Title: Psychophysiological correlates of self-esteem
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099600/00001
 Material Information
Title: Psychophysiological correlates of self-esteem
Physical Description: xi, 126 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bedinger, George Michael, 1939-
Copyright Date: 1983
 Subjects
Subject: Self-esteem   ( lcsh )
Psychophysiology   ( lcsh )
Physiology   ( lcsh )
Foundations of Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Foundations of Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1983.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 117-124.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by George Michael Bedinger.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099600
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000466397
oclc - 11556279
notis - ACN0693

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

PDF ( 5 MBs ) ( PDF )


Full Text












PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES
OF SELF-ESTEEM



By

GEORGE MICHAEL BEDINGER

















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY













UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1983
























To friends among the shade
who selflessly gave so much for the uncaring.
And who demanded fairness for others
at great personal jeopardy,
and whom I and we can never repay.
Especially Phinny and Ed.













ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This dissertation is of course a beginning and not

simply an end. But it is the epitaph of a very long and

fruitful life goal. This has been an arduous search for

insight into personality, a first step on a little marked

trail. Although I have found that the search has often been

lonely as one moves tree by tree, the forests are replete

with those who will take a moment from their own pursuits.

To all those who paused and shared their time and their

ideas with me I express my appreciation.

But certainly there were those who paused longer, and

then journeyed a ways with me. Their ideas, support, and

encouragement were invaluable and very special for me.

Don Avila contributed the basic question I have so

diligently researched. He first authored a grant proposal

that succinctly stated the problems concerning research on

self-esteem and how this research has failed to satisfac-

torily address many of the empirical requirements of the

modern scientific community. Further, he became a special

friend, and my friends contribute the real joy and meaning

in this life's too quick journey.

Barry Guinaugh is a rock whose unerring judgement has

served me well. Although we sometimes disagreed, time has








amply demonstrated the wisdom of his advice. I reminisce

often about the year we did our weekly behavior therapy

group at the local mental health center. It was successful

because he made it so.

Bill Baxter supervised my mental hospital practicum.

He piled a stack of appropriate literature in front of me

and took the time to talk about it. Initially I observed

from an unobtrusive corner as he conducted individual and

group therapy with some of Florida's most difficult clients.

But then most importantly, he gave me the freedom to learn.

For nine months he turned me loose with individuals and

groups of my own to fall down, get up, and learn to help

people.

Julian Keating pushed, set me up, and yet supported me

unfaulteringly during several years of difficult labor. He

is one of the few true philosophers, and one of the few who

sees clearly the triviality when others are blinded by

molehill mountains. In a maelstrom of conflict, he uner-

ringly grasps the keystone.

Harold Riker, a national figure in the study of geron-

tology, took time from his busy schedule to listen and

react to my ideas about the aging process. Of course many

were first formed in his seminars. Speaking of which, he

welcomed me into an extra seminar to refresh my memory and

renew some old acquaintances. But the most appreciation is

reserved for the innumerable times he took just to pause and

interact as we happened together amidst our busy schedules.








I have saved Bob Jester for the "last but not least"

of my mentors. In our years as officemates I learned more

statistics than in all my formal instruction put together.

Somewhere we also became friends. The dozens of lunches

with Don and him were welcome--even indispensable--islands

of mental health in the ocean of insanity that is graduate

school.

Susan Angenendt, colleague, now spouse, has made

beautiful music of my world professionally and personally.

Family has to put up with so much and my parents, an uncle,

and my wife did.

Amidst the insanity and chaos of one's journey through

time and despite and because of one's indispensable family

of friends, one must every once in a while take time to say

the hell with it all. This is my life, my journey, and

I'm going to get on with it in my own good time.













TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

. . iii


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . .


LIST OF TABLES. .... . . . . . .. .viii

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . .. ix

ABSTRACT. . . . . . . . . ... . . x

CHAPTER

I INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . .. 1


Purpose of the Study .
Statement of the Problem
Description of the Study


II REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . . . . .

Historical Review of the Psychophysiological
Literature . . . . . . . . .
Independent Variables. . . . . . .
Well Being. . . . . . . . .
Depression. . . . . . . . .
Stress . . . . . . . ..
Dependent Variables . . . . . .
Right Forebrain Electrical Activity . .
Heart Rate . . . . . . ...
Respiration Rate. . . . . . .
Perspiration Rate . . . . . .
Blood Pressure . . . . . ...
Between Groups Factors . . . . ...
Self-Esteem . . . . . . . .
Aging . . . . . . . . .
Pilot Studies . . . . . . ...

III METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . .


Hypotheses and Corollaries
Subjects . . . . .
Apparatus . . . .
Instrumentation . .
Procedure . . ...
Laboratory Setting . .
Instructions .......
General Design Used in the


Present Experiment.


. .







Page

IV RESULTS. . . . . . . . ... .. .55

Demographic Results. . . ... . . . .55
Right Forebrain Electrical Activity. . . .. .57
Heart Rate . . . . . . . . ... 62
Respiration Rate . . . . . . ... 64
Perspiration Rate. . . . . . . .. .67
Blood Pressure . . . ... . . . . 69
Blood Pressure at Exit . . . . . ... 74
Reliability and Validity . .. . . . .79

V DISCUSSION . . . . . . . ... 85

Dependent Variables. . . . . . . ... 85
Electroencephalogram. . . . . .. 85
Electrocardiogram .. . . . . .. 87
Respiration Rate. . . . . . .. .88
Perspiration Rate . . . . ... 89
Blood Pressure. ............. .90
Limitations of the Present Study . . ... .91
Suggestions for Additional Research. . . .. .93
Implications for Education . . . . .. 94
Implications for Theory. . . . . . ... 95
Conclusion . . ... . . . . . 98

APPENDIX

I SUBJECTS . . . . . . . .. .. 101

II INFORMED CONSENT . . . . . . ... .105

III UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA HUMAN SUBJECTS COM-
MITTEE APPROVAL. . . . . . . . ... 107

IV MEDICAL HISTORY AND SES QUESTIONNAIRE. ... .109

V INSTRUCTIONS TO SUBJECTS FOR MENTALLY IMAGING
TREATMENT CONDITIONS .... . . . . .. 110

VI RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED SEPARATELY
FROM PHYSIOGRAPH AND ITS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
YOUNGER AND OLDER AGE GROUPS . . . ... .114

VII RESULTS OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED SEPARATELY
FROM PHYSIOGRAPH AND ITS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN
YOUNGER AND OLDER AGE GROUPS . . . ... 116

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . ... .. .117

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH. . . . . . . . .. .125














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
RIGHT FOREBRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY MEASURED
BY PHYSIOGRAPH (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH) .... 58

2 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
HEART RATE MEASURED BY PHYSIOGRAPH. . . ... 63

3 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
RESPIRATION RATE MEASURED BY PHYSIOGRAPH. . 65

4 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
PERSPIRATION RATE MEASURED BY GALVANIC SKIN
RESPONSE METER INDEPENDENTLY OF THE PHYSIO-
GRAPH, BUT DURING EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS . 68

5 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED BY
PHYSIOGRAPH . . . . . . . ... 70

6 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED SEPARATELY
FROM PHYSIOGRAPH AND SEPARATELY FROM EXPERI-
MENTAL TREATMENTS .. . . . . . 75

7 SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON
DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED SEPARATELY
FROM PHYSIOGRAPH AND SEPARATELY FROM EXPERI-
MENTAL TREATMENTS ... . . . .... 76

8 PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTALLY IMAGING DEPRES-
SION AND GUILT (UNPLEASANT EVENTS), AND
BETWEEN FIRST BP CUFF INFLATION AND HEARING
DEATH STATEMENTS (STRESSFUL EVENTS) . . .. 81

9 SUMMARY OF CORRELATION RESULTS: RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN SELF-ESTEEM (TSCS SCORE) AND PSYCHO-
PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT (DEPENDENT VARI-
ABLES) BY TREATMENTS (INDEPENDENT VARIABLES)
INCLUDING PSYCHOLOGICALLY SIMILAR MENTAL
EVENTS (REPLICATION) . . .. . . . 83


viii













LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1. General design used in the present experiment 53

2. Design used to investigate differences between
younger and older age groups. . . . ... 54

3. Right forebrain electrical activity during
experimental treatments and its relationship
to self-esteem. . . . . . . . ... 61

4. Systolic blood pressure during experimental
treatments and its relationship to self-
esteem. . . . .. . . . ... 73

5. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured
at exit and their relationship to self-esteem 77

6. Theoretical model for construction of a
self-concept instrument grounded in physiology. 99








Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES
OF SELF-ESTEEM

By

George Michael Bedinger

August 1983

Chairman: Donald L. Avila
Major Department: Foundations of Education

The purpose of this study was to look for relationships

between self-esteem and physiology. Self-theory has not made

the contributions to education and counseling that it is

capable of making because self-constructs have not been

operationalized well enough to be adequate predictors of

behavior.

Seventy subjects (29 male, 41 female) were tested singly.

Right forebrain electrical activity (EEG), systolic blood

pressure (SBP), heart rate, respiration rate, and perspira-

tion rate were measured simultaneously while the subjects

were mentally imaging well being and depression and under-

going machine induced stress.

Self-esteem as measured by the Tennessee Self-Concept

Scale was significantly related to the EEG and SBP, but not

to the other physiological indices. The EEG was positively

related to self-esteem during the well being state and nega-

tively correlated during stress. The SBP was negatively

related to self-esteem during both depression and stress.







Replication of the findings was accomplished by having

selected subjects also mentally image guilt and listen to

statements about death (instruction induced stress). Signi-

ficant self-esteem correlations with the EEG and SBP ranged

between .20 and .50.

High and low self-esteem groups were compared using

analyses of variance (ANOVA) and the low self-esteem group

had higher EEG during stress and suffered higher SBP during

both depression and stress. These differences probably ex-

acerbated and did mask expected differences due to the aging

process (ANOVA--subject population included 53 younger and

17 age sixty and older adults).

After the debriefing, casual SBP was not related to

self-esteem for the younger age group but was strongly

related (.71) for the older age group. Casual diastolic

blood pressure was related to self-esteem for all seventy

subjects. These results and the ANOVAs suggest that self-

esteem is related to the developmental process and accounts

for at least half of the variance due to aging.

The age related findings spoke to the meaningfulness

of the relationship between self-esteem and physiology and

suggested practical as well as theoretical significance.

These were addressed and a theoretical model for construc-

tion of a more adequate self-concept instrument was sug-

gested.











CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to determine whether

physiological correlates exist for self-esteem and, if so,

to determine if those with a measured state of high or low

self-esteem also significantly differ in measured physi-

ology. For instance, people with low self-esteem may suffer

higher blood pressure than those with high self-esteem.

Since large numbers of subjects may produce significant

relationships that have little or no practical effect, simul-

taneous investigation was accomplished comparing younger adults

and older adults. This comparison was intended to demonstrate

practical or "real-world" strength or weakness. In other

words, if physiological effects due to one's self-esteem are

very meaningful, physiological differences expected between

younger and older groups due to the aging processes should be

masked or exacerbated by the physiological differences due to

one's self-esteem state. For instance, younger people with

low self-esteem may not have blood pressure that is signifi-

cantly different from older people, and people with high self-

esteem will have lower blood pressure than other groups,

especially during depression and stress. Further, if this is

so, the physiology of older people (e.g., blood pressure)

should be related to self-esteem because older people have

usually had a lifetime of having higher or lower self-esteem.








Statement of the Problem


An individual's self-esteem, a major factor in self-

concept or self-image, is considered the single most impor-

tant determinant of human behavior by many authorities

(Combs, Richards, and Richards, 1976; Hamachek, 1978).

Self-esteem influences every aspect of personal behavior, but

especially such characteristics as mental health, levels of

aspiration, learning, and delinquency (Combs, Avila, and Pur-

key, 1978). In education, self-esteem may be the most impor-

tant single factor in the success or failure of teaching and

learning (Howsam, Corrigan, Denemark, and Nash, 1976).

For many persons in the helping professions the solu-

tion to many of our personal and social problems lies in a

better understanding of the self. However, self-theory and

the research based on it have not been as fruitful as they

must be in order to gain more widespread acceptance and

implementation. Avila (1980) said there are three major

problems which have kept self-theory from making the sig-

nificant contributions of which it is capable:

1. Theoretical Constructs. The constructs and terms
the position employs are too abstract. They are
not anchored directly to empirical measurement
(operationalized) and the theory does not always
generate highly reliable prediction.

2. Instrumentation. The instruments used to in-
vestigate the basic research concerns of the
theory are inadequate. Further, these instru-
ments (mainly self-report, inference from a
paper and pencil task, and observational re-
port) are not sensitive enough for every re-
liable prediction of real-world behavior.








