Title: Moral judgment
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 Material Information
Title: Moral judgment a comparison of training effects on professional and paraprofessional counselors
Physical Description: x, 76 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Zahner, Carl John, 1948-
Publication Date: 1977
Copyright Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Paraprofessionals in social service   ( lcsh )
Student counselors -- Training of   ( lcsh )
Judgment (Ethics)   ( lcsh )
Counseling -- Study and teaching   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 71-76.
Statement of Responsibility: by Carl J. Zahner.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099603
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000206776
oclc - 04042215
notis - AAX3570

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MORAL JUDGMENT: A COMPARISON OF TRAINING EFFECTS ON
PROFESSIONAL AND PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS















By

CARL J. ZAHNER


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY















UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA






















To the women in my life:

My mother who made it all possible in the beginning

and my wife with whose help, in the end, anything is possible.

















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author would like to acknowledge the assistance of his

committee members, Dr. E. L. Tolbert, Dr. R. McDavis, and Dr. R.

Selfridge for their invaluable assistance in the preparation of this

paper. I would also like to thank Jim Hiett for his valuable idea,

Pete for his distractions, and Sharon Anne for her love and patience.


















TABIE OF CONTENTS



Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . iii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . viii

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 1

Purpose of the Study . . . . . . ..... 1
Need for the Study . . . . . . . . .. 2
Significance of the Study . . . . . . . . 4
Definition of Terms . . . . . . . .. ... 6
Research Questions . . . . . . . .. ... 8
Organization of the Study . . . . . . . .. 8

CHAPTER II RELATED LITERATURE . . . . . . . . 9

Ethics in Counseling . . . . . . . . . 9
Philosophical Arguments . . . . . . . . .. 17
Measurement of Moral Judgment and Self-Concept and
Altruism .... .. . . . . . . . .. 19
Moral Judgment . . . . . . . . ... 19
Self-Concept and Altruism . . . . . . .. 23
Professionals Versus Paraprofessionals . . . . .. 24

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY . . . . . . .. 31

Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Instrumentation . . . . . . . ... . .. 32
Defining Issues Test . . . . . . . .. 33
Tennessee Self-Concept Scale . . . . . .. 33
Helping Dispositions Scales . . . . . . 34
Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Programs used in the Study . . . . . . . .. 37
Santa Fe Community College, Human Services
Aid Program . . . . . . . . .. 37
University of Florida, Counselor
Education Department . . . . . . .. 37
Hypotheses . . . . . . . . ... . . . 38
Statistical Procedures . . . . . . . ... 40

CHAPTER IV RESULTS . . . . . . . . . . .. 43











Analysis of the Data . . . . . . . . . 44
Demographic Data Analysis ...... .......... 53

CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . 62

Discussion .......... . . . . .. . 64
Conclusions ................. . . .. 68
Limitations ...... . . . . . . . 69
Recommendations . . . . . . . . . 69

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 71

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . ....... 77

















LIST OF TABLES


Page

Table 1 Distribution of Subjects into Subgroups . . ... 43

Table 2 Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining
Issues Test Mean Scores of the Professional and
Paraprofessional Groups. . . . . . . . .. 46

Table 3 Means of the Defining Issues Test Scores for the
Beginning and Ending Professional Trainees and the
Professional Counselors . . . . . . . . 46

Table 4 Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining
Issues Test Mean Scores of the Beginning and Ending
Professional Trainees and the Professional Counselors . 47

Table 5 Means of the Defining Issues Test Scores for the
Beginning and Ending Paraprofessional Trainees and
the Paraprofessional Counselors. . . . . . . .. 48

Table 6 Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining
Issues Test Mean Scores of the Beginning and Ending
Paraprofessional Trainees and the Paraprofessional
Counselors . . . . . . . . .. . . . 48

Table 7 Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining
Issues Test Mean Scores of the Beginning and Ending
Trainees and Graduates of the Two Program . . . ... 49

Table 8 Correlation Coefficients on Relationships Between
Moral Judgment and Self-Concept for the Total Sample
and for the Professional and Paraprofessional Groups
Taken Separately . . . . . . . . .. . . 50

Table 9 Correlation Coefficients on Relationships Between
Moral Judgment and Altruism Scores for the Total
Sample and for the Professional and Paraprofessional
Groups Taken Separately. . . . . . . . . . 51

Table 10 Correlation Coefficients Between the Defining
Issues Test and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale
Scores for the Six Subgroups . . . . . . . .. 52










Table 11 Correlation Coefficients Between the Defining
Issues Test and the Helping Dispositions Scales for
the Six Subgroups . . . . . . . . . 53

Table 12 Analyses of Variance Testing for Differences
in Mean Moral Development Scores Across Sex,
Preferred Counseling Technique, and Religious
Preference . . . . . . . . . . . ... 54

Table 13 Analyses of Variance for Moral Development
Mean Scores Across Sex and Split Between
Professional and Paraprofessional Subgroups . . . ... 55

Table 14 Mean Moral Development Scores for Counselors
Preferring a Particular Counseling Technique . . ... 56

Table 15 Correlations of Moral Judgment Score with
Age for the Total Sample and the Professional
and Paraprofessional Groups Taken Separately . . . . 57

Table 16 Sample Frequency Data on Sex of Subjects,
Total and by Group . . . . . . . . .. .... 57

Table 17 Age Information for the Sample and Subgroups ... . 59

Table 18 Mean Self-Concept Scores for the Six
Subgroups and Results of Analysis of Variance
Comparing the Subgroups Across Training Periods . . . 60

Table 19 Analysis of Variance Data Comparing
Professional and Paraprofessional Groups on Self-
Concept Scores . . . . . . . . .. . . 61


















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


MORAL JUDGMENT: A COMPARISON OF TRAINING EFFECTS ON
PROFESSIONAL AND PARAPROFESSIONAL COUNSELORS

By

Carl J. Zahner

April, 1977

Chairman: E. L. Tolbert
Major Department; Counselor Education


Problem

Professional ethics have recently become of great importance to

the counseling profession. The training of counselors in the

principles of ethics is therefore of importance to Counselor

Educators. Paraprofessionals as a new phenomenon in counseling have

been the center of a great deal of research. Many professionals have

expressed concern over the use of paraprofessionals in areas of

counseling which are beyond their competence.

This study was undertaken to investigate the effect professional

and paraprofessional counseling training has on the moral judgment

of its students. Also investigated was the question of differences

in moral judgment between professional and paraprofessional

counselors.











Methodology

The sample included professional and paraprofessional counselors

and trainees. The professional group consisted of graduates and

students from the Counselor Education Department of the University

of Florida. The paraprofessional group consisted of graduates and

students from the Human Services Aid Program of Santa Fe Community

College in Gainesville, Florida. The professional and paraprofessional

samples were split into three training subgroups, graduates with at

least one year of counseling experience, students beginning training,

and students ending training. There were six subgroups in all, three

of professional counselors and trainees and three of paraprofessional

counselors and trainees.

Each subject was administered three paper and pencil instruments,

the Defining Issues Test to measure moral development, the Tennessee

Self-Concept Scale to measure self-concept, and the Helping

Disposition Scales to measure altruism.

Comparisons were made between the different training groups

and between the professionals and paraprofessionals on the data

generated by the instruments. Correlation coefficients were

calculated between moral development and self-concept and between

moral development and altruism.


Findings and Conclusions

Significant differences in moral development were found between

the professional and paraprofessional groups. No differences in

moral development were found between the different training levels

of the professional and paraprofessional groups taken together or










separately. A significant relationship was found between moral

judgment and self-concept for the professional group only.

The conclusions drawn from the study were:

(1) Professional counselors and trainees were found to be more

skilled in moral decisions than were paraprofessional

counselors and trainees.

(2) Neither professional nor paraprofessional training could

be said to have affected the moral judgment of its students.

(3) The professional counselors and trainees and the

paraprofessional counselors and trainees appear to be two

distinct groups- The differences between the groups point

toward the conclusion that different types of people

select to become professional counselors or paraprofessional

counselors.


















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


The society in which we live has an ever changing set of rules,

laws, and mores which is collectively named ethics. The ethics of

our society are the basis by which the rightness or wrongness of any

act is measured. As the rate of social change continues to accelerate

(Toffler, 1970), society changes what is considered tight at a speed

never before experienced by man. Hobbs (1959) states it thus,

"Ethics is a consequence of social evolution and a main contributor to

further social development" (p. 218). Since part of the definition

of a profession is that it has a set of ethical principles common to

its members, professional organizations have a need to understand

moral behavior and its antecedents (Wrenn, 1952a). The counseling

profession, because it undertakes to train its members to be

professional, needs a thorough understanding of moral behavior if its

training endeavors are to be successful.


Purpose of the Study


The need for an understanding of moral behavior coupled with a

recent drive toward greater professionalism in counseling has caused

increased interest in professional ethics. The purpose of this study

was to investigate the process by which the moral judgment of

professional and paraprofessional counselors changes through training

and experience. It further attempted to study the relationship between

1







2

personality characteristics and moral development level of professional

and paraprofessional groups. Much of the research conducted on ethics

has concentrated on professional ethics as measured by knowledge of a

professional code (Dexheimer, 1969; Morris, 1968; Noland, 1971). This

study measured moral judgment level as an indicator of level of moral

behavior. According to Keniston (1970) there is strong evidence to

indicate that such a relationship does exist. The research reported

is based on the ideas that moral behavior is the objective of ethical

codes (Schwebel, 1955a; Wrenn, 1952a) and moral judgment is a

prerequisite of moral behavior (Kohlberg, 1971, 1975). The study

hoped to expand the area of knowledge around professional ethics and

provide a basis by which decisions concerning the topic of ethics can

be made. It, therefore, assumed a logical connection between moral

judgment and ethical behavior and attempted to respond to the many

calls by the professional community (Creegan, 1958; Wiskoff, 1960;

Wrenn, 1952a) for research into the area of ethics.


Need for the Study


Wrenn (1952b) speaks of the need for research in the area of

professional values and ethics when he states:

Certainly too little is known about the counselor's purposes and
values. What may they be? How are they evaluated? Are they
taught or caught? Beyond selection and the relationship of theory
and practice, there is the philosophical and social justification
of a counselor's excuse for being. (p. 14)

Following the call of Wrenn (1952a) and others (Wiskoff, 1960),

several individuals have conducted research in the area of ethics.

