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 Title Page
 Personal history of Raymond M....
 Concepts and theories
 Selected projects
 Footnotes and bibliography






Architecture of Raymond M. Hood (paper)
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099625/00001
 Material Information
Title: Architecture of Raymond M. Hood (paper)
Series Title: Architecture of Raymond M. Hood
Physical Description: 27p. : ill., pls., 57 sls.
Language: English
Creator: Leuthold, William
Publisher: William Leuthold
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: May, 1978
Copyright Date: 1978
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Raymond Hood
Historic preservation
Architecture
Art Deco
 Notes
General Note: UF AFA Historic Preservation document 348
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
System ID: UF00099625:00001

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Personal history of Raymond M. Hood
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Concepts and theories
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Selected projects
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Footnotes and bibliography
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
Full Text










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RAYMOND

































bill leuthold -Wi


university of
may, 1978


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PERSONAL HISTORY OF
RAYMOND M. HOOD









RAYMOND MATHEWSON HOOD


Born in Pawtucket, Rhode Island on March 29, 1881, Hood grew
up there with his Irish parents. He attended the Massachusetts
Institute of Technology where, in 1903 he received his bachelor of
science degree. His architectural thesis was in the Gothic Style
which was unusual at the time. The instructors at M.I.T. certainly
thought they had wasted their efforts on this strange student.
The Gothic thesis though assisted Hood in getting a job in the
Boston office of Cram, Goodhue, and Furguson as junior draftsman and
senior office boy, as they had just won the competition for the West
Point Military Academy with their Gothic design. Hood was well liked
by Goodhue who advanced him some money to travel and study in Europe
with the only stipulation being that he could not go anywhere near
Paris or its dreaded Ecole des Beaux Arts. Upon arriving in Europe,
Hood went directly to Paris and the Ecole, returning to Boston in
1911 with a French Government Diploma and the Prix Crevel. 1
He again got a job at Cram, Goodhue, and Furguson, being certain
to not let Goodhue find out about his French education. Soon he was
transferred to the New York office of Cram, Goodhue, and Furguson as
a designer. He was getting on splendidly until it sunk into Goodhue's
mind that Hood had been trained at the Ecole, which convinced him
that young Hood had been ruined as a designer so he carried the ruin
to a practical end by firing him.
After losing the job in New York, Ray ventured to Pittsburgh
where he was offered a job in the office of Henry Hornbostel where
he stayed for three years. He decided that he really didn't like
Pittsburgh and moved back to New York to establish his own practice
in 1914. With the war starting he found that a private practice didn't
pay the bills so he would take any job offered. One of these was a
redesign of a chicken-coop into a bungalow, which the owner wanted
to resemble a boat.2 This job was a success, getting Hood some pub-
licity and more commissions.
This local success kept food on the table until 1922 when Hood
entered the competition for the Chicago Tribune Tower with John Mead
Howells, which they won over an international field. This victory
made Hood famous nationally and won him many commissions.
One of these commissions was for the design of a New York head-
quarters for the American Radiator Company. The design was done in
his familiar Gothic Style with many other features discussed in a
later section.
One notable feature of Ray Hood was that he was always searching
for new ways to express the architecture. His early works were in
Gothic Style or a Beaux Arts eclectic but he soon changed with the
Tower City project and the Interior Exhibit at the Metropolitan Mus-
eum. This new attitude was soon expressed in his new Beaux Arts Ap-
artments with the horizontality expressed in the brick work, and in
the Daily News Building with the red and white vertical bands. He
even began to experiment with the International Style in his Patterson
residence and the Rex Cole Showroom in Bay Ridge with their geometric
planar look.
Through all of these projects Hood had a philosophy for color,
that it should make a major statement. He proposed that all buildings
should be completely covered in color, not just details. He did this










with the McGraw Hill Building in New York by covering the exterior
with a glazed blue-green terra cotta tile. Even the window frames
were painted in this color with an accent stripe of vermillion to
set the window line.
His last major design was Studio City (now Rockefeller Center)
in New York. This project was designed by Hood in association with
several other architects who teamed to create one of the finest
urban spaces in the country. It was designed for the public with
amenities like an ice skating rink, fountains, sculptures and rest-
aurants all tied to the rest of the city by the subway.
Hood died April 14, 1934 after an extended illness at the age
of fifty-three. He only practiced architecture for twenty-three
years and headed his own firm only about twenty years, but at the
time of his death he was the most famous architect in New York.


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ASSOCIATES OF RAYMOND HOOD:


Raymond Hood, always as the designer has been associated with other
architects in the works listed below.