3. Application. Because of the poorly defined
constructs and inadequate instrumentation,
research of self-theory implementation in the
classroom has generated mixed results or,
worse, unwarranted conclusions that have not
been substantiated upon replication. (p. 2)

Avila (1980) then said these weaknesses may appear to

be so serious as to suggest that self-theory should be aban-

doned. The understanding of self-esteem, a key and integral

component of the theory, however, is so critical according

to Avila, that few individuals can be found who are willing

to propose such a course. Even Kenneth W. Spence, one of

the most ardent behaviorists and a rigorous experimental

psychologist, has defended self-theory:

That this field approach to the problems of
psychology has been fruitful and valuable is
amply supported by the experimental contribu-
tions it has made. . Furthermore, the
phenomenological approach has its advantages,
particularly in the complex field of social
behavior of the human adult. (Spence, 1963,
p. 170)

Ruth Wylie (1974a), probably the severest critic of the

theory, has added that even though the process of giving

the position a sounder scientific basis is going to involve

many long and arduous tasks, "I believe these tasks can be

accomplished and that their probable contribution to the

science of personality is worth the strenuous effort

required" (p. 316).

Thus there seemed to be two major reasons for

the present state of affairs in self-theory. The

first has to do with the position from which the

theory approaches the study of the human being.








Self-theory focuses on the internal aspects of the indi-

vidual, being concerned with what goes on inside the orga-

nism. Constructs based on internal conditions which have

not yet been open to direct observation are extremely dif-

ficult to translate into manipulable and controllable com-

ponents. In order to render such constructs open to

manipulation they must be tied to some type of operational

procedures and translated into intervening variables in

much the same way that behaviorists in psychology have done

with considerable success for more easily observable

phenomena.

The second reason is related to the first. Because the

basic constructs have had an inadequate empirical base, and

then have not been sufficiently accessible to experimental

manipulation, satisfactory tools of measurement could not

be developed.

Avila (1980) says this current dilemma for self-theory

can be resolved with a technological and procedural model

which can operationalize the position's constructs and that

these are available but have not yet been investigated. He

says adequate physiological bases have not been demonstrated,

but must be there, given that the theory has real-world

viability. Further, technological advances in the measure-

ment of physiology now make sophisticated comparisons more

easily accomplished.

Recent years have witnessed a tremendous increase in

interest and research in psychophysiological processes and








their relationship to observable behavior. Studies along

these lines have proliferated (Benson, 1975; Schwartz and

Beatty, 1977) and a whole new discipline based on psycho-

physiological measurement, biofeedback theory, has emerged.

Most of this research, however, has been clinical and

applied in nature and its tenets are probably premature

since the results so far produced are often contradictory.

The main purpose of most of these kinds of research has

been to discover the consequences of clinical treatment.

Very little basic research has been done and researchers in

the area are confronting the same problems faced by self-

theorists relating to poorly defined constructs.

Of importance to the present dissertation is that

psychophysiology has produced a technology which lends

itself well to looking at internal aspects of the indi-

vidual and then to the operationalization of self-theory

constructs. By employing this technology it now seems

possible that self-theorists will be able to find the em-

pirical basis that is needed for the adequate development

of the theory and its constructs such as self-concept and

self-esteem. Then it will be possible to construct more

accurate instrumentation.

The psychophysiological model and psychophysiological

techniques lend themselves well to the problems related to

a holistic theory beginning with and concentrating on in-

ternal variables. Self-theory is concerned with the nature

of a subject's subjective experience, the internal processes








occurring and how these influence behavior. Gale (1973)

states that this is precisely what the psychophysiological

model allows one to study:

Three different aspects of the person may be
studied concurrently, along with a common time
scale: performance or behavior, verbal report
or subjective experience, and physiological
state. The capacity to study events in three
universes at once is the hallmark of the psycho-
physiologist. His job is to construct units and
scales of measurement which enable him to make
sense of what is occurring concomitantly in all
three universes: (i) physiology, or what is
going on in the nervous system (e.g., as measured
by variation in heart rate, electrodermal acti-
vity, respiration, muscle activity and the EEG),
(ii) what the subject is observed to be doing
(reaction time, learning, social behavior,
activity level, and so on) and (iii) subjective
report of experience (what is thought, felt or
imagined). (Gale, 1973, p. 215)

For this researcher the psychophysiological model

gives a highly practical frame of reference for the study

of self-theory and biomonitoring equipment provides exactly

the kinds of tools the self-theorist needs in order to de-

velop (1) an empirical basis for the constructs of the

theory, (2) instruments that are sensitive enough to measure

changes in these operationally defined constructs, and

consequently, (3) strategies for achieving the goals of the

theory. Lazarus (1977) sees the same potential when he

states:

In the biofeedback laboratory or clinic, the per-
son is given information about the activities of
his visceral systems and asked to regulate these.
How he/she does this, what works and what does
not work, the limits of the effects in magnitude
of control, over time--all such information is
capable of contributing something of immeasurable
value to our knowledge. Research using biofeed-
back procedures could help us discover much more








than we now know about the psychological mechanisms
of self-regulation, particularly the intrapsychic
ones. (p. 85)

Lazarus goes on to point out the feasibility and the

necessity of the kind of research conceived in the present

dissertation:

If the problem is approached only in a parochial
way, or as merely a gimmick limited to the bio-
feedback laboratory, then we are likely to ad-
vance little in spite of the evident potential.
Biofeedback research will go much farther and
rapidly become an integral part of psychology
if it is seen and approached within the larger
context in which it belongs. (Lazarus, 1977,
p. 85)

Thus the technology of psychophysiology is available

to investigate whether physiological correlates exist for

self-theory constructs. If self-theory constructs can be

grounded in physiology then the theory will become more

predictive of human behavior. Preliminary research looking

for relationships between self-esteem and human physiology

is then a giant first step towards solving self-theory con-

struct operationalization problems.



Description of the Study


A self-theory construct, self-esteem, delineated by a

paper and pencil task that is currently accepted as the

most reliable and valid instrument, was utilized to rank order

seventy subjects by self-esteem. Division of this order into

high, middle, and low self-esteem groups permitted between

group comparisons by measured physiology.








Concurrent differences in physiology were produced by

having the subjects mentally image separate psychological

events, such as well being and depression. Behaviorally

produced stress was also physiologically measured.

With these measurements, correlations between self-

esteem and physiology (such as blood pressure and electro-

encephalogram) while the subjects were in differing psycho-

logical states (well being, depression, and stress) was

calculated. Further, the measured physiology was averaged

for each self-esteem group and comparisons were made between

high and low self-esteem groups during the different psycho-

logical states. These calculations showed correlations or

lack thereof between self-esteem and physiology during dif-

ferent psychological states. They also showed self-esteem

group differences or lack of differences during separate

psychological states (e.g., high self-esteem subjects having

higher or lower relative brain activity during well being

or stress than do low self-esteem subjects).

Finally, younger and older age groups were delineated.

This grouping allowed comparisons between age groups to

determine physiological similarities and differences (such

as the younger age group having blood pressure as high as

the older age group during the experiment). This last group-

ing then made possible inferences concerning the "real-

world" meaningfulness of the effects of self-esteem on

physiology. In order to make the age group comparisons,

the subject population, relative to the general population,








had a disproportionate number of persons over the age of

sixty. (One-quarter of the subject population was in the

older group.)

After the experiment was over, blood pressure was taken

by the conventional method and the results were given to the

subjects as a "reward" for "having been such a good subject."

These data, collected after the experiment, were utilized to

verify expected a priori differences between the age groups.

In other words, if the older group's mean blood pressure was

higher than the younger group's mean after they all thought

the experiment was over, the inference can be made that the

older group had higher normal blood pressure.














CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE



Human emotions,including personality variables such

as "ego," have long been thought to be major factors in

some physical disorders (Cannon, 1928). Researchers over

the decades have investigated physiological correlates of

many emotions (Sternbach, 1966). Further, the journal

Psychophysiology is fully accepted by the American Psycho-

logical Association, an event attesting to the present day

sophistication of the field.

Investigation in psychophysiology has often entailed

simultaneous dependent measures of one or more emotions.

The present design used both simultaneous measurement and

delayed measurement and is most easily understood when the

psychophysiological measures (e.g., blood pressure) are

presented singly to the reader. Further, investigation of

particular psychological states has taken place over decades

and strict chronological reporting is hard to follow if the

reader is led from one state to another and back to the

first again. For these reasons strict adherence to chrono-

logical reporting in this review was not done.

First, a brief overview of psychophysiological history

is presented. Then, additional historical and current


-10-





-11-


literature related to this design's independent variables

(experimentally induced states of consciousness: well

being, depression, and stress) are presented. Some redundant

presentation is then unavoidable but was held to a minimum.

Next, literature related to the dependent variables (physio-

logical measures) is presented. Again, some redundancy,

primarily attributable to simultaneous measurement, was

unavoidable. Finally, self-esteem literature followed by

pertinent gerontological literature is included.



Historical Review of the Psychophysiological
Literature


Cacioppo and Petty, writing in the May, 1981, issue of

the American Psychologist, said that "the earliest writings

to address the relationships between psychological and

physiological phenomena are probably those of the ancient

Greeks (e.g., about 500 B.C. in Plato's Theatetus; cf.

McGuigan, 1978, Chap. 2; Mesulum & Perry, 1972)" (p. 441).

But empirical research is relatively recent, begun about

100 years ago--Cacioppo and Petty reference Angel and

Thompson, 1899, and Sechenov, 1878-1947, for early reviews.

The May, 1981, American Psychologist also contains a brief

history of the field of psychophysiology, a definition of

the field delineating boundaries between it and other fields

in psychology, and an excellent discussion of the methods

and applications of the field to psychological research.








Sir William Osler wrote in 1897 about the relationship

of stress to arterial degeneration. He said he believes

psychological variables influence physiology: "In the worry

and strain of modern life arterial degeneration is not only

very common, but develops often at a relatively young age.

For this I believe that the high pressure at which men live

and the habit of working the machine to its maximum capacity

are responsible rather than excesses in eating or drinking"

(p. 153-154).

However, it was not for another generation that pro-

cedures acceptable to today's scientific community began to

be implemented. Baselines, the physiological measurements

taken prior to an intervention, were taken and experimental

manipulation such as learning and dreaming states were

accomplished. These mental states resulted in increases

in physiological responding over the baselines. This pro-

cedure was detailed by Cacioppo and Petty (1981), who cited

Clites (1936), Freeman (1930), and Golla (1921). Cacioppo

and Petty then wrote about the 1950s, "As a result, several

elaborate theories regarding task performance and arousal

(in one of its many forms) were developed" (p. 441). They

cited Duffy (1957), Lindsley (1952), and Malmo (1957).

Returning to the 1930s, the Menningers hypothesized

in 1936 that repressed, aggressive tendencies lead to heart

disease. Mittelmann and Wolff (1939) showed that emotional

conversation lowered hand temperature in those with Ray-

naud's disease (cold hands).








The 1940s saw Dunbar (1943) describe coronary patients

as hard driving, goal oriented people who are "workaholics"

(in today's vernacular). At about the same time Bettelheim

(1943) observed a different kind of interplay between

psychological state (seemingly acute instead of chronic)

and physiology. He described the "Muselmaner" (walking

corpses) in Nazi concentration camps who, "because of their

extreme sense of hopelessness, developed symptoms of apathy

and withdrawal that many times resulted in death due to no

known organic cause" (p. 417). Richter (1957) and Seligman

(1975), researching "learned helplessness," also documented

instances of sudden, unexplained death in animals that had

no control over a stressful environment.

Returning to the literature on coronary prone indi-

viduals, Kemple (1945) said such individuals manifest "a

persistent pattern of aggressiveness and drive to domi-

nate. . They are usually very ambitious and strive

compulsively to achieve goals incorporating power and

prestige" (p. 87).

Probably the first research to directly observe changes

in internal physiology that were produced by manipulating

psychological states was done by Wolf and Wolff in 1947.

They observed a subject with a gastric fistula (an opening

in the stomach wall through which they could observe the

stomach lining). They reported that stomach movement, gastric

secretion, and dilation of blood vessels increased during

anger and decreased during fear. Two emotional states








(anger and fear) seemed to elicit the only kinds of patterns

found. Although a great variety of emotions were manipu-

lated, all others seemed to elicit more or less of the same

two general patterns.

However,seemingly confounding research was being pub-

lished about the same time. Shaffer (1947) interviewed World

War II combat pilots and found that most (80%) were easily

irritated or angry while experiencing fear. This suggests

that the physiologically different emotions found by Wolf

and Wolff are involved in mutual "feedback loops" where one

emotion affects another which in turn affects the former and

a cycle was continued.