Dexheimer (1969) in his study of the American Association of School

Administrators found that while its members accepted their own code of








3

ethics, few utilized it or understood it. Morris (1968) investigated

the knowledge American Personnel and Guidance Association members had

of their own code of ethics. All his subjects had been exposed to the

code via a graduate course, but the results forced him to conclude that

they had either never learned the material or had forgotten what they

had learned. Noland (1971), in his study of the handling of

confidential client information by professionals, found startling

discrepancies between the professionals' code of ethics and their

reported actions. Noland expressed himself thus, "It is evident to me

that we make a great mistake if we assume that even fully certified

counselors know and follow the ethics of their field and the practices

of a 'profession'" (Noland, 1971, p. 554). In light of these results

it became obvious that further research in this area was warranted,

especially that which provided some better information about the

effect training has upon moral development.

The research quoted above concentrated on the measurement of

ethics using professional codes and measured subjects' knowledge of the

code and acts which might be at variance with that code. Considering

the lack of positive results and the aforementioned rapid changes in

morals, which work to outdate codes of ethics, the present study was

designed to measure counselors' moral development as described by

Kohlberg (1975) and Rest (1976). The research into professional

ethics previously outlined showed a need for further study in this

area; it also showed that a new approach to the problem of ethics was

warranted. Kohlberg's (1975) assertion that cognitive skill is a

prerequisite to moral judgment provides this new approach. With a

measure of cognitive moral judgment, one is able to study a subject's








4

ability to reason at a moral level and not simply to measure his or

her ability to memorize a code of ethics.

This measurement mechanism is built upon the cognitive-

developmental structure discussed by Piaget (1965) and Kohlberg (1975)

and pertains to this area because, as Kohlberg describes it, "One

cannot follow moral principles if one does not understand moral

principles" (p. 672). The basic tenet of this theory is that higher,

meaning more stable and just, levels of moral reasoning are more

difficult to understand. To understand a high level of reasoning one

must first have mastered the lower levels.

Creegan (1958), speaking in favor of more research into the area

of professional morals, states, "Perhaps most of us will agree,

however, that what we don't know can hurt the things we cherish and

that the pinch of destiny is always lethal when adequate knowledge lags

too far behind the course of events" (p. 275). It is the lack of

adequate knowledge in ethics that this study was designed to attack.


Significance of the Study


The study provided information in the following areas.

(1) The utility of moral judgment as a variable in studying the

area of professional morals versus knowledge of a

professional code of ethics.

(2) The teaching and learning of moral judgment; how and when it

is done.

(3) The comparison of professional and paraprofessional counselors

and counseling trainees on their level of moral judgment.










Utility of moral judgment

The research quoted by Dexheimer (1969), Morris (1968), and

Noland (1971) indicates that professionals in the counseling community

simply do not know, understand, or perhaps even care about their code

of ethics. If morals are connected to the process of social evolution

as Hobbs (1959) and Huxley and Huxley (1947) propose, then the

measurement of ethical behavior potential might more reasonably be

accomplished by measuring some personality factor which would be

independent of the changing social ethics. Ethical behavior potential

is assumed to be identical with moral judgment level since one's

potential to act ethically is limited by one's moral cognitive

development (Kohlberg, 1971, 1975). The apparent lack of knowledge or

interest in the profession's code of ethics by its members indicates

a need for information concerning this topic if ethical guidance is

to be provided. The differences in moral judgment among the subjects

indicate the effects present training programs and professional

experience have on counselors' moral judgment.

Teaching and learning of moral judgment

The study measured relationships between moral judgment and

training or job experience. This information provides some measure

of the effectiveness of the counseling programs in providing its

trainees with good ethical education, and some indication of the

effects counseling experience has on moral judgment. The measures of

personality used in the study provide information about persons who

have high moral judgment. Such information could modify ethical

training as well as counseling trainee selection.

Finally, by obtaining data on altruism, a beginning has been made








6

in connecting moral judgment with moral behavior. Kohlberg (1975)

sees the uncertainty of a person acting morally even when that person

is at a stage of high moral judgment as a major limitation to the

application of his moral judgment theories. It was hoped that altruism

as defined by Severy's (1975) instrument would be related to high

moral judgment in subjects.

Comparison of professional and paraprofessional counselors

The study provides information about differences between

professional program graduates and student trainees from the Counselor

Education Department of the University of Florida and paraprofessional

program graduates and student trainees from the Human Services Aid

program of Santa Fe Community College. Questions studied here involve

the different training procedures of professional and paraprofessional

programs (Brown, 1974) and the presence or absence of any real

difference in the groups on the variable of moral judgment.


Definition of Terms


Professional Counselor:

A counselor who has completed the counseling program at the

Counselor Education Department, University of Florida, and

received an advanced professional degree.

Paraprofessional Counselor:

A counselor who has completed the Human Services Aid program at

Santa Fe Community College.

Counselor Education Student Trainee:

An individual who is working toward a postbaccalaureate

professional degree in counseling in the Counselor Education








7

Department of the University of Florida.

Santa Fe Counseling Student Trainee:

An individual who is working toward completion of the Santa Fe

Community College Human Services Aid program.

Moral Judgment:

As described by Rest (1976), moral judgment is concerned with how

the benefits and burdens of social cooperation are to be

distributed. In the higher stages of moral judgment, systems are

set up through which arbitrary factors, which tend to

disequilibrate a social system, are progressively neutralized.

That is, moral judgment is involved in justly and fairly

distributing the good and burdensome elements of society.

Moral Behavior:

Moral behavior consists in acting upon the decisions made through

moral judgment which will tend to determine how the benefits and

burdens of social cooperation are to be distributed.

Code of Ethics:

A code of ethics is a set of ethical precepts developed by a

professional group to provide ethical guidance to its members.

Altruism:

Altruism is described by Severy (1975) to include the following

components; motivation to help, recognition of a helping

situation, relevant helping skills and ability, actual helping

achievement, and reasons not to help. The instrument used to

measure helping dispositions in subjects would involve measurement

of these areas.








8

Research Questions


The following research questions were investigated in this study.

(1) During what stage of professional counselors' preparation or

work do changes, if any, take place in their moral judgment?

(2) During what stage of paraprofessional counselors' training or

work do changes, if any, take place in their moral judgment?

(3) What differences are there between professional and

paraprofessional counselors in regard to their moral

judgment?

(4) Are there relationships between the stages of moral judgment

and any personality trait measured in the study?


Organization of the Study


The study is organized in the following fashion. Chapter I

includes: purpose of the study, need for the study, significance of

the study, definition of terms, and research questions. Chapter II,

related literature, includes: ethics in counseling, philosophical

arguments, measurement of moral judgment and self-concept and altruism,

and professionals versus paraprofessionals. Chapter III, research

methodology, includes: the sample, instrumentation, procedure,

programs used in the study, hypotheses, and statistical procedures.

Chapter IV, results, includes: analysis of the data and demographic

data analysis. Chapter V, summary and conclusions, includes: the

discussion and conclusions.


















CHAPTER II
RELATED LITERATURE


Ethics in Counseling


Dr. C. Gilbert Wrenn (1952a) in some way inaugurated the present

concern for ethics in counseling. He spoke out strongly for a code of

ethics as an important step toward ensuring ethical practice by

counselors. lie further explained the need now for this type of effort

if counseling is ever to attain the status of a profession. The

major arguments of the paper are that, (1) there is a conflict of

loyalties for a counselor between his client, the society, his

employing institution, his profession, and himself and (2) this

conflict of ethics can only be resolved by recourse to a code of

ethics. In the same year Wrenn (1952b) discussed the question of why

counselors were ethical or not. He further called for research into

the process of learning, teaching, and evaluating ethics and ethical

behavior.

Warnath (1958) sees the problem of ethics as essentially one of

frame of reference. He feels that ethical behavior results when there

is consistency between practice and professed goals. Ethical problems

will be present so long as "confusion in goals or discrepancies

between goals and methods" (p. 10) exist.

Creegan (1958) feels that ethical problems are going to be

attacked inadequately in the profession until the education of








10

counselors on ethical issues is improved. Even with the improvement of

education he fears that it is too late to help those who are already

out facing the ethical problems of the world of practice.

Patterson (1958) also expresses concern for the training of

counselors but in the allied area of values. He feels that because a

counselor's personal values are going to influence his or her clients,

that counselor training should include an inquiry into personal values

and philosophy. Vordenberg (1953) states a somewhat similar idea

when he says that a counseling student's education is incomplete

unless he has an understanding of his own personal philosophy of

life and an empirical basis for it.

Schwebel (1955a) investigated the possible causes of unethical

behavior and concluded that only behavior stemming from the

overpowering self-interest of the professional worker as expressed in

personal profit, self-enhancement, and the maintenance of security

and status, is unethical in origin. He concluded saying that "the

problem becomes one of introducing learning experiences that make

the psychologist fully aware of his values" (p. 125). In the same

year Schwebel (1955b) wrote that he felt that the source of ethical

attitudes should be sought in the past training and experience of

psychologists, thus pointing to possible areas for future study and

research. Schwebel (1955b) concluded, "Even a review of these cases

reveals the need for a basic counselor trait for effective solution

(of difficulties): the ability on the counselor's part to evaluate his

own motives" (p. 259). In this way he reinforces the idea that a

counselor's self-knowledge and his personality are strong factors in

determining his behavior in ethically laden situations.








11

Daubner and Daubner (1970) also stress the need for knowledge

about ethical theory in counseling. They feel that this will provide

counselors with the type of background to assist adolescents in their

own search for values. However, they seem to speak against the

establishment of codes of ethics when they state that, "ethics, unlike

a discipline such as psychology, is normative rather than factual. It

is concerned with the principles or norms that ought to govern human

conduct rather than with those that do govern it" (p. 433).

Bixler and Seeman (1946) call for a code of ethics for counselors

and psychologists saying, "The very creation of a code of ethics is a

social as well as a professional responsibility" (p. 490). They

feel that any code should have areas which relate to the counselor's

responsibility to the individual, related professions, and society.

Curran (1960) sees in the therapy process the potential for

clients and counselors to search for and perhaps reaffirm one's

ethics. Sargent (1945) feels similarly that it is in the relationship

between counselor and client that one's own values are brought out.

