Title: College attendance plans for graduates of Protestant high schools in the South /
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Title: College attendance plans for graduates of Protestant high schools in the South /
Physical Description: xiv, 246 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bedell, David L., 1952-
Publication Date: 1985
Copyright Date: 1985
 Subjects
Subject: College choice   ( lcsh )
College attendance -- Southern States   ( lcsh )
Educational Administration and Supervision thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Educational Administration and Supervision -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1985.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 243-245.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by David L. Bedell.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00099581
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000878654
notis - AEH6406
oclc - 014878386

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COLLEGE ATTENDANCE PLANS FOR
GRADUATES OF PROTESTANT HIGH
SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTH










BY

DAVID L. BEDELL












A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1985













































Copyright 1985

by

David L. Bedell














ACKNOWLEDGEME NTS


My parents have been the greatest source of inspiration in the

pursuit of my education and the writing of this dissertation. Both

are knowledgeable in the fields of education and church ministries.

They have guided me in setting goals for both academic achievement

and spiritual commitment.

I was encouraged to pursue my doctorate by Rev. Dennis Wheeler,

the pastor of Temple Baptist Church and a graduate of the University

of Florida with a degree in educational administration. Rev.

Wheeler has been a continual source of encouragement and has been

willing to allow me to adjust my schedule in order to complete this

dissertation.

I also want to thank my committee members for their help and

advice. Dr. James A. Hale, in particular, has been a great help to

me. His assistance in the writing of this dissertation has been

invaluable.














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.............................................. iii

LIST OF TABLES..................... .... ...........................vii

ABSTRACT....................................................... .. .xiii

CHAPTERS

I INTRODUCTION................................................ 1

Statement of the Problem...................................... 1
Procedures.................................................. 3
Population of the Study....................................... 4
Development of the Survey Instrument......................... 5
Administration of the Survey.................................. 6
Treatment of the Data ........................................ 7
Delimitations and Limitations.................................
Justification of the Study...................................10
Definition of Terms....................................... 11
Organization of the Report...................................14

II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE................................. 15

Protestant Education in America and the South................15
Types of Protestant High Schools............................ 19
Factors in the College Marketplace...........................24
Features of Protestant Colleges............................. 29
National Pattern of College Attendance in 1982...............35
Summary of the Literature Review.............................36

III METHODS AND PROCEDURES.......................................39

Defining the Population..................................... 39
Development of the Survey Instrument.........................41
Survey Response Rate........................................ 43
Problems with the Survey Instrument..........................45
Analysis of the Response Rate............................... 47
Reasons Given for Nonresponse ................................48
Organization and Treatment of Data...........................49










CHAPTERS Page

IV PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA............................53

Analysis of the Schools ......................................54
Rate of Planned College Attendance...........................61
Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance................75
Rate of Planned Attendance at College with the Same
Affiliation as the High School...............................85
Rate of Planned Private Nonsectarian College Attendance......92
Rate of Planned Public College Attendance.................... 97
Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance.........106
Rate of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance.........112
General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices.............117
Choice of College Major .................................... 119
Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance.................133
Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly
Tuition Charges.......................................... 138

V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS...................150

Background of the Study .....................................150
Affiliations of Protestant High Schools Studied..........152
Economic Factors Related to the Pattern of
College Attendance.......................................156
High School Graduating Class Size as a Factor in
the Pattern of College Attendance........................157
Summary of Research Questions........................... 160
Rate of Planned College Attendance.......................160
Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance............164
Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School...........................169
Rate of Planned Private, Nonsectarian College
Attendance ............................................ 173
Rate of Planned Public College Attendance................176
General Comparisons of Rates of College Choices..........188
Choice of College Major ...................................191
Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance ..............194
Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Various Yearly
Tuition Charges....................................... 198
Conclusions of the Research ................................ 204
Applications of the Results and Recommendations for
Further Research......................................... 214










PAGE

APPENDICES
A SURVEY INSTRUMENT......................................... 221
B COVER LETTERS............................................ 223
C CHARGES AND MATRICULANTS AT SPECIFIC COLLEGES...............230
D PROBABLE FIELDS OF STUDY FOR 188,000 COLLEGE
FRESHMEN IN 1982......................................... 241

REFERENCES..................................................... 243

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH .............................................. 246

































vi















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Kelley's Scale of Ecumenism.................................. 34

2 Dates of Mailings and Responses Received......................44

3 Nonresponse Rate for Five Largest Affiliations of Protestant
High Schools .................................................. 48

4 Reasons Given for Nonresponse .................................49

5 Relative Sizes of School Affiliations.........................59

6 Number of Graduates and Schools in Sample Relative to
Graduating Class Size...................................... 60

7 Rate of Planned College Attendance of 1982
Graduates Studied........................................... 62

8 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in
Planned College Attendance Rates..............................64

9 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to
Graduating Class Size........................................ 65

10 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of
Different Sizes ............................................ 67

11 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Small
Graduating Classes......................................... 69

12 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Medium
Graduating Classes ......................................... 71

13 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
College Attendance Rates for Graduates from Large
Graduating Classes.......................................... 72











Table Page

14 Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating
Class Size for Three Affiliations .............................74

15 Rate of Planned Attendance at Protestant Colleges of 1982
Graduates Studied.......................................... 76

16 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Protestant College Attendance Rates...........................80

17 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance Relative to
Graduating Class Size..........................................82

18 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Protestant College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes
of Different Sizes......................................... 84

19 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School for 1982 Graduates Studied.....86

20 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliations as
the High School ............................................... 88

21 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School Relative to Graduating Class
Size .......................................................... 90

22 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation
as the High School for Graduating Classes of Different
Sizes ......................................... ................91

23 Rate of Planned Attendance at Private Colleges for 1982
Graduates Studied.......................................... 93

24 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Private College Attendance Rates..............................95

25 Rate of Planned Attendance at Private Colleges Relative to
Graduating Class Size ...................................... ... 96

26 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Private College Attendance for Graduating Classes
of Different Sizes........................................... 98










Table Page

27 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for 1982
Graduates Studied........................................... 100

28 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
Public College Attendance Rates..............................102

29 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges Relative to
Graduating Class Size........................................103

30 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned Public College Attendance for Graduating Classes
of Different Sizes........................................ 106

31 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
2-Year Public College Attendance Rates.......................108

32 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for Graduating
Classes of Different Sizes ...................................110

33 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges
Based on Over-All Rate of Planned Attendance at Public
Colleges ..................................................... 112

34 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Planned
4-Year Public College Attendance Rates.......................114

35 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance for Graduating
Classes of Different Sizes ...................................116

36 Rate of Choice of College Majors for 1982 Graduates
Studied...................................................... 121

37 College Choice for Bible/Theology Majors.....................125

38 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for a Bible/Theology Major...................................125

39 College Choice for Business Majors...........................127

40 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for a Business Major .........................................127

41 College Choice for Education Majors..........................129










Table Page

42 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for an Education Major ...................................... 129

43 College Choice for Engineering/Technical Majors..............130

44 College Choice for Liberal Arts Majors.......................132

45 Colleges Chosen by at Least 10 Percent of the Graduates
for a Liberal Arts Major .................................... 132

46 Rate of Planned Attendance at In-State Colleges for 1982
Graduates Studied ......................................... 134

47 Chi-square Test of Significant Differences in Rates of
Planned In-State College Attendance..........................136

48 Rate of Planned Attendance at In-State Colleges by Major..... 137

49 College Tuition Charges for Protestant High School
Graduates in 1982......................................... 139

50 College Charges for Bible/Theology Majors....................145

51 College Charges for Business Majors......................... 146

52 College Charges for Education Majors.........................146

53 College Charges for Engineering/Technical Majors.............149

54 College Charges for Liberal Arts Majors......................149

55 Average Graduating Class Size for the Major Affiliations
of High Schools ............................................. 155

56 Rate of Planned College Attendance for Graduates of the
Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982...................161

57 Rate of Planned College Attendance for Graduates of the
Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole Relative to
Graduating Class Size....................................... 163

53 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982............164

59 Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as a Whole
Relative to Graduating Class Size............................167










Table Page

60 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major
Affiliations of High Schools in 1982........................ 170

61 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same
Affiliation as the High School for Graduates of the Major
Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size....173

62 Rate of Planned Private Nonsectarian College Attendance
for Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools
in 1982................................................... 175

63 Rate of Planned Public College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982............176

64 Rate of Planned Attendance at Public Colleges for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to Graduating
Class Size................................................... 178

65 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982..180

66 Rate of Planned Attendance at 2-Year Public Colleges for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools as
a Whole Relative to Graduating Class Size....................183

67 Rate of Planned 2-Year Public College Attendance for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Who
Matriculated at Public Colleges..............................185

68 Rate of Planned 4-Year Public College Attendance for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in
1982 ......................................................... 187

69 Rate of Planned Attendance at 4-Year Public Colleges for
Graduates of the Major Affiliations as a Whole Relative to
Graduating Class Size........................................188

70 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools in 1982............195

71 Rate of Planned In-State College Attendance for Graduates
of the Major Affiliations of High Schools Relative to
College Majors............................................ 197










Table


Page


72 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Low Yearly
Charges in 1982 ..........................................199

73 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with Moderate
Yearly Charges in 1982 ......................................201

74 Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with High Yearly
Charges in 1982.......................................... 203













Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


COLLEGE ATTENDANCE PLANS FOR
GRADUATES OF PROTESTANT HIGH
SCHOOLS IN THE SOUTH


By

David L. Bedell


May, 1985


Chairman: James A. Hale
Major Department: Educational Administration and Supervision


The purpose of this study was to determine the rate at which

graduates of Protestant high schools in the South planned to attend

college and to determine the various percentages of graduates who

chose certain types of colleges. Data concerning college locations,

yearly tuition charges, and major courses of study selected by

Protestant high school graduates were also pertinent to this

research. The study was delimited to 1982 high school graduates and

their pattern of college enrollment in the fall of 1982.

The researcher compiled a master list of Protestant high

schools from information contained in directories published by each

of the departments of education in southern states. Directories









published by various denominations and associations of schools were

also utilized. A survey instrument, requesting high school

administrators to list the colleges chosen by their graduates

according to five major courses of study, was sent to each school.

A total of 651 administrators from Protestant high schools with over

10,000 graduates in 1982 returned the survey instrument with usable

data. A rate of response of 71 percent was achieved.

From the data collected, it was found that five major

affiliations of schools contained about 80 percent of the total

number of participating Protestant high schools. These five major

affiliations were Independent Baptist, Nondenominational, Episcopal,

Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed. The chi-square test of

significant differences was used to analyze data from these five

affiliations. Information was also collected from over 20 smaller

affiliations of high schools and compared with the larger

affiliations.

The major affiliations of Protestant high schools were found to

differ significantly in the planned college attendance rates of

their graduates. Uncertainty in the choice of college majors

prevented comparisons between affiliations in the rate of choice of

major fields of study. Significant differences in planned college

attendance rates were also found within the major affiliations for

graduates of different sizes of graduating classes.















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Private schools and colleges have always played an important

role in American education. Today, these schools offer an

increasing diversity of educational experiences for millions of

young people. Protestant schools and colleges are a growing part of

this movement. As thousands of young people graduate from

Protestant high schools, research is needed regarding the pattern of

their college attendance. Such information would be valuable for

college admissions officers and guidance counselors.

Enrollment in many colleges in the United States is expected to

decline in the 1980's (Spence, 1977). For this reason, many

colleges are strengthening their recruitment efforts in high

schools. Hammiack (1981) found that 81 percent of those students who

graduated from the private schools he studied went on to private

colleges and universities. Research is lacking regarding the

college attendance patterns of graduates of Protestant high schools.