Further evidence supporting Wolf and Wolff was found by

Ax in 1953. Ax connected subjects to a polygraph under the

pretext of recording their physiological responses while the

subjects were relaxing. During the recording session, he

provoked his subjects to intense anger by having the polygraph

operator rudely insult them and to intense fear by leading

them to believe that the polygraph was short-circuited and

might electrocute them. Ax said respiration rate and per-

spiration increased more during fear and blood pressure in-

creased more during anger. However, these findings showed

quantitative differences in the same direction and, although

they certainly imply psychophysiological differences for

different emotional states (or at least that different in-

structions produce different results), this may not turn out

to be Ax's most important contribution. Perhaps his most








important finding is one not often reported in the literature

of psychophysiology although all report Ax's finding that

anger and fear are psychophysiologically different emotions.

Ax "found greater between-subject than within-subject vari-

ance in physiological reactions which suggests that people

may have distinctive modes of responding physiologically"

(Cacioppo and Petty, 1981, p. 443).

Lacey and Lacey showed in 1958 (as reported by Cacioppo

and Petty, 1981) that

there are multiple psychologically important fac-
tors that influence the various physiological re-
sponses at each moment in time. Two principles
identified by the Laceys are individual response
stereotypy and stimulus response stereotypy.
Individual response stereotypy refers to the
tendency for the same individual to display the
same profile of physiological responses regard-
less of the situation or stimulus, whereas
stimulus response stereotype refers to the
tendency for a situation or stimulus to elicit
a common pattern or profile of responses from
people in general. (p. 443)

Graham (1955) reported that significant forearm tem-

perature decreases occurred during states of anger, stress,

and depression. Graham, Stern, and Winokur (1958) found

that hypnotically suggesting an attitude associated with

hives resulted in raising hand temperature and that sug-

gesting Raynaud's disease decreased hand temperature.

Friedman and Rosenman (1960), after several years of

study of occupational "risk factors," found that coronary

artery disease was seven times more prevalent in a personality

structure they had labeled "Type A" than in those they had

labeled "Type B." Extensive interviews were used to








differentiate who was Type A, or coronary disease prone,

and who was Type B.

Friedman and Rosenman tried to identify Type A and

Type B by using a polygraph, which measured respiration,

body movements, and hand clenching, while subjects listened

to tape recordings designed to elicit Type A behavior. This

technique often misclassified more coronary patients as

Type B rather than Type A. However, newer techniques such

as voice analysis appear to be quite promising for assessing

the A/B behavior dimension (Schucker and Jacobs, 1977).

T.G. Burish (1981), writing in the Encyclopedia of

Clinical Assessment (Volume 1), said the crucial link between

Type A behavior and coronary heart disease may be the develop-

ment of damaging psychophysioendrocrinological conditions.

He cited studies showing significantly greater beta-lipo-

protein concentrations, faster blood-clotting times, greater

heart-rate variability, higher serum cholesterol and serum

lipid levels, increased epinephrine and norepinephrine

levels, and autopsy findings revealing more atherosclerosis

and coronary occlusion in Type A individuals than Type B

individuals. These studies seem overwhelmingly conclusive.

Burish (1981) further said that there are two psycho-

logical assumptions involved in the above conclusions. The

first is that stress can lead to damaging physioendocri-

nological consequences and the second is that Type A indi-

viduals live under increased stress because of their Type A

behavior (for instance, "workaholicism"). Burish then

quoted Glass (1977) who hypothesized a definitive link








between Type A behavior and learned helplessness, a depres-

sive reaction.

The 1960s saw a marked increase in the level of sophis-

tication of psychophysiological studies. Stern et al.

(1961) identified a "startle effect" in psychophysiological

measurement that can confound data.

Schachter and Singer (1962) showed that there is an

interaction between physiological arousal and emotionally

toned cognitions. Nisbett and Schachter (1966) demonstrated

that genuine emotions can sometimes be suppressed when

people are given alternative explanations for their arousal.

In other words, how one perceives the emotional situation

will affect that emotion.

"Real" arousal is not necessary according to Valins

(1966), only the self-perception that one is aroused. Emo-

tional disorders such as shyness, stuttering, and even

impotence are characterized by a "feedback" cycle according

to Davison and Valins (1972). Self-perception then is an

important variable, in addition to perception of the emo-

tional situation.

Lang et al. (1973) showed that there are reliable dif-

ferences between the autonomic patterns shown in fear, anger,

the startle response, hunger, and pain. They said that

differences among the more subtle emotions have not been

demonstrated consistently. They also found further evidence

that Ax (1953) was correct in reporting consistency of

responding within individuals. Lang et al. (1973) said





-18-


some people respond with an all-out autonomic arousal to

every emotion-producing situation, others seem to respond

very little in any situation, and still others respond

greatly to some kinds of situations and only slightly in

others. Scientific classifications simply substantiate what

people have known for centuries--that there are definite

emotional types of individuals. Perhaps if a consistent

kind of responding can be delineated for groups of people,

then a "personality label" can be ascertained (or invented)

and highly accurate prediction of emotion will be possible

for people within a particular group.

Some of the more subtle responses Lang was referring to

in 1973 have since been identified. "Significant differ-

ences in hormone responses to such stress-producing factors

as physical exertion, fasting, and exposure to intense heat

and cold have been found" (Mason, 1975, p. 413; Mason et al.,

1976). Certainly there should be even more subtle specific

hormone patterns that will eventually be found for specific

emotions (Lazarus et al., 1980). Dienstbier (1979) said

that "the more important role will eventually be assigned

to physiological patterns as a means of identifying specific

emotional states and differentiating them from nonemotional

stimuli" (p. 10).

Well being, depression, and stress were the specific

emotional states investigated by many researchers. However,

none investigated self-esteem and emotional states.








Independent Variables


Well Being


Clynes (1974) showed links between imagined emotional

states and simple observable behavior. During an imagined

state of love subjects pushed a key down slowly and away

from themselves. While imaging anger the subjects pushed

they key down straight and fast. A no emotional control task

gave an intermediate response: The key was pushed straight

down slowly. The physiological responses to love and anger

were consistent across cultures.

Light (1981) reported that young, healthy males who

are very reactive people during stress are indistinguish-

able physiologically (heart rate and blood pressure) from

the less reactive persons when relaxed and feeling good

(well being).

Relaxation and well being seem to be states primarily

produced by the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) according

to Krech et al. (1974). The neurotransmitter is acetyl-

choline in the PNS as it is in the somatic system. These

function as part of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).

The PNS slows the system (e.g., heart rate) down while

the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) speeds it up. Sur-

prisingly, both can produce feelings of well being. The

SNS activates both the adrenal medulla and the adrenal cor-

tex while the SNS itself is activated in the brain by

norepinephrine. The adrenal medulla produces epinephrine





-20-


and norepinephrine which "speed" the physiological system

up. Many people experience well being, but usually not

relaxation, when the adrenal medulla is stimulated. Addi-

tionally, norepinephrine has been implicated in mania, a

well being state (Krech et al., 1974).

Further, well being can be produced by the SNS when

the anterior pituitary hormone adrenocorticotropicc hormone

or ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce adrenal

steroids. Although many people experience well being, many

experience irritability and others no effect when given

ACTH or adrenal steroids (Krech et al., 1974).

Well being then, a psychological state, can be produced

by either the PNS or the SNS but is usually associated with

the PNS, while the SNS is associated with the stress

response. Other neurotransmitters can produce well being

(serotonin and the enkephalins) but their activating hor-

mones or psychological events are not yet known (Kretch et

al., 1974).

Levenson and Ditto (1981) investigated sixteen kinds

of instructions to individuals to elicit heart rate (HR)

changes. Only two were significantly related to performance.

"Make yourself feel relaxed" (r = -.29 with HR) and "Think

about something peaceful" (r = -.30) produced heart rate

decreases.

Levinson and Ditto (1981) also found that personality

variables (locus of control, state and trait anxiety) were





-21-


not related to the ability to control heart rate increase

or decrease.

Cacioppo and Petty (1981) said that in 1976 Swartz,

Fair, Salt, Mandel, and Klerman replicated Darwin's sug-

gestion that distinctive facial expressions are linked to

different emotions. "Nondepressed subjects displayed pat-

terns similar to those produced by the depressed subjects,

but the pattern accompanying pleasant imagery was accentu-

ated and the pattern accompanying unpleasant imagery

attenuated in normal subjects" (p. 443).



Depression


The literature on depression is voluminous. One of the

best historical reviews is presented by Fabry (1981) in the

Encyclopedia of Clinical Assessment, Volume II.

Directly relating to the present study, Fabry (1981)

said that Bibring in his 1953 study of depression examined

the relationship between anger or hostility and depression.

Bibring showed that when anger is turned inward or remains

unexpressed, it retards behavior. When it is turned out-

ward, it is manifested through agitated behavior. Fabry

(1981) says Beck (1961) proposed that a negative view of the

self, the world, and the future, along with self-blame and

criticism is the primary element in depression. As pre-

viously referenced, Seligman in 1975 said that depression

results from "learned helplessness": The organism "gives








up" when confronted with an uncontrollable environment

(hopelessness).

Depression is also endocrinologically related. Reduced

levels of norepinephrine (a neurotransmitter) often charac-

terize depression and drugs that deplete norepinephrine

produce depression (Schildkraut and Kety, 1967; Schildkraut

and Freyhan, 1972). Dienstbier (1979) found the indication

of anger stimulated production of norepinephrine and counter-

acted depression.

Schuyler (1974) said that "normal depressive reactions

become neurotic when the person shifts his attention from

the significant other to the self" (p. 36). Fabry (1981)

calls this reactive (situational) depression and labels more

chronic depression as endogenous depression. Cammer (1972),

writing about chronic depression, said "This type of de-

pression has also been associated with postpartum depres-

sion, aging, toxification, infectious diseases, glandular

disorders, severe injuries, surgery or changes in body

structure" (p. 14). "However, it has been most closely

related to involutional melancholia at menopause" or aging,

according to Fabry (p. 591). He said, "In general the in-

volutional is characterized by a rigid, perfectionistic

life style" (p. 21).

Cacioppo and Petty (1981) found that nondepressed sub-

jects displayed facial electromyographical (EMG) activity

that was similar to prior EMG that they had displayed while

they were imaging a pleasant experience when they were








thinking of their typical day. Moreover, depressed subjects

showed their "depressive facial EMG" when they were asked

to image their typical day. Schwartz et al. (1978) found

that those most likely to improve clinically had resting

facial EMG levels higher than those who showed little

clinical improvement. Perhaps this implies those most likely

to show clinical improvement are in an "anger" phase and

have not yet reached an extreme learned helplessness (apa-

thetic) phase.

Krech et al. (1974) said that epinephrine (SNS) secre-

tion increases when people are angry at themselves in a

stressful situation. However, when people are angry at

others or the situation they seem to have an increase in

norepinephrine (also SNS). Thus anger, as a psychological

state, may itself be as complex as depression.



Stress


Those suffering from chronic stress have been described

in the historical literature as having "state anxiety"

(Marinelli, 1981). Spielberger (1975) described state

anxiety as "subjective, consciously perceived feelings of

tension, apprehension, and nervousness accompanied by or

associated with activation of the autonomic nervous system"

(p. 137). Marinelli (1981) said state anxiety is expected

to fluctuate in intensity over time.








Marinelli (1981) in his historical review of anxiety in

the Encyclopedia of Clinical Assessment said:

Freud (1926, 1936) led anxiety into the twentieth
century by giving it a central position in his
theory of personality. Freud's focus was on
anxiety as a global motivational force rather
than on the experience of anxiety. In building
his theory, Freud depended primarily on
hypothetico-deductive reasoning based on clini-
cal observation. Learning-oriented theorists
(Hull, 1921, 1943, 1952; Mowrer, 1939, 1950)
made the first significant movements in using
experimental methods for the theoretical study
of anxiety. Important postulates in their con-
ceptions are that (1) anxiety is, to a large
extent, learned behavior; (2) it motivates
trial-and-error behavior; and (3) its reduction
reinforces the learning of new habits. These
points are considered the touchstone of the
drive conceptions of anxiety proposed by Dollard
and Miller (1950) and Spence (1956, 1960).
(p. 560)

Hilgard et al. (1979) listed the effect of stress on

the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), a part of the autonomic

nervous system (ANS):

1 Blood pressure and heart rate increase.

2 Respiration becomes more rapid.

3 The pupils of the eyes dilate.

4 Perspiration increases, while secretion of
saliva and mucus decreases.

5 Blood-sugar level increases to provide more
energy.

6 The blood is able to clot more quickly in
case of wounds.

7 Motility of the gastrointestinal tract de-
creases; blood is diverted from the stomach
and intestines and sent to the brain and
skeletal muscles.