In providing a set of ethical precepts the author reinforces the idea

that professional ethics and the dynamics of counselor/client

interchange are related. She feels that ethics constitute a code of

human relationships and that counseling is simply one of these

relationships.

Rettig and Rowson (1963) found in their study of cheating by

college students that the factor "severity of censure" (strength of

punishment) was the most important single factor which might

discourage unethical behavior. The authors feel the results strongly

suggest that the concept of ethical risk in predicting unethical







12

behavior be interpreted more in terms of the risk of being caught.

Christionsen (1972) wrote his book of cases with the idea of

helping counselors understand the ethical implications of the everyday

situations they encounter. He explains the reasons for his work thus,

"However by its very nature, the ethical code of any profession poses

some difficult problems. A code is necessarily made up of broad

general principles, and they are often difficult to apply to specific

professional situations" (p. ix). Ackley (1972) sees the ethical

codes of the profession in a similar light to that of Christionsen.

He feels they are somewhat limited and tend to be ambigious. To

Ackley a code of ethics should be more than simply a set of

regulations. It should actually be a set of values and principles

that must pervade a counselor's life.

In his doctoral research Morris (1968) studied the ability of

American Personnel and Guidance Association members to distinguish

the ethically appropriate responses to a critical incident type

questionnaire. An analysis of variance was used to analyse the data

received from 729 APGA members. The results of the analysis indicated

that (1) a member's sex seemed to be of importance in the area of

testing ethics, (2) religious preference was also of some importance,

(3) amount of education seemed also to be of value in that members

with more degrees seemed to do better, and (4) those members who were

exposed to the ethical code via an entire graduate course either did

not acquire a working knowledge of counseling ethics or did not retain

the knowledge conveyed to them through the course.

In a similarly designed study Dexheimer (1969) tested the

knowledge of American Association of School Administrators members of








13

their association's code of ethics. Two hundred forty two members

replied to the questionnaire mailed out. Out of 15 anecdotal

situations the mean "score" of all respondents was 7.1 correct. In

all, more non-ethical responses were given than ethical responses.

The conclusion reached was that there existed a discrepancy between

acceptance of the code and adherence to that code. Campbell (1970)

used the critical incident technique in his doctoral research to

check the attitudes of college counselors versus the attitudes of

administrators about confidentiality. His results indicated that

there were significant differences between the groups. These

differences indicate possible ethical problems for counselors when

administrators do not consider confidentiality very important. The

author implied that the differing attitudes about confidentiality

could be reduced by a training program of some sort. Spence (1974)

used a programmed text to attempt to reinforce the learning of the

Code of Ethics of the American Personnel and Guidance Association

(APGA). He used 40 graduate students from a counseling program and

assigned the subjects randomly to treatment and control groups. The

results showed significant differences existed at the end of the

study between the experimental and control groups. This showed,

according to the author, that ethical standards such as the Code of

Ethics of the American Personnel and Guidance Association could be

reinforced through the use of a programmed text. Using another

critical incident type instrument, Barr (1970) compared trainees and

practising counselors in their knowledge of the APGA code of ethics.

The resulting data showed three major findings. First, counselor

trainees scored significantly higher (p .05) than did practising








14

counselors. Second, there was a significant difference in correct

responses between trainees at different universities, and, third,

trainees who were APGA members scored higher than non-members.

Hart and Prince (1970) conducted a study very similar to that of

Campbell (1970) previously described. In this work, however, a

measure was made of the different expectations counselor educators

and administrators had of counselors. Large areas of disagreement

about how a counselor should conduct himself were found. The areas

included reinforcing student conformity and the sharing of personal

student information with other concerned school staff members. The

implication is that ethical problems await most counselors in the

world of work due to the difference between what a counselor is

taught is ethical and what is expected of him on the job.

Vafakas (1972) studied the ethical behaviors of community college

counselors by use of an instrument she developed to measure the

counselor's ethical orientation. Her results indicated that older

counselors tended to reflect the standards of the society and the

institution in which they worked. Younger counselors, on the other

hand, tended to be less judgmental and punitive.

Patterson (1971), while discussing the possibility that ethics

can be different in different settings, concluded that while counselors

agree that their first loyalty is to the student, actions frequently

are not consistent with philosophy.

Wiskoff(1960) in an earlier study into the area discussed by

Campbell (1970) and Hart and Prince (1970) investigated the issue of

the divided loyalties of a counselor between the client and the

counselor's parent organization or society. The study used the ethical








15

issue of release of confidential information to measure the difficulty

that psychologists have with the problem of divided loyalties. The

results indicated some preferences for unethical behavior as defined by

the American Psychologist Association's code of ethics. The author

felt that some of this could be explained through ignorance of or

nonconformity to the principles put forth by the APA. In further

explaining the results Wiskoff stated, "Neither age nor experience

correlated to any significant degree with divided loyalty percepts,

so perhaps it is that ethical views are ingrained early in

professional training or experience" (p. 660).

Noland (1970) investigated the response of counselors and college

admissions officers to a critical incident questionnaire concerning

infractions of psychological, sexual, or school norms by students.

The counselors were asked if they would supply confidential information

to a college if asked, in connection with an application by the

student; the admissions officers were asked how the information

would affect the students admission to their college. As many as 72%

of the counselors said that they would supply the information and 63%

of the admissions officers indicated that it could lead to the college

rejecting the student's application. Noland indicated that such

results caused him to question whether or not counselors flaunt, at

least in spirit, their professional code. He concludes his paper

stating, "It is evident to me that we make a great mistake if we assume

that even fully certified counselors know and follow the ethics of

their field and the practices of a 'profession'" (p. 554). In his

study of confidentiality in college counseling centers, Nugent (1969)

discussed previous findings that 40% of college counseling centers gave








16

out confidential information without the clients consent. The author

feels that administrative and outside pressures have distorted the

need to release information about clients. He further states,

however, that he feels counseling can be most effective if

confidentiality is strictly maintained. He discussed also these

results as a statement of the effectiveness of counselor training.

He concluded,

The implications are that there is something faulty in the
education of counselors. Are ethics and professional behavior
emphasized enough? Are codes memorized without full
understanding of the principles underlying them? Are the
pressures to which a counselor must react brought out? (p. 877)

Landry (1965) attempted to identify precepts which correlated

with highly ethical behavior. He hypothesized that counselors do

not operate from a basic point of view which permeates all their

professional actions. Using 15 dimensions such as age, sex, grade

point average, and years of experience, the author found that only

logical thought, percentage of time in guidance, and grade point

average related to ethical scores. All other factors were unrelated

to ethical considerations.

Jones and Shaffer (1963) showed that students who were discipline

problems were less able to make ethical discrimination than student

leaders. While the subjects were not counselors, this study provides

valuable information into the personality traits of those who have

the potential to act ethically.

Parry (1967) attempted to develop a multiple choice instrument

which would measure knowledge of the American Personnel and Guidance

Association's code of ethics. A rough instrument with face validity

was completed but the author felt that more work was required before it










was ready for general use.

Humphreys (1967) developed an instrument designed to measure the

feelings of counselors about confidentiality. The results of his

work indicated that there were two areas of conflict over this matter.

First, counselors feel a dual responsibility to the client and society

and, second, counselors have difficulty deciding whether to release

or retain confidential information.


Philosophical Arguments


Apart from the considerations of ethics, the philosophical

arguments concerning right and proper actions are of major importance

to this study. Included in this section are papers which attempt to

lay a logical foundation for the ethics counselors espouse in their

professional lives. Such foundations are of major importance if the

ethical precepts counselors hold now to be true are to withstand the

test of time.

Huxley and Huxley (1947) outline the ideas and percepts of

evolutionary ethics. The basic idea is that ethics are changeable in

the same way that man as an animal is changeable through the process

of evolution. Ethical principles are thus correct or right only in so

far as the result of their effect promotes the best interests of man

in general. They explain these ideas by saying, "The most important

point for us here however is the realization that moral systems are

bound to change with change in social systems" (p. 126). Thus, ethics

are changeable, and must be, if man is to advance. Ethics which are

static and which tend to work against change are wrong in concept and

wrong ethically. Huxley and Huxley argue, "Thus a static stablilty is








18

undesirable, and a complete or static certitude of ethical belief

itself becomes unethical" (p. 138).

Arbuckle (1958) in his paper on philosophical issues sees the

problem of unethical behavior as rooted in the personality of each

counselor. He writes, "The discrepancy then, between what the

counselor verbalizes he should do, and what he actually does in an

operational situation would appear to be a measure of the individual's

total personality, rather than something that he has learned in his

professional preparation" (p. 211).

Golightly (1971) also discusses the issue of counselors' ethical

ideas in his recent paper. He feels that counselors are basically

value judgment makers. He believes in the idea of evolutionary

ethics and feels that counselors must accept aid from philosophers

if they are to make any sense of the changes in social values.

Mowerer (1957) adds his authority to the belief previously

discussed that evolutionary ethics are a reality. He states,

There is a clear indication that the theory of organic evolution
has profoundly and pervasively influenced American psychology
during the past three-quarters of a century. Mind, rather than
being something to be studied in its own right, has been concieved
as "an organ of adaptation", an appendage of the body instrumental
to the achievement of bodily ends. (p. 109)

Fromm (1947) in his book titled Man for himself; an inquiry into

the psychology of ethics, explains that man's mind and social evolution

are irrefutably connected. While discussing evolution he states,

"Human evolution is rooted in man's adaptability and in certain

indestructable qualities of his nature which compel him never to

cease his search for conditions better adjusted to his intrinsic

needs" (p. 22).







19

Hollingworth (1949) in his study of the various types of

"ought" and the ability of man to make fine ethical distinctions

states that ethics are basically changeable with society. He

conducted his study to provide ethics with a truely objective base and

to provide us with moral principles which will guide our society in

the future. He lends his voice to those who see ethics as changeable

when he states, "It is a mistake to suppose that moral principles

alone remain fixed and unchangeable while everything else around us

grows and develops" (p. v).


Measurement of Moral Judgment and Self-Concept and Altruism


Moral Judgment

The actual measurement of ethics is obviously a difficult, if

not impossible, task when approached directly. In this section

literature is reviewed which explains and supports the instruments

selected as tools toward measurement of moral judgment.

