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OPEN FILE MAP SERIES NO. 92
SURFICIAL AND BEDROCK GEOLOGY OF THE EASTERN POR
RICHARD C. GREEN, P.G. #1776,1
WILLIAM L. EVANS III, P.G.,
JONATHAN R. BRYAN,2
AND DAVID T. PAUL,1
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
OPEN-FILE MAP SERIES
LZJ O.F.M.S. 83/08-12
I O.F.M.S. 90
(CURRENT STUDY AREA)
903 W. TENNESSEE ST
TALLAHASSEE, FL. 323
STATE GEOLOGIST AND CHIEF
OF THE U.S.G.S.
1:100,000 SCALE MARIANNA QUADRANGL
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The near surface geology of the eastern half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna
Quadrangle is composed of Eocene to Holocene carbonate and siliciclastic sediments. Within
this area, geologic processes include a combination of fluvio-deltaic and marine deposition,
erosion, dolomitization, and dissolution of underlying carbonates. Also, there is a
transition zone between the primarily siliciclastic sediments of the Gulf Coastal Plain
of the Mississippi Embayment to the west and the predominantly carbonate sediments of the
Florida Platform within the Marianna Quadrangle area. These factors can make identification
of formations difficult (Green, et al., 2001).
Several structural, sedimentological, and geomorphic variables are unique to the area
and have affected the near surface expression and interpretation of the geology of the
region. Two important structural features are recognized: the Chattahoochee Arch a
northeast-southwest-trending high that exposes Eocene and Oligocene carbonates, with
younger strata thinning around the arch (Murray, 1961); and the Apalachicola
Pmhbaxrrnnt/'nlfTrnough an elnncrnteA hain that wxinlsnc cn'thuweswaxrd-rA txoward-c +llthe 'lf
The Eocene to Miocene carbonate units exposed in the study area have regional
stratigraphic significance, and have been identified, correlated, and interpreted in many
different ways in the literature. Some previous investigators relied heavily on fossils to
establish formations and correlate facies within this region, a practice which has led to some
confusion regarding lithostratigraphy (Figure 1). Summaries of previous work can be found
in Vernon (1942),Vemon and Puri (1956), Schmidt and Clark (1980), Clark and Schmidt
(1982), Schmidt (1984), and Huddlestun (1984; 1988; and 1993).
The study area is underlain by the Upper Eocene Ocala Limestone, and in the northern
portion of the map area, where erosion has cut through the overlying siliciclastics, or
removed the Marianna Limestone, it often crops out along major streams and rivers. The
Ocala Limestone, which the oldest unit to crop out in the study area, consists of a
moderately indurated, cream to white colored grainstone that is rich in the distinctive
larger foraminifer, Asterocyclina (see Photo 10 on Surficial Sediments map). This is a unique
1, 'i Iaci nfthe Or si Li oieand nlqn tn c otin, inant 1 orarr oand A mall T.nthli
Formation by MacNeil (1944), Cooke (1945), and Puri and Vemrnon (1964), and the Suwannee
Limestone by Moore (1955). These beds were in fact originally considered the upper part
of the Marianna Limestone by Cooke and Mossom (1929), Cooke (1945). One of the best
exposures of the unit may be seen at the Marianna Lime Products Hi-Cal pit, just west of
Marianna (see W-18427, cross section B-B' and D-D'). From a lithostratigraphic
perspective, these thin dolosilts do not resemble the Byram Formation of Alabama and
Mississippi, and they are clearly related to the Marianna Limestone both sedimentologically
and faunally. We see no compelling reason to remove these beds from the Marianna
Limestone, and we retain them in the Marianna Limestone as originally defined.
A massive sequence of light brown to tan dolostone occurs only a few miles south of
the surface exposures around Marianna, and near the Apalachicola Embaymnent/Gulf Trough
(see W-18431, cross sections C-C' and D-D'). This dolostone, however, is recognizable as
dolomitized Marianna Limestone by its fine grained texture and abundance of (moldic)
i and7 \Tiflitt+,c 1'ldolomitic fn+ h'onof t h+e.i Maroiainno hoc omnandantn soct'c of
their affinities are uncertain. The top of the Suwannee Limestone ranges from
approximately 60 feet (18.3 meters) above MSL (Sink Creek, cross section D-D') to 145 feet
(44.2 meters) below MSL (W-15513, cross section D-D'), and the unit attains a thickness
of at least 115 feet (35.1 meters; W-15509, cross section C-C').