8 The hairs on the skin become erect, causing
"goose pimples." (p. 330)





-25-


Interestingly, anger (also SNS stimulating) was almost

the same as stress except for Hilgard's number seven: anger

increased gastro-intestinal activity (Wolf and Wolff, 1947;

Dienstbier, 1979).

Gersten et al. (1974) showed where both positive and

negative change produced symptoms of anxiety but only nega-

tively weighted change correlated with their stress symptoms.

Gersten et al. (1974) then imply a self-perception variable

related to the physiological changes that they found.

Cronbach and Snow (1977) said that self-esteem is simply

the other side of the coin with anxiety. They posited a

single morale factor, "constructive motivation." Corno et

al. (1981) said "there might be more value in characterizing

students along this single dimension than in attempting to

predict outcomes from any one self-appraisal variable

independently. Of course, this is best addressed by an

analysis (e.g., factoring)" (p. 54).

If Cronbach and Snow (1977) and Corno et al. (1981)

are correct, stress will be related to self-esteem and

depression will not be related to self-esteem.



Dependent Variables


Right Forebrain Electrical Activity


Gale (1973), in "The Psychophysiology of Individual

Differences: Studies of Extroversion and the EEG," said








there have been more than a dozen studies looking at such a

relationship and they have yielded three classes of out-

comes. "Extroverts have been shown to be less aroused than

introverts, more aroused than introverts, or equally aroused"

(p. 215). He used this as an example of how psychophysio-

logical studies can be poorly executed because the environ-

ment or the instructions are not adequately controlled. He

said "Some sort of task, to which the subject must give

attention, is essential if the experiment is not to measure

speed of sleep onset rather than resting EEG" (Electro-

encephalogram) (p. 224).

Campbell et al. (1981) in their "Neuroanatomical and

Physiological Foundations of Extroversion" also presented

a fairly comprehensive review of extroversion and the EEG.

They said, "A possible explanation for the contradictory

reports is that the late "N1-P2" components of the evoked

potential are influenced by uncontrolled non-sensory factors

such as attention and motivation" (p. 264). (The N1-P2 are

standard electrode implacements and are located at the

higher centers.) Campbell et al. (1981) showed that "ef-

fects found at higher levels of the brain are probably not

due to parallel changes in the periphery or the brainstem"

(p. 263). They found no differences for lower brain level

EEG among the introverted, ambiverted, or extroverted. How-

ever, their strict adherence to accepted EEG experimental

principles was instructive.





-27-


Stanley (1982) implied that there would be a functional

decrease in brain activity in the frontal cortex of ex-

tremely depressed people (inferred from his suicide autopsy

studies where he found people who had committed suicide

had fewer neuroreceptors than those who had not committed

suicide).

Systematic habituation effects were discussed by R6sler

(1981) in his "Event Related Brain Potentials in a Stimulus-

Discrimination Learning Paradigm" in the journal Psycho-

physiology. He manipulated different stages of learning

and found functionally distinct processes of attentional

set. He also described four different procedures and ex-

plained when to use each when using the EEG in experimental

studies. Another excellent article about the EEG and re-

search is "The Analysis of Brain Waves" (Brazier, 1962).

An in-depth discussion of the EEG, electrode implacement,

and application of computer technology for the analysis

of the EEG was presented.



Heart Rate


Attention to non-threatening external stimuli produced

heart rate deceleration and hypotension according to Lacey

et al. (1963). Attention to internal stimuli increased

heart rate and blood pressure. Breathing rate and skin

conductance were not affected. Lacey and Lacey (1970) showed

the same phenomena using heart rate variability, a complex

procedure differentiating within the heart wave.








Subjects "who are above average in heart rate during

coping tasks show consistently higher heart rates and sys-

tolic pressures during other stresses as well, but are

indistinguishable from less reactive persons when relaxed,"

according to Light (1981, p. 217). In her procedure for

heart rate during relaxing, she recorded the lowest HR

elicited. Light also found that those

with hypertensive parents had significantly
higher heart rates than subjects with normo-
tensive parents during both relaxation and the
avoidance task: however, the two groups were
most clearly differentiated at the onset of
the avoidance task when the group with hyper-
tensive parents averaged 15 beats per minute
higher than the comparison group. (p. 221)

Schell and Lusche (1981) reported heart rate differ-

ences between Type A and B individuals at rest. They also

found a generally higher SNS "tone" among the Type A sub-

jects (for blood pressure or other measures taken simul-

taneously) during their experimental manipulations.

Van Egeren et al. (1978) investigated whether verbally

harassed subjects would experience a heart rate increase.

He noted that heart rate increased with their report of

anger.

Appel et al. (1981) investigated between group heart

rate differences for both high and low blood pressure people

subjected to anger. There were no heart rate differences

for anger in the experiment. In fact, heart rate decreased

although blood pressure increased.





-29-


Personality traits (locus of control, state anxiety,

and trait anxiety) were tested by Levenson and Ditto (1981)

for predictability of controlling heart rate and nothing

significant was found.

Schandry (1981) tested groups of good and poor heart

rate perceivers and found that the good perceivers had sig-

nificantly higher scores on a test of state anxiety. He

then showed that "accurate autonomic awareness is coupled to

emotional experience and especially anxiety" (p. 475). They

further said, "it seems that higher self-reported anxiety

is due to better perception of physiological processes

rather than to actual level of autonomic arousal" (p. 479).

Schandry (1981) then seemed to imply a "feedback loop" between

psychology and physiology.



Respiration Rate


Willer (1980) found a progressive increase in respira-

tion rate and heart rate as a function of repetition of

stress in time. These kinds of increases were noted in study

after study and have been reported earlier in this review

(Hilgard, 1979, and others).

In each of the studies in the review of the literature

presented in previous sections in which respiration rate was

one of the simultaneously recorded variables, respiration

rate was not associated with any significant differences for

any variable (e.g., Stern et al., 1961).





-30-


However, respiration rate affects heart rate and

generally heart rate increases as breathing rate increases.

Breathing rate then must be monitored to insure heart rate

data collection is accurate. An excellent article discussing

the effect of breathing rate on heart rate variability was

presented by Mulder and Mulder (1981). Respiration rate

implications and new technology in psychophysiology were

discussed.



Perspiration Rate


A high degree of arousal, assessed from a number of

behavioral indexes such as crying and movement, was found

highly correlated with the galvanic skin response for sixty

neonates, human two to five day old babies (Weller and Bell,

1965).

Schell and Lusche (1981) found significantly higher

skin conductance for those with Type A personality during

all of the treatments in their research. They had four con-

ditions: (1) resting, (2) reaction time, (3) anagram task

with difficulty varied successively from easy to difficult

and a loud unpleasant noise sounded at failure, and (4) a

timed math task with verbal harassment. However, changes in

skin conductance did not differ between Type A and Type B

personality subjects for any of the tasks.

Schandry (1981), as reported previously in this study,

found that good heart beat perceivers had higher state





-31-


anxiety. He also found that skin conductance level did

not change. He speculated this "may be a consequence of

the rather rapid changes between rest and perception phases;

possibly this tonic measure was not sufficiently responsive

to rapid changes, so that the mean values remained un-

changed" (p. 477).

Fenz and Epstein (1967) reported that both novice and

experienced parachutists have a similar increase in galvanic

skin response (GSR) as the time for jumping approached.

However, experienced jumpers reported different timing for

emotional arousal (just after the jump) while novice jumpers

reported an earlier arousal (just before the jump). They

speculated that "perhaps the experienced jumpers had learned

to inhibit the subjective response of fear in response to

the first signs of physiological arousal" (p. 34).

Hastrup (1979) reviewed literature concerning the rela-

tionship of vigilance tasks to extroversion/introversion and

labile subjects, defined as those who have a high frequency

of spontaneous electrodermal fluctuation and who do not

quickly habituate. She said many investigators have found

a relationship between introversion and electrodermal

liability. She found that introversion was not related to

electrodermal liability but that it was related to a higher

initial level of performance.

Electrodermal responding to aversive stimuli differed

between depressed and non-depressed persons according to

many researchers (Gatchel, 1981). Further, many investigators





-32-


have found that clinical depression is associated with de-

creased electrodermal responding (Gatchel, 1981).



Blood Pressure


Lacey and Lacey (1970) found that attention to external

stimuli had a decreasing effect on blood pressure (BP) and

that attention to internal stimuli had a hypertensive effect.

Type A personality people generally had higher blood

pressure than Type B (Schell and Lusche, 1981). They also

found that a high time pressure task produced greater in-

creases in blood pressure for Type A personality subjects

than for Type B subjects.

Light in 1981 showed that males who have higher than

average heart rate during coping tasks also have consistently

higher systolic blood pressure during other stressful tasks.

However, these subjects were indistinguishable from the

other subjects when they were relaxing. She found large

increases for systolic BP but only small increases in dia-

stolic BP during the stressful tasks. Systolic BP was con-

sistently more reactive than diastolic BP.

During the course of her complex experiment Light found

her various measures did not yield a consistent picture and

suggested other factors may also be involved. She also

said "that both higher casual systolic blood pressure and

high heart rate reactivity to stress are associated with an

increased incidence of parental hypertension, but high heart





-33-


rate reactivity shows a stronger relationship. The incidence

of parental hypertension is roughly twice as great among

parents of subjects with mildly elevated casual blood pres-

sures, but it is almost five times as great among the

parents of high as compared with low heart rate reactors"

(1981, p. 222).

Van Egeren et al. (1978) found that verbally harassed

subjects had higher systolic BP while solving anagrams.

After the task, blood pressure reduced back to normal at a

slower rate when there was uncertainty of consequences com-

pared with those who were told what to expect next.

An excellent article giving blood pressure statistics

in the national population by age, sex, and other relevant

variables was presented in Hypertension in Adults (1981).

The summary was particularly instructive as was Appendix

III (Sources of Variation in Blood Pressure Measurements).



Between Groups Factors


Self-Esteem


Social learning and cognitive variables influence the

development of the self-concept according to Combs and

Snygg (1959). "One of the most critical aspects of the

self-concept is self-esteem" (Mischel, 1976, p. 4). "Self-

esteem refers to the individual's personal judgement of his

own worth," according to Coopersmith (1967, p. 8).








Terman and Oden (1959), in their historic longitudinal

study of the gifted, found that the mortality rate of the

least successful was twice that of the most successful.

The above statements, when taken as a whole, imply that

low self-esteem may lead to earlier death and, by further

inference, to deleterious physiological variables prior to

death.

Additionally the loss of self-esteem can be acute,

rather than chronic as Terman's study of the life span in-

fers. Burns (1980) said that some people "are likely to

respond to the perception of failure or inadequacy with a

precipitous loss in self-esteem that can trigger episodes

of severe depression and anxiety" (p. 25).

Bandura (1982) postulated a theory of self-efficacy.

He said this theory must specify when perceived inefficacy

will give rise to anxiety and depression.

Combs and Snygg (1959) talked about the adequate per-

son and about anxiety and depression. Bandura (1982), al-

though he would disagree, tested some of Combs and Snygg's

principles when Bandura showed "the higher the level of

self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments

and the lower the emotional arousal" (p. 122). Bandura also

said that perceived self-efficacy helps to account for the

level of physiological stress reactions, resignation to

failure experiences, and achievement strivings, among others.

The "dirty words" studies (McConnell, 1980) showed

emotional arousal (SNS: blood pressure and heart rate





-35-


increases) even when the words were presented at very high

speeds and were supposedly unintelligible (subjects said

they did not know what they saw). Perception of the world

is done through a filter/amplifier--a feedback loop--the

self (Bedinger, Bedinger, and Purkey, 1983). McConnell

(1980) said there "seems to be fairly good evidence that

something like perceptual defense or vigilance does occur"

(p. 273). People seem to not always be aware at a cogni-

tive level of their SNS arousal or the external stimuli that

produced that arousal.



Aging


As people age, there is an increase in individual

specificity (Garwood and Engel, 1981). This means that as

people grow older there is an increase in the tendency to

respond to stimuli with a consistent response hierarchy.

Physiological measures in the Garwood and Engel (1981) study

were heart rate, blood pressure, perspiration, breathing,

and digital blood flow.

Weg (1975) chronicled age related physiological changes

in her chapter "Changing physiology of aging, normal and

pathological" in the text Aging. She mentioned those effects

generally known such as decreases in brain electrical

activity, heart rate, breathing rate, and perspiration rate

and increases in blood pressure. She also said reaction to

stress decreases with age at SNS stimulation because there








are concomitant changes in hormone levels such as adrena-

line, noradrenaline, and corticords and thus changes in the

activity of the organs affected.

Although reaction to stress decreases, depression may

increase according to many researchers (Breslan and Haug,

1983). Gaitz (1977) proposed that depression is the in-

evitable consequence of the aging process. However, Bultena

(1978), in his ten year study, rebutted depression as an

inevitable consequence when he showed that those with younger

self-images correlated high with favorable self-evaluations

and that they were as happy as older people as they had been

as younger people.