John Mead Howells and Raymond M. Hood, Associated.
The Tribune Tower, Chicago.
Proposed addition to The Tribune Tower, Chicago.
Apartment House, 3 East Eighty-fourth Street, New York City.
The Daily News Building, New York City.
Joseph M. Patterson Residence, Ossining, New York.

Raymond M. Hood and J. Andre Fouilhoux, Associated.
St. Vincent de Paul Asylum, Tarrytown, New York.

Raymond M. Hood and J. Gordon Jeeves, Associated.
National Radiator Building, London England.

Raymond M. Hood, Godley and Fouilhoux, and H.V.K. Henderson, Assoc.
The Masonic Temple and Scottish Rite Cathedral, Scranton, Pa.

The Firm of Kenneth M. Murchison, and Raymond Hood, Godley and Fouilhoux,
Associated.
The Beaux Arts Apartments, New York City.

Raymond Hood, Godley amd Fouilhoux; Voorhees, Gmelin and Walker,
and Holabird and Root, Associated.
Proposed Trans-Atlantic Steamships for the United States Lines.

Raymond Hood, Godley, and Fouilhoux.
Proposed Methodist Episcopal Church, Columbus, Ohio.
Competition, Rockland County Court House.
Addition to the DuPont Building, Wilmington, Delaware.
Competition, Girard College Chapel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Rex Cole Showroom, Bay Ridge, Brooklyn, and Flushing, Queens,
New York
McGraw-Hill Building, New York City.

Reinhard and Hofmeister, Corbett, Harrison and MacMurray, and Raymond
Hood, Godley and Fouilhoux, Associated.
Radio City, New York City.




Source: North, A.T., Contemporary American Architects, Raymond M. Hood,
New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1931. p.19.












CONCEPTS AND THEORIES


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CONCEPTS AND THEORIES:


Color: The use of color was an important element in all of Raymond
Hood's buildings built after the American Radiator Building.
The Radiator Building was notable because of its lack of color,
being black with gold leaf trim.
Shortly after this building, he wrote in an editorial,"Several
three or four foot colored stripes running the length of a build-
ing will not suffice to color a skyscraper. The entire building
will eventually have a distinct color. To color only the arch-
itectural embellishments and a few outstanding cornices and
facades will appear like the rose decorations on a woman's white
dress, hardly noticeable."
"New York of the future, I believe, will consist mostly of
gaily colored buildings. Instead of walking down a drab stone
lined street, one will be enlivened by drastic change of color
schemes. No matter what the colors be, just so long as they
vary, the harmony on such a scale will be a revelation. The
tendency for most colors to neutralize themselves will soften
most of the abruptness." g
These theories can be seen in buildings such as the Beaux
Arts Apartments with their horizontal bands of red and white
brick, the Daily News Building with its vertical stripes of red
and white, the McGraw Hill Building with its blue-green glazed
exterior, and most of all in the large areas of primary colors
in the Century of Progress World Fair in Chicago.

Verticality: Hood's emphasis in the vertical goes back to his college
thesis when he chose Gothic as his stylerof building. The Gothic
Style has long been used in European churches to give a vertical
emphasis. In the Tribune Tower, Hood chose to use the Gothic
Style to give the building the importance that it required. Tall
piers running full height extend the building visually bryond its
actual height.
He abstracted this in his later skyscrapers, notably the
Daily News Building by having piers separating each window open-
ing, creating vertical stripes going full height.

Horizontality: In some buildings Hood chose to emphasize the horizon-
tality. In the McGraw-Hill Building Hood used the idea that the
building is primarily built to provide shelter for its occupants.
Through this he eliminated all unnecessary ornament and provided
the maximum window space possible. The windows naturally took
a ribbon form around the perimeter at each floor level. He then
went one step further by emphasizing the horizontality by taking
out allthe vertical muntins in the windows and painting a vermil-
lion stripe at the top of the windows on each floor level.
In this case Raymond Hood expressed the horizontal as an
expression of function.

Technology: Raymond Hood was always a free thinker, never relying on
one method of building or style of architecture. He constantly
changed styles, from Gothic to Beaux Arts Eclectic to Art Deco
to International Style to Art Moderne and in these changes he









dealt with many technological changes. In his International
style Rex Cole Showroom in Bay Ridge he experimented with a
new exterior skin, that of one-eighth inch thick steel plate
instead of masonry which was usually used in this type of con-
struction. The details are mentioned later in the paper. He
also used technology in his design of furniture for the exhibit
in'the Metropolitan Museum, using curved metals and other recent
materials. He also furnished the Beaux Art Apartments with the
latest of modern equipment.