Lower Miocene sediments have been redefined numerous times since the name Tampa was
first applied by Johnson (1888). Puri (1953) described the Tampa sediments as Tampa
"stage". The Chattahoochee Formation was frequently equated with the Tampa Limestone/
Formation in much of the earlier literature of the region (Figure 1). Scott, et al.,
(2001) mapped these sediments as Chattahoochee Formation in this area and their
nomenclature is adhered to by these authors. The Chattahoochee Formation, which
unconformably overlies the Marianna Limestone, and is unconformably overlain by the Alum
Bluff Group, is predominately a brownish-gray, moderately indurated, sandy packstone to
wackestone with common soritid larger foraminifera. The Chattahoochee Formation may be
en Ini+ mited fnnor eoq sIl +hr t 'hmnnIna P .irand reelrk in +the< nihtcrn norton nr'f
50 -u I I
GEOLOGIC MAP OF THE EA
BY RICHARD C. GR
85 30' 00"
85 22' 30"
85 07' 30"
Q2 JCKSON COUNTY'
7 )'1 1&
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J. r r
164 FIon aC em4
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~ 44' F1-@Z!,
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85 07' 30"
SURFICIAL SEDIMENTS I
1:100,000 SCALE MARIAN-T
BY RICHARD C.
I ISand a
Loam, and Clay
/ Local road
Sand, Loam, Clay, and Limestone
Loam and Clay
SELECTED PHOTOGRAPHS FROM STUDY AREA
I I I I I I I ~ 'Mrh~~u I I I I ~ 4 ~ ~ I I ~ I I
Surficial sediments and soils of the eastern half of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna Quad
primarily of five lithologic components: quartz sand, loam, muck, clay, and limestone. Combinatic
components constitute the eight sediment units represented on this map.
Data utilized in creating this map were derived from a variety of sources, including United State
Agriculture Soil Surveys, field observations, cores and well cuttings, surface samples, and hand-aug
Sediment types shown on this map represent soil from within the upper 6.6 feet (two meters) of lan
Between 25 and 100 different soil types are recognized, depending on the county, by the United
of Agriculture (Duffee, et al., 1979; Duffee, et al., 1984; Huckle and Weeks, 1965; Sullivan, et al.,
surveys, soil types were categorized based on factors such as slope, moisture content, texture, distri
matter, acidity and other physical properties. In order to organize these soil types into meaningful 1
this map, soil types were grouped based on shared characteristics. The reader is urged to consult th
more detailed information about soils in the map area.
Sand, Loam, and Clay is the predominant sediment unit throughout much of the study area. As
sediment type contains greater than 52 percent quartz sand, greater than 27 percent clay particles, a:
percent silt particles. This unit is most often found where the Alum Bluff Group is either exposed
Quartz Sand is the most common sediment type in the southwestern and northeastern portions of
the southwest, this sediment type is generally associated with the Citronelle Formation, while in the
portion of the study area, quartz sand is associated with weathered residuum on Eocene and Oligoc
noted that each sediment type shown on this map contains at least some quartz sand. Additionally, i
unit mapped as sand contains minor percentages of organic material and clay.
Sand and Loam is a unit of quartz sand and loam in which the sand concentration is greater than
commonly occurs along rivers and creeks throughout the study area, including the Chipola River, E
Creek, and Tenmile Creek basins.
Muck, slowly decaying organic material containing varying amounts of sand and silt, is general
swampy regions and wetlands. There are several large accumulations of this sediment type in the r
is often seen in areas where the Citronelle Formation is thin or missing, or in areas where sediments
Group cause the ponding of surface water.
The Sand, Loam, Clay, and Limestone unit represents areas where the Marianna Limestone and/
within 24 to 48 inches of the surface. The soils in these areas consist of varying percentages of sand
This unit generally occurs on ridges and in outcrops throughout central Jackson County, including
northern portion of the Chipola River and Merritts Mill Pond.
Loam and Clay, defined as having less than 52 percent sand particles and more than 27 percent c
generally confined to the Chattahoochee River floodplain and a small area on the south bank of Dry
Loam is one of the least significant units in terms of coverage and is defined as soil material thai
percent clay particles, 28 to 50 percent silt particles, and less than 52 percent sand particles (Duffee
and Duffee, et al., 1984). It is present in only a few isolated areas, but is often a component of othe
Clay is the soil type of smallest aerial extent. This unit is confined to the Chattahoochee River b
northwestern-most corner of the study area; however it is also a component of other units.