Wortman and Loftus (1981) further refute inevitable

depression by reporting that they found the aged either

extremely happy or extremely unhappy. Their findings also

seem to concur with the decrease in women's suicide with

aging ("Vital Statistics of the United States," Mortality,

Volume II, 1979). This is so because if depression is an

inevitable consequence of aging one would not be expected

to find extremely happy older people or decreases in suicide

rates. However this is a very complex phenomenon since

many older people are extremely depressed and there has

been an increase in suicide rate for aging men (Mortality,

Volume II, 1979).

Perhaps one of the most important findings for the aged

was that active coping strategies increase physiological

arousal but were associated with lower psychological perception




-37-


of anxiety and stress (Miller et al., 1970). This latter

infers that older people who remain active may suffer less

anxiety and stress, and with further inference, less depres-

sion.

Palmore (1982) in the Duke twenty-five year longitudinal

study found that several variables were instrumental in

predicting longevity. For men,health self-rating, work

satisfaction, and performance intelligence were the strongest

predictors. Predictors for women were health satisfaction,

past enjoyment of intercourse, and physical function rating.

Each of these is somewhat measured by the Tennessee Self-

Concept Scale. Why then has aging consistently not been

related to self-esteem as stated by Wylie (1974b) in her

compendium of self-theory research?

Breslan and Haug (1983) presented a model that seems

to describe the path that some elderly take to clinical

depression. Their model also may predict the answer to the

above question. Their model involves an interplay between

developmental changes, special age-related vulnerabilities,

and the consequences of depression. This model explained

how many elderly people remain happy while others suffer

clinical depression. It then also suggests an explanation

for the consistent lack of correlations between aging and

self-esteem as reported by Wylie (1974b) because an inter-

action between aging and depression will mask any relation-

ship between aging and self-esteem if depression is related

to self-esteem.








This means then, if there are such relationships,

healthy older individuals are likely to enjoy high self-esteem

and less healthy older people will have less self-esteem.



Pilot Studies


Many procedures reported in the articles in the above

review of the literature were investigated in the pilot

studies. The pilot studies also served as a training

vehicle for the researcher.

Thirty subjects took part in the pilot studies. One

hundred undergraduates were screened using a short-form

self-concept instrument and ten students from each of the

high and the low extremes took part in additional research.

Five graduate students and five older adults also underwent

the trial procedures. Initial pilot studies might be better

characterized as single subject designs. The latter pilot

studies looked at between group differences.

Many of the subjects were tested two or more times:

five of the subjects twice the same day, five of the sub-

jects twice in one week, and five of the subjects every

month for three months. Reliability of physiological

responding by psychological treatment was generally high

for all subjects (r = .60 to .90, p < .01). Test-retest

reliability of the instruments was very high (r = .85 to

.95, p < .01).








The criteria for selection of physiological indices in-

cluded accuracy, reliability, and the history of the measure-

ment in the professional journals. Five were selected:

right forebrain electrical activity measured by the electro-

encephalograph, heart rate, respiration rate, perspiration

rate, and systolic blood pressure. The perspiration rate

was measured independently of the other four and both sys-

tolic and diastolic blood pressure were measured at the end

of the debriefing at least ten minutes after the formal

data collection was completed. These data were taken after

the subjects thought the experiment was over. The pilot

studies showed that if the data were collected as a "reward"

for'being such a good subject," the subjects were most

likely to exhibit their "real-world" personality.

Five psychological variables were selected as treat-

ments based on the subjects' subjective ability to follow

instructions, the ability of the physiological measurements

to discriminate between treatments, and the meaningfulness

to self-theory suggested by the literature review.

The five psychological variables selected were mentally

imaging well being while relaxing, mentally imaging depres-

sion, machine-produced stress (the subjects in the pilot

studies reported stress when the blood pressure cuff was

first inflated), mentally imaging guilt, and instruction-

produced stress (listening to statements about death). The

first three (well being, depression, and the stress at the

first blood pressure cuff inflation) produced the most





-40-


reliable results and were used in the primary factorial de-

signs of the study. The last two, guilt and the "instruction

stress" that was produced when the subjects listened to

statements about death, were used to successfully replicate

the seemingly significant relationships that were found

between the primary physiological indices and self-esteem

in the latter pilot studies.














CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY



The underlying assumption of the present research was

that one's self-esteem, a psychological state, is directly

related to one's internal physiology. That is, for instance,

a low state of self-esteem will be deleterious to one's

physiology and will disproportionately magnify the negative

relationship during periods of depression and stress. Fur-

ther, this adverse relationship, if very meaningful, will

exacerbate or mask the aging process itself.

Experimental treatments (psychological events such as

depression) were produced and measured by dependent variables

(physiological indices such as blood pressure). Physio-

logical indices were then correlated with self-esteem for

each psychological event to see if a relationship was pre-

sent.

Subjects were next divided into groups by self-esteem

so that treatment by self-esteem interactions could be

assessed, and later into younger and older age groups in

order to assess the practical as well as the theoretical

implications of the research. Practical implications were

gained in two ways. One way was to take the younger and

older age groups and simply look at the "real-world" data


-41-




-42-


like that which had been produced in the pilot studies when

the subjects' blood pressure was given as a "reward" for

"being such a good subject." The other was to assume that

if self-esteem is a meaningful construct, self-esteem effects

will produce predictable confounding (e.g., masking) when

comparing the younger and older age groups. For instance,

the older age group should have higher blood pressure. But

if there are more younger people and their blood pressure (BP)

increases at a greater rate (this predictable phenomenon is

explained in the next four paragraphs below), there should

be no BP differences between the younger and older age groups

even though the older age group normally has higher casual

blood pressure.

The factorial design of the present study precluded an

investigation of the interaction between younger and older

age groups by self-esteem because few older people were ex-

pected in the two extreme self-esteem (se) groups (high and

low se). Design cells with extremely small numbers are

not at all reliable. Some masking and exacerbating effects

were predictable, though, because aging characteristics

are highly reliable and directional. The five physiological

variables selected in the present design either increase or

decrease with age. That is, for instance, blood pressure

increases and brain electrical activity decreases with age.

This would mean then that an older age group, already

suffering from adverse increases in a physiological vari-

able such as blood pressure, will have an average BP that








will no longer exceed a younger age group mean when the

younger group suffers disproportionately higher blood pres-

sure during experimental treatments (assuming more younger

people than older people suffer disproportionately higher

blood pressure). This is so in the present experiment

because, with very small numbers of older people expected

in the high and low se groups, any effect for se will be

borne mostly within the younger group. Stated in another

way, if there is a disproportionate significant increase in

blood pressure for those with low self-esteem and the low

self-esteem group is composed mainly of younger people,

the overall younger group mean will increase enough to

mask an a priori difference between age groups if the effect

for se is very meaningful.

Therefore, there will be no statistical difference

between the younger and older age group means as measured

by a directionally increasing variable, blood pressure,

during psychological events that also increase that measure,

such as depression and stress.

However, should there be a priori differences between

the two groups of younger and older people in the other

(negative) direction (e.g., brain electrical activity

decreases with age), the differences would be magnified.

This is so because the younger group, if low self-esteem

people's average output is disproportionately increased

by depression or stress, will have their already higher

output exacerbated.




-44-


Four dependent measures that decrease with age were

selected from the many variables that were pilot tested:

right forebrain electrical activity, heart rate, respira-

tion rate, and perspiration rate.



Hypotheses and Corollaries


The above assumptions and inferences generated the

following hypotheses and their corollaries:

H1.0: Right forebrain electrical activity will
be negatively related to self-esteem.

C1.1: People with low self-esteem will have rela-
tively higher right forebrain electrical
activity than those with high self-esteem
during states of depression and stress.

C1.2: Older people will have lower right fore-
brain electrical activity than younger
people during states of depression and
stress (exacerbated EEG decrease).

H2.0: Heart rate will be negatively related to
self-esteem.

C2.1: People with low self-esteem will have a
higher relative heart rate than those with
high self-esteem during states of depres-
sion and stress.

C2.2: Older people will have a lower heart rate
than younger people during states of depres-
sion and stress (exacerbated HR decrease).

H3.0: Respiration rate will be negatively related
to self-esteem.

C3.1: People with low self-esteem will have a
relatively higher respiration rate than
those with high self-esteem during states
of depression and stress.





-45-


C3.2: Older people will have a lower respiration
rate than younger people during states of
depression and stress (exacerbated RR de-
crease).

H4.0: Perspiration rate will be negatively related
to self-esteem.

C4.1: People with low self-esteem will have a
relatively higher perspiration rate than
those with high self-esteem during states
of depression and stress.

C4.2: Older people will have a lower perspiration
rate than younger people during states of
depression and stress (exacerbated GSR de-
crease).

H5.0: Blood pressure will be negatively related
to self-esteem.

C5.1: People with low self-esteem will have
higher relative blood pressure than those
with high self-esteem during states of de-
pression and stress.

C5.2: There will be no blood pressure differences
between younger people and older people
during states of depression and stress
(masking effect).



Subjects


Fifty-five volunteer Caucasian adults were recruited

from the Unitersity of Florida and Lake City Community

College. Of the 55, two subjects were older adults. Addi-

tionally, fifteen volunteer Caucasian older adults were

recruited through the Gainesville, Florida, Older Americans'

Council (total N = 70).

The age range of the younger age group (N = 53)

was 15-59 years and the older age group (N = 17) was





-46-


60-79 years. Older people were then one-fourth of the total

sample.

Thirty-five of the subjects were in the upper-lower

socio-economic status (SES) group. Twenty-one were lower-

middle SES and fourteen were upper-middle. Ten subjects

had previously undergone psychological therapy. The sub-

jects' SES and/or previous therapy history were thought to

be possible confounding variables but they were not. This

is shown in Appendix I where statistical analyses of demo-

graphic variables are presented. It shows that the subject

population was not statistically different from the

general population except that their average age was

higher since the research design called for comparison

of a younger and an older age group.

Two subjects were eliminated from the results, one

Black person because enough Black volunteers were not forth-

coming and one Caucasian because she refused to complete

the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale after data collection on

the physiograph.

Subjects were not asked to participate if they were

more than plus or minus one standard deviation from the

weight norm for their height or if they had taken any drugs

within twenty-four hours of data collection. Only healthy,

normotensive subjects were recruited.








Apparatus


Three separate apparati were used of which two, a

NARCO Bio-Systems Phsyiograph and a Lafayette Student

Galvanometer, were used simultaneously. The physiograph

consisted of the following systems:


PMP-4B Physiograph with five second and event
marker and four Channel Amplifiers, Type
7070

Programmed Electro-Sphygmomanometer, PE-300
with occluding cuff Transducer Coupler, Type
7173

Hi-Gain Coupler, Type 7171 (2 each)

Impedance Pneumograph Coupler, Type 7212


A Standard K-085 cuff blood pressure measurement ap-

paratus was used independently in time from the other two

(used at exit interview instead of during formal data

collection).



Instrumentation


The Tennessee Self-Concept Scale was used to measure

self-esteem and the Hollingshead Two-factor Socio-economic

Status Scale was utilized to measure socio-economic status

(SES).




-48-


Procedure


The subjects were requested to read and sign two in-

formed consent forms (Appendix II) and retain one since they

were considered to be at risk by the University of Florida

Human Subjects Committee. (Any research involving human

subjects, where their physiology is being monitored by elec-

trodes attached to equipment with potentially harmful amounts

of electrical current anywhere in the system, constitutes

an "at risk" condition. See Appendix III). Subjects next

completed a medical history and SES questionnaire (Appen-

dix IV).



Laboratory Setting


The laboratory consisted of a desk area facing a wall

where subjects completed the above mentioned forms. The

other side of the room was a blank wall, virtually stimulus

free, and the physiograph apparatus stood in the center of

the room behind a reclining chair.

Subjects were seated in the reclining chair. They faced

the blank wall and the physiograph equipment was behind them.

The physiograph operator (the researcher) stood behind the

physiograph but in a position to closely observe the subjects

and to record observations on the chart paper as it moved

across the machine.

Electrodes were implaced by a same sex graduate student.

Three were placed in the sternum area (care was taken to




-49-


insure all electrode implacement was identical for all sub-

jects) for recording of heart rate (ECG) and respiration

rate. Two finger electrodes were placed on the first two

fingers of the right hand for recording the perspiration

response. Subjects were asked to report if there was any

pulse throbbing in the finger tips and, if so, electrodes

were loosened. Subjects' comfort was stressed throughout

data collection. Two electrodes were placed under a head-

band one-half inch above the right eye to measure right

forebrain electrical activity (EEG). The blood pressure

(BP) cuff was affixed to the left upper arm and the physio-

graph turned on.