Efficiency: Interest in efficiency was always a major issue of Hood.
He persued efficiency in every aspect of design.
Efficiency of city space: When he decided that New York
was becoming too crowded Hood designed his Tower City plan, which
allowed for seven acres of open space for streets and parks for
every one acre of building space at the ground level. Before his
proposal there was one-half acre open space for each one acre.
Efficiency of building space: In all his buildings there
was consideration of the occupants through giving every space
access to windows for ventilation and light. In the American
Radiator Building one corner had no access to light and vent-
ilation because a building was located there so Hood located the
stair tower there, placing a utilitarian function in a utilitarian
space. The Patterson residence was designed according to plan
function with a skin to enclose the space. No consideration was
given to exterior aesthetics as the function was more important.
Efficiency of building style: After the American Radiator
Building, Hood stopped making handcrafted details, electing in-
stead to use simple and efficient details. Much of this is due
to the depression and that to use extravagant detail would be
too expensive and would not be viewed proper by the masses of
poor people. He began to use color as a design element, paint-
ing on details through the use of large areas of the same color
being set off by a touch of a complementary color. This can be
seen in the Daily News Building, National Radiator in London,
McGraw-Hill, Rex Cole and many more.

Community: Hood was always concerned about creating space for the
people to use. This is evident in the Tower City plan where he
tried to make more space for the people by putting them higher
in the air, opening up more space at the ground level for people
to walk around in and enjoy light and fresh air. In the Daily
News Building he gave the whole lobby to the people as an exhibit-
ion space that they could visit freely. Rockefeller Center is
considered the finest exterior space in the country with its
public skating rink, theaters, gardens, sculptures, fountains,
and restaurants all open to the public.














SELECTED PROJECTS









CYRIL CRIMMINS BUNGALOW: 1915


An outstanding adaptive re-use project, Hood converted an old
chicken-coop into a boat house-bungalow. It had a marvelous nautical
air about it and created quite a bit of local fame for young Hood.









JOHN GREEN RESIDENCE:


New York City: 1920


This was one of Hood's
early works which shows
the influence of his
Beaux Arts training. The
commission, which was
actually just an alt-
eration to an existing
apartment was done in
a symmetrical organiza-
tion using classic de-
tails. The arched French
doors, canopied balcony,
and ornamental center
window in the stucco fac-
ade all reflect the train-
ing of Raymond Hood.









TRIBUNE TOWER:


r Chicago: 1922


S iiRaymond Hood, 40 years old but
r only 10 years out of school
S' teamed with John Mead Howells
lITI to win one of the most import-
ant international competitions
ever held. The victory propel-
Si led him into international at-
tention and won him many new
S| |commissions. It also made him
the subject of many criticisms
Sias most architectural experts
S' considered his gothic skyscraper
famous critic of them all, Louis
Il l Sullivan, compared the winning
Design with the second place fin-
I isher, Eliel Saarinen, and his
I' graceful skyscraper. He stated
That the competition was to sel-
g ,|ect the most beautiful office
IJ building in the world, and that
Saarinen's design, although his
I first skyscraper, "grasped the
SI intricate problem of the lofty
steel framed structure, the sig-
nificance of its origins and held
the solution unwaveringly in mind,
in such wisdom as no American
---1- architect has yet shownthe req-
uired depth of thought and stead-
fastness of purpose to achieve."4
S'He says of the Hood design,"Con-
fronted by the limped eye of an-
alysis, the first prize trembles
and falls, self confessed, crumb-
ling to the ground. Visibly it
is not architecture in the sense
S, -herein expounded. Its formula is
r" literary: words, words, words.
4. It is an imaginary .'ructure, not imaginative. Starting with false pre-
mise, it was doomed to false conclusion, and it is clear enough, more-
over, that the conclusion was the real premise, the mental process in
reverse of appearance. The predetermination of a huge mass of imag-
inary masonry at the top very naturally required the appearance of
huge imaginary masonry piers reaching up from the ground to give im-
aginary support. Such weird process of reasoning is curious. It say-








ors of the nursery where chil-
dren bet imaginary millions.
Is it possible that its author
in his heart of hearts, or
his head of heads, really be-
lieved that bathos and power
are synonyms? It looks that I
way. It also looks like the
output of a mind untrained
in the mastery of ideas, in
the long discipline of real-
ities and the test of subst-
antial grounds. It looks also
like the wandering of a mind
unaccustomed to distinguish
between architecture and scene
painting." 5
This very strong criticism
fortunately had little effect ..:,,., i
on the masses of companies
looking for distinctive arch- .*-.
itecture to make a corporate
statement, as he was soon over-
whelmed with requests for his
services. This popularity
was to last for the rest of
his too short career.














5

Eliel Saarinen's second place design
for the competition for the Tribune
Tower, Chicago, Illinois.