Kohlberg (1971) attempts in his extensive paper to fully explain

the precepts of his theory of moral development. He claims that

while there are no moral absolute immutable values, there is a

universal set of logical constructs which modify or restrict what is

ethical. He admits to a type of social evolution of ethics as has

been postulated by Hobhouse (1906). Kohlberg sees the need for any

ethical theory to be logically consistent if it is to have any

permanence. He further states,

Our interactional theory claims that moral judgments and norms
are to be ultimately understood as universal constructions of
human actors which regulate their social interaction, rather
than as passive reflections of either external facts (including








20

psychological states of other humans), or of internal emotions.
(p. 184)

Kohlberg (1975) outlines his theories of moral development and

explains some of the extensive validation research which he and his

associates have undertaken. He states that the stages of development

have been observed in many cultures, in many parts of the world, and

seem therefore to be independent of cultural considerations or of

cultural relativity. He explains in detail the implications of his

work on education and describes the conditions necessary for children

to learn to reason at high moral levels. The author explains what is

required for moral growth when he states,

Moral discussion and curriculum, however, constitute only one
portion of the conditions stimulating moral growth. When we
turn to analyzing the broader life environment, we turn to a
consideration of the moral atmosphere of the home, the school,
and the broader society. (p 676)

Maitland and Goldman (1974) studied the use of peer group

interaction as a method of changing subjects' moral judgment stage.

The paper also introduced a new instrument which utilizes the ideas

of Kohlberg but which allows for the measurement of a subject's

moral stage without the usual lengthy interview. The results of the

research indicated, "that greater social conflict and pressure to

consensus in a group discussion of issues of moral judgment induces

greater change in the level of moral judgment than does a less

conflicting and less consensus oriented open-ended discussion"

(p. 702). Some validity data concerning the measurement instrument

are also provided.

Arbuthnot (1975) investigated the impact of actual role playing

on the change of moral judgment maturity. The results indicated that








21

subjects showed increases in moral judgment maturity when role

playing a moral dilemma against an opponent who employed reasoning

above the subjects' initially assessed moral stage. No sex

differences were observed. In explaining some of the background to

his work the author stated,

In the cognitive-developmental view of moral development it is
assumed that moral stages and their development represent an
interaction of the individual's structuring tendencies and the
structural features of the environment. Changes is presumably
caused by the resolution of disequilibrium through cognitive
transformations in the conception of self and society. (p. 319)

Keniston (1970) using the moral development stages of Kohlberg

as a basis discusses student activism and its relationship to moral

development. The author discusses at length the ideas of Kohlberg

and concludes from his data that moral development is by no means

guaranteed by aging, maturation, or socialization. While maturation

may allow advances to the higher stages of moral development there

appear to be other factors which are also necessary. Keniston

further concludes that, while some relationship seems to exist, there

is no reason to assume moral behavior results from good moral

judgment.

Rest (1974a) describes some of the ideas behind value education

as the developmental theorists would organize it. He states that the

structure of morals should be emphasized, not the transitory awareness

or feeling state. In another statement Rest explains some of the

ideas of Dr. Kohlberg's which are relevant to the present study:

Kohlberg has contended that moral education should not be aimed
at teaching some specific set of morals but should be concerned
with developing the organizational structures by which one
analyzes, interprets and makes decisions about social problems.
(p. 242)







22

In another paper which discusses the cognitive developmental theories

of moral judgment, Rest (1973) outlines the stage theory and studies

the tenet of an invariant universal developmental sequence of moral

stages. His findings indicated that individuals did seem to be at

a particular stage of development. The subjects also seemed to

understand all the preceding developmental stages to their own but

not those above their own.

In an earlier paper Rest, Turiel, and Kohlberg (1969) studied

the determinants of preference and comprehension of moral judgments

made by others. They summarized the results of their study in this

way,

It was found that children generally prefer concepts above their
own stage to concepts below. Thinking two stages above was more
difficult for subjects to comprehend than thinking one stage
above, which in turn was more difficult than thinking one stage
below. Further analyses showed that assimilation effects were
a function of both the S's preference and the highest level of
thinking comprehended. (p. 251-252)

McGeorge (1975) studied the possibility that subjects could

change their scores on the Defining Issues Test by faking their

responses. His results indicated that it is possible to fake one's

scores low but not to fake them high.

Lickona (1976) in his paper which describes the problems of the

study of moral development discusses the differences between teaching

morals and teaching how to think about morals. He encapsulates the

developmental theorists' ideas on the subject when he says,

Content tells us what a person believes, which is obviously
dependent upon culturally variable experiences, whereas structure
tells us how a person thinks about the content of his beliefs,
which reasoning, so the theory goes, is universal. (p. 9)










Self-Concept and Altruism

Purkey (1970) describes self-concept as it relates to motivation

and specifically to educational motivation. He discusses how an

individual may resist acting in ways which go counter to his picture

of himself. This may relate directly to ethical behavior in that a

person may need to see himself as "good" in order to be motivated to

act ethically. In a related research study Rettig and Rowson (1963)

found that the possibility of public censure was the most important

factor in controlling unethical behavior.

Schwebel (1955a) in discussing the reasons for unethical

behavior states that a counselor not knowing himself or his own needs

can result in inappropriate behavior toward a client. In a second

paper (Schwebel, 1955b) the author emphasizes the need for self-

knowledge if ethical problems are to be avoided.

A measure of altruism developed by Severy (1975) recognizes

that there are many different kinds of helping behaviors and attempts

to measure them. In an earlier paper Severy (1974) defined altruism

as, "helping motivated by the other person's being in need" (p. 190).

He further stated that, "the thrust of the formulation is that

altruistic behavior is intentional behavior and that the essence

lies in the intentionality and not the performance" (p. 189). In

a study which partially connects self-concept to altruism Harris

(1957) describes his attempts to develop an instrument which would

distinguish between students who had a reputation of being responsible

with their peers from those who did not. He found that how your peers

see you and your own self-image are interrelated.

Berkowitz and Daniels (1964) studied individuals propensity to








24

help others after they have or have not received help themselves.

The results indicated that greater effort to help others did come

from those subjects who had received help from others and who had

a person dependent on them for help.

Friedricks (1960) concluded his study on the concept of

altruism by stating, "that the construct 'altruism', possesses an

identity which cannot be equated with estimates of social acceptability,

popularity, degree of acquaintance, or sociability" (p. 507). His

study indicated that altruism is a construct independent of other

factors.


Professionals Versus Paraprofessionals


There has been a great deal of uneasiness in the professional

ranks about the use of paraprofessional counselors. It should be

noted that most experiments in this area center around the therapeutic

relationship and neglect the more nebulous areas of professional

judgment and ethical maturity.

Rosenbaum (1966) speaks out strongly against the use of what he

considers "untrained therapists." He feels that they will be unable

to handle unexpected, upsetting situations appropriately. He further

chides researchers who have conducted research into the comparative

effectiveness of professionals and paraprofessionals but who have not

controlled for the attitudes of the subjects. He believes that

professionals may have lost their enthusiasm for certain types of

clients and therefore have reduced effectiveness.

Gruver (1971), in his review of research with college students

as therapeutic agents, lists a number of possible problems. He states









25

that unsophisticated paraprofessionals while intending no harm could

easily project their own difficulties onto their clients, burden

clients with their own personal problems, and "play" at psychotherapy

with clients--all with potentially disastrous consequences for the

clients' welfare. In addition the author feels that paraprofessionals

might participate only temporarily in counseling with a client to

gain a "peak-experience" or exploit their clients to satisfy their

own needs and have no professional status to lose as punishment for

such activity. Gruver generally feels that professional workers

have more invested and, therefore, can be trusted more than the

paraprofessional worker.

Woody and Woody (1973) feel that unethical behavior is more

likely to come from the paraprofessional. In their book on marriage

and family counseling while speaking of unethical behavior they state,

Because of the nature of advanced professional training programs,
which give intense attention to the development of a
"professional person", these kinds of violations are less common
among well prepared professionals than among persons with lower
levels of training, (and) lay persons. (p. 53)

Gartner (1972) in his book on the performance of paraprofessionals

generally finds positive evidence of these counselors' ability to help

clients. He concludes therefore that paraprofessionals can be

successful as treatment agents and that they can contribute to the

improved mental health of clients in highly significant and unique

ways.

Carkhuff (1969) in his two volume work on the training of

psychological helpers indicates that selection of trainees may be

an area of important difference between professional and

paraprofessional programs. Paraprofessional trainees are often








26

selection for their mental health while professional trainees are

selected on intellective factors which Iay or may not correlate with

effective interpersonal functioning. Carkhuff also concludes, that

while paraprofessional programs emphasize facilitative skills.which

relate directly to the improvement of client functioning, professional

programs have other objectives which they emphasize apart from the

facilitative functioning of trainees.

Poser (1966) conducted a study comparing the effectiveness of

lay therapists, psychiatrists, and psychiatric social workers with

schizophrenic patients. He found that the lay therapists were

slightly more effective than the other two professional groups. The

author warned against generalizing the results past group therapy

with schizophrenics.

Rioch (1966) in commenting on the effectiveness of

paraprofessionals stated that most professionals admitted to the

apparent ability of the "non-traditional worker" to have good

therapeutic results. He advocated professional workers utilizing

paraprofessionals and going on the tasks for which only professionals

are trained.

Schmidt (1968) restates Rioch's (1966) argument but emphasizes

the need for the professional to guide the paraprofessional. In this

way the greater learning of the professional can be used to the

fullest while the effectiveness of the paraprofessional is not lost

in other tasks.

Lamb and Clack (1974) found that freshman orientation to mental

health services on campus was more effective when conducted by a

student than by a professional staff person or a staff person plus








27

video presentation. These results were found inspite of the fact

that all students given the orientation afterward expressed equal

satisfaction with the presentations. The author felt that a possible

explanation of the results is that paraprofessionals provided greater

credibility because of their greater closeness socially to the

freshmen students.

Carkhuff and Truax (1965) showed that lay hospital personnel

after a short period of training could produce improvement in

hospital mental patients when compared to a control group of patients.

The results showed that a very brief training program devoid of

specific training in psychopathology, personality dynamics, or

psychotherapy theory can produce relatively effective lay mental

health counselors.

Berenson, Carkhuff, and Myrus (1966) showed that volunteers can

be trained to be effective counselors. The results however were

less spectacular than had been published elsewhere.