Statement of the Problem

The problem of this study was to determine the pattern of

planned college attendance for the graduates of Protestant high

schools in the South. The following specific questions were posited:














1. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend college the

following fall?

2. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a Protestant

college the following fall?

3. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a Protestant

college with the same affiliation as their high school the

following fall?

4. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a private,

nonsectarian college the following fall?

5. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a public

college the following fall?

a. What percentage planned to attend a 2-year public

college?

b. What percentage planned to attend a 4-year public

college?

6. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 chose each of the selected five














major areas of college study the following fall?

a. What percentage chose a Bible/theology major?

b. What percentage chose a business major?

c. What percentage chose an education major?

d. What percentage chose an engineering major?

e. What percentage chose a liberal arts major?

7. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend a college

located in their own state the following fall?

8. What percentage of students graduating from Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to attend colleges the

following fall in each of the three selected charge

classifications?

a. What percentage of students planned to attend a

college with yearly charges under $1,000?

b. What percentage of students planned to attend a

college with yearly charges from $1,000 to $2,999?

c. What percentage of students planned to attend a

college with yearly charges from $3,000 and higher?

Procedures

Before attempting to answer the major questions posed in this

study, it was necessary to gather infoniation through the resources














of various college libraries and through personal interviews with

various Protestant high school administrators. The following

aspects were pertinent to the collection of data or the organization

of results:

1. Compiling as complete a list as possible of Protestant high

schools in the South.

2. Finding the most cooperative and accurate sources for the

providing of data.

3. Distinguishing the major affiliations of Protestant high

schools and thereby permitting meaningful comparisons.

4. Developing an appropriate system for classifying college

majors and costs.

5. Compiling as complete a list as possible of the various

colleges and their affiliations, locations, and charges.
Population of the Study

Directories of private schools were obtained from the Department

of Education in each of the 14 southern states. These states were

Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana,

Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee,

Virginia and West Virginia. Directories were also obtained from the

various Protestant denominations and school associations. From

these directories, a master list of Protestant schools was compiled.














This master list consisted of the names and addresses of all schools

known or suspected to contain a senior graduating class in 1982. It

was determined that the most reliable way to obtain the data needed

for this research was through direct contact with the administrators

of the schools on the master list.

Development of the Survey Instrument

After consulting the catalogs of various colleges and

universities, it was determined that five major categories of

college coursework could be delineated for this research. In order

to simplify responses, the administrators of the Protestant high

schools were asked to list the names of specific colleges chosen by

their 1982 graduates under each of the five selected college majors

on the survey instrument. Space was also provided under the

category "Other Majors" for specific college majors that could not

be classified under the five major choices delineated by the

researcher. The initial survey instrument was sent to 58

administrators of Protestant schools throughout the South for

evaluation (See Appendix B, Letter 1). After receiving replies from

32 of these administrators, the survey instrument was revised

according to the recommendations received and professionally printed

(See Appendix A).














Administration of the Survey

The total initial sample of the study included 1326 Protestant

schools. A copy of the revised survey instrument, along with a

cover letter (See Appendix B, Letter 2), was sent in late August,

1982, to 1320 administrators of Protestant schools. Six

administrators who made recommendations on the survey instrument

construction also submitted usable data at that time and therefore

were not recontacted. Two more attempts to obtain completed survey

instruments followed the initial effort (See Appendix B, Letters 3

and 4). Three weeks after the last attempt to obtain requested

data, the administrators who had not responded were sent a different

request which solicited information concerning their reasons for not

responding (See Appendix B, Letter 5).

After all responses to these four mailings were received, 262

schools were removed from the original master list because their

administrators returned the survey instrument stating that they did

not have a senior class in 1982. After also eliminating the schools

that had closed or moved with no forwarding address, the schools

that could not be classified as "Protestant," and the schools that

were sent two copies of the survey instrument because of previously

undiscovered duplications, there remained 906 schools. Of these 906

Protestant schools, 660 responded to the survey. Nine schools of

this total had to be eliminated because their responses were

unusable.














In the late fall of 1982, 148 administrators who had returned

their completed survey instrument promptly were sent yet another

request for information. Each of these administrators was sent a

listing of the Protestant schools in their individual locality that

were on the researcher's master list. They were asked to check the

accuracy of this list and add the names of schools that did not

appear (See Appendix B, Letter 6). As a result of this mailing, 102

administrators returned information that revealed there were about

11 percent more Protestant high schools in existence that were not

on the researcher's original master list. No effort was made to

include those schools in this study.

Treatment of the Data

After noting the affiliations of the responding schools, it was

found that five major affiliations of schools enrolled about 80

percent of the seniors in the Protestant high schools whose

administrators responded to the request for information. These five

major affiliations were singled out for further study. Tables were

prepared showing the rates of attendance at each type of college

mentioned in research questions 1 through 6. Tables were also

prepared showing the same data for high schools from the five major

affiliations classified according to graduating class size. In

addition, tables were constructed showing the rate of choice of each

of the five college majors, the choice of colleges in three














categories of charges, and the rate of attendance at colleges

located within the home state of the Protestant high school

graduate. The level of significance for this study was set at .01

and was analyzed using the chi-square test of independence.
Delimitations and Limitations

As reported by Harris (1981), it is difficult to obtain a

complete listing of Protestant schools. Many schools have recently

started and others have recently closed. For this reason, the

master list of schools developed for this study could not be

considered complete.

Because administrators and/or their assistants responded to the

request for data in this study, the accuracy and completeness of

these findings are dependent on the information that was available

to them. For smaller schools, the administrators seemed to have

complete data, while for the larger schools the completeness of the

data was dependent on the records of guidance and counseling

departments. No attempt was made to contact students or colleges

directly to confirm the information supplied by high school

administrators.

This study of the graduates of Protestant high schools was

delimited to the students graduating in the spring or summer of 1982

because these would be the ones likely to enroll in college in the

fall of 1982. The study concentrated only on the immediate plans of














these graduates. Therefore, any student in the sample who may have

attended college at a later date was not included in this study.

No assumptions were made about the length of time students had

attended a Protestant school. Some students may have entered a

Protestant school during their senior year, having attended some

other type of school up until that time. Excluded from this study

were students who may have attended a Protestant high school up

until their senior year and then transferred to another type of

school. The study, therefore, is limited strictly to students who

actually graduated from a Protestant high school in 1982.

This study did not consider the possibility of a different

drop-out rate between the various types of schools under

consideration. Obviously, the rate of college attendance for the

entire population of 17 and 18-year olds would be lower if the

population of drop-outs was included. If the various affiliations

of Protestant high schools differed in their drop-out rate, this

study was not organized to detect this phenomenon.

Because the data from this research have been categorized by

Protestant affiliation, a low rate of response or incomplete

responses could jeopardize the reliability of the data. This threat

was particularly likely for the smaller affiliations and the

categories of college type or major course of study in which few

students were found. Even though these data were presented, it is














understood that a more complete response could alter significantly

the percentages given.

Finally, it was not possible to make predictions of college

enrollment trends from this research. Information obtained from the

survey instrument pertains only to college enrollment rates in the

fall of 1982. A repeat of this study would be necessary to reveal

any changes in the rate or pattern of college attendance.
Justification of the Study

It appears that college enrollment in America will decline

through the 1980's (Spence, 1977). If colleges are going to be able

to survive and prosper, they will have to identify and recruit new

students. They will also need to offer the programs and courses

that are needed by the high school graduates of the eighties.

Research indicates that the rate and pattern of college

attendance for graduates of private schools may differ from that of

the graduates of public schools (Hammack, 1981). Since private

schools now contribute about 10 percent of the total number of high

school graduates in the United States and the graduates of these

schools probably attend college in higher proportions than public

school graduates, they are an important part of the phenomenon of

college enrollment trends. College recruitment officers and

administrators need to be aware of this sector of the "market"

(Duggan, 1976).














The southern states contain a variety of Protestant high

schools. They share a somewhat similar cultural heritage and thus

constitute a natural region for study. Any study of the United

States as a whole should give separate attention to the various

regions such as the South.
Definition of Tennrms

Affiliation of schools. In this study, the method of

categorizing schools is based on denominational associations. The

five major affiliations are Episcopal, Independent Baptist,

nondenominational, Southern Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed.

Bible major. Students pursuing this college course of study are

preparing for the ministry or some other area of church service.

Business major. Students purusing this college course of study

are preparing for some area of business or management. For the

purpose of this study, it includes such areas as secretarial

science, real estate, and advertising.

College charge. This is the total yearly expense to the student

for college attendance. The price of tuition, books, and fees is

included in this designation. Room and board, however, are not

included.

Education major. Students pursuing this college course of study

are preparing for teaching at the elementary or secondary level in a

public or private school.














Engineering major. Students pursuing this college course of

study are preparing for such fields as mechanical, chemical,

electrical, or civil engineering.

Evangelical Christianity. This is the sector of Christianity

that emphasizes salvation by faith in the atoning death of Jesus

Christ through personal conversion. This designation encompasses a

variety of denominations and groups within denominations.

"Evangelicals" also stress the authority of Scripture and the

importance of preaching as contrasted with ritual.

Fundamental Christianity. This is the sector of evangelical

Christianity that holds to a literal interpretation of the Bible as

a foundation for the Christian life and doctrine. "Fundamentalists"

often oppose cooperation or compromise with less orthodox Christian

groups. It is possible to have a "fundamental" sector within a

particular denomination or association.

Liberal arts major. Students pursuing this college course of

study are receiving a broad exposure to the arts and sciences. It

may lead to specialization in one area, such as biology. Included

in this designation are the pre-professional studies in law and

medicine.

Private college. This is a nonsectarian college or university

not associated in any way with Protestant Christianity and not part

of the system of colleges and universities operated under the

jurisdiction of a local or state government or an agency of the


federal government.














Protestant Christianity. Originally, this term applied to the

Reformners and their followers who left the Roman Catholic Church

during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It has been

broadened to include all Christian groups outside the Roman Catholic

and Orthodox Eastern Churches. Many Baptists and members of the

Church of Christ affiliation do not consider themselves to be

Protestants. For the purposes of this study, however, the broader

definition is used in order to eliminate the need for constant

clarification or explanation.

Protestant college. This is a post-secondary institution with

programs leading to a college degree and associated with some

Protestant denomination, affiliation, or teaching.

Protestant high school. This is a secondary school containing a

class of graduating seniors (usually designated as twelfth graders)

and associated with some Protestant denomination, affiliation, or

teaching.

Public college. This is a college or university that is part of

the system of colleges and universities operated under the

jurisdiction of a local or state government or an agency of the

federal government.














Organization of the Report

Chapter I of this report contains a statement of the research

problem, a description of the procedures used, a discussion of the

delimitations and limitations, a justification for the study, and

definitions of terms used. Chapter II provides a review of related

literature, covering the historical developments in Protestant

education as well as a description of present features. Chapter III

provides a detailed examination of the methodology used in this

research. Chapter IV presents the data generated by this research

and an analysis of its meaning. Chapter V contains a summary of

this project and its conclusions. Also contained in this chapter


are several recommendations for future study.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


In this review of related literature, the historical development

of Protestant education, both on the secondary and post-secondary

level, is examined. This background study provides a basis for a

description of Protestant education today. This chapter continues

with a presentation of current theories and models concerning

college attendance and recruitment. Finally, the key features of

Protestant college distinctiveness are given.