MORI RESTAURANT:


New York City: 1924


This is again an ex-
ample of Hood's clas-
sic influence with
its colonnaded front
facade in a symmet-
rical arrangement of
a stucco wall. The
interior though is
arranged in a split
level manner with
upper and lower din-
ing rooms and lobbies
separated by an arcade.
The kitchen is loc-
ated below the dining
rooms and food is
brought up in a stair
or dumbwaiter to a
pantry on the lower
dining room level.









THE AMERICAN RADIATOR BUILDING:

New York City: 1924 I


Ray Hood received this commission
directly because of his winning
design in the Tribune Tower com-
petition. The building is unlike
any other office in the country
in that it is faced entirely in
black brick with golden colored
stone trim, working together to
give it a rich black and gold dec-
orative effect. One interesting
feature is that it has over 90% of
the floor space within 25 feet of
the windows. This feature demonst-
rated the fact that Hood was int-
erested in the comfort and conven-
ience of the users of the building.
Hood said of the building, "The
radical departure from standard
practice arose from a feeling that
so many office buildings are mono-
tonous if not ugly."
"Monotony and ugliness in of-
fice building seem to come from the
fact that windows are actually
black holes, and the regular spac-
ing of these black holes makes a
building look like waffles or door-
mats hung up to dry."
"The solution to this problem
lay in finding a color of wall that
would tie together the black holes
and make them less apparent. Rather
timidly black was suggested, but
with fears of producing a gloomy
result."
"But as the building progres-
sed we found it struck a very cheer-
ful note. The idea of gold trim-
ming came next and caught the fancy '
of us all. Precedent, at least in I
Europe, pointed to other periods of '''
architecture where black had been
used effectively, particularly,
for example, in the Grarde Place of Hotel de Ville, Brussels. In
Pompeii, also, and in France at the time of the Empire, whole rooms
were done in black with only a slight relief of color."
"We felt that the old problem in office building design demanded
a new solution and that just as other architects have broken away
from conventional treatment in certain directions and raised the
standard to higher levels, we might contribute a new plan of color-
ing which would make for progress.".







RAYMOND M. HOOD RESIDENCE:
Stamford, Conn. 1925


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McCORMICK MAUSOLEUM:

Rockford, Illinoiss 1927


A big change from the work
Hood had been doing, this Maus-
oleum had a very rustic, pict-
uresque look to it.







____________________________ 9 ----




______________ i _____________


TOWER BUILDINGS:

New York City: 1927


City congestion, having be-
come a problem in New York by
this time, caused Raymond Hood
to submit this proposal in 1927.
He stated that the city was being
over crowded with buildings tak-
ing up one acre of land for each
one half acre of street and open
space. What was suggested was
a series of fifty story buildings
which would take the place of the
crowded, low buildings allowing
seven acres of open space for
each one acre of building. This
scheme naturally achieved better
lighting and ventilation in each
apartment while allowing much
more open space for parks and
streets, easing the overcrowding.
This solution had advantages
over others of the time in that
no double decked streets, sunken
grade crossings, or elevated side-
walks were required.
The concept for a tower city
was admittedly influenced by the
work by Le Corbusier in France at
this time.









INTERIOR EXHIBIT, METROPOLITAN MUSEUM:


New York City: 1929


Hood's exhibits of "A Business Executive's Office" and "An Apart-
ment House Loggia" showed his ideas in modern design as it related to
industrial design. All the furnishings took a mass production look,
as if they could be made by the millions in a factory. Even with this
look the pieces had an air of elegance to them, with the smooth curved
metal members and the repetitive use of verticals and horizontals.
The starkness of the displays was due to the nature of the exhibit
itself, where each one was to be grouped into a single room but with-
out the personality of occupancy.
Color also was an important element in Hood's displays as he
used bold colors in chairs and sofas with less dominant colors on the
walls.


A Business Executive's Office


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TOWER CITY AND APARTMENT BRIDGES:
New York City: 1930

An idea of how to relieve congestion in the city. Hood pro-
posed to build a series of bridges with apartments on top.


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BEAUX ARTS APARTMENTS:


New York City: 1930


Designed in association with Kenneth M. Murchison,these apartments
were designed, financed, and built by a group of New York architects.
The buildings were constructed of brick, with color patterns creating
a horizontal emphasis by having light color brick alternating.with
red and black brick at the window line of each floor. The windows
were standard steel casement painted red to follow the color comp-
osition.
The seventeen story buildings were arranged with the bottom twelve
stories being flats or studios as they were called. Each studio was
twenty-two feet by thirteen feet with the casement windows taking up
the entire street end of the room. They all had a corridor opening
from the hallway, in which the bathroom and kitchen were connected.
The kitchen was actually a closet which, when opened would use its
doors as walls, making a private space that could not be seen from the
dining area. The apartments also had a large pantry which contained
an electric refrigerator, a rarity at the time, and much storage space
for food or supplies. The main space was very adaptable in that it
had "flop-down" beds which fitted neatly into the wall when not in use.
The upper floors change in that they are of two and three room ar-
rangements with the main rooms taking up one and one-half stories and
the bedrooms only one. This gave each apartment a split level which
made for some very appealing spaces. The main spaces were thirteen
feet in height and larger in floor space than those on the lower floors.
All units and corridors had a compressed cork floor which was sup-
posed to be stronger than wood while providing a more resillient qual-
ity for sound reduction. Room service was also offered to all so the
architects in residence would not have to take valuable time from their
work to cook.









THE DAILY NEWS BUILDING:


New York City: 1930


The News Building, designed in-assoc-
iation with John Mead Howells, was a
building designed with extreme vertical
emphasis. This verticality was achieved
through the use of uninterrupted vert-
ical piers of white vitreous brick with
Slspandrel panels of dark red and dull
black bricks laid in pattern. The win-
dow shades are of a red color harmon-
izing with the spandrel panels. This
detail creates dark and light vertical
stripes making for a strong verticality.
SI IThese red and white stripes tempted many
critics to refer to the building as
"The American Flag".
The interior lobby was designed for
the public to help advertise the news-
paper. The circular lobby was faced
with large slabs of black structural
glass separated by narrow silver strips.
p Inside this lobby was a large revolving
globe which was painted in full color.
One aspect of the building was that
it demonstrated how Raymond Hood handled
his clients. Captain Joseph Patterson,
the owner of the paper wanted a very ut-
ilitarian building of about six stories
with some space for offices. He told
Hood to come up with some solutions and
that he would come over to make the final
decision. Hood, knowing that Patterson
was a businessman realized that the only
way he could get him to decide on a good
architectural solution was to show him
that a taller and more elaborate solution
*. would be more profitable. Six or eight
schemes were presented to Patterson that
day ranging from the six story structure
to skyscrapers of over fifty stories,
with the most economical being somewhere
under forty stories. This scheme, al-
14. though costing about five million dollars
more than the utilitarian design, would
bring in about one hundred thousand dol-
lars per year to help defray expenses in
running the newspaper. When he saw the
figures he said, "Not a chance, Ray, not a chance." Hood hit a deep
depression upon hearing this news. Patterson, waiting until the effects
of the news had settled in, went over to Hood, put his arm around him
and said, "Listen, Ray, if you want to build your god damn tower, go
ahead and do it."7 Fortunately Ray Hood got what he wanted as now the
building is considered one of the landmarks of New York City.










































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Interior of the New York Daily News Building, featuring
structural black glass walls with a colored globe in the
center.


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JOSEPH PATTERSON RESIDENCE:

Ossining, N.Y. 1930


This residence for the owner of the Daily News was designed
primarily to secure-ideal interior conditions with no sacrifices
made of them for exterior appearance. Allrooms and windows were
then designed and a skin was wrapped over everything remaining.
The house appears to be a copy of the international style and very
well might be but the design actually came about independently as
a reflection of function. All the individual shapes and sizes were
visually unified by the use of pale pastel colors on the exterior
surfaces.







PROPOSAL FOR UNITED STATES STEAMSHIP LINES: 1930


The firms of Hood, Godley, and Fouilhoux; Voorhees, Gmelin, and
Walker; and Holabird and Root collaborated on this design for the
United States Lines For a redesign of their trans- Atlantic ships.
What resulted was a design consisting of many of Raymond Hood's
architectural details, including aspects of the interior exhibition
and the lobby of the Daily News Building. The main idea was to ach-
ieve the most dramatic and futuristic interior of the time for a space
in which the rich vacationers could enjoy themselves.


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-JEi Ptjj ,f ^ REX COLE SHOWROOM:

S ' Bay Ridge: 1931

This refrigerator sales
showroom is beginning to show
i an influence of the inter-
national style, with the use
of geometric forms grouped
in a way to form a single
architectural statement.
SHood did not carry this style
ih se t w out to its fullest though
Sin that it is a symmetrical
design and it is painted in
Sa dark gray with red accents
while a true international
design would be assymetrical
and painted white.
It is unusual that Hood
used a refrigerator as a des-
ign element, but it caps the
functional building in a way
to emphasize the architect-
ure and advertise the prod-
uct.
Hood experimented with
a new building system in the
structure, that of welded
steel plates on the exterior.
These plates were one-half
inch thick, four feet high
and one story high, and were
welded to four inch channel
struts at two foot centers.
These struts were then bolted
to the standard steel struct-
ure. The plates were weld-
ed together and then buffed
., smooth to conceal the joint
r& where desired. The plates
all came with the shop paint but a primer was applied with the finish
coat going on the top. All interior surfaces of the steel plate were
covered with one and one-half inch thickness of "Sprayo Flake" insul-
ation which with some other insulating materials achieved the same insul-
ating values of masonry construction. No expansion joints were required
anywhere because it was estimated that due to extreme temperature changes
the building (sixty-eight feet in length) would expand and contract only
one-sixteenth of an inch. This system resulted in savings in initial
cost as well as weight without losing anything of value.








