip see brothers DEF/POSS
'I see their brotherss'
'I see the brothers'
Mwe fre yo a
Ip see brother pi DEF
'I see their brother'
I see the brother of theirs
S@ @ (yo)
S@ @ (yo)
*M we fre yo yo
M we fre m
M we fre m
Mwe fre m
Ip see brothers POSS
M we fre pa yo
M we fre pa yo a
(a) Northern HC possessive (ex. From Valdman 2007:345)
Sa se pa kin a ou, se kin a y
That is NEG POSS DEF PRO, is POSS DEF PRO
(b) Standard HC possessive:
Sa se pa pa ou a, se pa li a.
That is NEG POSS PRO DEF, is POSS PRO DEF
'That is not yours, its hers.'
Questions for discussion on DeGraff 2007, pp. 101-
1. What is the 'neo-colonial legacy' that DeGraff writes about?
2. What was the growth of the African slave population and what are
the dates of the its growth?
3. What is a stative verb?
4. What is the difference between (a) & (b)?
(a) Bouki vann chat la
sell cat DEF
(b) Bouki vann chat
5. What is the difference between (a) & (b)?
(a) Bouki te konn repons lan
ANT know answer DEF
(b) Bouki te ale anvan Boukinet vini
ANT go before came
6. What does 'counter-factual' mean? In what kind of clause it is
used? Which sentence is counter-factual?
(a) Si ou entelijan, ou konnen repons lan.
If 2p intelligent, 2p know answer DEF
(b) Si ou te entelijan, ou t a konnen repons lan.
If 2p ANT intelligent, 2p ANT IRR know answer DEF
7. When thinking about the progressive aspect in HC, what is
interesting about (a) & (b)?
(a) M ap manje
Ip AP eating
(b) M ap vini
Ip AP coming
8. What does the term inchoativee" refer to?
A stative verb is one which asserts that one of its arguments has a particular
property (possibly in relation to its other arguments). Statives differ from other
aspectual classes of verbs in that they are static; they have no duration and no
I am tired.
I have two children.
I like the color blue.
I think they want something to eat.
We believe in many Gods...
The case contains six bottles.
This would imply that we didn't care.
Inchoative = verbal category referring to action that will soon take place, e.g. "I'm
The lexical aspect, or aktionsart, plural aktionsarten, of a verb is a part of the
way in which that verb is structured in relation to time. Any event, state, process,
or action a verb expresses-collectively, any eventuality-may also be said to have
the same lexical aspect. Lexical aspect is distinguished from grammatical aspect:
lexical aspect is an inherent property of an eventuality, whereas grammatical
aspect is a property of a specific verb form. Lexical aspect is invariant, while
grammatical aspect can be changed according to the whims of the speaker.
For example, eat an apple differs from sit in that there is a natural endpoint or
conclusion to eating an apple. There is a time at which the eating is finished,
completed, or all done. By contrast, sitting can merely stop: unless we add more
details, it makes no sense to say that someone finished sitting. This is a distinction
of lexical aspect between the two verbs. Verbs that have natural endpoints are
called telic (from Ancient Greek telos, end); those without are called atelic.
DeGraff 2007, 108 and following...
1. What is a modal verb? What does it "mark"?
2. Explain: a. Tout moun vie al
b. Everybody wants to go
c. ledereen wil gaan
3. What are the different purposes ofpou 'for.'
4. Point out syntactic/morphological similarities
Gwan gal yuh fava teggereg,
Ah wey yuh gwine goh do?
Yuh an yuh boogooyagga fren
Dem tink me fraid o' yuh?
Me noh know is wat kine o' chu'ch
Fe yuh mout' could jine,
Yuh lip dem heng dung lacka wen
Mule kean meck up him mine.
naar de hemel
between Jamaican &
5. What is the difference between a & b?
a. Bouki konnen Boukinet renmen 1 anpil
b. Bouki konnen ke Boukinet renmen 1 anpil
B knows that B loves him a lot
6. What is recursionn" or "iteration" in syntax?
7. What is the difference between a & b?
a. Moun ki pa travay p ap touche
People who NEG work NEG PROG paid
'People who don't work aren't going to be paid'
b. Annou vote pou kandida nou vle a
Let's vote P candidate 4p want D
'Let's vote for the candidate we want'
Michel DeGraff & Daniel Harbour
Predicate clefts: West African substrate influence
[CP [IP [VP ]]]
What categories & structures have we already associated with CP?