Protestant Education in America and the South

Evangelical Christianity has provided the impetus for the

development of educational institutions throughout the United States

and the world (Pace, 1972, p. 9). Regardless of affiliation, the

original intentions of such institutions have been:

1. The propagation of the Christian faith.

2. The education of youth in the Christian heritage.

3. The provision of training for Christian leadership.

(Godbold, 1944, p. 5)

The first to establish schools in the southern colonies were the

Anglicans. These schools were designed primarily for poor settlers

and indians. The wealthier Southerners employed tutors for their

children.














With the Scotch-Irish immigration during the latter part of the

eighteenth century, the number of Presbyterians grew and

Presbyterian schools were founded (Godbold, 1944, p. 7).

The development of educational institutions in the South

followed a pattern much different from that of New England. In New

England, the church-state government of the Puritans was quick to

establish schools. These schools became in a limited sense the

precursors of public education in America. In the South, however,

the education of young people was considered to be a private concern

of the family. The church did intervene and provide a few schools

for poor people, but that was the extent of early educational

institutions in the South (Rippa, 1976, p. 29).

With the growth of cities, a number of private academies were

founded. At first, they were small and consisted of an

owner-teacher and the few pupils he or she was able to attract.

Later, the academies were operated by boards and the student bodies

increased in size. Several academies were operated by various

Protestant bodies.

For many years following the Revolutionary War, Methodists and

Baptists were opposed to the idea of starting schools. They

believed that the natural world and the moral and intellectual

ability of man were actually antagonists to spiritual development

(Duvall, 1928). At the beginning of the nineteenth century,














however, they came to realize that their effectiveness in winning

and holding converts was dependent on a system of colleges and

academies.

Methodists and Baptists founded a large number of schools during

the first half of the nineteenth century. The Presbyterians also

continued founding schools, although at a slower pace. With the

rise and acceptance of public education, the impetus to start

church-related schools diminished. In time, much of the

Protestantism began to embrace the public schools, although

acceptance was slower in the South. Southerners had to accept the

following ideas which were foreign to their way of thinking:

1. Education is the responsibility of the state.

2. The state has the right and power to tax property in order to

support and sustain a system of free public schools.

3. The public schools must be nonsectarian in nature.

(Rippa, 1976, p. 134)

Protestants in the South generally concurred with Emory

University Professor Alexander Mears when he said "education without

religion may illumine, but it cannot heat, it may shine, but it

cannot burn, nor can it infuse the warmth of moral life and

religious hope into the world" (Godbold, 1944, p. 50). An even

stronger wording of this sentiment came from Martin Luther when he

said:














I am much afraid that schools will prove to be the great gates
of hell, unless they diligently labor in explaining the Holy
Scriptures, engraving them in the hearts of youth. I advise no
one to place his child where the Scriptures do not reign
paramount. Every institution in which men are not unceasingly
occupied with the Word of God must become corrupt. (Kienel,
1974, p. 126)


In spite of this warning, public education became acceptable in

the South. Religious leaders abandoned their plans to expand the

system of religious academies. The education committee at the 1927

convention of Southern Baptists said, "in view of the present

facilities of secular education, we think there are only the fewest

instances where the denomination is longer justifiable in spending

money for the maintenance of high schools" (Brigham, 1951, p. 118).

In 1947, Duke McCall, the president of the Southern Baptist

Convention said, "the hope of America is for Christians not only to

rally to the support of the public school system but to invest

themselves in its improvement" (Brigham, p. 118).

For nearly one hundred years after the founding of the public

school movement, Protestants were more or less satisfied with the

public schools. During this time, the few Protestant high schools

that existed were poorly supported. This lack of support further

discouraged others from starting.

Supreme Court decisions in the miid-twentieth century that

eliminated Bible reading and prayers in the public schools rekindled














an interest in Protestant elementary and secondary schools (Kienel,

1974, p. 7). Protestants came to realize that the strong religious

atmosphere in the public schools had been lost. Led by the

evangelical element, private religious schools began to be founded

all over the South. Recently, these schools have been a part of the

most rapidly growing segment in American elementary and secondary

education (Pace, 1972, p. 9). Schools started by the evangelical

sector of Protestantism are often called "Christian schools." These

schools have now been estimated to contain an enrollment of one and

one half million students in the United States (Flight from Public

Schools, 1981).

Types of Protestant High Schools

Although it has been mentioned that Protestant secondary schools

nearly died out during the hundred years between the great expansion

of the public school system and certain Supreme Court decisions in

the mid-twentieth century, Episcopal schools continued in existence

during that time. According to an Episcopal educator, these schools

have developed into elite, college preparatory schools that draw

from wealthier citizens in the South (C. Fulton, personal

communication, July 7, 1983).

Schools organized by parents of the Christian Reformed faith

also continued to operate and grow during the time in which Bible

reading and prayer were allowed in the public schools. These














parents were never satisfied with the basis of the public schools.

They believed that the education of youth was the sole

responsibility of the family (Beversluis, 1982). Most of their

schools, however, were located in the northern states. Recently,

schools founded by Christian Reformed parents have grown and

flourished in the South. According to one of their administrators,

these schools in the South have become interdenominational in

character (J. Hoffman, personal communication, June 30, 1983). The

theological outlook of these schools, however, is still in the

Calvinist tradition of the Christian Reformed Church. Students in

these schools are taught that every vocation is to be seen as

full-time Christian service. They are taught to prepare themselves

for a life of service to God and man. College attendance is

strongly urged (Beversluis,1982). These schools have formed an

association known as Christian Schools International (CSI). Several

Presbyterian schools are also members of CSI.

The nondenominational school is another kind of affiliation

offering Protestant education. These schools have developed from a

wave of inter-denominational cooperation that also produced such

organizations as Youth for Christ and the National Sunday School

Association (Towns, 1974, p. 59). These schools, usually controlled

by a self-perpetuating board or a board elected by the parents,














often have a broad base of support in the community. Some

nondenominational schools are sponsored by nondenominational

churches.

The denominational church-controlled school is another kind of

institution offering Protestant education. In the past ten years,

this kind of school has experienced rapid growth. In most cases,

schools of this nature meet in church facilities. The pastor and a

group of church officials serve as directors. The doctrinal

position of the school is likely to be somewhat narrower than that

of the nondenominational school. Such schools may exist solely to

educate the children of members of the sponsoring church. Most

church-controlled schools, however, are open to students from a

variety of denominational affiliations (Towns, 1974, p. 54). Most

Independent Baptist schools and some nondenominational schools

follow this pattern of organization.

In spite of these different patterns of school organization,

there are certain features that may be found in most Protestant high

schools. Except for the narrow parochial schools, the student body

of any Protestant high school is likely to have students with a wide

range of denominational backgrounds. The families with children in

these schools must have the financial resources to cover tuition

charges. One can also expect some degree of commitment to

Protestant ideology among the administration and staff.













These basic similarities among all Protestant schools provide a

basis for comparison. Two of the directories used in this study

contained information about the yearly costs of the listed

Protestant high schools. One of these, the Christian Educator's

Directory for 1982, listed yearly charges for schools that

predominantly were of Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and

Southern Baptist affiliations. Yearly tuition charges at these

three affiliations of high schools averaged about $1,000 in 1902.

Lowest yearly tuition charges were about $500 for the year at some

schools. The most expensive schools of these three affiliations

charged tuition rates as high as $1,500.

The other directory, the Handbook of Private Schools (1982

edition), contained tuition charge information for a number of

Episcopal high schools. For most of these schools, yearly tuition

charges were over $2,000. Several boarding schools in this

directory had charges over $6,000 for the enrolled student for the

school year. Personal communication with G. Walstra at the home

office of Christian Schools International (August 7, 1984) revealed

that the average tuition charge for schools associated with this

organization in the South in 1982 was just over $1,500.

It can be seen that average yearly tuition charges vary among

the major affiliations of Protestant high schools. The most

expensive schools are Episcopal high schools. The next most














expensive high schools are those with Presbyterian/Reformed

affiliations. Schools with Independent Baptist, nondenominational,

and Southern Baptist affiliations have the lowest yearly charges.

There is evidence that these three affiliations may differ in

average charges although there is apparently a great deal of overlap

in prices among specific schools. Church-run schools are usually

the least expensive because they share facilities with a local

church and often receive support from that church.

Some Protestant schools have grown as a result of problems in

the public schools and not because of an increasing commitment to

Protestant ideology. The most often perceived problem in the public

schools is lack of proper discipline (Towns, 1974, p. 37). Another

factor that has increased enrollment in some Protestant schools is

court-ordered busing in order to achieve racial integration in the

public schools.

Recently, legislation for tuition tax credits for parents with

children in private schools has been proposed. The threat of

increasing the federal deficit and fears of entanglement of church

and state have kept this provision from being enacted. The concept,

however, has a great deal of popular support. A similar idea is

that of school vouchers, in which parents receive a voucher that can

be cashed to cover all or part of the tuition at the school of their

choice. Chambers (1981) predicted that the use of vouchers in this














country would double the number of schools but reduce their

enrollment size by one-half.

The National Center for Education Statistics has predicted that

enrollment in private schools will continue to grow (Harris, 1981).

A recession in the economy, however, tends to reduce enrollment in

private schools. The impact on public education would be great if

only a slightly larger percentage of children from Baptist homes

were withdrawn from the public schools (Nordin and Turner, 1980).

Factors in the College Marketplace

The number of 18-year-olds in the general population is

decreasing (Spence, 1977). For this reason, college enrollments are

stabilizing and in some areas are declining. The state of the

economy, the rate of enrollment of part-time students, women, and

minorities are also having an effect on college enrollment. About

half of the high school graduates presently continue on to college

(Yoong, 1983).

It has been predicted that many private colleges will experience

financial problems during the eighties (Spence, 1977). Many of the

studies reviewed by Breneman and Finn (1978) suggested that a major

factor in the declining enrollments in private colleges is their

comparatively high costs to the student. As a result, private

colleges are becoming more concerned about ways to attract and

retain students.













The admissions director of the private college must keep abreast

of conditions in the college marketplace. Duggan (1976), utilizing

the market approach to college admissions, stated the following:

The admissions director of the eighties had better understand
the system of higher education, the numbers of students in the
available pool locally and nationally, their range of abilities,
their financial resources, federal and state aid available, the
realignment of independent and public systems, and the
legislation being considered or required. (p. xi)

The college admissions officer must identify prospective

students and encourage their enrollment. This is probably the prime

function of an admissions officer in a private college (Oliver,

1979). Ihlanfeldt (1975) identified three potential market fields

of college students. He labeled the candidates who are likely to
enroll at a given institution the "primary" group. Students who are

likely to be admitted, but also likely to attend another

institution, make up the "secondary" group. The "test" market

consists of students who are different from past applicants but are

encouraged to attend.

Ihlanfeldt has also identified five stages of the development of

the market pool. These stages are (a) prospects, (b) candidates,

(c) applicants, (d) accepted applicants, and (e) matriculants (p.

62). Along similar lines, Duggan (1976) identified nine steps in














the student decision process. These nine steps start with the

decision whether or not to go to college and end with a decision

concerning alumni loyalty.

Chapman's (1981) model of college choice concerns the

characteristics of a particular student and the influence of

significant persons, the fixed characteristics of a college, and the

college's efforts to communicate with the student. Among the

characteristics of students is socio-economic status. A study by

Doermann (1976) showed that family income is the best index of the

ability to pay for a college education. A study by Davis and Van

Dusen (1975) found that students from the upper income brackets

prefer private colleges. Students from middle incomes prefer state
universities and those from lower income groups prefer community and

state colleges. Some poorer students may have to work a year after

graduating from high school in order to raise funds necessary for

college or the particular college of their choice.