REX COLE SHOWROOM:

Long Island: 1931


This showroom for
refrigerators brilliantly
advertises its product
by taking the form of a
refrigerator. The form
is accentuated by the
use of white vitrified
brick which from a dis-
tance resembles the por-
celain enamel finish on
the refrigerators. The
roof contains a cylind- 4
rical element which is ,
also very similar to that '
on the refrigerators.
The interior space
is tall and painted in
bright colors to create
a contrast to the glossy
white items of sale.
The windows are very tall
to emit much light.


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McGRAW-HILL BUILDING:


New York City: 1931

With the depression hav-
ing great influence on arch-
itecture at this time all build-
ings began to show the arch-
itect's new feeling towards
the elimination of ornament-
ation. This is seen clear-
ly in the McGraw-Hill build-
ing, where Hood used no cut
stone or hand made details at I
all. All materials were man-
ufactuied in a plant and ship- .
ped to the site, a practice
that was just beginning to
take place in this era. 'S
This building was one
which strongly expounded Hood's
theory that, "architecture is
the business of manufacturing
shelter."6 The lack of ornament
although now an economic nec- i
cessity, was not understood
by the public and many com-
plaints were issued about the
building, since the people had
no precedence to judge the
building to. .
In direct contrast with
the Daily News building, this
structure was designed with a
horizontal emphasis, with win-
dows arranged according to each
floor instead of in vertical
piers. The horizontality can
be seen in every detail, down
to the elimination of vertical
muntins in the double hung win-
dows.
The building also illust-
rated the Hood concept of color
in skyscrapers, being of one
color as a whole rather than .
just coloring details. The sur-
face was covered in a blue-
green glazed terra cotta with
the metal windows painted in a similar color. A stripe of vermillion
was painted on the top rails of the window sash, across face and sides
of mullions and the exterior columns. This stripe adds both to the
emphasis of horizontality and color.








Another aspect of the building was that of streamlining, with
horizontal strips of polished metal and curved corners in the wall
planes. The metal strips were accentuated by their placement on
a very'dark wall surface, and were carried into the window mullions
and transoms at the entry.
The streamlining effect was carried to the exterior through the
use of the glazed terra cotta surface. This glazing gave a futuristic
appearance to the building, picking up the changein the sky and sun
patterns. Under a bright blue sky the color was bright and blue,
while in the early morning it would pick up an opalescent tint that
would change rapidly with the rising of the sun until it would re-
flect a brilliant sun-spot surrounded with its corona (as seen in
the proceeding illustration).









CENTURY OF PROGRESS EXHIBITION:


Chicago, Illinois: 1933


The designs seen on these pages were early concepts of the
electrical exhibits at the fair and were drawn in 1927. The designs
contained many of Hood's theories on color, with the buildings paint-
ed with large areas in red, yellow and blue, the primary colors.
The interiors contained many Art Deco details.


4 I


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RADIO CITY: (ROCKEFELLER CENTER)


New York City: 1932

Located on 500,000 square feet in the center of New York City
this group of buildings has often been called the finest example of
urban space in the country. It was conceived in 1926 as a new opera
house downtown and grew onto one of the core elements of America's
greatest metropolis, accommodating close to 50,000 occupants and
160,000 visitors daily. The center was built for the Rockefellers,
one of America's richest families and contained 11 major buildings.
The center was constructed during the depression and gave back
to the city more space, art, and enjoyment than any city development
in the United States before or since, whether private or public spon-
sored.
The center is now known more for the planning than for individual
buildings, which many consider ugly. The open spaces are the features
which attract the visitors, but these spaces would be nonexistent with-
out the tall slabs of limestone which constitute the structures of
the center. These tall buildings give the open spaces a surealistic
feeling, like being in a very tall forest of buildings. This contrast
makes the spaces more exciting and therefore more popular than it
would be without them.
One appealing aspect of the center is its lack of automobiles.
This is due to the fact that all public spaces are on a level below
the streets so that they are out of sight and sound and smell of
the cars and trucks of the street. Also all deliveries are made at
a level below the plaza. There is
V` f i .1' 1 also a parking garage for people
S 1 ; who must drive. The entire center
is tied into the subway system so
that people can visit for lunch
Sor to enjoy a lunch break skating.