Se malad Bouki malad, li pa mouri
It's sick B sick he didn't die
'Bouki is really sick.'
Se mache Bouki te mache, li pa te kouri
It's walk B PST walk, heNEG PST run
'Bouki really walked, he didn't run'
Q: What are the mechanics of this structure?
Q: How is it built? What are its parts?
Q: What categories are clefted?
Other types of clefting
Se yon dokte Elifet ye, li pa yon enfimy<
It's D doctor E pro, he NEG D nurse
'Elifet is really a doctor, he isn't a nurse.'
Se nan jaden an Elifet ye
It'sP garden D E V
'Elifet is in the garden.'
[Sex yon dokte] Elifet yex, li pa yon enfimye
[Sex nan jaden an] Elifet yex
Q: How are these clefts similar & different from those above?
Q: What types of categories/phrases are clefted?
Rive 1 rive, fi a pati.
Arrive he arrive, girl the left
'When he arrived, the girl left'
Q: What is different about the clefting structure given above?
Q: What kind of clause is it? (What is the clause's job?)
Se malad Bouki malad, li pa mouri
[Se malad] Bouki malad, li pa mouri
Se mache Bouki te mache, li pa te kouri
[Se mache] Bouki te mache, li pa te kouri
Se yon dokte Elifet ye, li pa yon enfimye
[Se yon dokte] Elifet ye, li pa yon enfimye
PERIPHERY TRACE MORPHEME LINKED TO SE
Se nan jaden an Elifet ye
[Se nan jaden an] Elifet ye
PERIPHERY TRACE MORPHEME
Questions on DeGraff for pair work & communication:
1. What is the difference between these comparison structures? Which do you use?
chen sa pi bWl pase chat sa Stan. that dog is more pretty than that cat
chen sa pli bdl ke chat sa Fr.
chen sa pli bdl pase chat sa DeGr "
2. Explain this curious difference with existential verb genyen/gen 'to have.'
(a) *Kisa ou gen? [* = ungrammatical]
(b) Kisa ou genyen?
What you have? 'What do you have?'
3. What's the difference between English & Creole?
Bouki voye timoun yo al lekol
Bouki sent children Dpl go school 'Bouki sent the children away/off to school'
4. What kind of structure is shown in (b)? Can you explain what is happening?
(a) Mwen fe kabann nan maten an
I made bed the morning the 'I made the bed in the morning'
(b) Kabann nan fet maten an
Bed the made morning the 'The bed was made in the morning
5. Which of these two verbs is stative versus non-stative? What kind of structure is (b)?
(a) Yo kraze machine nan
They demolished car the 'They demolished the car'.
(b) Machin nan kraze
Car the demolished 'The car is demolished'.
Harbour, part 3.
1. Explain the relationship of example (a) with (b):
(a) Bondye granmet tandex tandex priye m
God bigmaster hear hear prayer my
'Lord God, truly hear my prayer.'
(b) Se tandem Bondye granmet tandex priye m
It's hear God bigmaster hear prayer my
'Lord God truly heard my prayer.'
2. What does Harbour mean by 'thoroughgoingness'
3. What is 'low' versus 'high' reduplication?
4. Explain: "Cooccurrence Restriction: In the surface string, no single
predicate can both be low reduplicated and cleft". Which one is bad = *?
a) Jan kouri kouri pou 1 rive ale.
b) Se kouri Jan kouri pou li rive ale.
c) Se kouri Jan kouri kouri pou 1 rive ale.
'Jan really ran fast to get there on time'
5. What is the basic argument of Harbour?
6. What is the implication/meaning of a cooccurrence restriction?
7. Does it make sense to assimilate wh-movement (questions) with
Verb syntax in, and beyond, creolization
1. When DeGraff talks about a "surface level", what
does that imply?
2. What is DeGraff s basic morphosyntactic thesis?
3. Why did Haitians create HC, why didn't they stick
with French or Fongbe?
4. What is a pidgin language? What are some linguistic
facts about the people who speak pidgins?