Other characteristics of students are aptitude, level of

educational aspiration, and the influence of significant persons

(Chapman, 1981). Such significant persons could be friends,

parents, and teachers. It is believed that parents are probably the

greatest single source of influence on young people in the decisions

regarding college attendance. By the time a student arrives at high

school the decision to attend or not to attend college has probably

already been made.














Among the fixed characteristics of colleges are location,

charges, campus environment, and the availability of desired

programs. Astin (1965) found that students possessing particular

personality orientations were most likely to pursue certain college

programs. He found that students who ranked high in "social" traits

were more likely to choose programs in education, nursing,

sociology, psychology, and social work. Students with

"conventional" traits had a tendency to pursue programs in

economics, accounting, secretarial science, and business. Other

characteristics of students as labeled in this study were
"realistic," "scientific," "enterprising," and "artistic." Chapman

(1981) found that 50 percent of entering freshmen in the United

States attended a college within 50 miles of their home.

Kotler (1976) mentioned four key questions regarding the student

market. These questions concern the expected state of the American

economy, the expected pattern of competition among colleges, the

current trends in student interests, and the degree of awareness

among potential students about a given college. Mudie (1978)

claimed it is important to know whether students presently enrolled

in a given college have come from independent, parochial, or public

secondary schools.














When college enrollments were growing, there was little concern

about the make-up of the student body and the environmental factors

affecting enrollment trends (Chapman, 1981). Faced, however, with

enrollment declines, colleges are looking closely at their student

bodies and the changes occurring in the marketplace. Among these

changes is the realignment between the public and private sectors in

secondary education. In 1978, it was estimated that 9.5 percent of

high school graduates in America came from nonpublic schools

(Eldridge, 1981).

Hammack (1981) compared the characteristics of various private

schools with characteristics of various private colleges. Included

with the private colleges he studied were Protestant colleges.

Hammack found that 81 percent of those students who graduated from

the private schools he studied went on to attend private colleges

and universities.

The private schools in Hammack's study were nonsectarian.

Research is lacking regarding the college attendance patterns of

graduates of Protestant secondary schools. If such research were to

follow the example of Hammack, it would be necessary to examine the

distinctive features of the various kinds of Protestant high schools

and the distinctive features of various colleges and universities.














Features of Protestant Colleges

Moseley and Bucher (1982) identified 700 colleges and

universities in America with some form of religious affiliation.

They claimed that these institutions constituted one-fourth of the

total number of colleges and universities in America and that they

enrolled one-tenth of the students. A study by Pattillo and

MacKenzie (1978) found the following six types of denominational

connections:

1. Board of control including members of the church and/or

members nominated or elected by the church body.

2. Ownership of the institution by the religious body.

3. Financial support of the institution by the religious body.

4. Acceptance by institution of the denominational standards or

use of the denominational name.

5. Institutional statement of purpose linked to a particular

denomination or reflecting a religious orientation.

6. Church membership a factor in selection of faculty and

administrative personnel (p. 33).

Pattillo and MacKenzie also classified colleges as "defenders of

the faith," "non-affirming," or "free-Christian." This first type

of college has as its mission the training of leaders for a

particular denomination or affiliation. The students and faculty














come from this affiliation. Control of the institution is exercized

completely by the denomination. The college has its own distinct

culture which is in tension with the outside world.

The second type of college consists of those religious

institutions that do not attempt to control thought, but do expect a

definite commitment to the ideals of the institution. There is a

dual emphasis on academic excellence and religious vitality. The

denomination supports such an institution, but it does not insist on

conformity.

The final classification of Pattillo and MacKenzie is composed

of institutions that give little attention to religion and have only

a small portion of their operating expenses provided by a religious

body. A sense of purpose is achieved through athletics,

convocations, and allegiance to secular intellectual values. In

such colleges, there is complete freedom of inquiry.

A similar classification has been developed by Pace (1972). The

following is his system of classification of Protestant colleges:

1. Institutions with Protestant roots, but having no present

ties in any legal sense.

2. Institutions with a nominal relationship but close to

detachment.

3. Institutions retaining connection with "mainline" Protestant

churches.














4. Institutions with ties to evangelical, fundamentalist, and

interdenominational Christian churches.

Pace described the institutions in the first category as being among

the oldest in the country and often known for the quality of their

educational programs. He listed such colleges as Wake Forest,

Southern Methodist, and Texas Christian as examples of these

colleges. The second and third categories are colleges that are no

longer evangelical and have a declining number of students who

identify themselves as Protestants. The last category consists of

colleges with fairly recent origins. Pace claimed that a

distinctive environment results when a college is firmly and

zealously related to a church.

Chamberlain and Loewer (1982) found that colleges may appear to

be very similar and have mission statements that are nearly

identical but still differ substantially in doctrine. They claimed

that being able to distinguish these varying doctrines can be

extremely valuable in strengthening the linkages of an institution

and providing a basis for student recruitment.

Moseley and Bucher (1982) found that distinctions between

Protestant colleges could be found in the following four areas:

1. Courses that the administration decides to make required for

the student body.














2. Departments in the college that show the priorities of the

administration by their size and strength.

3. Programs that show the mission and orientation of the

institution.

4. Graduation requirements placed on seniors that often contain

a "capstone" experience.

Carlson (1977) noted a tension between an academic approach to

college study and an emphasis on religious values. According to

Carlson, the pursuit of academic excellence entails a freedom of

inquiry which is antithetical to spiritual fervor. Carlson listed

naturalistic interpretations of existence, technological

developments and requirements of modern society, and the tendency

toward specialization and fragmentation of fields of knowledge as

aspects of the academic approach that put pressure on church-related

colleges to compromise their ideology.

Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978) claimed that the small

church-related college has some particular problems. Among these

are the difficulties of providing exposure to a breadth of scholarly

and competent instructors. There is also the difficulty of finding

staff members who have the required religious commitment. On the

other hand, the small church-related colleges often has the

advantage of committed nucleus of dedicated people who provide the

stimulation of direct and close contact with students.














Pattillo and MacKenzie also claimed that particular

characteristics of denominations have an effect on the type of

institutions of higher education they sponsor. In some religious

affiliations there is the belief that denominational colleges should

accept all possible matriculants from that particular affiliation

regardless of aptitude. Some denominations are not inclined to

sponsor colleges because they are loosely organized, have less

well-defined theologies, lack a scholarly tradition, face a

liberal-fundamentalist split, or are unwilling to contribute

substantially to the development of colleges. According to Pattillo

and MacKenzie, most church-related colleges are serving the middle

class of American society. They claimed, however, that many of

these colleges are moving in the direction of serving the upper

middle class.

Kelley (1972) found that certain characteristics exist with

strong, vital, growing religious groups. Among these

characteristics are commitment, discipline, missionary zeal,

absolutism, conformity within the ranks, and outgoing communications

(pp. 56-84). Based on these characteristics, Kelley arranged

various religious groups along a gradient from strong to weak (See

Table 1). He further claimed that as a religious organization

starts, it usually possesses characteristics of strength. As time

passes, the organization loses some of its commitment and zeal














through contact with the outside world. As the original leaders

pass from the scene, succeeding leaders possess somewhat less fervor

than their predecessors. According to Kelley, strong religions

demand a great deal from their constituents and provide them with a

sense of meaning and purpose.



Table 1
Kelley's Scale of Ecumenism


Ecumenicity and
Strength


Very Strong
Least Ecumenical


















Very Weak
Most Ecumenical


Name of Affiliation


Evangelicals and Pentecostals
Churches of Christ
Seventh-Day Adventists
Church of God
Church of Christ, Scientist
Southern Baptist Convention
Luthern Church- Missouri Synod
American Luthern Church
Lutheran Church in America
Southern Presbyterian Church
Reformed Church in America
Episcopal Church
American Baptist Convention
United Presbyterian Church
United Methodist Church
United Church of Christ


Note: Adapted from Kelley (1972)












Astin (1961) noted that it is difficult to evaluate the effect

of the college experience on a student. Certain colleges attract a

particular kind of student and therefore are not completely

responsible for the caliber of graduates they produce. When

aptitude and academic interests of entering college freshmen are

considered, Astin claimed that some colleges with good reputations

may actually be underproductive. The reputation of an institution,

therefore, may be dependent on the type of student it attracts.

National Pattern of College Attendance in 1982

About 51 percent of the graduates of all high schools in the

United States in 1982 matriculated at a college the following fall

(Yoong, 1983). Within two years of their graduation from high

school, members of the class of 1980 had enrolled at 4-year colleges

at the rate of 35 percent and at 2-year colleges at the rate of 25

percent ("Class of 1980," 1984). In the fall of 1982, 78 percent of

all college students were enrolled at public colleges (Magarrell,

1982).

Astin (1982) surveyed 188,000 freshmen who entered college in

the fall of 1982. The freshmen indicated that they intended to

pursue at least 79 different fields of study. The researcher














grouped these 79 fields of study according to the five majors

delineated in this research (See Appendix D). Less than 1 percent

of these freshmen intended to pursue a Bible/theology major. About

25 percent intended to pursue a business major. Freshmen intending

to major in engineering/technical chose this field at a rate nearly

equal to the freshmen choosing business. Education was chosen by 6

percent of the freshmen and liberal arts was chosen by nearly 30

percent.

Summary of the Literature Review

An emphasis on the education of youth is an important part of

the Protestant ethic. In colonial times, Protestants in the South

believed that the family and the church were responsible for this

undertaking (Rippa, 1976, p. 29). Acceptance of the concept of

public schools was therefore slow. In time, however, Protestants in

the South generally embraced the public schools and worked for their

improvement (Brigham, 1951, p. 118).

Certain developments in the twentieth century, most notably

Supreme Court decisions prohibiting Bible reading and prayer in the

public schools, alarmed some Protestants. Reacting to this alarm,

some Protestant denominations began founding their own elementary

and secondary schools. Some of these schools were organized and

controlled by a board of directors. Others were started as

ministries of local churches. Enrollments in these schools have













rapidly risen, in part due to the desire of many families to

maintain a commitment to Protestant ideology. Other families have

chosen to send their children to Protestant schools in order to

avoid racial integration or discipline problems in the public

schools (Towns, 1974, p. 37).

Due to the fact that college enrollments are expected to decline

during the eighties, many college recruitment officers are

attempting to create linkages between their institutions and the

various forms of secondary education (Chamberlain & Loewer, 1982).

Hammack (1981) showed a strong linkage between private, nonsectarian

high schools and private colleges. No studies were found by the

researcher that concerned possible linkages between Protestant high

schools and the various kinds of colleges.

Protestant educational institutions, both on the high school

level and the college level, vary widely in size, tuition charges,

and degree of commitment to Protestant ideology. Kelley (1972)

found that Protestant institutions often begin with characteristics

of strength and then weaken in time. Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978)

reported that church-related colleges have a tendency to shift from

a middle class clientele to an upper middle class clientele. Older

Protestant colleges are often known for the quality of their

educational programs but often these institutions are close to

detachment from their Protestant roots (Pace, 1972). Carlson (1977)














noted that it is difficult for an institution to maintain its

religious commitment and also pursue academic excellence.

According to Astin (1965), certain colleges attract students

with particular characteristics. The qualities of the graduates of

a college, therefore, may be more reflective of the characteristics

of the incoming freshmen than on any changes made on the students as

a result of the college's program or environment. Astin also found

that a student's personality was often related to the type of

college major he or she chose.