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City (Rockefeller

Center)


The one chosen was

a variation of the

lower right example.














FOOTNOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY


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FOOTNOTES:

1. Pencil Points, v.9, May, 1928, p.263.

2. Ibid, p.263.

3. Ibid, p.567.
4. Architectural Record, v.53, Feb. 1923, p.153.

5. Ibid, p.156.
6. New York Times, Jan. 20, 1924, sec.IX, p.1, col.7.

7. American Institute of Architect's Journal, v.58, Sept. 1972, p.25
8. North, A.T., Contemporary American Architects, Raymond M. Hood,
New York, New York: McGraw-Hill Inc. 1931. P.7.








PHOTOGRAPH REFERENCE:

1. Pencil Points, v.9, May, 1928, p.269.

2. Pencil Points, v.9, May, 1928, p.262.

3. North, A.T., Contemporary American Architects, Raymond M. Hood,
New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1931. p.21.

4. Ibid, p.33.

5. Architectural Record, v.53, Feb. 1923, p.155.
6. North, p.23.

7. Ibid. p.27.

8. Ibid, p.38.

9. Ibid, p.43.

10. American Architect, v.132, July 5, 1927, p.68.

11. North, p.70.

12. Ibid, p.86.

13. American Architect, v.137, March, 1930, p.22.
14. North, p.79.

15. Ibid, p.82.
16. Ibid, p.98.

17. Ibid, p.95.

18. Ibid, p.103.

19. Ibid, p.114.

20. Ibid, p.107.

21. Ibid, p.109.

22. Ibid, p.88.

23. Ibid, p.89.
24. American Architect, v.139, April, 1931, p.33.

25. Architectural Forum, v.124, Jan,Feb. 1966, p.42.

26. Ibid, p.43.

27. American Architect, v.139, April, 1931, p.34,35.








SLIDE REFERENCEs

Notes Some slides were used for the presentation that were borrowed
from the UF slide collection and are unavailable except for
presentation but these have been replaced by similar slides
from my own collection.

1. Boat and New York City; Source unknown.

2. Cyril Crimmins Bungalow; Pencil Points, May, 1928.

3. John Green Residence; North A.T. Contemporary American Architects,
Raymond M. Hood; New York: 1931. p.21.
4. Chicago Tribune Tower; North. p.33.

5. Chicago Tribune Tower, Entrance; North. p.34.

6. Chicago Tribune Tower, Detail; North. p.35.

7. Chicago Tribune Tower, Design; Pencil Points, May 1928.

8. Mori Restaurant, New York; North. p.23.

9. Mori Restaurant, Drawing; Pencil Points, May, 1928.

10. American Radiator Building; Architectural Record, May, 1924.

11. American Radiator Building, Entrance; North. p.28.

12. Raymond Hood Residence; North. p.38.

13. McCormick Mausoleum, Rockford, Illinois; North. p.43.
14. Masonic Temple and Scottish Rite Cathedral, Scranton, Pa.
Pencil Points, 1922.

15. Ibid.
16. Ibid. Presentation Drawings.

17. Ibid. Construction Documents.

18. Ibid. Presentation Drawings.

19. Ibid. Construction Documents.

20. Ibid. Construction Documents.

21. Morris Residence, Greenwich Conn. North. p.47.

22. Central Methodist Episcopal Church Proposal; North. p.56.

23. Beaux Arts Institute Competition, New York; Pencil Points, May, 1928.









24. Ibid. Fred Hirons, The Winner.

25. Ibid. William Van Alen's Third Place Entry.

26. Ibid. Raymond Hood's Entry.

27. N.B.C. Interiors; Architectural Record, July, 1928.

28. Ibid.

29. Ibid.

30. 3 Eighty-Fourth Street Apartments, New York; North. p.52.