5. How does a pidgin become a creole?
6. What are creoles compatible with?
7. What is synchronic versus diachronic?
8. Explain the 'creole continue': basilect / mesolect /
acrolect / lexifier
9. "P/C instantiates diachrony" (explain)
What is the difference between the examples:
(a) Ti Pye deja konn leson an
Ti Pye already know lesson the
(b) *Ti Pye konn deja leson an
'Ti Pye already knows the lesson'
(c) Pierre connait dejia la legon
Pierre know already the lesson
(d) *Pierre dejia connait la legon
'Pierre already knows the lesson'
(e) B6 k6k16 16 sd1e sulI niu Fongbe
And chicken the again vomit thing
'and the chicken again vomited the thing'
'Et le poulet vomit encore la chose' Fr
Je ne veut pas etudier
*Je ne pas veut etudier
M pa vle etidye
*M vle pa etidye
'I don't want to study'
Data from Fongbe (Brand 2000, my translations)
(a) bo vi 16 je va 16 kuiji
and child the began flute the play
'and the child began to play the flute (Brand 2000:41)
What is curious about the direct object?
(b) bo fi6nnu 1 do
and woman the said
'and the woman said...'
(c) bo fni 16 huzu Da Ayida Huedo (37)
and man the became Dan Ayida Huedo
'and the man became the snake Ayida Huedo
What is curious about the definite determiner?
(d) bo ye yi je k6ta de k6
and they left arrived termite mound a nearby
'and they arrived at a nearby termite mound' (37)
What is curious about the indefinite determiner?
Notes on Fongbe:
Regarding (a), see (e):
(e) Timoun nan pote bagay la vini
Child the carry thing the come
'the child carried the thing over'
(f) Li voye fatra a jete
She sent trash the throw
'She threw the trash away'
What is curious about the direct object in these serial
Notes on HC lexical items:
ayovi, alounvi, alovi, elounvi, elovi, malounvi, tchovi,
tyovi = child still-born or deceased after birth; tiny baby
Danbala Wedo /Ayida Wedo
Nonm = un homme or niM
La = 16 ?
Yo = ye (n.b. in Louisiana Creole 3p pl. is ye) eux
Question on morphosyntax, p. 71-76
1. How do French verb relate to their inflections, i.e.
J'aimerai manger quelque chose
How does aim-er-ai = ai-er-aim ???
2. What is AgrP & TP?
3. What is D-structure? What is S-structure?
Tree-drawing activity. Can you diagram this square-
[AgrP Je [Agr' [aimi-er]-a] [TP [T' t [VP [V' ti ]]]]]]
J'aimera = I will love
1. How is the morphology driving the syntax?
(a) Ben ne parle pas bien le fongbe FINITE
(b) Ne pas parler le fongbe n'est pas bon. NON-F
(c) *Ne parler pas le fongbe n'est pas bon.
3. What is DeGraff trying to say about inflection?
Fr. Je [parl]
HC M pale
4. What is interesting about Louisiana Creole?
(a) Fo tuzhu koupe zerb la
Must always cut grass the
(b) Fo to kup tuzhu zerb la
Must you cut always grass the
Why this difference?
(c) Mo pa bwa driven
I not drink wine
(d) Mo bwa pa driven
I drink not wine
Why is this a problem for Rottet and how
does he solve it?
5. What is interesting about English diachronically?
What happened to English and why did it happen?
Ti dikte IPA
[ bla mana muri aba lakal batima a]
[ dCEb mwu se tfeke fim na ]
Flore Zephir (1998)
1. Why should bilingual education not be remedial
2. Define Language as a problem
Language as a right
Language as a resource
3. Would bilingual education threaten the "social and
political stability of the US"? Exemplify yes/no.
4. How could bilingual education produce students with
5. How did bilingual education become a civil rights
6. How can bilingual communities be seen as a
7. What is "cultural wastage."
8. What is the "Common Underlying Proficiency"
9. What are some cognitive benefits to bilingualism?
10. What are some of the problems in US school
system with respect to bilinguals and Creole-
11. What is the "bipolar" classification of race found
in the US? Why is this so empirically problematic?
Is Haitian Creole a Pro-Drop Language
1. What is pro-drop, what is a null subject?
2. What is curious about:
(a) Genli Jak damou
Seems Jacques is in love
'it seems Jacques is in love.'
(b) (li) te fe fret
*(It) was cold
*(II) faisait froid (Fr.)
'it was cold.'
3. What other empty categories have we talked about?
4. What is a 'referential pronoun' versus an expletive
5. What do these examples suggest with respect to the
notions 'tonic pronoun' versus 'clitic'?
Mwen ale > m ale
Mwen ap pale > m ap pale
6. What is wrong below?
*Li, bel ti abitan an, ap viv nan vil Sen-Mak
She, the lovely little farmer, is living living in Sen-Mak
7. In the question, Ki moun ki genyen, what can one
8. Do Haitian auxiliaries move?
*Te ou we mwen?
Did you see me