About 50 percent of all high school graduates in 1982

matriculated at a college the following fall (Yoong, 1983). The

majority of college students in the United States chose public

colleges in 1982 (Magarrell, 1982). Four-year colleges were

preferred over 2-year colleges by these students ("Class of 1980,"

1984). Most college students pursued the majors of business,

engineering/technical and liberal arts (Astin, 1982).















CHAPTER III
METHODS AND PROCEDURES



This chapter describes the steps taken by the researcher to

develop a master list of Protestant high schools and gather other

preliminary data. The development of the survey instrument and its

use are also discussed. This chapter concludes with a description

of the chi-square test of independence and other statistical

procedures that were used to analyze the data.

It was the intent of the researcher to develop a master list of

Protestant high schools in the South that was reasonably complete.

Harris (1931) has shown the difficulty of obtaining accurate lists

of many of the recently founded Protestant elementary and secondary

schools. This project had an advantage in this area, however,

because its focus was on the senior class only. Protestant high

schools that had senior graduating classes in 1982 were typically

older schools that were most likely to be listed in the various

available directories.

Defining the Population

Directories of schools were obtained from Christian Schools

International (CSI), the American Association of Christian Schools

(AACS), and the Association of Christian Schools International

(ACSI). These are the three major associations of Christian










- 40 -


schools having high schools in the South. CSI is an association of

schools formed by Christian Reformed families and Presbyterian

groups. The AACS is an association of schools sponsored

predominantly by independent Baptist churches. The ACSI consists of

a variety of Protestant schools, many of which are nondenominational

in affiliation.

Directories were also obtained for Episcopal, Lutheran, and

Assembly of God schools. Cross-referencing with other directories

showed that the listings of these denominational schools were

complete. Directories were not in print for schools sponsored by

the Church of God, Brethren, Church of the Mazarene, and the various

Presbyterian groups not associated with CSI. Although the

researcher made two separate requests for directories from both the

Seventh-Day Adventists and the Christian Churches, no reply was

received from either.

Directories were received for nonpublic schools in each of the

14 southern states from the respective states' Department of

Education. These directories contained lists of Protestant,

Catholic, and private, nonsectarian elementary and secondary

schools. In some cases, these nonpublic school directories appeared

to be complete. Evidence for this fact came by comparing the

various denominational and associational directories with the state

directories. In a few cases, the directories were incomplete. For














these states, however, it appeared from the other available

directories that there were few Protestant high schools. A total of

about 2,500 Protestant schools were found in the directories. Of

these 2,500 schools, the directories contained information which

indicated that over 1,100 of them did not have a senior class in

1982. Many Protestant schools offered instruction through the sixth

or eighth grade only.

After schools that were known to not have a senior class were

eliminated, the compiled master list of schools contained 1,326

names of institutions. Due to the fact that some of the directories

used in compiling the master list did not specify the grades taught

in a particular school, it was necessary to include many schools on

the master list that may or may not have had a senior class in

1982. Also, because of lack of directory information, it was

necessary to include some schools that may or may not have had a

Protestant affiliation.

Development of the Survey Instrument

It was the intent of the researcher to keep the task of the

responding administrators as simple as possible. For this reason,

administrators were asked to simply list the colleges chosen by

their 1982 graduates under five categories of college majors (See

Appendix A). A search of college catalogs resulted in the selection

of the following majors:














1. Bible/Theology

2. Business

3. Education

4. Engineering/Technical

5. Liberal Arts

In addition to these five majors, space was provided under the

category "Other Majors" for the responding administrators to list

such courses of study as "Art" or "Music." The reasons for choosing

the above mentioned five majors were as follows:

1. Administrators could quickly categorize their students

without a thorough understanding of college majors.

2. The researcher expected the graduates of Protestant high

schools to choose such majors as Bible/Theology and

Education at a higher rate than the graduates of public high

schools and therefore included these majors as distinct

categories.

3. Because the focus of this study was on the initial choice of

college major, there was no need to account for

specialization that may occur after the first year of

college.

After developing an initial survey form,. the researcher

pilot-tested this form with 58 administrators of various Protestant

high schools throughout the South (See Appendix B, Letter 1). A














reply was received from 32 administrators and the following

suggestions were offered:

1. Provide more spaces for responses.

2. Provide a greater description of college majors.

3. Have the survey form professionally printed.

Utilizing these recommendations, the survey instrument was

revised and professionally printed (See Appendix A). Six

administrators who were asked to evaluate the original form provided

the requested data at that time. Subsequently, the first mailing of

the revised survey instrument went to 1,320 of the 1,326

administrators of Protestant schools on the researcher's master list.

Survey Response Rate

The first mailing of the survey instrument contained a

personalized letter to the administrator of each school on the

master list. Also included in this mailing was a copy of the survey

instrument and a stamped envelope addressed to the researcher (See

Appendix B, Letter 2). The cover letter was printed on stationery

from the Protestant school for which the researcher is the

administrator. It was believed that this approach would encourage a

higher rate of response from other Protestant school

administrators. Listed in Table 2 are the dates of the mailings and

the number of replies received. Included in the number of replies

received are the envelopes that were returned because they were













undeliverable. Follow-up letters were sent to nonresponding

administrators at the end of the third and sixth weeks after the

initial mailing.


Table 2
Date of Mailings and Responses Received

Mailing Date No. mailed No. Returned
1 August 27, 1982 1320 482
2 September 18, 1982 838 446
3 October 13, 1982 392 73

Note. The number returned includes mailings that were returned
because they were undeliverable.

After the second follow-up letter was sent, a request was sent

to the nonresponding administrators asking for their reason for not

responding (See Appendix B, Letter 5). Subsequently, a few more

administrators responded and it was discovered that 262 schools on

the master list did not have a senior class in 1982. It was also

discovered that 158 schools had closed, moved with no forwarding

address, had no Protestant affiliation, or were duplicated on the

master list. Therefore, the study sample was reduced from 1,326

schools to 906 schools. Of these 906 schools, 660 responses were

received from Protestant secondary schools with a senior class in

1982. The total number of graduates from these 660 schools exceeded

10,000.













Problems with the Survey Instrument

After receiving the completed survey instruments, the researcher

noted several common misunderstandings not discovered in the pilot

test. Fortunately, these problems were easily corrected. The first

misunderstanding occurred when administrators read the question,

"How many of your 1982 graduates did not attend college in 1982?"

Many administrators failed to see the "not" in this question and

therefore answered it in the affinnative. This problem was easily

corrected by comparing this figure with the other data on the

instrument.

Another problem occurred when some Baptist and Church of Christ

administrators objected to being referred to as part of a

"denomination." Most of these administrators crossed out the word

"denomination" and replaced it with a designation they believed more

appropriate. A few responded by claiming to be "nondenominational."

These differences were corrected by the researcher by cross-

referencing with appropriate directories. The directory of Southern

Baptist churches and a directory of one of the larger groups of

Independent Baptist church were helpful in resolving this problem.

Interpretation of the term "nondenominational" presented another

problem to some respondents. Several schools claimed that they were

nondenominational because of their open admissions policy. Thus a

school operating under the direction of a Baptist church would claim














to be nondenominational because it accepted students from all

denominations. This problem was resolved by consulting the various

directories and thereby ascertaining the correct affiliation of each

school whose affiliation was in doubt. Some administrators failed

to respond to the first survey instrument because they did not know

the intended majors of their graduates. Personal correspondence was

conducted with them by the researcher and they were encouraged to

return the survey instrument with as much information as possible.

Finally, several administrators listed vocational schools that

were chosen by their 1982 graduates on the survey instrument.

Because this project was delimited to tracking graduates to

post-secondary institutions offering college degrees, the vocational

schools listed were eliminated from the usable responses. If a

vocational school offered a 2-year college degree, however, it was

retained as a usable response.

It was often necessary to write responding school administrators

for clarification of the data they provided. For this purpose, 78

letters were sent to high school administrators requesting specific

clarifications of their responses. Letters were also written to

over 100 post-secondary institutions in order to ascertain their

nature and the types of programs they offered. The researcher

attempted to determine if each college was public or private and the

yearly charges of the institution. If the college had a Protestant














affiliation, the researcher attempted to determine the specific

affiliation. Peterson's Annual Guide to Undergraduate Study (1983

edition) contained this information for most of the colleges listed

by Protestant administrators. College charges were compared on the

basis of yearly tuition costs for full-time students.
Analysis of the Response Rate

A total of 651 usable responses were received from the 906

remaining schools on the researcher's master list. Nine schools

were eliminated due to incomplete responses. It is possible that

some of the nonresponding schools did not have a senior class in

1982.

Response rates from each of the 14 southern states were 61

percent or higher. The lowest rate of response was from the state

of Tennessee (61 percent). The highest rate of response was from

the state of North Carolina (83 percent). Through consulting the

listings of the various denominations and associations and reports

from 102 administrators, it was possible to determine the

affiliations of 178 of the 258 nonrespondents.













Table 3 shows the rate of known nonresponse for the five largest

affiliations of Protestant high schools.

Table 3
Nonresponse Rate for Five Largest Affiliations of Protestant High
School s
Number of schools Number of schools Percentage of
responding known to not have schools known
Affiliation responded to not have
responded

Independent Baptist 286 79 22%

Nondenominational 133 16 11%

Southern Baptist 39 14 26%

Episcopal 30 8 21%

Presbyterian/Reformed 16 2 11%


If one assumes that the unknown affiliations of nonrespondents are

distributed in the same proportions as the known nonrespondents, it

could be concluded that most of the larger affiliations responded at

a rate in excess of 60 percent.

Reasons Given for Nonresponse

A survey was made of the nonrespondents (See Appendix B, Letter

5) in which they were asked to give the reason for not providing the

previously requested data. The results of this survey are shown in

Table 4.














Table 4
Reasons Given for Nonresponse


Reasons


Pe
Nor
Gi'


Did not have time to complete the survey instrument

Did not have any seniors in 1982

Did not have a school in 1982

Information is confidential

No reason for not responding and now willing to do so


rcentage of
respondents
ving this Reason

27%

15%

10%

10%

12%


If one assumes that the reasons for nonresponse are distributed

in the same proportion for those not responding to the survey

instrument as for those who did respond, one could assume that about

one-fourth of the nonresponding school administrators did not have a

senior class. This would bring the actual rate of response to the

completed survey instrument close to 80%.

Organization and Treatment of Data

Administrators from high schools with over 20 different

affiliations responded to the request for data. Statistics were

compiled for each of these affiliations in order to make comparisons

in the following areas:

1. Over-all rate of college attendance

2. Rate of attendance at Protestant colleges














3. Rate of attendance at colleges with the same denominational

affiliation as the high school

4. Rate of attendance at private colleges

5. Rate of attendance at public colleges

a. Rate of attendance at 2-year public colleges

b. Rate of attendance at 4-year public colleges

6. Rate of attendance at in-state colleges

Five of the school affiliations were large enough in terms of

numbers of graduates to permit the researcher to conduct further

statistical treatment. This further treatment involved comparing

the five major affiliations in terms of graduating class size, the

college majors chosen by their graduates, and the tuition charges to

the student of selected colleges.

For this research, it was desirable to compare the proportions

of students from the five major affiliations of high schools in

terms of their various rates of college attendance. For this

purpose, the chi-square test of independence was chosen to determine

significant differences. For this test, observed frequencies (f )

are compared with expected frequencies (f e) according to the

following formula (Ary, Jacobs, & Razavieh, 1979, p. 163):


X 0 e e














In a simple comparison between two affiliations of high schools,
2
one degree of freedom is allowed. Referring to a table of X any

value greater than 6.635 that results from the use of the formula

indicates a level of significance at the .01 level. Such values
2
of x are noted in the following chapters and indicate where a

statistically significant difference exists in the two populations

of high school graduates under comparison. In this study, only

simple comparisons were made.