31. National Radiator Building, London; North. p.72.

32. National Radiator Building, London; American Architect, Jan.5, 1928.

33. Ibid. Elevation.

34. Ibid. Details.

35. A Business Executive's Office, Exhibit in the Metropolitan Museum;
North. p.70.

36. An Apartment House Loggia, Exhibit in the Metropolitan Museum;
North. p.71.

37. The Beaux Ar:s Apartments, New York City; North. p.74.

38. The Daily News Building, New York City; North, p.79.

39. The Daily News Building, Lobby; North. p.82.
40. The Daily News Building, Design Sketches; Pencil Points, May, 1928.

41. Tower City and Bridge Apartments; North. p.86.

42. Proposed Trans-Atlantic Steamships for the United States Lines;
North. p.93.

43. Proposed Trans-Atlantic Steamships for the Unites States Lines,
The Ball Room; North. p.94.

44. Proposed Trans-Atlantic Steamships for the United States Lines,
The Ball Room; North. p.95.

45. Proposed Scheme for the Century of Progress Exhibition, Chicago;
North. p.88.

46. Electrical Exhibit, Century of Progress Exhibition, Chicago;
American Architect, July, 1933.

47. Ibid. Interior.

48. Joseph Patterson Residence; North. p.98.

49. Rex Cole Showroom, Bay Ridge, New York; North. p.103.









50. Rex Cole Showroom, Bay Ridge, New York; North. p.102.
51. Rex Cole Showroom, Long Island, New York; North. p.114.

52. Rex Cole Showroom, Long Island, New York; North. p.115.

53. The McGraw-Hill Building, New York City; North. p.105.
54. The McGraw-Hill Building, Entrance; North. p.106.
55. Radio City (Rockefeller Center), New York City; A.I.A. Journal,
September, 1972.
56. Radio City (Rockefeller Center), New York City, Sculptures.
Architectural Forum, Jan.Feb. 1966.
57. Hood Cartoon; Pencil Points, May, 1928.







BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Book:

North, Arthur Tappan, Contemporary American Architects, Raymond M. Hood,
New York, New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1931.

Magazines:

Architectural Record, v.53, Feb. 1923, p.151-157.

Architectural Record, v.55, May, 1934, p.473-477.

Architectural Record, v.64, July, 1928, p.25-37.

Architectural Record, v.65, March, 1929, p.213.

Architectural Record, v.69, April, 1931, p.307,308.

Architectural Record, v.71, June, 1932, p.419,420.

Architectural Record, v.72, Dec. 1932, p.397-411.

American Architect, v.132, July 5, 1927, p.67,68

American Architect, v.133, Jan. 5, 1928, p.17-19,29.

American Architect, v.135, March 5, 1929, p.315-322.

American Architect, v.137, March, 1930, p.22-26.

American Architect, v.141, Jan. 1932, p.28-31.

American Architect, v.142, Sept. 1932, p.36,37.

American Architect, v.142, Dec. 1932, p.41-54.

American Institute of Architects Journal, v.58, Sept, 1972, p.23-26.

Architectural Review, v.65, June, 1929, p.289-299.

Architectural Forum, v.124, Jan,Feb., 1966, p. 42-47.

Pencil Points, v.8, 1927, p.85-93.

Pencil Points, v.9, May 1928, p.258-269.

Pencil Points, v.17, Jan. 1936, p.17-32.

Newspapers:

New York Times, Jan. 20, 1924, sec.IX, p.1, col.7.

New York Times, Feb. 21, 1926, sec.X, p.2, col.2.








Newspapers: (cont.)


New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,

New York Times,


Oct. 10,

Feb. 13,

Feb. 20,

April 1,

May 13,

Dec. 23,

Feb. 17,

Feb. 24,

July 21,

Oct. 20,

Nov. 22,


1926,

1927,

1927,

1927,

1927,

1928,

1929,

1929,

1929,

1929,

1929,


Dec. 7, 1930,

Feb. 27, 1931.

April 26, 1931,

Sept. 13, 1931,

Oct. 25, 1931,

Nov. 1, 1931,

Nov. 10, 1931,

Nov. 30, 1931,

Dec. 4, 1931,

Jan. 17, 1932,

Feb. 16, 1932,

April 14, 1932,

May 10, 1932,

Aug. 29, 1932,


sec.XI, p.19, col.8.

sec.X, p.2, col,1.

sec.X, p.14, col.2.

p.13, col,l.

p.29, col.1.

sec. XI,XII, p.2, col.6.

sec. IX, p.12, col.4.

sec.V, p.12

sec.II, p.3, col.1.

p.50, col.2.

p.49, col.2.

sec. XII,XIII, p.2, col.4.

p.13, col.5.

sec.XI, p.7, col.1.

sec.V, p.1.

sec.XI, p.6, col.1.

sec.V, p.6

p.27, col.8.

p.17, col.8.

p.25, col.8.

sec.II, p.2, col.4.

p.23, col.7.

p.15, col.4.

p.19, col.5.

p.15, col.5.


Dec. 23, 1932, p.15, col.6.







Newspapers: (cont.)

New York Times, Aug.

New York Times, Aug.

New York Times, Aug.

New York Times, Aug.

New York Times, Aug.

New York Times, Aug.


15,

15,

17,

19,

19,

21,


1934,

1934,

1934,

1934,

1934,

1934,


p.16, col.3.

p.17, col.1.

p.15, col.5.

sec.IX, p.6, col.3.

sec.X,XI, p.1, col.3.

p.16, col.4.


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