Zunker and Brown (1966) found that in a college guidance program,

Student counselors were found to be as effective as professional
counselors on all criteria of counseling effectiveness. Further
more freshmen counseled by student counselors made significantly
greater use of the information reviewed during counseling, as
reflected by first semester grades and residual study problems.
(p. 743)

Truax and Lister (1970) studied the effectiveness of counselor

and counselor-aides under different case load and counseling

conditions. The findings were that, (1) the greatest client

improvement occurred when aides handled cases alone, (2) the least

client improvement resulted from counselors assisted by aides, and

(3) that case load was not systematically related to client








28

improvement. Sue (1973) developed a program for the training of

ethnic minority paraprofessional counselors to meet the need of

minority groups for counseling. He found that inspite of early

difficulties that these paraprofessionals could be a feasible

alternative to the current mental health services provided on college

campuses.

Swinn (1974) described a training program designed to produce

behavior modification consultants from student volunteers. While

stating that they can be effective and helpful he warns that careful

screening and selection of the individuals should be conducted. The

suggestion is that personal and intellectual factors be considered in

the selection of trainees.

Nicoletti and Flater-Benz (1974) describe the use of

paraprofessionals in a community mental health agency. They state

that, "the use of trained volunteers has been found to be an effective

resource for meeting increasing community needs" (p. 284). The

authors also state how they have used the acquiring of college credit

as an incentive to volunteers.

Harvey (1964) describes the effective use of non-professional

counselors in marriage counseling clinics in Australia. He feels

that the use of non-professionally educated counselors should be

carefully considered by professionals. He states that professionals

should take leadership roles and use the paraprofessionals so that

the needs of the community can be met. Harvey warned against the

intrusion of lay counselors into areas beyond their competence.

In a more recent article Gartner and Riessman (1974) discuss in

general the paraprofessional counseling movement. They state that








29

while paraprofessionals were expected to be a powerful radical force

in the mental health movement, they have instead blended in with the

environment of the agencies within which they work. In discussing

the paraprofessional counselor they state,

As consumers they are concerned very much about the nature of
the service they are receiving, but as workers they are concerned
with typical worker issues, salaries, fringe benefits, their
own education, training advancement and so on. (p. 255)

Danish and Brock (1974) overview four training programs for

paraprofessional counselors. They state that common factors in

these successful programs are clear training goals and procedures

and trainer preparation. They further emphasize the need for more

work into the training process than is being done now. The authors

feel that too much energy is being spent on less important aspects

of the paraprofessional area.

Carkhuff (1968) reviews a good bit of literature all of which

show the comparative effectiveness of paraprofessional versus

professional counselors. He discusses the implications these results

may have on the training of professionals and paraprofessionals

alike. He also suggests that we perhaps might train persons who

come for help to help others as a method of help in itself.

Brown (1974) gives a general exposition of evidence collected

about the effectiveness of paraprofessional counselors. He feels

that while the design and construction of most research is faulty

the weight of evidence indicates that paraprofessionals can be

effective therapeutic agents. He also provides some explanation of

the differences observed between professional and paraprofessional

counselors when he states that,








30

thus the two selection approaches differ meaningfully:
Paraprofessional training programs carefully select
psychologically healthy persons, while professional training
programs emphasize selection on intellective factors which
may or may not correlate with effective interpersonal
functioning. (p. 261)

Blaker (1971) conducted a survey of the use of counselor aides

and found that most institutions preferred to use them in clerical

and paperwork type jobs.

Gust (1968) is very concerned about the unsettled situation

with paraprofessionals, He feels that counseling should be restricted

to the professionally prepared but wanted some type of agreement worked

out about how to train paraprofessionals and where and how to utilize

them.

Toban (1970) surveyed both professional and paraprofessional

counselors about their perceived abilities and the abilities of the

other group of helpers. The results indicated that each group saw

themselves as superior to the other. The author felt that this

situation might help self-concept but might also produce fighting

which could reduce effectiveness to the client.

















CHAPTER III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


This chapter describes the methodology used in the study of the

moral judgment of counselors. The sections include the sample, the

instruments used in the study, the experimental procedure, the

hypotheses investigated, and the statistical procedures used.


Sample


The sample consisted of six groups.

(1) Professional counselor trainees (Counselor Education

Department, University of Florida) who were beginning

a graduate program in counseling. Beginning trainees

were those who were in their first or second academic

quarter of the program.

(2) Professional counselor trainees (Counselor Education

Department, University of Florida) who were finishing

a graduate program in counseling. Finishing trainees

were those who were within two academic quarters of

graduation.

(3) Professional counselors (Counselor Education Department,

University of Florida) who had at least one year of

counseling experience.

(4) Paraprofessional counselor trainees (Human Services

Aid Program, Santa Fe Community College) who were







32

beginning a paraprofessional counseling program.

Beginning trainees were those in their first or second

academic semester of the program.

(5) Paraprofessional counselor trainees (Human Services

Aid Program, Santa Fe Community College) who were

finishing a paraprofessional counseling program.

Finishing trainees were those who had completed most

required course work, were within one semester of

graduation, and were involved in supervised counseling.

(6) Paraprofessional counselors (Human Services Aid

Program, Santa Fe Community College) who had at

least one year of counseling experience.

Each group consisted of 25-35 subjects. No attempt was made to

control for sex or age although comparisons of such demographic data

were undertaken. The students used as subjects in this study had no

previous job experience in counseling. (Job experience is defined as

working as a counselor independently of the institution where

training was received; this excludes counseling interships and

practicums). The student subjects came from the University of

Florida Counselor Education Program or the Human Services Aid Program

at Santa Fe Community College. The professional and paraprofessional

counselors were graduates of those institutions employed in counseling

facilities in the north central Florida area.


Instrumentation


The following instruments were administered to each subject:

(1) Defining Issues Test (DIT)







33

(2) Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS)

(3) Helping Dispositions Scales (HDS)


Defining Issues Test (DIT)

This test was developed by Rest (1975) to meet the need for a

paper and pencil instrument to measure the moral developmental stages

of individuals. The DIT is in such a format that the extensive

interview system used by Kohlberg (1971) is not necessary. The

instrument involves six moral dilemmas with twelve alternative

responses to each. Each answer is worded such that it represents one

of the six stages of moral development which Kohlberg has used.

The instrument was found to have good test-retest reliability (.81)

over a two week period. The DIT relies on the moral stages which

Kohlberg has described for its validity. Rest (1974b) has found

that the DIT discriminates between junior high, senior high, college,

and graduate students. He also found that the DIT correlated .68

with Kohlberg's scale.


Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS)

As stated in the manual:

The scale consists of 100 self-descriptive statements which the
subject used to portray his own picture of himself. The scale
is self-administering for either individuals or groups and can
be used with subjects age 12 or higher and having at least a
sixth grade reading level. It is also applicable to the whole
range of psychological adjustment. (Fitts, 1965, p. 1)

This scale was used in this study as a measure of self-concept.

The standardization group used in the collection of the normative

data for the TSCS consisted of 626 subjects. The group was stratified

to represent the population of the United States. The author noted







34

that, "the norm group does not reflect the population as a whole in

proportion to its national composition" (Fitts, 1965, p. 13), but

went on to say that from research conducted using the TSCS the

variables of sex, race, age, education, and intelligence had little

or no effect on scores.

The reliability ranges from 0.80 to 0.92 for the total self

scores and the eight subscores. These statistics are based on test-

retest with sixty college students over a two week period.

In one of the methods used to check the scale's validity, the

scores of 369 psychiatric patients were compared with 626 non-patients

of the norm group. This comparison demonstrated "highly significant

(mostly to the 0.001 level) differences between patients and non-

patients for almost every score that is utilized on this scale"

(Fitts, 1965, p. 17).


Helping Dispositions Scales (HDS)

This scale developed by Severy (1975) attempts to measure the

personal quality of altruism. The author discusses in his report

of the instrument the problem of measuring helping dispositions and

concludes that his instrument is, "an attempt to devise a single

instrument with several component subscales which might assess

individuals' willingness and preclusions to help others in a variety

of helping situations" (Severy, 1975, p. 282).

The instrument consists of 55 one sentence statements to which

the subject is asked to strongly agree, agree, neither agree nor

disagree, disagree, or strongly disagree. The resulting score

provides information on 13 composite scales which make up the total









35

HDS score. The author reports a median estimated reliability of .84.

The task-individual, psychological-group, and psychological-individual

subscores are highly consistent internally. Four separate studies

were conducted to validate the instrument. The instrument was found

to be valid through predicting scores of certain groups of subjects

(i.e. helpers and non-helpers) and then giving the scales to the

groups. The predictions made were found to be accurate.


Procedure


The groups were organized as has been previously described.

All the data were collected at approximately the same time to minimize

the possible effects of different months, times of the school quarter,

and holiday seasons. The research study utilized a quasi-experimental

design.

The data were collected in the following manner. The four

student groups (both professional and paraprofessional counselor

trainees) were contacted in classroom situations where possible,

and the instruments filled in at that time. The students in the

groups were taken from classes selected by the Counselor Education

Department chairperson and the Human Services Aid Program director.

The classes selected were considered to contain a high percentage

of students meeting the criteria stipulated. For example, beginning

students were contacted in introductory courses and finishing students

in pre-graduation seminars and counseling supervision groups. The

Counselor Education student groups were composed of educational

specialist students and doctoral students who had not previously

had job experience associated with their other graduate degrees.








36

The experienced group of professional counselors was taken from

those graduates of the Counselor Education Department with one year

of experience who are employed in north central Florida. They were

contacted individually or in small groups and provided with the

instruments to complete.

The experienced group of paraprofessional counselors was taken

from a list provided by the program director of past graduates of

the paraprofessional counseling program. These subjects were contacted

individually or in small groups and provided with the instruments to

complete.

Each subject was a volunteer. Persons who agreed to participate

were provided with an opportunity to discuss their scores on the

instruments.

Selection of individual subjects was done by the subjects them-

selves in that they were asked to volunteer. Thirty-five was the

target number for each of the groups; somewhat less than that was

actually collected due to the small numbers of eligible subjects and

resistance to filling out the instruments. The large group size was

designed to ensure a sample which was not severely effected by random

differences in the subjects.

In order to standardize the administration of the instruments

as much as possible, all subjects were contacted by the experimenter

personally. Only necessary verbal instructions were given. The

treatment effects of the study were the preparation of the students

and the experience gained after preparation.