Standard time constants for human subjects for the ECG

(3.2) and EEG (0.3) were used. Respiration rate settings

varied by subject to insure that both normal and stressful

breathing rates were measured. Directions from the Narco

Physiograph Manual (1980) were scrupulously followed for

each measure.



Instructions


After ascertaining that heart rate, respiration rate,

perspiration rate (GSR), and electroencephalograph were

being monitored and recorded correctly while subjects were

relaxing (see Appendix V), the researcher stated in a carefully

practiced delivery, "I'm going to turn the blood pressure

cuff on now. Let me know if you experience any discomfort."




-50-


This statement was found to remove a "startle response."

The initial BP cuff inflation often produced such an effect

in the pilot studies. The not too subtle implication that

discomfort was expected was then timed with the BP cuff

inflation, beginning at cuff inflation and ending at fifty

millimeters of Mercury (mm Hg) pressure. The cuff continued

to 150 mm Hg, well below the 180 to 200 mm Hg typically de-

livered by a nurse or medical doctor and then deflated at

the same rate. The machine repeatedly inflated the BP cuff

twice per minute and BP was recorded twice each inflation

(four times per minute).

Subjects were again requested to relax so that the

physiological indices would return to the baseline for the

recording of the well being state (see Appendix V). Data

were then collected while subjects imaged depression (see

Appendix V) for at least two minutes. Again, a practiced

delivery was accomplished during the mentally imaging

states. Appendix V operationalizes imaging states.

Next, as an intervening task, twelve statements from

the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale and eight additional self-

concept statements were read while the subjects relaxed and

listened. Fifty-three of the subjects selected randomly

were then asked to mentally image guilt (Appendix V).

Twenty-two subjects were also requested to listen to state-

ments about death (mentally imaging a stressful event,

Appendix V). All subjects imaged well being again as their

last task on the physiograph.





-51-


After completing data collection, the researcher re-

moved the electrodes and BP cuff and requested the subject

take the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale. Identification of

high and low self-esteem groups was not done until all raw

data had been evaluated and recorded.

After finishing the paper and pencil task the subjects

were given an exit interview and their blood pressure was

taken by the traditional method. This was offered as a

"reward" for "being such a good subject." This is also,

of course, additional data that may be more "real-world"

than the "laboratory" data that had just been collected.

The "laboratory" data were probably slightly confounded by

"anticipation" while the "exit" data were less likely to be

so influenced. "A priori" blood pressure was inferred from

this "real-world" resting blood pressure (the older age

group was expected to have higher a priori blood pressure).



General Design Used in the Present Experiment


The above procedure resulted in five 3 x 3 factorial

designs each with an N of 70 (self-esteem group by treatment

for each dependent measure). The additional 53 subjects in

the "guilt" condition and the 22 in the "image stress" con-

dition created an unequal-cell 3 x 2 (self-esteem group by

treatment) for each of the five measures. This gave the

added ability to statistically compare two mentally un-

pleasant images (depression and guilt) and two stressful








events (one machine-produced at the first BP cuff inflation

and the other instruction-produced while listening to state-

ments about death). This gave test-retest reliability.

Figure 1 is a conceptual integration of these designs.

Figure 1 shows each psychological state was reflected

separately by the different physiological variables. These

were further divided into self-esteem groups. For instance,

70 subjects imaged well being as measured by the electro-

encephalogram and 19 of these were in the low self-esteem

group.

Figure 2 is the design used for looking at age group

differences. Younger and older age group means were

analyzed in a 2 x 3 (age group by psychological treatment)

factorial for each dependent measure (physiological vari-

able). They were further analyzed for replication of sig-

nificant findings in a 2 x 2 factorial for the physiological

variables found significant for age group by psychological

treatment in the prior 2 x 3 factorial.














INDEPENDENT VARIABLES (TREATMENTS)





SHigh 27%
N = 19

Middle 46% /
N = 32
u Low 27%
SN 19


Right Forebrain
Electrical Activity
(EEG) ..............




Heart Rate.........






Respiration Rate...





Perspiration ......


Blood Pressure.....


c
no
a u .-
~-4 4-
*d 5.
aImra


to
C: r
0C c

o. as H 0

n .-fO bQa)
(U ~ ~ C WCP <


REPLICATION


N = 70 N = 70 N = 70 N=53 N=22


Figure 1. General design used in the present experiment.














INDEPENDENT VARIABLES (TREATMENTS)
c
o



nH N. C

Older (N = 17)

Younger (N = 53)


Right Forebrain
Electrical Activity
(EEC) ...............




Heart Rate.........





Respiration Rate...






Perspiration Rate..






Blood Pressure....


55
C,
55


to


bo

H 1 Cr
vr > c:
QJ W-4 -- H^ O
11 .
a. E H u CC P
QJ CCP U0 04441
Q 1-1E-' 0 oCQ ?O


REPLICATION


N = 70 N = 70 N = 70


N= N=
22 22


Figure 2. Design used to investigate differences between younger and older
age groups.













CHAPTER IV
RESULTS


Subjects selected for the experiment did not differ

significantly from the general population except in expected

design-determined directions. This was so because there

were more people over age 60 in the sample than in the

general population so that a comparison between a younger

group and an aged group would be possible (e.g., this older

group had average higher systolic blood pressure at exit)

(see Appendix VI).



Demographic Results


There were no significant relationships between age

and self-esteem as measured by the Tennessee Self-Concept

Scale (TSCS) (r = .08, p < .05). When the subjects were

divided into three groups by self-esteem (high self-esteem

was defined as those in the sample who scored in the upper

27% on the TSCS; the middle self-esteem group was the center

46%; and the low self-esteem group was the bottom 27%), the

middle group age mean was significantly higher (F(2,69) =

3.19, p < .05) than the other two groups. This difference

was of course predicted since a higher percentage of subjects

over age 60 in the middle group was expected. Of the 17

subjects in the over 60 age group, three fell in the highest


-55-







27%, four in the lowest 27%, and ten in the middle group,

which elevated the middle group age mean.

The high self-esteem group age mean was 35.5 years

(N = 19, a = 14.9), the middle self-esteem group age mean

was 45.6 years (N = 32, o = 18.8), and the low self-esteem

group age mean was 34.0 years (N = 19, a = 18.1).

Post hoc analysis using the Duncan procedure (DF = 67,

MS = 326.64, p < .05) confirmed that the age of the middle

se group was significantly different from both the high and

low se groups while the high and low groups were not signifi-

cantly different from each other for age. Thus any differ-

ences found for measured states of high and low self-esteem

are more meaningful for self-esteem comparisons with the

middle group removed because the middle group physiology was

influenced by the larger percentage of aged people within

that group. However, graphic results which include the

middle group do demonstrate age comparisons because the

middle group has a disproportionate share of older people.

Given that the demography of the subject sample was not

identical to the overall national population, there were

still no significant relationships between self-esteem and

the demographic variables measured: age, sex, socio-economic

status, and whether or not the subject had had psychological

therapy (see Appendix I).

Further, there were no significant demographic differ-

ences within the groups of measured states of high and low

self-esteem (see Appendix I).








Results of analyses of psychophysiological measures

(dependent variables) follow and are again organized into

sections in the following order:

Electroencephalogram
Heart rate
Breathing rate
Galvanic skin response
Blood pressure

Results within each of these sections are reported in

the following order: first, the correlations between the

dependent measures (e.g., blood pressure) and self-esteem;

second, any differences between measured states of self-

esteem; and third, any differences between younger and older

age groups.



Right Forebrain Electrical Activity


Electroencephalogram (results of analyses of psychophysio-
logical relationship between self-esteem and right forebrain
electrical activity as measured by physiograph (electro-
encephalogram) during experimental treatments)

Analysis of variance of right forebrain activity (EEG)

showed that mentally imaging well being, imaging depression,

and the mental event taking place at the first BP cuff in-

flation (stressful event) by the physiograph were signifi-

cantly different from each other (F(2,134) = 41.17, p < .001).

Further, the interaction between self-esteem and the treat-

ments was significant (F(4,134) = 4.80, p = .001) (see

Table 1).










TABLE 1
SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON RIGHT FOREBRAIN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY
MEASURED BY PHYSIOGRAPH (ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPH)

DEGREES OF MEAN
SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARE F PROBABILITY

Subjects 1 493.77 1072.88 .001
Self-esteem group 2 3.34 7.27 .001
Error 67 0.46
Treatment 2 8.64 41.17 .001
imaging well-being
imaging depression
first BP cuff inflation
Self-esteem groups
x treatment 4 1.00 4.80 .001
Error 134 0.21



TREATMENT low se a middle se o high se a


Well being 1.10 0.3 1.12 0.3 1.36 0.5
Depression 1.94 0.7 1.28 0.4 1.63 0.4
First BP cuff
inflation 2.26 0.6 1.65 0.4 1.84 0.7








H1.0: Right forebrain electrical activity will be
negatively related to self-esteem.

Right forebrain activity measured by an electroencephalo-

graph (EEG) was positively correlated with self-esteem (r =

.31, p < .01) while subjects were imaging well being (relax-

ing). However, imaging depression showed no relationship

(r = .09, p > .05) with the TSCS. The mental event at the

first BP cuff inflation (stressful event) was negatively

correlated with the score on the TSCS (r = -.26, p < .05).

This result was replicated when twenty-two subjects

who listened to statements about death (also a stressful

event) had a negative correlation (r = -.41, p < .05) be-

tween their EEG and self-esteem.

The finding of no relationship between the EEG and

depression was not replicated. Fifty-three subjects who

mentally imaged guilt (a mentally unpleasant event similar

to depression) were found to have their EEG and self-esteem

related (r = -.41, p < .05).

C1.1: People with low self-esteem will have relatively
higher right forebrain electrical activity than
those with high self-esteem during states of
depression and stress.

During the well being state the self-esteem group means

were not significantly different from each other (Kruskal-

Wallis chi-square = 1.72, DF 2, p > .05). Therefore, while

the subjects were relaxing, their right forebrain activity

tended to be positively related to their score on the TSCS,

but not enough to show statistical differences between the

high and low self-esteem groups.




-60-


The Kruskal-Wallis chi-square non-parametric statistic

was significant (chi-square = 9.67, DF = 2, p < .01) for the

self-esteem groups when the subjects were mentally imaging

depression. The middle self-esteem group with the dispro-

portionate number of older people had a significantly lower

EEG (1.28, a = 0.4) while imaging depression (Wilcoxon t-test

approximation 0.43, p < .05). High (1.63, o = 0.4) and low

(1.94, a = 0.7) self-esteem groups showed no differences.

The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a reliable difference

for the self-esteem groups (chi-square = 7.67, DF = 2,

p < .05) at the first BP cuff inflation stressful event

(see Figure 3).

C1.2: Older people will have lower right forebrain
electrical activity than younger people during
states of depression and stress (exacerbated
EEG decrease).

Older subjects did not differ from younger subjects

when mentally imaging well being or when mentally imaging

depression. However, the event at the first BP cuff infla-

tion showed significant differences between older and

younger people (Wilcoxon t-test approximation 0.68,

p < .05).

The older subjects' mean EEG at the first BP cuff in-

flation (stressful event) was 1.58 (o = 0.6, N = 17), and

was significantly lower than the younger group mean EEG of

1.96 (a = 0.6, N = 53). Aging differences were exacerbated

during stress.

An attempt to replicate this finding with a small sample

of 22 subjects during a different stressful psychological

























EEG
activity

p.4
2.5



z D. W
o 1.5V

S1.0- ----

0.5


low middle high
SELF-ESTEEM



Figure 3. Right forebrain electrical activity during
experimental treatments and its relationship
to self-esteem. (Note: Middle group had
disproportionate number of older subjects and
age was negatively associated with EEG activity,
resulting in depressed middle group means.)

First BP cuff inflation (stressful event) (S)
----- Imaging depression (D)
SImaging well being (W)




-62-


event (listening to statements about death) was not success-

ful but was suggestive that a larger N would be significant

(Wilcoxon t-test approximation 0.13, p = 0.07).

When listening to statements about death (reported as stress-

ful by 91% of the subjects), the older age group mean EEG

was 1.33 (o = 0.3, N = 9), and the younger group mean was

1.85 (o = 0.3, N = 13). Thus older subjects most probably

displayed lower EEG output again and this subtractive effect

exacerbated differences since the treatments disproportion-

ately added electrical output to the younger group mean.



Heart Rate


Electrocardiogram (results of analyses of psychophysiological
relationship between self-esteem and heart rate measured by
physiograph during experimental treatments)

Heart rate in beats per minute varied significantly

between treatments (F(2,134) = 27,05, p < .001) (see Table

2). The Duncan statistic (DF = 134, MS = 18.03, p < .05)

showed the three treatments were different from each other.