The chi-square test assumes that the populations being studied

are exclusive of each other. For this reason, it is not possible to

use this test to detennine if a particular affiliation of Protestant

high schools differs significantly from the population of Protestant

high school as a whole. The chi-square test also assumes that the

population being studied exists in the same proportions as the total

population. For this reason, the chi-square test is not used with

the data from the smaller affiliations of Protestant high schools.

The researcher in this study assumed that the relatively high

rate of response to the request for data (71 percent) ensured the

likelihood that the collected data adequately represented the

population as a whole. As mentioned earlier, it is possible that

nearly 80 percent of the schools on the researcher's master list

with a senior graduating class responded to the request for

infoniation. The data furnished by the responding schools, however,










52



contained uncertainty. There was uncertainty on the part of

responding administrators regarding the number of students attending

college, the number of students attending particular types of

colleges, and the number of students choosing each of the five

courses of study. A large uncertainty factor jeopardizes the

accuracy of the chi-square test of significance. For this reason,

the researcher identified statistical results that were jeopardized

by a high level of uncertainty.














CHAPTER IV
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA


This chapter contains information about the particular

Protestant high schools whose administrators responded to the

request for information for this study. The data are analyzed in

the order of the major research questions. Tables are used to

permit comparisons among the various affiliations of Protestant high

schools and show the results of statistical treatments.

After the data were collected, some of the original categories

designed for purposes of data analysis were combined. In

preliminary planning, it was decided to categorize senior class

sizes by increments of 10, beginning with the category 1 to 10.

After examining the data, this decision was revised and senior class

sizes were categorized by increments of 20 graduates. In most

cases, this change permitted the researcher to have sufficient

numbers in each of the categories for statistical analysis.

Graduating classes with 1 to 19 members were termed "small" by the

researcher, classes with 20 to 39 graduates were termed "medium,"

and classes with 40 or more graduates were termed "large." Although

"large" graduating classes were usually found in comparatively













large schools, this was not always the case. Schools were therefore

not compared on the basis of their total enrollment, but on the

basis of their graduating class size.

Examination of the data revealed that most of the graduates from

Protestant high schools in the South came from schools with five

different affiliations. In most cases, the numbers of graduates

coming from these affiliations were large enough to permit

statistical treatment. The researcher found that data from 19

smaller affiliations of Protestant high schools were not sufficient

for such treatment. The five large affiliations were termed "major

affiliations" by the researcher in order to distinguish them from

the "small affiliations."
Analysis of the Schools

The only affiliation of high schools with a senior graduating

class that was found in every state sampled was Independent

Baptist. Southern Baptist graduating classes were found in every

state except Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and West Virginia. Twelve

of the 30 Episcopal graduating classes were located in Virginia and

six were in Florida. Nondenominational graduating classes were

found in every state except Kentucky. Presbyterian/Reformed

graduating classes were found only in Alabama, Florida, Maryland,

North Carolina, South Carolina and Tennessee. Although most

administrators of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools labeled their














school as "nondenominational" on the survey instrument, they were

placed in a category by themselves for this research. As mentioned

in the Review of Related Literature, these schools have had a long

history of association with Reformed theology and typically had

higher tuition rates than other nondenominational schools.

Eight of the 19 smaller affiliations were represented by one or

two small schools. The data from these schools were combined and

presented under the title of "Other" affiliations. These

affiliations were Bible Presbyterian, Orthodox Presbyterian,

Christian Church, Nazarene, Brethren, Dunkard Brethren, Bible

Brethren, and Apostolic.

Eleven of the 19 smaller affiliations had three or more high

schools whose administrators responded to the request for

information. Some of these schools were comparatively large and

thus of importance to this study. Because small numbers of high

schools were involved, however, it was not possible to tell if the

data from the 11 smaller affiliations adequately represented each

affiliation as a whole.

As reported in the Review of Related Literature, yearly tuition

charges at Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern

Baptist high schools ranged from $500 to $1,500 in the 1981-1982

school year. The average tuition charge for the 86 Independent

Baptist high schools listed in the Christian Educator's Directory













for 1982 was $863. The average tuition charge for the 13 listed

nondenominational high schools was $924. The average tuition charge

for the 10 Southern Baptist high schools listed in this directory

was $1,046. Unfortunately, tuition information was not available

for Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist

high schools not listed in the directory. The available

information, however, suggests that the average yearly tuition

charge for Independent Baptist high schools may have been lower than

the average charges for nondenominational and Southern Baptist high

schools in 1982.

In order to determine if average yearly tuition varied with

school size, the researcher categorized the 86 Independent Baptist

high schools in the Christian Educator's Directory according to the

size of their total enrollment. All of these 86 schools provided

classes for kindergarten through twelfth grade. The researcher

labeled any school with an enrollment of less than 400 students

(kindergarten through 12th grade) as a "small school." A school

with an enrollment from 400 to 799 was labeled a "medium school." A

"large school" was any school having an enrollment of 800 or more.

It was the belief of the researcher that this classification of

schools would roughly coincide with the classification of graduating

class size. In other words, Independent Baptist schools with a

total enrollment in kindergarten through 12th grade of less than 400














students would be expected to have a graduating class of less than

20 students.

The average yearly tuition charge at the 59 Independent Baptist

high schools in the Christian Educator's Directory for 1982 that

were labeled "small schools" was found to be $790. The average

tuition charge at the 17 "medium schools" was $963. At the 10

"large schools," the average yearly tuition was $1,123. Because

this information was available in only one directory and provided

data for a small number of schools, it cannot be considered a

reliable indication of the yearly average tuition charges at all

Independent Baptist high schools. It does, however, provide an

indication that the tuition charges at small Independent Baptist

high schools with presumably small graduating classes may have

generally been lower than the charges at larger Independent Baptist

high schools with larger graduating classes.

The Handbook of Private Schools (1982 edition) contains tuition

charge information for 20 Episcopal high schools. The average

yearly charges at these 20 schools was $4,018 in 1982. For some

schools, the cost of boarding was included in their yearly charges.

As reported in Chapter II, the average yearly tuition charge at

Presbyterian/Reformed (CSI) high schools in the South in 1982 was a

little over $1,500.













Table 5 shows the sizes of the various affiliations, both in

tenrs of the numbers of graduates and the numbers of high schools.

This table also shows the average size of graduating class for each

of the affiliations. The smallest average graduating class size was

found for Independent Baptist high schools and the largest average

size was found for Episcopal high schools among the major

affiliations.

Among the smaller affiliations, a small average graduating class

size was found for Assembly of God, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will

Baptist, Christian and Missionary Alliance, Church of God,

Mennonite, and Pentecostal high schools. These smaller affiliations

were therefore similar to the larger affiliations of Independent
Baptist and nondenominational in average graduating class size. A

medium average graduating class size was found for Church of Christ

and Lutheran high schools. These high schools were therefore

similar in average graduating class size to the major affiliations

Southern Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed. A large average

graduating class size was found for Quaker and Seventh-Day Adventist

high schools. Among the major affiliations a large average

graduating class size was found for Episcopal high schools.

Table 6 shows the number of graduates and schools in each of the

three classifications of school size. According to this table, most

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high














Table 5

Relative Sizes of School Affiliations


School
Affiliation


Independent Baptist
Nondenominational
Episcopal
Southern Baptist
Presbyterian/Ref.


Graduates Schools Graduates Average Size
College-bound Graduating
Class


NO. % OT NO. % ot NO. % ot
total total total
2852 28 286 44 1650 24
2047 20 133 20 1356 19
1443 14 30 5 1262 18
1269 12 39 6 914 13
563 6 16 2 480 7


Subtotal 8174 80 504 77 5662


No.


81 16


Assembly of God
Church of Christ
Quaker
Lutheran
Seventh-Day Advent.
Methodist/Wesleyan
Free Will Baptist
Christian & Miss.
Alliance
Church of God
Mennonite
Pentecostal
Other


378 4 34 5 196
325 3 12 2 257
223 2 3 195
206 2 9 1 145
203 2 4 1 113
154 2 17 3 99
144 1 18 3 87


101 1 6 1
98 1 15 2
88 1 8 1
45 10 2
90 1 11 2


Total 10,229 100 651 100 6,976 101 16











Table 6
Number of Graduates and Schools in
Class Size


Sample Relative to Graduating


School Affiliation
and Graduating Class Number of Number of
Size Graduates Schools

Independent Baptist
Small 1620 256
Medium 604 22
Large 628 8
Nondenominational
Small 538 92
Medium 841 29
Large 668 12
Episcopal
Small 86 6
Medium 301 9
Large 105G 15
Southern Baptist
Small 201 24
Medium 135 5
Large 933 10
Presbyterian/Reformed
Small 76 5
Medium 160 6
Large 327 5
Total for Five
Major Affiliations


Small 2,521
Medium 2,041
Large 3,612
Note. Class size: "Small class" less than
cTass" 20 to 39 graduates, "Large class" -


383
71
50
20 graduates, "Medium
40 or more graduates.













schools had less than 20 graduates in 1982. Except for the

graduates from Independent Baptist high schools, however, most of

the graduates of the other major affiliations came from schools with

medium or large graduating classes. Most Episcopal, Southern

Baptist, and Presbyterian/Reformed graduates came from large schools

with 40 or more graduates.

Rate of Planned College Attendance

Table 7 shows the rate of planned college attendance for the

graduates of the various affiliations of Protestant high schools

studied. Nearly 70 percent of these graduates planned to attend

college in the fall of 1982. This rate was considerably higher than

the rate of college attendance for graduates of all high schools in

the United States, which was about 51 percent (Yoong, 1983).

An examination of the planned matriculation data shows a great

deal of difference among the various affiliations. Both the

Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools had a high rate of

planned college attendance. These rates were probably higher than

the percentages shown in Table 7 because it is likely that many of

the students listed under the category "Unknown Plans" actually did

go on to college. It is known that only 3 percent of the graduates

of Episcopal high schools definitely did not go on to college in the

fall. Comments written on the survey instruments by Episcopal

school administrators indicated that some graduates delayed their

college enrollment in order to travel.











Table 7

Rate of Planned College Attendance of 1982 Graduates Studied

Going to Not going Unknown
School Affiliation College to College plans
No. % No. % 1lo. %

Independent Baptist 1650 58 1001 35 201 7
Nondenominational 1356 66 494 24 197 10
Episcopal 1261 87 37 3 145 10
Southern Baptist 914 72 231 18 124 10
Presbyterian/Refonned 480 85 40 7 43 8


Subtotal 5662 69 1803 22 710 9
Assembly of God 196 52 144 38 38 10
Church of Christ 257 79 34 10 34 10
Quaker 195 87 18 8 10 4
Lutheran 145 70 37 18 24 12
Seventh-Day Adventist 113 56 45 22 45 22
Methodist/Wesleyan 99 64 40 26 15 10
Free Will Baptist 87 60 47 33 10 7
Christian & Missionary
Alliance 73 72 28 28 0 -
Church of God 35 36 54 55 9 9
Mennonite 38 43 30 34 20 23
Pentecostal 20 44 23 51 2 4
Other 56 62 18 20 16 18

Tntal 6976 68 2321 23 933 9














It is interesting to note that the high school affiliations with

the smallest average sizes of graduating classes also had the lowest

average rates of planned college attendance. This relationship was

generally true for the major affiliations and the smaller

affiliations. A relatively low rate (64 percent or less) of planned

college attendance was found for Assembly of God, Seventh-Day

Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free Will Baptist, Church of God,

Mennonite, and Pentecostal high school graduates. These

affiliations were similar to the Independent Baptist affiliation in

having a relatively low rate of planned college attendance.

Graduates from Church of Christ, Lutheran, and Christian and

Missionary Alliance high schools had a moderately high rate (higher

that 64 percent but lower than 80 percent) of planned college

attendance. These affiliations were somewhat similar in rate of

planned college attendance to the nondenominational and Southern

Baptist affiliations. A high rate (over 80 percent) of planned

college attendance was found for graduates of Quaker high schools.

A similarly high rate of college attendance was also found for

graduates of Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools.

Table 8 shows the values of the chi-square tests for all

comparisons between the major affiliations in planned college

attendance rate. There was a statistically significant difference

for each comparison except for the difference in planned college














Table 8

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates
School Affiliation
School
Affiliation Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformed


Independent Baptist 113.38* 59.59* 547.47* 178.90*

Southern Baptist 16.31* 185.49* 41.48*

Nondenominational 311.73* 83.75*

Episcopal 1.74

*p < .01


attendance rates for graduates of Episcopal and Presbyterian/

Reformed high schools. An analysis of statistical significance was

not done for the smaller affiliations.

Table 9 shows the rate of planned college attendance for the

major affiliations of high schools based on graduating class size.

For Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist

high school graduates, the lowest rate of planned college attendance

was demonstrated by graduates of small graduating classes. For

graduates of Independent Baptist and Southern Baptist high schools,

the highest rate of planned college attendance was found for

graduates of large graduating classes. Table 10 shows the values of

chi-square for comparisons within the major affiliations of the rate














Table 9



Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size



School Affiliation Going to Not going Unknown

and Graduating College to College plans

Class Size

No. % No. % No. %

Independent Baptist
Small 873 54 666 41 81 5
Medium 371 61 136 23 97 16
Large 406 65 199 32 23 4
Nondenominational
Small 293 54 224 42 21 4
Medium 598 71 167 20 76 9
Large 465 70 103 15 100 15
Episcopal
Small 79 92 3 3 4 5
Medium 262 87 5 2 34 11
Large 920 87 29 3 107 10
Southern Baptist
Small 121 60 66 33 14 8
Medium 89 66 33 24 13 10
Large 704 75 132 14 97 10
Presbyterian/Reformed
Small 60 79 7 9 9 12
Medium 145 91 13 8 2 1
Large 275 84 20 6 32 10

Total for Five
Major Affiliations
Small 1,426 57 966 38 129 5
Medium 1,465 72 354 17 222 11
Large 2,770 77 403 13 359 10
Note. Class size: "Small class" less than 20 graduates. "Medium
cTass" 20 to 39 graduates. "Large class" 40 or more graduates.














of planned college attendance for schools with different sizes of

graduating classes. In chi-square calculations, the number of

graduates planning to go to college was compared with the number of

graduates known to not have college plans. The number of graduates

with unknown college plans was not used and it was assumed by the

researcher that if these unknown plans were known, the ratio between

the number of students planning to go to college and the number not

going to college would not be affected. The chi-square statistical

treatment is jeopardized, however, by a relatively large unknown

factor. For this reason, the researcher drew attention to this

possible jeopardy in the discussion of results when a large unknown

factor was involved.

In cases in which the chi-square test was not jeopardized by

unknown college plans, significant differences were found in the

planned college attendance rates for the different sizes of

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high

school graduating classes. For these affiliations, the larger

schools typically had a significantly higher average rate of planned

college attendance. The tests jeopardized by unknown college plans

had results that coincided with this generalization. No significant

differences were found in the rate of planned college attendance for

the graduates of different sizes of Presbyterian/Reformed high

schools and Episcopal high schools. Although the data in Table 9












Table 10

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes

Size Comparisons
School
Affiliation
Small-Medium Medium-Large Small-Large

Independent Baptist 43.bb* 3.44 19.38*
Southern Baptist 2.23 9.35* 37.86*
Nondenominationalb 66.59* 2.74 81.14*
Episcopalc .68 .74 0
Presbyterian/Refonnedd .27 .14 1.05
Five Major Affiliations 209.82* 18.14* 471.12*
as a Whole

Note. Class size: "Small class" less than 20 graduates. "Medium
class" 20 to 39 graduates. "Large class" 40 or more
graduates.
*p < .01
aStatistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium
graduating classes
bStatistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for large graduating
classes
cStatistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium
graduating classes.
statistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for small graduating
classes


seem to indicate a rise in the rate of planned college attendance

for Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates from medium

graduating classes, this relatively high rate was due to the fact

that college attendance plans were known for 99 percent of the

graduates in this category.













The statistics for chi-square in Table 10 were jeopardized by a

level of uncertainty greater than 10 percent for medium Independent

Baptist graduating classes, large nondenominational graduating

classes, medium Episcopal graduating classes, and small

Presbyterian/Refonrmed graduating classes. Other statistics,

however, were not jeopardized because there was very little

uncertainty involved in their calculation. For instance, the

significant difference shown in Table 10 for the comparison between

small and large graduating classes at Independent Baptist high

schools was not jeopardized by uncertainty. Likewise, little

uncertainty was involved in the statistical analysis of the

difference between small and medium graduating classes at

nondenominational high schools. Therefore, the general finding of

statistically significant differences in the rates of planned

college attendance for graduates of different sizes of graduating

classes at Independent Baptist, Southern Baptist, and

nondenominational high schools is not jeopardized by uncertainty.

Table 11 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons

among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for

schools with small graduating classes. The reliability of parts of

this test were jeopardized by 12 percent of uncertainty for

Presbyterian/Reformed graduates (See Table 9). According to Table

11, there were no significant differences in the rates of planned











Table 11

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduates from Small Graduating Classes

School Affiliation
School
Affiliation
Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformeda


Independent Baptist 4.15 0 50.84* 28.23*

Southern Baptist 5.34 29.82* 14.33*

Nondenominational 47.10* 28.05*

Episcopal 1.71


Note. Small graduating class -
dSfatistics jeopardized by high
classes
*p < .01


1 to 19 graduates.
unknown factor for small graduating


college attendance for graduates of Independent Baptist,

nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high schools with small

graduating classes. If the chi-square test for comparisons with

Presbyterian/Reformed graduates and graduates of other affiliations

were considered valid, there were no significant differences in the

rates of planned college attendance for small Presbyterian/Reformed

and Episcopal high school graduating classes. Significant

differences, however, did exist between these two affiliations and

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist

affiliations in the rate of planned college attendance for the

graduates of small high school graduating classes.













Table 12 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons

among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for

schools with medium graduating class sizes. The reliability of the

tests were jeopardized by 16 percent uncertainty for Independent

Baptist schools (See Table 9). Table 12 is similar to Table 11 in

that there was no significant difference in the planned college

attendance rates for graduates of medium graduating classes from

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high

schools. There were significant differences in all the other

planned college attendance rates, including the comparison of

Episcopal and Presbyterian/Reformed. This significant difference,

however, was due to the difference in the unknown rate of college

attendance plans. The college attendance plans were known for 99

percent of the graduates of medium Presbyterian/Reformed high

schools. Such plans were only known for 89 percent of the graduates

of Episcopal high schools in the same size category. It is likely

that the planned college attendance rate for the graduates of medium

Episcopal graduating classes was higher than that reported in Table

9 and therefore the difference in rates of planned college

attendance between medium Episcopal and medium Presbyterian/Reformed

graduating classes was not significant.

Table 13 shows the values of chi-square for all comparisons

among the major affiliations in planned college attendance rates for














schools with large graduating class sizes. The reliability of the

tests were jeopardized by 15 percent uncertainty for

nondenominational schools (See Table 9). Significant differences

were found for every comparison except nondenomi national and

Southern Baptist. The data on this table differed from that of the

two previous tables in that the rate of planned college attendance

for graduates of large graduating classes at nondenominational and

Southern Baptist high schools was significantly higher than the rate

for graduates of large graduating classes at Independent Baptist

high schools.

Table 12
Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduates from Medium Graduating Classes
School Affiliation
School
Affiliation
Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformed


Independent Baptista 0 4.07 74.10* 23.24*

Southern Baptist 1.35 59.54* 17.89*

Nondenominational 57.88* 15.70*

Episcopala 8.79b

Note. Medium graduating class 20 to 39 graduates.
Sta-tistics jeopardized by high unknown factor for medium
graduating classes
bStatistical significance achieved because of low unknown factor
for medium Presbyterian/Reformed graduating classes
*p < .01














Table 13

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned College
Attendance Rates for Graduates from Large Graduating Classes

School Affiliation
School
Affiliation

Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist inationala Refonned


Independent Baptist 57.97* 33.01* 261.40* 73.98*

Southern Baptist 1.36 89.13* 15.69*

Nondenominationala 103.63* 19.99*

Episcopal 7.36b


Note. Large graduating class -
T-atistics jeopardized by high
classes
*p < .01


4U or more graduates.
unknown factor for large graduating


As shown in Tables 11 and 12, the rates of planned college

attendance for small and medium graduating classes at Independent

Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high schools did

not differ significantly. The only differences that were

statistically significant were the rates of planned college

attendance for graduates of the large graduating classes for these

three affiliations. Due to the large unknown factor for graduates

of nondenominational high schools, it is not possible to be definite

about the statistical significance achieved in comparisons with this













affiliation. It does appear, however, that large classes from

Southern Baptist and nondenominational high schools had an average

rate of planned college attendance that was higher than the rate for

large Independent Baptist graduating classes.

In Table 14, the rate of planned college attendance was divided

into three categories: low (50 percent or less), moderate (51 to 75

percent), and high (76 to 100 percent.) From this table, it can be

seen that schools vary greatly on the individual level in the

planned college attendance rate of their graduates. Although

smaller classes with Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and

Southern Baptist affiliations tended as a whole to have a lower rate

of planned college attendance than the larger classes, there were
some schools with small graduating classes that nevertheless did

have a high rate of planned college attendance. If the decision on

whether or not to attend college is made before entering high school

as research indicates (Chapman, 1981), it would have to be said that

smaller graduating classes did not typically attract as many

college-bound students as did large graduating classes. Such was

not the case, however, for Episcopal and Presbyterian high schools.

These affiliations of high schools apparently attracted a high

percentage of college-bound students without regard to graduating

class size.














Table 14

Rate of Planned College Attendance Relative to Graduating Class Size
for Three Affiliations

Number and Rate of College Attendance
Affiliation of
School and Graduating Low Rate Moderate Rate High Rate
Class Size No. % No. % No. %

Independent Baptist
Large 0 8 80 2 20
Medium 5 25 12 60 3 15
Small 59 41 55 38 30 21
Nondenominational
Large 1 8 8 62 4 31
Medium 1 3 11 38 17 59
Small 18 47 12 32 8 21
Southern Baptist
Large 0 4 40 6 60
Medium 1 20 2 40 2 40
Small 5 33 5 33 5 33

Note. Rate of College Attendance: Low rate bUtM or less go to


coi ege
Moderate rate -
college
High rate 76%
college


51% to 75%

to 100% go


go to

to


The over-all planned college attendance rate for graduates of

Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and Southern Baptist high

schools was related to the percentage of students coming from

schools with smaller graduating classes. The affiliation with the

largest percentage of graduates coming from small graduating classes

(Independent Baptist) was also the affiliation with the lowest

over-all rate of planned college attendance. The only significant













differences detected between these three affiliations of high

schools were for schools with large graduating classes.

Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance

On the average, 24 percent of the graduates of Protestant high

schools in the South in 1982 planned to matriculate at Protestant

colleges in the fall. Among the college-bound graduates, 37 percent

planned to attend such colleges. As was mentioned in the Review of

Related Literature, Protestant colleges vary widely in doctrine and

philosophy. In this analysis, attendance at colleges that still

maintained ties with Protestant Christianity was under consideration.

Table 15 shows the rate of planned attendance at Protestant

colleges for the graduates of the various affiliations of high

schools. The first column of percentages in this table shows the

rate of planned Protestant college attendance in terms of the total

number of graduates, both college-bound and those not going to

college. The second column of percentages shows this rate in terms

of college-bound graduates only.

According to Table 15, the rate of planned Protestant college

attendance among the major affiliations was highest for Independent

Baptist high school graduates. The lowest rate of planned

Protestant college attendance among the major affiliations was found

for graduates of Southern Baptist high schools. This finding may be

the result of the historical support that Southern Baptists have











Table 15
Rate of Planned Attendance at Protestant Colleges of 1932 Graduates
Studied

Graduates going to College-bound graduates
a Protestant going to a Protestant
college college
School
Affiliation
No. %%


Independent Baptist

No ndenormi national

Episcopal

Southern Baptist

Presbyterian/Reformed
Subtotal


Assembly of God

Church of Christ

Quaker

Lutheran

Seventh-Day Adventist

Methodist/Wesleyan

Free Will Baptist

Christian Missionary
Alliance

Church of God

Mennonite

Pentecostal

Other
Tota


969

476

287

97

164
TM97

53

100

23

28

97

73

52


32

9

25

11

29
1 5T














given to public educational institutions (Brigham, 1951). Although

this support was claimed to be at the elementary and secondary

level, it apparently continued at the college level. Graduates of

Episcopal, nondenominational, and Presbyterian/Reformed high schools

planned to attend Protestant colleges at rates that were higher than

the rates for Southern Baptist graduates but lower than the rate for

Independent Baptist graduates.

Comparisons between affiliations based on the percentages in the

second column of percentages in Table 15 are not affected by the

various rates of over-all planned college attendance. It is most

useful to compare the various affiliations in their planned college

attendance patterns for college-bound graduates. In Table 15, the

differences between affiliations are greater in the second column of

percentages. This difference is due to the fact that the relatively

louer rate of over-all planned college attendance found for

graduates of Independent Baptist high schools has no impact on the

calculation of the rate of college-bound graduates who chose

Protestant colleges.

Among the smaller affiliations, a high rate (40 percent or

higher) of planned Protestant college attendance was found for

Church of Christ, Seventh-Day Adventist, Methodist/Wesleyan, Free

Will Baptist, Mennonite, Christian and Missionary Alliance, and

Pentecostal graduates. Among the major affiliations, only graduates














of Independent Baptist high schools had a rate of planned Protestant

college attendance that was this high. A moderate rate (between 20

percent and 40 percent) of planned Protestant college attendance was

found for Assembly of God, Lutheran, and Church of God high school

graduates. Among the major affiliations, this moderate rate was

also found for nondenominational, Presbyterian/Reformed, and

Episcopal high school graduates. A low rate (less than 20 percent)

of planned Protestant college attendance was found for Quaker high

school graduates among the smaller affiliations and for Southern

Baptist graduates among the major affiliations.

It is interesting to note that the affiliations with a low rate

of over-all planned college attendance for their graduates were

typically high in planned attendance rates for Protestant colleges.

Several exceptions, however, existed for this generalization.

Graduates of Assembly of God high schools, although comparatively

low in over-all planned college attendance, were moderate in planned

Protestant college attendance. Although Church of Christ and

Christian and Missionary Alliance graduates were moderate in planned

college attendance rate, they were high in the rate of choice for

Protestant colleges. In most cases, however, the affiliations that

were high in rate of planned college attendance were low in the rate

of planned attendance at Protestant colleges. Affiliations with

moderate rates for planned college attendance also typically had

moderate rates for planned Protestant college attendance.













Table 16 shows the values of chi-square tests for all

comparisons of the major affiliations in planned Protestant college

attendance rate. According to the data, all comparisons were

significantly different except the comparison of nondenominational

and Presbyterian/Reformed. This finding was expected because

Presbyterian/Reformed high schools had student bodies that were

nondenominational in character. One would expect that schools

having a similar mix of student affiliations would show similarities

in the rate of choice of Protestant colleges. Nondenominational

schools differed from Presbyterian/Reformed schools, however, in

average size of graduating class, average tuition charges, and rate

of over-all planned college attendance.

Attendance at a Protestant college may be an indication of

commitment to Protestant ideology. There are several factors,

however, that may limit this interpretation. The Review of Related

Literature revealed that Protestant schools on all levels have

widely differing philosophies. A more accurate expectation

therefore would be that attendance at a college that is

philosophically highly committed to Protestant ideology is an

indication of commitment on the part of the student to Protestant

ideology.

Appendix C contains a listing of all the Protestant colleges

chosen by the high school graduates in this study. According to











Table 16

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant
College Attendance Rates

School Affiliation
School
Affiliation Southern Nondenom- Episcopal Presbyterian/
Baptist national Reformed


Independent Baptist 560.578 124.34* 376.71* 89.43*

Southern Baptist 174.23* 53.20* 114.27*

Nondenominational 48.62 .11

Episcopal 23.99*

*p < .01


this listing, most of the Protestant colleges chosen by Episcopal

high school graduates were relatively expensive Methodist,

Presbyterian/Reformed, and Southern Baptist institutions. Most of

the colleges were older than the colleges typically chosen by

Independent Baptist and nondenominational high school graduates.

Although the research did not attempt to ascertain the degree of

commitment to Protestant ideology that was demonstrated by these

institutions, there was evidence based on age and reputation that

indicated that the colleges generally chosen by Episcopal high

school graduates were closer to detachment from their Protestant

roots than the colleges chosen by Independent Baptist and

nondenominational high school graduates. Many of the colleges

chosen by Independent Baptist and nondenominational high school













graduates could be classified as "defenders of the faith" as

delineated by Pattillo and MacKenzie (1978). Pace (1972) developed

a similar system of classification that has one category for

"institutions with ties to evangelical, fundamentalist, and

interdenominational Christian churches." This category contained

the colleges with the greatest ideological commitment.

Table 17 shows the rate of planned Protestant college attendance

for the major affiliations based on graduating class size. The

first column of percentages in this table shows the rate of choice

of a Protestant college for all the graduates of a particular size

and affiliation of high school. The second column of percentages is

based on the number of college-bound graduates only. Comparison
between affiliations using this second column of percentages is

therefore more useful because it is not affected by the basic rate

of over-all college attendance. As previously noted, the rate of

over-all planned college attendance varied for the different

affiliations and also varied for graduating classes of different

sizes within affiliations.

According to Table 17, the least variation in rates of planned

Protestant college attendance for the different sizes of graduating

classes was found for graduates of Independent Baptist and

nondenominational high schools. A comparatively greater variation

for the graduates of the five major affiliations in rate of planned












Table 17


Rate of Planned Protestant College Attendance
Class Size


Relative to Graduating


Graduates going College-bound
to Protestant graduates going
School colleges to Protestant
Affiliation colleges
and Size
No. %


Independent Baptist
Small 518 32 59
Medium 213 35 57
Large 238 38 59


Nondenominational
Small
Medium
Large

Episcopal
Small
Medium
Large

Southern Baptist
Small
Medium
Large


114 21
198 24
164 25


Presbyteri an/Reformed
Small 30 39 50
Medium 48 30 33
Large 86 29 35

Five Major Affil.
as a Whole
Small 717 28 50
Medium 534 26 36
Large 751 21 27














Protestant college attendance was found for the Southern Baptist and

Presbyterian/Refonred affiliations. The rate of planned attendance

at Protestant colleges for these graduates consistently dropped as

the size of graduating class under consideration increased.

Southern Baptist graduates showed a comparatively large drop in

planned Protestant college attendance from the rate for graduates of

small graduating classes to the rate for graduates of medium

graduating classes. There was a comparatively small rise in planned

attendance at such colleges for graduates of the larger classes when

compared with graduates of medium classes. The percentage of

graduates choosing Protestant colleges, however, for the large

classes was still considerably less than the percentage for the

small classes.

Table 18 shows the values of chi-square tests for all

comparisons within the major affiliations based on size of

graduating class. There was no significant variation in planned

Protestant college attendance rate for the different sizes of

graduating classes at Independent Baptist, nondenominational, and

Episcopal high schools. The rate of planned Protestant college

attendance for the graduates of small classes of Southern Baptist

high schools was significantly higher than the rate for graduates of

medium and large classes. There was no significant difference in

the rate of planned Protestant college attendance for graduates of












Table 18

Chi-Square Test of Significant Differences in Planned Protestant
College Attendance Rates for Graduating Classes of Different Sizes


School
Affiliation


Size Comparison

SmialI -Medium Medium-Large Small-Large


Independent Baptist .39 .09 .06

Southern Baptist 10.67* 0 32.65*

Nondenominational 2.70 .62 1.18

Episcopal .77 2.84 3.98

Prebyterian/Reformed 4.88 .20 7.24*

Five Major Affiliations
as a Whole 56.37* 39.10* 221.94*

Note. "Small class" less than 20 graduates, "Medium class" 20
to 39 graduates, "Large class" 40 or more graduates
*p < .01


medium and large Southern Baptist classes. The only statistically

significant difference in planned Protestant college attendance

rates for graduates of Presbyterian/Reformed high schools was found

for the comparison between graduates of small classes and graduates

of large classes. Thus, there was a significant drop in the rate of

planned Protestant college attendance with an increase in class size

for the Southern Baptist Baptist and Presbyterian/Reformed

affiliations. For the Southern Baptist, this difference was present

at the comparison between small and medium graduating classes and

not at the comparison between medium and large classes. The














difference for Presbyterian/Reformed high school graduates, however,

was not present for the comparison between small and medium

graduating classes but was present for the comparison between medium

and large classes. For both of these affiliations, there was a

significant difference in planned Protestant college attendance

rates between small and large graduating classes.

Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as
the High School


Table 19 shows the rate of choice of colleges with the same

affiliation as the high school. According to this table, about 11

percent of the graduates of Protestant high schools chose a college

with the same affiliation as their high school. Of the

college-bound graduates, about 16 percent chose a college with the

same affiliation as the high school from which they graduated. In

order to avoid the factor of different rates of over-all planned

college attendance for the different affiliations, comparisons were

made on the basis of the percentages of college-bound graduates of

Protestant high schools who planned to matriculate at colleges with

the same affiliation as their high school.

Table 19 shows that graduates of Independent Baptist high

schools chose colleges with the same affiliation as their high

school at a rate higher than the other major affiliations.

Episcopal graduates were lowest among the major affiliations in rate











Table 19

Rate of Planned Attendance at Colleges with the Same Affiliation as
the High School for 1982 Graduates Studied

Graduates going to College-bound
a college with the graduates going to
School Affiliation same affiliation a college with the
as their high school same affiliation as
their high school
No. % %

Independent Baptist 494 17 30

Nondenominational 179 9 13

Episcopal 18 1 1

Southern Baptist 60 5 7

Presbyterian/Reformed 49 9 10
Subtotal 7Q TTU TT

Assembly of God 23 6 12

Church of Christ 88 27 34

Quaker 2 1 1

Lutheran 14 7 10

Seventh-Day Adventist 97 48 89

Methodist/Wesleyan 58 38 59

Free Will Baptist 22 15 25


Christian & Missionary
Al liance

Church of God

Mennonite

Pentecostal

Other
Total


1

3

22

8

2




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