The data were subjected to the statistical procedures explained

in a following section using the computer available through the







37

University of Florida Northeast Regional Data Center, Gainesville,

Florida.


Programs used in the Study


The following is a brief description of the two counseling

programs used in this study. The descriptions below were taken from

documents provided by each program and are provided here to ensure

that a meaningful comparison of the programs can be made.


Santa Fe Community College, Human Services Aid program,


As described by their brochure the Human Services Aid Program is,

designed to train a diverse set of people to be effective
interpersonal helpers of other human beings in a great variety
of settings. It is a two-year college level training program
leading to an associate degree of science in Human Service
work. (Santa Fe Community College, 1975, p. 1)

The program itself is designed around a set of instructional goals

which each of its students must meet. The courses offered are

designed to teach the students the skills required to achieve each

of the instructional goals. There are also less specific process

goals set up by the program such as, assertiveness, honesty, self-

knowledge, etc. The program prides itself on its democratic nature,

and students are seen as participants in the learning process rather

than recipients of information passed on by the staff. Almost any

high school graduate desiring entry into the program is accepted, but

each must meet the criteria set up in order to graduate.


University of Florida, Counselor Education Department


The Counselor Education Department at the University of Florida








38

subscribes to the standards set up by the Association for Counselor

Education and Supervision (1973). The Counselor Education Program is

a graduate level program which awards a two-year educational

specialist degree and a doctoral level degree. The program is

designed around a competency based model for counseling skills and

personal objectives. The personal and counseling competency objectives

are built upon a traditional didactic approach. Many faculty members,

however, organize their classes in such a way that grades can be

contracted for; this does change the teacher/student relationship to

a more co-learner stance. All students in the program are graduate

students who were selected on a competitive basis from all applicants.

Minimum standards in undergraduate GPA and GRE are set and must be met

by each student. Admission to the program is very competitive.

The program provides a core of courses composed of general areas

considered to be necessary in the preparation of all counselors. This

core includes courses in the areas of human growth and development,

social and cultural foundations, the helping relationship, group

counseling, life style and career development, appraisal of the

individual, research and evaluation, and professional orientation.

After the basic courses students are then required to specialize in

one of the following areas: secondary education, elementary education,

community agencies, and pupil personnel services. Again a series of

courses are required before the program is completed. All students

must take written comprehensive examinations in order to graduate.


Hypotheses


(1) There is no difference in the levels of moral development of








39

professional counselors and trainees and paraprofessional

counselors and trainees.

(2) There is no difference in the levels of moral development

among professional counselors and trainees.

(3) There is no difference in the levels of moral development

among paraprofessional counselors and trainees.

(4) There is no difference in the levels of moral development

among the groups at different stages of training (i.e.

professional and paraprofessional counselors as one group,

ending professional and paraprofessional trainees as a

second group, and beginning professional and paraprofessional

trainees as a third group).

(5) There is no relationship between the levels of moral

development and the self-concept of the subjects.

(6) There is no relationship between the levels of moral

development and the levels of altruism of the subjects.

(7) There is no difference in the relationships between the

levels of moral development and self-concept for the three

pairs of groups (i.e. professional counselors compared to

paraprofessional counselors, ending professional trainees

compared to ending paraprofessional trainees, and beginning

professional trainees compared to beginning paraprofessional

trainees).

(8) There is no difference in the relationships between the

levels of moral development and altruism for the three pairs

of groups (i.e. professional counselors compared to

paraprofessional counselors, ending professional trainees











compared to ending paraprofessional trainees, and beginning

professional trainees compared to beginning paraprofessional

trainees).


Statistical Procedures


Hypothesis one was tested using an analysis of variance to

measure the difference in group means. The two groups compared were,

(1) the entire professional group (i.e. beginning and ending training

and experience groups taken together) and (2) the entire paraprofes-

sional group (i.e. beginning and ending training and experience groups

taken together).

Hypothesis two was tested using an one-way analysis of variance.

The three groups compared were: (1) the beginning professional

trainees, (2) the ending professional trainees, and (3) the professional

counselors. Any significant differences found were further

investigated using Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference (HSD) test

for multiple pairwise comparisons. The HSD compares all of the

possible pairs among the three groups and shows where significant

differences exist.

Hypothesis three was tested in exactly the same manner as

hypothesis two except that in this case the three groups compared

were: (1) the beginning paraprofessional trainees, (2) the ending

paraprofessional trainees, and (3) the paraprofessional counselors.

Hypothesis four was analysed using an one-way analysis of

variance. The three groups compared were: (1) the beginning

professional and paraprofessional trainees, (2) the ending professional

and paraprofessional trainees, and (3) the professional and











paraprofessional counselors. Any significant differences found were

further investigated using Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference

test for multiple pairwise comparisons.

Hypothesis five was tested by first calculating the Pearson

product moment correlations between the scores of moral development

and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale using all subjects together.

Significance of the relationship was checked by comparing the

correlation coefficient obtained and the size of the total group (N)

in the appropriate table.

Hypothesis six was tested by first calculating the Pearson

product moment correlations between the scores of moral development

and the Helping Disposition Scales using all subjects together.

Significance of the relationship was checked by comparing the

correlation coefficient obtained and the size of the total group (N)

in the appropriate table.

Hypothesis seven was tested by first calculating the Pearson

product moment correlations between the level of moral development

and the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale for the subjects in each of the

six groups (i.e. beginning professional trainees, ending professional

trainees, professional counselors, beginning paraprofessional trainees,

ending paraprofessional trainees, and paraprofessional counselors).

The six groups were then arranged into the three pairs of groups

(i.e. professional counselors compared to paraprofessional counselors,

ending professional trainees compared to ending paraprofessional

trainees, and beginning professional trainees compared to beginning

paraprofessional trainees) and significant differences between the

pairs of correlations were checked (Roscoe, 1969).







42

Hypothesis eight was tested in exactly the same manner as

hypothesis seven except that in this case the Pearson product moment

correlations were calculated between the levels of moral development

and the Helping Dispositions Scales for the subjects in each of the

six groups. The pairs generated were the same as those used in

hypothesis seven.

In all these comparisons a significance level of 0.05 was used.

Demographic data including sex, age, religious preference,

philosophical orientation, and counseling technique preferred was

collected. These data are in table form and comparisons made are

discussed in Chapter V.

















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


This study investigated the differences in moral judgment between

professional and paraprofessional trainees and counselors as

measured by the Defining Issues Test (DIT) developed by Rest, Cooper,

Coder, Masanza, and Anderson (1974). Correlations between moral

judgment and self-concept and between moral judgment and altruism

were also calculated. Further analyses of the data peripheral to

the research questions and demographic information are presented.

The three instruments discussed above were administered to each of

the subjects in this study.

A total N of 176 was used. The subjects were distributed

among the six subgroups as shown in Table 1.


Table 1

Distribution of Subjects into Subgroups


Professional Paraprofessional


Beginning Trainees 29 35

Ending Trainees 34 25

Graduates 28 25


Note. Total N = 176


All data were analysed in the following manner.







44

Hypothesis 1. An analysis of variance was employed to

investigate the difference in cognitive moral judgment between

professional trainees and counselors and paraprofessional trainees

and counselors. Identical analyses were also done on the scores

for self-concept and altruism.

Hypotheses 2 and 3. Analyses of variance were employed to

investigate the difference in cognitive moral judgment between the

three subgroups of both the professional and paraprofessional subjects.

Hypothesis 4. An analysis of variance was used to investigate

the difference in cognitive moral judgment between the three subgroups

(i.e. beginning trainees, ending trainees, and graduates, both

professional and paraprofessional subjects taken together).

Hypotheses 5 and 6. Pearson product moment correlations were

calculated between the moral judgment scores and the self-concept

scores and between the moral judgment scores and the altruism scores.

All the subjects were taken together. The subjects were then

separated into professional and paraprofessional groups and the

correlations repeated.

Hypotheses 7 and 8. Pearson product moment correlations were

employed to compare the differences in the relationships of moral

judgment to self-concept and moral judgment to altruism between the

six groups. The differences were checked by converting the

correlations into Z scores and then comparing the Z scores on a

table for significance.


Analysis of the Data


With all analyses of variance Tukey's Honestly Significant








45

Difference (HSD) was used to investigate the relationship of the

various pairs of groups. In all analyses 0.05 was used as a

significant alpha level. The null hypotheses results of the data

analyses are explained in the following paragraphs.

A significant difference was found between the professional and

paraprofessional subjects' moral judgment. The professional trainees

and counselors had a higher mean score. No difference was found

between the different training levels of the professional and

paraprofessional groups taken together or separately. A significant

relationship was found between moral judgment and self-concept, but

no relationship was found between moral judgment and altruism. No

significant differences were found in the correlations of moral

judgment and self-concept or moral judgment and altruism when

comparing the professional and paraprofessional trainees and graduates.

Hypothesis 1. There is no difference in the levels of moral

development of professional counselors and trainees and

paraprofessional counselors and trainees. The data analysis of the

total professional group compared to the total paraprofessional group

yielded a large difference, significant at the .0001 level of alpha

error. Hypothesis 1 was therefore rejected. Table 2 provides

information about this analysis.








46

Table 2

Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining Issues Test
Mean Scores of the Professional and Paraprofessional Groups.


Source of Sums of Mean F Significance
Variation D.F. Squares Squares Ratio of F


Between
Groups 1 4387.0 4387.0 54.5 0.0001

Within
Groups 173 13932.2 80.5

Total 174 18319.2




Hypothesis 2. There is no difference in the levels of moral

development among professional counselors and trainees. The group of

professional counseling students and professional counselors was

broken up into its three different subgroups and studied using the

analysis of variance. Table 3 shows the means of the subgroups on

the variable of the Defining Issues Test score.


Table 3

Means of the Defining Issues Test Scores for
Ending Professional Trainees and the Professional


the Beginning and
Counselors.


Group Mean DIT Score for Group


Beginning Professional
Trainees 31.3

Ending Professional
Trainees 28.9

Professional Counselors 33.6




Table 4 shows the results of the analysis of variance. The F








47

ratio of 2.4 is not significant, and therefore hypothesis two was

accepted.


Table 4

Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining Issues Test
Mean Scores of the Beginning and Ending Professional Trainees and the
Professional Counselors.