The authors would like to thank Fred Webb and Leon Brooks, Sonny and Charles Morris, Rick Wa
Sloan, and Marty Ingram for allowing access to their mining operations. We would also like to thar
American Forest Management LLC, Mark Ludlow of Florida Caverns State Park, and George Fish
Florida Water Management District, for allowing the FGS access to their properties as well as prov
pertaining to the study area. Roger Portell of the Florida Museum of Natural History lent his expert
Davis Lee Booth, Ken M. Campbell, and Jake Halfhill also provided field labor and lab time. Ken (
Lloyd, Frank Rupert, Tom Scott, and Walt Schmidt arc thanked for their reviews of the map.
References and Selected Bibliography
Bryan, J.R., 1991, Stratigraphic and paleontologic studies ofPaleocene and Oligocene carbonate fa
Gulf Coastal Plain: Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, 324 p.
Bryan, J.R., 1993, Late Eocene and Early Oligocene carbonate facies and paleo-environments ofth
Plain: in Kish, S.A., (ed.), Geologic Field Studies of the Coastal Plain in Alabama, Georgia, and F]
Geological Society Guidebook 33, p. 23-47.
Bryan, J.B., and Huddlestun, P.F., 1991, Correlation and age of the Bridgeboro Limestone, A coral
southwestern Georgia: Journal of Paleontology, v. 65, p. 864-868.
Campbell, K., 1993, Geologic map of Washington County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Opc
Campbell, K., 1993, Geologic map of Bay County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open-File N
Campbell, K., 1993, Geologic map ofCalhoun County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open-I
Cheetham, A.H., 1963, Late Eocene zoogeography of the eastern Gulf Coast region: Geological So
Clark, M.W., and Schmidt, W., 1982, Shallow stratigraphy ofOkaloosa County and vicinity, Florid
Survey Report of Investigations 92, 51 p.
Cooke, C.W., 1939, Scenery of Florida interpreted by a Geologist: Florida Geological Survey Bull
Cooke, C.W., 1945, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey, Bulletin 29, 339 p.
Cooke, C.W., and Mossom, S., 1929, Geology of Florida: Florida Geological Survey 20th Annual
Copeland, C.W., Rheams, K.F., Neathery, T.L., Gilliland, W.A., Schmidt, W., Clark, W.C., and Po
geologic map of the Mobile 4 degree by 6 degree quadrangle, United States: U.S. Geological Surv
Duffee, E.M., Allen, W.J., and Ammons, H.C., 1979, Soil survey of Jackson County, Florida: Unit
Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with University of Florida Institute of Food a
Sciences and Experiment Stations Soil Science Department, 157 p., 76 maps.
Duffee, E.M., Baldwin R.A., Lewis D.L., and Warmack W.B., 1984, Soil Survey of Bay County, F
Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with University of Florida, hi
Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations and Soil Science Department, and the Flor
Agriculture and Consumer Services, 151 p., 77 maps.
Green, R.C., Evans, W.L., Bryan, J.R., Paul, D.T., and Gaboardi, M.M., 2002, Surficial and bedroc
western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Marianna, Quadrangle, Northwestern Florida: Flor
Survey Open-File Map Series 91, 2 sheets.
Green, R.C., Means, G.H., Scott, T.M., Gaboardi, M.M., Evans, W.L., Paul, D.T., and Campbell, K
bedrock geology of the southern portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Crestview Quadrangle, No
Florida Geological Survey Open-File Map Series 90, 2 sheets.
Harris, Jr., D.M., 1968, Soil Survey of Houston County, Alabama: United States Department of Ai
Conservation Service, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Agriculture and Industries a
Agricultural Experiment Station, 72 p., 104 maps.
Healy, H.G., 1975, Terraces and shorelines of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Map Series 71,
Huckle, H.F., and Weeks, H.H., 1965, Soil survey of Washington County Florida: United States D
Soil Conservation Service in cooperation with University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Statio
Huddlestun, P.F., 1984, The Neogene Stratigraphy of the central Florida Panhandle: Ph.D. Dissert
University, Tallahassee, 210 p.
Huddlestun, P.F., 1988, A revision of the lithostratigraphic units of the coastal plain of Georgia: Thl
Holocene: Georgia Geologic Survey Bulletin 104, 12 p.
F 7~-- TB Y C U TY :-JACKSON COUNTY
J .0, f 4
I I ~ di~*.. I
U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
02-HQ-AG-0023. THE V
DOCUMENT ARE TH
INTERPRETED AS NECE:
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