H2.0: Heart rate will be negatively related to self-
esteem.

There were no significant relationships between self-

esteem and the experimental treatments when measured by

heart rate (HR) in beats per minute. The Tennessee Self-

Concept Scale (TSCS) by HR while imaging well being was

r = .01 (p > .05), the TSCS by HR for depression was r =

-.07 (p > .05), and the TSCS by HR at the first BP cuff

inflation was r = -.02 (p > .05).










TABLE 2
SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON HEART RATE
MEASURED BY PHYSIOGRAPH


DEGREES OF MEAN
SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARE F PROBABILITY

Subjects 1 1029762.70 2485.14 0.001
Self-esteem groups 2 111.52 0.27 0.76
Error 67 414.36
Treatment 2 487.93 27.05 0.001
imaging well being
imaging depression
first BP cuff inflation
Self-esteem groups x
treatment 4 12.36 0.69 0.60
Error 134 18.03



TREATMENT MEANS low se o middle se a high se a


Well being 67.4 9.4 70.8 11.5 69.6 12.4
Depression 74.5 12.2 75.4 12.7 74.2 13.9
First BP cuff
inflation 71.2 11.7 74.0 12.4 71.8 13.2








C2.1: People with low self-esteem will have a higher
relative heart rate than those with high self-
esteem during states of depression and stress.

During the three treatments there were no differences

between the self-esteem groups (F < 1, p > .05).

C2.2: Older people will have a lower heart rate than
younger people during states of depression and
stress (exacerbated HR decrease).

There were no significant differences between the

younger and older age groups during the experimental treat-

ments with heart rate as the dependent variable either. Thus

well being (F < 1, p > .05), depression (F = 2.19, p > .05),

and the event at the first BP cuff inflation (F < 1, p > .05)

provided no heart rate differential between younger and

older age groups. Exacerbated HR decrease was not found.

However, any differences found for age would not be rele-

vant for this research since HR was consistently found not

related to self-esteem.



Respiration Rate


Respiration rate (results of analyses of psychophysiological
relationship between self-esteem and respiration rate
measured by physiograph during experimental treatments

Respiration rate in breaths per minute varied signifi-

cantly (F(2,134) = 4.52, p < .01) between treatments (see

Table 3).

H3.0: Respiration rate will be negatively related to
self-esteem.

Correlations between self-esteem and the two mental

imaging conditions (well being and depression) were not










TABLE 3
SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON RESPIRATION RATE
MEASURED BY PHYSIOGRAPH

DEGREES OF MEAN
SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARE F PROBABILITY

Subjects 1 45794.32 815.51 0.001
Self-esteem group 2 114.55 2.04 0.13
Error 67 56.15
Treatment 2 45.10 4.52 0.01
imaging well being
imaging depression
first BP cuff inflation
Self-esteem groups x
treatment 4 10.77 1.08 0.36
Error 134 9.97



TREATMENT MEANS low se o middle se o high se o


Well being 13.3 4.4 14.4 5.8 15.7 3.6
Depression 15.0 3.9 16.3 6.8 17.0 3.2
First BP cuff
inflation 12.6 4.6 16.1 4.4 16.2 5.2








significant (respectively .08 and .06, p > .05), but the

relationship between the TSCS and respiration rate at the

first BP cuff inflation was significant (r = .26, p < .02).

However the TSCS by another psychologically similar (stress-

ful) event (hearing statements about death) was not related

(r = -.11, p > .05).

C3.1: People with low self-esteem will have a rela-
tively higher respiration rate than those with
high self-esteem during states of depression
and stress.

There were no differences between self-esteem groups

(F(2,67) = 2.04, p > .05) during the three experimental

treatments. Interestingly, all nine means were directional

from low se to high se.

C3.2: Older people will have a lower respiration rate
(RR) than younger people during states of de-
pression and stress (exacerbated RR decrease).

There were no significant differences between the

younger and older age groups while mentally imaging well

being and depression with respiration rate as the dependent

variable (F < 1, p > .05 for both).

However the older age group took significantly (F(1,68)

= 5.07, p < .05) more breaths per minute at the physiograph's

first BP cuff inflation (stressful event).

The younger age group's mean respiration rate was 14.5

(o = 5.0, N = 53) breaths per minute, and the older was 17.4

(a = 3.9, N = 17).

An attempt to replicate this finding during a different

stressful event (listening to statements about death) was

again not successful (F < 1, p > .05).




-67-


Respiration rates between age groups were not exacer-

bated during states of depression and stress as predicted.

However, the expected a priori difference that older age

groups have a lower respiration rate was also not found.



Perspiration Rate


Perspiration rate (results of analyses of psychophysiological
relationship between self-esteem and perspiration measured
by galvanic skin response meter independently of the physio-
graph, but during experimental treatments)

The experimental treatments were significantly different

from each other when measured by the GSR (F(2,134) = 53.28,

p < .001) (see Table 4).

H4.0: Perspiration rate will be negatively related to
self-esteem.

There were no significant correlations between self-

esteem and the three experimental treatments as measured by

the galvanic skin response (GSR). The TSCS and well being

were thus not related: r = .06 (p > .05). The TSCS and

depression r = .09 (p > .05) and the TSCS and the mental

event at the first BP cuff inflation r = .18 (p > .05).

C4.1: People with low self-esteem will have a rela-
tively higher perspiration rate than those with
high self-esteem during states of depression
and stress.

There were no differences between the self-esteem groups

(F(2,67) = 1.58, p > .05) during the experimental treat-

ments.

C4.2: Older people will have a lower perspiration rate
than younger people during states of depression
and stress (exacerbated GSR decrease).











SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE
RESPONSE METER INDEPENDENTLY


TABLE 4
PERFORMED ON PERSPIRATION RATE MEASURED BY GALVANIC SKIN
OF THE PHYSIOGRAPH, BUT DURING EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS


DEGREES OF MEAN
SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARE F PROBABILITY

Subjects 1 46706.29 114.85 0.001
Self-esteem groups 2 642.64 1.58 0.21
Error 67 406.67
Treatment 2 11689.78 53.28 0.001
imaging well being
imaging depression
first BP cuff inflation
Self-esteem groups x
treatment 4 313.43 1.43 0.22
Error 134 219.39



TREATMENT MEANS low se o middle se o high se o


Well being 2.68 6.5 7.59 14.0 4.73 12.1
Depression 7.05 11.9 13.50 19.0 11.57 13.9
First BP cuff
inflation 25.26 23.5 28.00 21.5 37.89 17.1




-69-


While mentally imaging well being there were no dif-

ferences between the younger and older age groups (F < 1,

p > .05). However,while imaging depression and at the first

BP cuff inflation,the older subjects had significantly lower

GSR. Both findings were significant during replication with

psychologically similar events (guilt and stress) but any

GSR differences for age are not relevant to the present

dissertation because the GSR was consistently found not

related to self-esteem. Findings of an exacerbated GSR

decrease were not then possible with the present design.



Blood Pressure


Systolic blood pressure (results of analyses of psychophysio-
logical relationship between self-esteem and systolic blood
pressure measured by physiograph during experimental treat-
ments)

Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded on the

physiograph chart while the subjects were mentally imaging

well being, mentally imaging depression, and when the blood

pressure cuff was first machine inflated (first BP cuff

inflation).

These three treatments (imaging well being, imaging

depression, and the first BP cuff inflation) were signifi-

cantly (F(2,134) = 74.79, p < .01) different from each other

(see Table 5). Further, the se groups by treatment inter-

action was significant (F(4,134) = 3.76, p < .01).










TABLE 5
SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE
PHYSIOGRAPH


MEASURED BY


DEGREES OF MEAN
SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARE F PROBABILITY

Subjects 1 1114.00 590.26 0.01
Self-esteem groups 2 3.88 2.06 0.13
Error 67 1.88
Treatment 2 22.81 74.79 0.01
imaging well being
imaging depression
first BP cuff inflation
Self-esteem groups x
treatment 4 1.14 3.76 0.01
Error 134 0.30



TREATMENT MEANS low se o middle se o high se o


Well being 2.96 1.0 3.02 0.8 2.99 0.8
Depression 1.95 0.9 2.27 0.8 2.66 0.9
First BP cuff
inflation 1.33 0.7 2.05 0.9 2.09 0.9








H5.0: Blood pressure will be negatively related to
self-esteem.

The relationship between well being and self-esteem

(measured by the TSCS) was not significant (r = .07, p > .05).

However, the correlations between the TSCS and mentally

imaging depression and the mental event at the first BP cuff

inflation were statistically significant (r = -.22, p = .05

and r = -.27, p = .02, respectively).

Replication of the finding for depression was accom-

plished by having fifty-three subjects mentally image guilt

(also a mentally unpleasant event). The SBP was related to

the TSCS (r = -.38, p < .05).

Further replication of the finding for stress (first

BP cuff inflation) was suggestive that a larger number of

subjects would be related. Twenty-two subjects listened to

statements about death (also a stressful event) and their

SBP was related to their self-esteem (r = -.39, p = .06).

C5.1: People with low self-esteem will have higher
relative blood pressure than those with high
self-esteem during states of depression and
stress.

Systolic blood pressure (measured in centimeters on

the physiograph chart) while mentally imaging well-being

(relaxing with pleasant thoughts) was remarkably constant

between self-esteem (se) groups: The high se was 2.99 cm

(a = .88, N = 19), the middle se was 3.02 cm (o = .87,

N = 32), and the low se was 2.96 cm (a = 1.08, N = 19).

While resting comfortably the average systolic blood

pressure of all subjects was 3.00 cm and no self-esteem





-72-


group mean deviated from the subject mean by more than .04 cm.

Thus the "baseline" (relaxing) blood pressure for all three

groups was virtually identical.

When imaging depression the low self-esteem group's

systolic blood pressure went up significantly (Duncan, DF =

134, MS = 0.30, p < .05) more than the high self-esteem

group (low se group mean increased 1.01 cm, high se in-

creased 0.33 cm). The middle se group mean increased 0.75 cm

and was significantly different from the other two (see

Figure 4).

The systolic blood pressure that was first machine re-

corded (first BP cuff inflation) was also significantly

higher for those with low self-esteem compared to the high

self-esteem group (low se increased 1.63 cm, high se in-

creased .98 cm). The middle group mean increased 0.97 cm

and was also significantly different from the low self-esteem

group, but not from the high self-esteem group. This first

BP cuff inflation was almost universally reported as a

stressful event (98%).

C5.2: There will be no blood pressure differences
between a younger group and an older age group
during states of depression and stress (masking
effect).

There were no significant differences between the young-

er and older age groups during the experimental treatments

with systolic blood pressure as the dependent variable.

Thus imaging well being (F < 1, p > .05), imaging depression

(F = 2.63, p > .05), and the event at the first BP cuff

inflation (F = 2.73, p .05), showed no systolic blood
























CM mm Hg


1.0
S140
n 2.0 120 '- ----- .. S

3.0 100 W
a W
o
q 4.0 80


low middle high
SELF-ESTEEM



Figure 4. Systolic blood pressure during experimental
treatments and its relationship to self-
esteem. (Note: Middle se group has dis-
proportionate number of older subjects.)

..... First BP cuff inflation (stressful event) (S)
----- Depression (D)
Well being (W)

Physiograph chart centimeters (CM) drawn to scale.








pressure differences between age groups. Thus the signifi-

cant differences between high and low self-esteem, which

raised the overall younger group mean, masked a priori blood

pressure differences due to aging.



Blood Pressure at Exit


Blood pressure at exit (results of analyses of psychophysio-
logical relationship between self-esteem and blood pressure
measured independently of the physiograph and experimental
treatments as a reward after subjects had successfully com-
pleted all tasks)

Systolic blood pressure at exit was not significantly

correlated with the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (r = -.17,

p > .05), but diastolic was (r = -.33, p < .01).

Subjects were again grouped by their score on the

Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) into high (upper 27%),

middle (46%), and low (lower 27%) self-esteem groups.

The exit systolic and diastolic blood pressures were

analyzed using the analysis of variance procedure and Dun-

can's post hoc statistic (see Tables 6 and 7). Subjects in

the high self-esteem group had significantly lower blood

pressure than did those in the low self-esteem group for

both systolic (F(2,67) = 4.15, p < .02) and diastolic

(F(2,67) = 5.50, p < .01) blood pressure (see Figure 5).

The Duncan procedure confirmed that the high self-

esteem group had significantly lower systolic blood pressure

than did the low self-esteem group (DF = 67, MS = 167.17,

p < .05).