Source of Sums of Mean F Significance
Variation D.F. Squares Squares Ratio of F


Between
Groups 2 330.7 165.4 2.4 0.094

Within
Groups 88 6043.0 68.7

Total 90 6373.7



Hypothesis 3. There is no difference in the levels of moral

development among paraprofessional counselors and trainees. The

group of paraprofessional trainees and counselors was broken into its

three subgroups and scores were analysed using the analysis of

variance. Table 5 shows the means of the subgroups on the variable

of the Defining Issues Test score.








48

Table 5

Means of the Defining Issues Test Scores for the Beginning and
Ending Paraprofessional Trainees and the Paraprofessional Counselors.


Group Mean DIT Score for Group


Beginning Paraprofessional
Trainees 21.0

Ending Paraprofessional
Trainees 21.4

Paraprofessional Counselors 21.8




Table 6 shows the results of the analysis of variance. The F

ratio of 0.049 is not significant, and therefore hypothesis three

was accepted.


Table 6

Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining Issues Test
Mean Scores of the Beginning and Ending Paraprofessional Trainees
and the Paraprofessional Counselors.


Source of Sums of Mean F Significance
Variation D.F. Squares Square Ratio of F


Between
Groups 2 9.4 4.7 0.049 0.352

Within
Groups 81 7782.2- 96.1

Total 83 7791.6



Hypothesis 4. There is no difference in the levels of moral

development among the groups at different stages of training

(i.e. professional and paraprofessional counselors as one group,








49

ending professional and paraprofessional trainees as a second group,

and beginning professional and paraprofessional trainees as a third

group). The two counseling groups were combined and the differences

investigated. An F ratio of 0.719 is not significant, and therefore

hypothesis four was accepted (see Table 7).


Table 7

Analysis of Variance Testing Between the Defining Issues Test
Mean Scores of the Beginning and Ending Trainees and Graduates of
the Two Programs.


Source of Sums of Mean F Significance
Variation D.F. Squares Squares Ratio of F


Between
Groups 2 151.8 75.9 0.719 0.493

Within
Groups 172 18167.4 105.6

Total 174 18319.2



Hypothesis 5. There is no relationship between the levels of

moral development and the self-concept of the subjects. For this

analysis three correlations were computed; one was with the total

group of subjects, professional and paraprofessionals taken together;

a second was with the professional group only; and a third was with

the paraprofessional group only. Scores of the DIT and the TSCS

were correlated and subjected to a test of significance. Table 8

provides the correlations. The total subject correlation was

significant, and therefore hypothesis five was rejected. The

professional group correlation was also significant.








50

Table 8

Correlation Coefficients on Relationships Between Moral Judgment
and Self-Concept for the Total Sample and for the Professional and
Paraprofessional Groups Taken Separately.


Group DIT and TSCS Correlations


All Subjects* 0.1835
S=0.008
n=174

Professional* 0.2132
S=0.021
n=92

Paraprofessional 0.0023
S=0.492
n=82


*Correlation Significant at .05 alpha level
S = Significance level


Hypothesis 6. There is no relationship between the levels of

moral development and the levels of altruism of the subjects. For this

analysis three different correlations were computed: one was with the

total group of subjects; a second was with the professional group only;

and a third was with the paraprofessional group only. Scores on the

DIT and the HDS were correlated and subjected to a test of significance.

Data in Table 9 show that there were no significant correlations.

Hypothesis six was accepted.








51

Table 9

Correlation Coefficients on Relationships Between Moral
Judgment and Altruism Scores for the Total Sample and for the
Professional and Paraprofessional Groups Taken Separately.


Group


DIT and HDS Correlations


All Subjects 0.0723
S=0.171
n=175

Professional 0.1542
S=0.071
n=92

Paraprofessional -0.0740
S=0.253
n=83


S = Significance level


Hypothesis 7. There is no difference in the relationships

between the levels of moral development and self-concept for the three

pairs of groups (i.e. professional counselors compared to paraprofes-

sional counselors, ending professional trainees compared to ending

paraprofessional trainees, and beginning professional trainees

compared to beginning paraprofessional trainees). For this analysis

correlations were computed for each of the six subgroups. Table 10

shows the correlations between the DIT and TSCS scores and the

comparison of the correlations between professional and paraprofes-

sional groups.








52

Table 10

Correlation Coefficients Between the Defining Issues Test and
the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale Scores for the Six Subgroups.


Z Score of
Professional Paraprofessional Difference


Beginning -0.0408 -0.0815 Z=.1316
S=0.405 S=0.323
n=29 n=34

Ending 0.3075 0.1575 Z=.5662
S=0.038* S=0.231
n=34 n=25

Graduate 0.1987 -0.0034 Z=.6808
S=0.155 S=0.494
n=28 n=25


*Correlation Significant at .05 alpha level
S = Significance level


Differences in the correlations were reduced to standard scores.

No significant differences between correlations were found. Hypothesis

seven was accepted.

Hypothesis 8. There is no difference in the relationships

between the levels of moral development and altruism for the three

pairs of groups (i.e. professional counselors compared to

paraprofessional counselors, ending professional trainees compared to

ending paraprofessional trainees, and beginning professional

trainees compared to beginning paraprofessional trainees). For this

analysis correlations were computed for each of the six subgroups.

Table 11 shows the correlations between the DIT and HDS scores.








53

Table 11

Correlation Coefficients Between the Defining Issues Test and
the Helping Dispositions Scales Scores for the Six Subgroups.


Z Score of
Professional Paraprofessional Difference


Beginning 0.0008 -0.3157 Z=1.226
S=0.498 S=0.034*
n=29 n=34

Ending 0.0704 0.169 Z=.3374
S=0.346 S=0.210
n=34 n=25

Graduate 0.3284 0.1671 Z=.5884
5=0.044* S=0.212
n=28 n=25


*Correlation Significant at .05 alpha level
S = Significance level


Differences in the correlations were reduced to

No significant differences between correlations were

eight was accepted.


standard scores.

found. Hypothesis


Demographic Data Analysis


Further investigations were conducted using the demographic

information obtained from each of the subjects. One-way analyses of

variance were run across the categories of sex, preferred counseling

technique, and religious preference of the subjects on the variable

of moral judgment (see Table 12). These analyses were conducted to

detect any differences in moral judgment among the groups (e.g. Do

the subjects who prefer a particular counseling technique have higher

moral judgment than subjects who prefer another?).







54

Table 12

Analyses of Variance Testing for Differences in Mean Moral
Development Scores Across Sex, Preferred Counseling Technique, and
Religious Preference.


Catagory F Ratio


Sex 4.529*

Preferred Counseling Technique 7.793*

Religious Preference 1.727


*Significant at the .05 alpha level


The difference in moral development between the sexes prompted

further analysis. Two analyses of variance were run for the sexes

with the group split between professional counselors and trainees

and paraprofessional counselors and trainees. Table 13 shows the

results of these tests.








55

Table 13

Analyses of Variance for Moral Development Mean Scores Across
Sex and Split Between Professional and Paraprofessional Subjects.



Mean
Moral Development
Group Score F Ratio


Male Professional Group
n=45 31.044 0.028

Female Professional Group
n=47 31.340

Male Paraprofessional Group
n=19 22.550 0.479

Female Paraprofessional Group
n=65 20.784



No significant differences were found between the sexes when the

professional and paraprofessional groups were split.

The differences in moral judgment between subjects grouped by

preferred counseling techniques were also investigated. After

elimination of groups with a sample too small to justify analysis,

one group, behavioral counselors, was still significantly lower in

moral development scores than the other groups (see Table 14).








56

Table 14

Mean Moral Development Scores for Counselors
Particular Counseling Technique.


Preferring a


Technique n of Group Mean Score


Client Centered 22 29.0

Behavioral 20 15.0

Eclectic 82 29.7

None 29 22.0



Further analysis indicated that 19 of the 20 subjects espousing

a behavioral preference were paraprofessional counselors.

In a further analysis, moral judgment was correlated with age

using the Pearson product moment correlation. The correlation for

the total sample between age and moral judgment score was -0.0619

and was not significant. The same correlations were then run on the

professional and paraprofessional groups separately. These results

are in Table 15.








57

Table 15

Correlations of Moral Judgment Score with Age for the Total
Sample and the Professional and Paraprofessional Groups Taken
Separately.


Significance
Group Correlation Level


Total Sample -0.0619 S=0.208

Paraprofessionals* -0.2270 S=0.020

Professionals* 0.2723 S=0.004


*Correlation Significant at .05 alpha level


The professional and paraprofessional groups taken separately

showed significant relationships between age and moral development.

Demographic information was collected in order to investigate

any differences in the groups. The total sample was composed of

63.6% females and 36.4% males (see Table 16).


Sample Frequency Data on


Table 16

Sex of Subjects,


Total and by Group.


Group Male Female


Total Sample 36.4% 63.6%
n=64 n=112

Paraprofessional 22.6% 77.4%
n=45 n=65

Professional 48.9% 51.1%
n=45 n=47



Table 17 provides the average age information for the total







58

sample and for the different subgroups.















Table 17


Age Information for the Sample and Subgroups.


Total Professional Beginning Ending Graduate
Sample Only Professional Professional Professional


Average
Age 29.4 28.8 25.2 27.8 33.2

Range 17-60 19-56 19-36 22-42 24-56






Paraprofessional Beginning Ending Graduate
Only Paraprofessional Paraprofessional Paraprofessional


Average
Age 30.1 26.3 29.9 36.0

Range 17-60 17-60 20-51 24-60








60

Comparisons were also made between the professional and

paraprofessional groups' self-concept. A difference was found

between the two groups when this comparison was made. An F ratio

of 6.542 was found which is significant at the .01 level. When the

groups were split and the analysis run for paraprofessionals only

across the training subgroups no significant differences were found.

Small increases in self-concept were observed, however. The graduate

subgroup of the professional counseling sample had a significantly

higher self-concept than the two training subgroups of that sample.

Table 18 shows the different groups and their mean self-concept scores.


Table 18

Mean Self-Concept Scores for the Six Subgroups and Results of
Analysis of Variance Comparing the Subgroups Across Training Periods.


Total F
Group Beginning Ending Graduate Sample Ratio


Professional 343.8 353.9 374.0** 357.2 7.629*

Paraprofessional 341.8 343.3 350.4 344.3 0.471


*Significant at the .01 alpha level
**Subgroup significantly different


Table 19 shows the self-concept comparison between the

professional and paraprofessional groups.







61

Table 19

Analysis of Variance Data Comparing Professional and
Paraprofessional Groups on Self-Concept Scores.


Self-Concept
Group Mean F Ratio


Professional 357.2 6.542*

Paraprofessional 344.3


*Significant at the .01 alpha level

















CHAPTER V
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


This study investigated the differences which exist in moral

development between a sample of paraprofessional counselors and

trainees and a sample of professional counselors and trainees. Also

investigated were any changes which occur in a counselor's moral

judgment as a function of training. The relationships between moral

judgment and self-concept and moral judgment and altruism were also

investigated. The sample was composed of six different subgroups:

(1) paraprofessional counseling students beginning training, (2)

paraprofessional counseling students in the final stages of training,

(3) paraprofessional counselors with at least one year of experience

as practising counselors, (4) professional counseling students

beginning training, (5) professional counseling students in the final

stages of training, and (6) professional counselors with at least one

year of experience as counselors. All the subjects were students or

graduates from either the Santa Fe Community College Human Services

Aid Program or the Counselor Education Department of the University

of Florida; both programs are in Gainesville, Florida.

Three instruments were used in the research: (1) the Defining

Issues Test (DIT) which measures cognitive moral development, (2) the

Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS), and (3) the Helping Dispositions

Scales (HDS) which measures altruism. Each of these instruments were

administered to each subject only once. The research design utilized

62








63

was quasi-experimental in nature and assumed that each of the

subgroups previously described could be an adequate sample of each

population. Thus the samples taker of the professional and paraprofes-

sional populations are cross sectional in nature. The large sample

size, at least 25 subjects in each subgroup, was used to help

eliminate any random differences which might occur. It is assumed in

the study that the subgroups are comparable directly within each

group, as if they had been the same group and were merely tested at

different stages in their training.

A statistical analysis of the results yielded F ratios to detect

differences in the groups tested and correlation coefficients to

measure relationships between the variables of moral judgment, self-

concept, and altruism. In addition differences in moral judgment

were investigated on the variables of sex, preferred counseling

technique, and religious preference. A correlation was also calculated

between age and moral development. Further, demographic information

was analysed.

In summary the results obtained from the study are found below.

(1) A significant difference exists in cognitive moral judgment

between professional and paraprofessional counseling groups.

Professional counselors appear to have superior cognitive

skills where moral decisions are concerned.

(2) No significant difference exists between the moral judgment

of professional counselors and trainees at different levels

of training.

(3) No significant difference exists between the moral judgment

of paraprofessional counselors and trainees at different









levels of training.

(4) No significant difference exists between the moral judgment

of all subjects (professional and paraprofessionals taken

together) at different levels of training.

(5) A significant positive relationship exists between the

moral judgment and self-concept variables for the total

sample and for the professional group. No such relationship

exists, however, with the paraprofessional group.

(6) No relationship exists between the moral development and

altruism variables for any on the groups.

(7) No difference exists in the relationships between the levels

of moral judgment and self-concept for the six subgroups

when the professional subgroup was compared to its

corresponding paraprofessional subgroup (i.e. beginning

students compared with beginning students).

(8) No difference exists in the relationship between the levels

of moral judgment and altruism for the six subgroups when

the professional subgroup was compared to its corresponding

paraprofessional subgroup (i.e. beginning students compared

with beginning students).


Discussion


A large significant difference was found between professional

and paraprofessional groups on moral judgment. This indicates that

the professional counselors in all stages of training have greater

cognitive skills in making moral decisions. This difference could

be attributed to years of college education since Keniston (1970)








65

has reported that moral judgment is correlated with that factor.

The lack of change over training for the paraprofessional group

(see Table 6) seems to rule this out. There was also no significant

change in moral development over training for the professional

counseling group (see Table 4). The variability of the DIT score

from beginning students to graduates (2.2 points) does however

indicate a trend toward increasing moral development in the professional

group. The dip in DIT scores for the ending professional student

group may be a manifestation of Kohlberg's "Raskolinkoff Syndrome"

which he has observed in college age populations. There was no

significant difference found in moral development between the

different levels of training when the professional and paraprofessional

groups were taken together. Thus training itself can not be said to

have had an effect on the moral development of any of the subjects.

The significant correlations between age and moral judgment are

in contrast to the lack of change during and after training. As the

demographic data indicate, there is an increase in the mean age of

the professional and paraprofessional groups through the training

process. Since moral judgment is significantly correlated with age

and the mean age is different for the training groups some change

in moral development over training could reasonably be expected.

This dicotomy warrants further analysis.

A second interesting result is that the moral judgment of the

professional and paraprofessional groups has the opposite relationship

to age. Age and moral development had a significant positive

relationship for the professional group. The paraprofessional group

shows a significant negative relationship between age and moral







66

development. An adequate explanation of this result requires further

analysis of the professional and paraprofessional populations. The

results, however, of themselves clearly differentiate the professional

and paraprofessional groups.

A significant relationship was found between moral development

and self-concept for the professional group. No such relationship

existed for the paraprofessional group. This finding serves to

further separate the professional group from the paraprofessional

group. The professional group also had significantly higher self--

concept scores than the paraprofessional group (see Table 20). The

professional counselors and trainees therefore were more skilled in

judgments of a moral nature and felt better about themselves as a

group. The paraprofessional group's mean self-concept score was

well within the normal range, however.

No relationship was found between moral development and the

altruism of subjects as measured by the Helping Dispositions Scales.

The means of all the groups on the HDS were uniformly high which

may be an artifact of the type of questions that were asked by the

HDS. Counselors who consider themselves as helpers are less likely

to admit to feelings which seem to go counter to that self-perception.

As a result the scores on the HDS were so high that there was little

room for improvement. The practical ceiling of this instrument was

reached for most subjects, resulting in little sensitivity to group

difference.

The hypotheses which compare the differences in correlations

of the DIT with self-concept score and DIT with altruism between the

professional and paraprofessional groups showed insignificant results








67

(see Tables 10 and 11). Since the relationships themselves between

DIT with self-concept and DIT with HDS had low correlations, such a

result is to be expected.

The difference found in moral judgment between males and femalss

was probably an artifact of the data. The sex differences disappeared

when the groups were split into their professional and paraprofessional

components. The over representatLon or females in the paraprofessional

group (77%), who were 2 points lower than the paraprofessional males

on moral development, may have caused the difference to occur when

the groups were combined (i.e. there is a larger percentage of

female paraprofessionals in the total sample than there are male

paraprofessionals). It may be interesting to note, however, that

past research has shown a sex difference in moral development

(Lickona, 1976). The difference in moral development between

behavioral therapists and the others is explained by an uneven

distribution of paraprofessional counselors into that category

(19 out of 20). Since the paraprofessionals' moral judgment has

already been found to be lower than the professionals' any group in

which they are heavily represented is bound to have a low mean moral

development score when compared to other more heterogenous groups.

The self-concept score analysis once again differentiates the

professional from the paraprofessional groups. Both samples show

changes over training but only the professional group has significant

increases between its subgroups. The significant increase in self-

concept over training for the professional group may point toward

that program's ability to affect this personal variable. Such a

conclusion is not, however, adequately supported by the data







68

collected. Further information about the groups and the changes in

self-concept would be required before a definitive comment of the

reasons for the differences found could be made. Regardless of

this limitation of the data, the professional and paraprofessional

groups are very different in their self-concepts.


Conclusions


There is a demonstrative difference between the moral judgment

of professional and paraprofessional counselors. This would seem to

validate the concern of many professionals about proper supervision

of paraprofessionals at least where moral judgment issues are likely

to be involved.

Neither professional nor paraprofessional training programs can

be said to have affected moral development. While the professional

subjects had higher scores than the paraprofessional subjects, neither

program had any effect on moral judgment. This result shows that

further research and program development is needed in the area of

counselor training if moral development is to be an objective of

counselor education.

The differences between the groups point toward the conclusion

that different types of people select to become professional counselors

or paraprofessional counselors. No one conclusive piece of evidence

can be offered to defend this idea, but the weight of the many

comparisons made between the groups during this study indicates that

it is true. In a sense, the reasons for the differences are

unimportant. The differences exist and must be taken into account

when dealing with a counseling environment, if the best interest of








69

the client is to be protected. To the counselor educator the reasons

for the differences are important but must wait further research for

clarification.


Limitations

(1) Without a control group it is impossible to effectively

compare the training programs. A more extensive study

would have included the community college students and

other graduate students in non-counseling programs as

comparison groups.

(2) The quasi-experimental design while being parsimonious

with time did not allow for the perfectly comparable

groups which a longitudinal study would have allowed.

(3) The results are limited to a comparison of the two

counseling programs described in the study and should not

be generalized beyond the samples.

(4) The subjects were all volunteers and this fact may have

biased the results. The samples may have an inordinately

high percentage of motivated individuals.


Recommendations

(1) Further study of the moral development of counselors is

warranted with special emphasis upon how training can be

designed to effect it.

(2) Comparison studies need to be carried out to identify the

components of the professional counselors' development

which results in their higher moral development.

(3) Paraprofessional and professional counselors alike need to








70

be cognizant of the differences which exist between them,

take action accordingly, and thereby maximize the benefit

such cooperation bestows upon the client.


















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Carl John Zahner was born March 1, 1948, the fourth of twelve

children. He lived in many places in his youth but calls the

British Isles his mother land. After attending public boarding

school in England he attended Marquette University and received

a B.A. Degree in Philosophy. During active duty with the United

States Navy he spent a short tour of duty in the Vietnam war zone

and was later transferred to shore duty on Guam in the Marianas

Islands. While on Guam he attended the University of Guam and

received a M.Ed. degree shortly before his discharge from the

Navy. He is married to Sharon Anne Voelker Zahner and has one son,

Peter John.

His professional interests include: research into counseling

effectiveness, marriage and family counseling, and moral development.










I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.




Elias L. Tolbert, Chairman
Associate Professor of Counselor
Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.




Roderick McDavis
Assistant Professor of Counselor
Education


I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.




Ralph/G. Sel ridgv
Professor of Computer Science


This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the College
of Education and to the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

April, 1977 o E a


Dea', College of Education


Dean, Graduate School




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