TABLE 6
SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED
SEPARATELY FROM PHYSIOGRAPH AND SEPARATELY FROM EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS

DEGREES OF MEAN
SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARE F PROBABILITY

Self-esteem group 2 693.77 4.15 0.02
Error 67 167.17




SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN MILLIMETERS
OF MERCURY (mm Hg) MEAN SD

High self-esteem group 111.0 8.8
Middle self-esteem group 121.5 13.6
Low self-esteem group 120.1 13.9












TABLE 7
SUMMARY OF ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE PERFORMED ON DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED
SEPARATELY FROM PHYSIOGRAPH AND SEPARATELY FROM EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENTS

DEGREES OF MEAN
SOURCE FREEDOM SQUARE F PROBABILITY

Self-esteem group 2 323.69 5.50 0.01
Error 67 58.84




DIASTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE IN MILLIMETERS
OF MERCURY (mm Hg) MEAN SD

High self-esteem group 68.7 6.0
Middle self-esteem group 74.0 7.2
Low self-esteem group 76.8 9.0


























mm Hg


140

120 Systolic



08
o ^~ ~-- Diastolic
S60


low middle high
SELF-ESTEEM


Figure 5. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure measured
at exit and their relationship to self-esteem.
(Note: Middle self-esteem group had dis-
proportionate number of older subjects, and
mean blood pressure for this group was elevated
due to the aging process.)








The middle group systolic blood pressure was not dif-

ferent from the lower self-esteem group but was higher than

the high self-esteem group. (Note: Middle group has dis-

proportionate number of older subjects; Duncan, DF = 67,

MS = 167.17, p < .05.)

The Duncan procedure also confirmed that the high self-

esteem group had significantly lower diastolic blood pres-

sure than the low self-esteem group (DF = 67, MS = 58.84,

p < .05).

The middle self-esteem group diastolic blood pressure

was not different from the lower self-esteem group but was

higher than the high self-esteem group. (Note: Middle group

has disproportionate number of older subjects; Duncan, DF =

67, MS = 58.84, p < .05.)

Systolic blood pressure was not significantly related

to self-esteem for the younger age group (r = -.11, p > .05).

However the 17 older subjects' SBP was highly related to

their self-esteem (r = -.70, p < .01).

The younger age group mean blood pressure was signifi-

cantly different from the older group for systolic (F(1,68) =

14.37, p < .001) blood pressure (see Appendix VI). The

younger group systolic BP was 115.1 mm Hg (N = 53, a =

12.0) and the older age group mean was 128.1 mm Hg (N = 17,

o = 13.4). This exit difference confirmed an a priori dif-

ference between age groups. This difference was found

masked by the effect of self-esteem during the experi-

mental treatments.








There was no significant difference (Appendix VII)

between the younger and older age group means for diastolic

BP (F < 1, p > .05). The younger group mean was 73.6 mm Hg

(N = 53, o = 8.1) and the older group mean was 72.5 mm Hg

(N = 17, o = 7.8). Diastolic BP is much less reactive than

systolic BP and remained high for the low se group composed

mainly of younger people, even after more than one-half

hour after machine data collection. Since there were sig-

nificant differences between age groups at that time for

systolic BP it is very reasonable to infer that, given enough

time, there would be differences between age groups for

diastolic blood pressure. Again, between group differ-

ences were masked by the effect due to self-esteem.



Reliability and Validity


After completing the experimental treatments,selected

subjects were given additional treatments) that were seem-

ingly psychologically comparable to the original experimental

treatments, a test-retest reliability.

Fifty-three of the seventy subjects were requested to men-

tally image guilt (a universally self-reported unpleasant

image, as was imaging depression) and their psychophysiological

measurements were compared with those these same subjects had

displayed while they were imaging depression. Blood pressure,

heart rate, and respiration rate were significantly cor-

related between similar unpleasant experimental treatments




-80-


(.71, .88, and .77, respectively; p < .0001). The electro-

encephalograph (EEG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) were

not correlated with their corresponding treatment (p > .05)

(see Table 8).

Twenty-two subjects were read statements about death

(reported as stressful by 91% of the subjects) and the

psychophysiological measurements were correlated with the

respective responses that took place at the first BP cuff

inflation (also reported as stressful).

Three of the physiological responses were significantly

correlated with their corresponding (stressful) experimental

treatment responses: blood pressure at .57, p < .01; heart

rate at .60, p < .01; and GSR at .68, p < .001. Two were

suggestive that an N larger than twenty-two would be statis-

tically significant: respiration rate at .36, p = .09; and

EEG at .37, p = .08 (see Table 8).

Further, correlations between the psychophysiological

measurements and the TSCS from the two additional samples

were compared to their respective psychologically similar

event correlations with the expectation that the measures

that had previously been found to be related to self-esteem

would again be related.

For the fifty-three subjects who additionally imaged

guilt, the blood pressure and right forebrain electrical

activity (EEG) were again related to self-esteem: r = -.38,

p < .01 and r = -.34, p < .01, respectively. However, the












TABLE 8
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MENTALLY IMAGING
DEPRESSION AND GUILT (UNPLEASANT EVENTS), AND BETWEEN FIRST BP CUFF
INFLATION AND HEARING DEATH STATEMENTS (STRESSFUL EVENTS)

CORRELATION BETWEEN CORRELATION BETWEEN
IMAGING DEPRESSION FIRST BP CUFF
AND IMAGING GUILT INFLATION AND HEARING
DEATH STATEMENTS

N = 53 N = 22

Right forebrain electrical activity .17 .37 (p = .08)

Heart rate .88* .60***

Respiration rate .77* .36 (p = .09)

Galvanic skin response .15 .68**

Blood pressure .71* .57***



*p < .0001

**p < .001

***p < .01








EEG for mentally imaging depression had not been signifi-

cantly correlated with self-esteem but the well being state

was significantly related (see Table 9).

Heart rate, respiration rate, and galvanic skin response

were again not significantly correlated (p > .05). Thus the

five physiological measurements continued to act in approxi-

mately the same manner as they had done earlier.

Further, for the twenty-two subjects who were read

statements about death, the psychophysiological responses

were similar to their corresponding experimental treatment.

Right forebrain activity was significantly correlated (r =

-.41, p < .05) and blood pressure was suggestive that a

larger sample would be statistically significant (r = -.39,

p = .06). The other three measures were not significant

(p > .05). Thus, the physiological responses had continued

to act in approximately the same manner as they had in the

original similar treatment (stressful event).

Tables 3 through 7 show significant differences for

each of the five psychophysiological measurements and their

concurrent experimental treatment. Imaging well being,

imaging depression, and the mental event at the first BP

cuff inflation (stressful event) were shown to be signifi-

cantly different from each other physiologically in five

relatively independent ways (predictive validity).

In summary, the experimental treatments (independent

variables) were significantly different psychological events










TABLE 9
SUMMARY OF CORRELATION RESULTS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-ESTEEM (TSCS SCORE) AND
PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT (DEPENDENT VARIABLES) BY TREATMENTS (INDEPENDENT
VARIABLES) INCLUDING PSYCHOLOGICALLY SIMILAR MENTAL EVENTS (REPLICATION)


Z
z





,I -1


Correlations of
Tennessee Self-
Concept Scale
Score by:


< E-



Pz
E-i Mm


.l E- C/I
ffC/I'-


Electroencephalogram
Heart Rate
Respiration Rate
Galvanic Skin Response
Systolic Blood Pressure

Systolic Blood Pressure
at Exit
Diastolic Blood Pressure
at Exit

Systolic Blood Pressure
at Exit:
Older Age Group
Younger Age Group

*p < .01; **p < .05


N = 70

.31*
.01
.08
.06
.07


-.17

-.33*



-.70*
-.11


N = 70 N = 53


.09
-.07
.06
.09
-.22**


-.34*
-.21
.11
-.11
-.38*


N = 70 N = 22


=.26**
-.02
.26**
.18
-.27**


-.41**
-.08
-.11
.03
-.39 (p = .06)




-84-



for each physiological measure and the measured physiology

(dependent variables) acted in a moderately reliable manner

during psychologically similar treatments.













CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION



This study demonstrated that, for the subject popula-

tion in this experiment, self-esteem was significantly re-

lated to physiological indices (electroencephalogram and

blood pressure). During stressful events the effect seemed

strong enough to exacerbate and did in fact mask a priori

differences between younger and older age groups, a priori

differences due to the aging process itself. Further, older

subjects' systolic blood pressure was highly related to

self-esteem even though they thought the experiment was over.

This robustness suggests that the effect of self-esteem

states on physiological indices has practical as well as

theoretical implications.



Dependent Variables


Electroencephalogram


Results of the analyses of the electroencephalogram

(EEG) show that the EEG for right forebrain activity was

directly related to self-esteem, especially during stressful

events. During depression there was no relationship. How-

ever, mentally imaging well being while relaxing was re-

lated, as was guilt.




-86-


The most surprising finding in the present experiment

was that, when subjects were relaxing, right forebrain

electrical activity was positively correlated with self-

esteem. One possible explanation is the obvious, that those

who have high self-esteem have more electrical activity

because they engage in more active situational coping most

of the time.

Another possible explanation is that, since different

self-esteem acts like different filters, the high and low

self-esteem groups understood different things from the same

instructions. For instance, the high self-esteem group may

have heard a challenging task when the well being instruc-

tions were read, while the low self-esteem group heard a

chance to escape the testing situation at the same instruc-

tions to relax and feel good.

Neither of the above two psychological explanations are

eliminated by a third explanation that is more physiologically

based. During mentally imaging well being, people with low

self-esteem, assuming they have suffered more psychological

depression in the past, display less frontal activity than

people with high self-esteem. This was suggested from Caciop-

po and Petty (1981) who found that facial electromyograph

displayed during mental imagery of the subjects' typical day

was negatively related to the subjects' prior history of

depression; and to Stanley et al. (1982) who showed depressed

people are also likely to have lowered frontal activity

because they have fewer frontal cortex imipramine binding

sites.








The most probable explanation for a relationship be-

tween self-esteem and EEG is a mix of all three psychological

variables. High and low self-esteem groups often differ in

coping strategies, hear different instructions, and have

differing depression levels.

Between group results showed the low self-esteem group

had significantly more right forebrain activity than the

high self-esteem group at the machine produced stressful

event (first blood pressure cuff inflation). This was repli-

cated when a sample of the low self-esteem subjects again

had more EEG activity when they were listening to state-

ments about death. Further they had significantly more

EEG activity while mentally imaging guilt (this also implies

mentally imaging guilt and depression may be very different

events: Guilt produced significantly more brain activity

than did depression).

Higher EEG activity for younger subjects appeared to be

exacerbated by the effect of self-esteem during the machine

produced stress. Again, this suggests that the effect of

self-esteem states on right forebrain activity has practi-

cal as well as theoretical implications.



Electrocardiogram


The statistical analysis used in the experiment showed

that heart rate was not related to self-esteem. This lack

of relationship could be a type II error (not finding an




-88-


effect that is present) because the experimental manipula-

tions were not successful in producing large enough changes

in heart rate to produce significance.

Heart rate was the most consistent intrasubject variable

(imaging well being correlated .87 and .92, p < .01, with

depression and stress, respectively). However, two con-

founding variables were observed during data collection.

Respiration rate affected heart rate as expected. But un-

expectedly, many subjects showed a "between beat" varia-

bility that is not reflected in the "beats per minute"

statistic. For instance, one subject's heart rate looked like

the following normal ECG: --- During

the machine produced stress at the first blood pressure cuff

inflation, this changed to: -- --- .

These dramatically different (normal and arythmatic) beats

are not different in beats per minute.

Computer assisted technology ("on line" equipment) is

recommended for subsequent research to quantify interbeat

subleties as well as intrabeat variability for investigation

involving personality variables and heart rate.


Respiration Rate

Respiration rate was not related to self-esteem in the

present study. Again, type II error is suspected.

During data collection several different "breathing

styles" were observed. Respiration is sympathetic and








central nervous system activated: It is automatic but one

can also breathe virtually any time one chooses. Simply

counting data per minute was again not an adequate descrip-

tion of the data. Some subjects breathe in quickly and let

the air out slowly, others breathe in slowly and out quickly.

Still others maintain a consistent breathing rate but change

from shallow to deep breathing during stress. Rapid,

shallow breathing under stress as reported in the litera-

ture review was not observed in this study. This reaction

was seen in the pilot studies immediately after the "startle

response" and low self-esteem subjects, in particular, ex-

hibited this "breathing style." (A "startle response" that

was sometimes observed when the blood pressure cuff was

machine inflated without specific and timely comment by

the operator was seen as too dangerous to use with older

subjects.) Again, more sophisticated analyses (computer

assisted) looking at larger numbers of subjects may show a

significant relationship between self-esteem and respiration

rate.



Perspiration Rate


Perspiration rates were not significantly related to

self-esteem in the present experiment. Some younger sub-

jects had extremely high perspiration rates (the literature

review showed this may be genetic). These high perspiration

rate subjects, named "labiles," whose high rate is genetic,




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs