<%BANNER%>
Geologic map of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle, northern Florida ( FGS: Open...
CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS DOWNLOADS MAP IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099549/00001
 Material Information
Title: Geologic map of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quadrangle, northern Florida ( FGS: Open File Map Series 93 )
Physical Description: Map
Language: English
Creator: Evans, W.L. III, Green, R.C., Bryan, J.R., and Paul, D.T.
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, FL
Publication Date: 2004
Copyright Date: 2004
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management:
The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
System ID: UF00099549:00001

Downloads
Full Text


Open-File Map Series No. 93-01
SI


SELECTED PHOTOGRAPHS FROM STUDY AREA


GEOLOGIC MAP OF TF

GAINESV






WILLIAM L. EVANS III, P.G. #1


0
0

0


4/


..;Qbd.:/
u I


Th






BTc/^


Tap


Quaternary Beach Ridge and Dune
Sediments exhibiting discernable beach ridges and dunes have be
from undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments. These sediments co
tan, fine to medium quartz sand with a variable percentage of orgz


Undifferentiated Quaternary Sediments
Light brown to tan, medium-fine quartz sand with variable admix
unconsolidated to poorly indurated. This unit may contain signific
organic. Local beds of fresh-water marl, which only occur in the
Fe River and Ichetucknee River, are limited in aerial extent and ar
unit on the geologic map.


Hawthorn Group
Undifferentiated Hawthorn Group
The undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments occur at or near
Gilchrist County and western Alachua County and are associated
Ridge (Figure 1). These sediments are typically weathered blue gi
clayey sands to silty clays and pure clays with relatively little pho


Coosawhatchie Formation


The Coosawhatchie Formation consists of gray to bluish-gray san
with phosphate grains, and calcitic to dolomitic carbonates. Lens
quartz sands, clays or limestone are not uncommon. This unit is 1
and units may pinch out and interfinger both laterally and vertical
Coosawhatchie Formation in the study area are typically very wea
consists of reddish-brown to white, clayey, calcareous quartz sand
leached phosphate grains and limonitic and calcareous pebbles.


Suwannee Limestone (Residuum)


Although only found as silicified "float" in the study area, the Su
to be continuous in the subsurface north and east of the study area
County and western Union County (Clark et al., 1964). The Suw;
consists of a cream to tan, crystalline, poorly to well indurated, vu
(grainstone to packstone) containing gastropods, echinoids, and p
abundant benthic foraminifera. This lithology is variably dolomit
interbedded with limestone beds. Layers of chert may be present.

Ocala Limestone
White to creamed-colored, fine to coarse grained, poorly to well
fossiliferous limestone (wackestone, packstone, and grainstone).
dolomitized, and may also include layers of chert. Fossils include
Lepidocyclina sp., Heterostegina ocalana and Asterocyclina spp
mollusks, echinoids, crabs, and algae.


Avon Park Formation (present in subsurface only)


Cream to light-brown to tan, very fine to medium grained, poorly
variably fossiliferous limestone (wackestone, packstone, and grai
tan to brown, very poorly indurated to well indurated, very fine to
moldic and vuggy dolostone. Fossils include foraminifers, algae,
plant remains.


Interstate

Primary / Secondary road

Local road

Railroad

County Boundary

Power Transmission Line


/ State Park or Recreation Area

/ River or Stream

SLake or Pond

Wetland

S U.S. Public Lands Survey /


Quarry or Pit


1 0 1 2 3

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6


Projection: FDEP Albers HARN North American Datum 1983






The near surface geology of the western portion of the U.S.G.S. 1:100,000 scale Gainesville quad
complex mixture of carbonate and siliciclastic sediments ranging from Eocene to Holocene. A comb
fluvio-deltaic deposition, marine deposition, dissolution of underlying carbonates, erosion of sedimei
changes in sea level, and structural features, have influenced the geology of the study area.
Much of the western portion of the Gainesville quadrangle is located within the Suwannee River a
In this area, the Suwannee River, the Santa Fe River, and their tributaries contain at least 55 document
first magnitude springs (defined as having a minimum average flow of 100 cubic feet per second, or (
Of a total of 33 first magnitude springs in the state, approximately 27 percent are located within the s
springs have evidenced significant increases in pollutants in the last few decades, particularly nitrate
geologic mapping of lithostratigraphic units in this area provides critical data needed to help in future
vulnerability of these aquifer systems to contamination.
Several structural, sedimentological and geomorphic variables have affected the geology of the re
a structurally high area which affected deposition from the early Cenozoic through the Oligocene (W
1986; Randazzo and Jones, ed., 1997), is the dominant subsurface feature in the Florida peninsula (A
the Peninsular Arch extends from southeastern Georgia to the vicinity of Lake Okeechobee in south]
to south-central trend. The crest of the arch passes beneath Alachua County east of the study area an
Alachua County in Union and Baker Counties. The arch was a topographic high during most of the (
Upper Cretaceous sediments deposited over it (Applin, 1951). It formed a relatively stable base for I
except during times of periodic land emergence due to lowered sea levels (Williams et al., 1977). Th
to Holocene sediment deposition (Williams et al., 1977).
The Ocala Platform is the most prominent structure affecting the near surface depositional and po
within the study area. Hopkins (1920) originally named this feature the Ocala Uplift. Vernon (1951)
as a gentle flexure developed in Tertiary sediments with a northwest-southeast trending crest. Becau
uncertainty about the origin of this feature, Scott (1988) used the term Ocala Platform, rather than Oc
since it does not have a structural connotation.
The Ocala Platform exerted its influence on Neogene sediment deposition, and Miocene sediment
thought to have been deposited across the platform (Scott, 1988). Post-Miocene erosion, however, h
of the Hawthorn Group from much of the crest of the Ocala Platform, exposing Eocene carbonates ((
Espenshade and Spencer 1963; Brooks, 1966; and Scott, 1981). Undifferentiated sediments have sul
on the exposed Eocene carbonates. These consist of residual clays, sands, and eolian sands deposit
Holocene (Randazzo and Jones, ed., 1997).
Vernon (1951), utilizing aerial photographs, first mapped fracture patterns throughout northern pe
these fractures generally trend parallel to the axis of the Ocala Platform in a northwest-southeast orie
of fractures intersects these primary fractures at large angles in a northeast-southwest trend (Vernon,
meanders along the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers demonstrates that these fracture patterns may be a
location. Lakes, sinkholes and other karst features also appear to be forming along these fracture trer
Several relict Neogene coastal terraces, which developed as a result of fluctuating sea levels, have
study area. Healy (1975) recognized two marine terraces within the study area: the Wicomico terrace
feet (23.0 to 32.8 meters) above mean sea level (MSL) and the Sunderland/Okefenokee terrace at ele
feet (32.8 and 55.8 meters) above MSL. The elevations between 150 and 170 feet (49.2 and 55.8 me
to as the Okefenokee Terrace by MacNeil (1950) and Alt and Brooks (1965). Detailed discussions a
terraces and relict shorelines have been attempted by many authors, including Matson and Sanford (1
Flint (1940, 1971), MacNeil (1950), Alt and Brooks (1965), Pirkle et al. (1970), and Healy (1975).
According to Scott (in preparation), the study area falls within one geomorphic province the Oca
encompasses a broad area from Wakulla County in the panhandle, south to Hillsborough and Pinellas
peninsula of Florida. Carbonate sediments ranging from the Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation to
Limestone lie at or near the land surface within this province.
The Ocala Karst District is dominated by dissolution sinkholes and shallow, bowl-shaped depress
topography. Generally, these areas have a thin permeable siliciclastic cover where downward percoh
dissolves the underlying limestone, leading to cover-collapse sinkholes and cover-subsidence feature
form rather abruptly from the structural failure of an underlying cavern roof An excellent example c
located in Alachua County just east of the present study area.
Cover subsidence features generally occur in areas where the overlying siliciclastics are thicker an
carbonates dissolve underneath. Typically, areas such as these have only a few shallow sinks formed
of the siliciclastic overburden filling voids created by the slow dissolution of the underlying carbonat
resurgent streams, and numerous caverns commonly occur within the Ocala Karst District.
The study area has been subdivided topographically into six regional physiographic units (Figure
Perry Karst San Pedro Bay, Chiefland Karst Plain, Brooksville Ridge, Williston Karst Plain and Al
Scott, in preparation). One of these regional physiographic units, the Chiefland Karst Plain, has beer
Waccasassa Flats (Vernon, 1951) and Bell Ridge (Puri and Vernon, 1964).
The Branford Karst Plain, located in the northern portion of the study area (Figure 1), extends sou
the Gilchrist County line (Scott, in preparation). The elevations range from more than 100 feet (30.5
(7.6 meters) above MSL along the Santa Fe and Suwannee Rivers. The Upper Eocene Ocala Litmest
this area and silicified float boulders of remnant Suwannee Limestone commonly occur throughout th
The Perry Karst San Pedro Bay is in the northwest portion of the study area, just west of Branfoi
Counties (Scott, in preparation). This is a poorly drained area with elevations that generally range frc
meters), along the western edge of the study area, to 25 feet (7.6 meters) above MSL, west of the stud
The Chiefland Karst Plain, which lies to the west of the Brooksville Ridge and south of the Branf
River (Figure 1), has elevations ranging from below 25 feet (7.6 meters) to over 100 feet (30.5 meter
plain is internally drained, except in the Waccasassa Flats, where less permeable siliciclastic sediment
areas. Many springs are present within this karst plain, mainly along the Suwannee and Santa Fe Riv
is underlain by Upper Eocene Ocala Limestone.
The Chiefland Karst Plain was subdivided by Puri and Vernon (1964) into the Waccasassa Flats
Waccasassa Flats subzone is located in the central portion of Gilchrist County, extending northwards
River (Figure 1). The generally flat to gently rolling terrain in this region was inundated by transgres
(Col et. al., 1997). This poorly drained area consists of Quaternary sand hills underlain by Plio-Pleis
Ocala Limestone. Rupert (1988) described the Waccasassa Flats in Gilchrist County as being an ave
elevation, but including isolated hills between 90 and 100 feet (27.4 and 30.5 meters).
The Bell Ridge, which is located along the western flanks of Waccasassa Flats and the eastern edg


1 9 'e'-.;- 4. m


ffrll AWL,


I MR9mw- 109 I






Open-File Map Series No. 93-02
SI


Figure 2. Near-surface lithostratigraphy and selected fossils from study area.


C- 1
-r


Pomace/li t
palillkOa
(Sa\. 1829)

Phioto b. Sean Rohert,
( I X


I l/-1V(Ir/IN .orplInwi/l
11. Lea. Is,34m

Photo bN Seani Robeii-
I I N)


lA unli lol IAll-/i
(CiVcihcrb. I s7 i

Photo b.\ Sean Robeii'
I .S N)


Ha\\lhonm Group


Undifferentiated Hawthorn Group sediments are
weathered blue-gray to reddish-brown clayey sands
to silty clays and pure clays with relatively little
phosphate. The Coosawhatchie Formation. which consists
of gray to bluish-gray sandy clay or clayey sand with
phosphate, and calcitic to dolomitic carbonates, is
lithologically variable. LUnits may pinch out and
interfinger both laterally and vertically. Outlcrops
are typically weathered and consist of reddish-broiwn
to white, clayey, calcareous qualrtz sands to sandy
clays with leached phosphate, and calcareous pebbles.
Photo by Richard C. Green


Suwarnee Limestone (Residuum)


Although only fotmnd as silicified "float" in the study area,
the Suwamnee Limestone appears to be continuous in the
subsurface north and east of the study area inll nortlhwestern
Alachua Count, and westernn Union County (Clark et al.,
1964). The Suwvainee Limestone usually consists of a
cream to tan, crystalline, poorly to well indurated, vuggy
and muddy carbonate (grainstone to packstone) containing
gastropods. echinoids, and pelycypods, as well as
abundant benthic foraminifera. This lithology is variably
dolomitic with the dolostone interbedded with
limestone beds. Layers of chert are present.
Photo by Richard C. Green


Sil~knoiq-o(7
Sitktl'tCif
(Ellis and Solander, 1786.

('oral commnion1\
found replaced
R\ith silica

Photo hb .Jonathan R. Br~an
1).3 X


lhnh1uua
(CLushnan. 191"'

Ne'er abundant.
buO common found
in uppenirmost part
of Ocala Limlestone

Photo b.
.Jonathan R. Bnan
( 1. lX)



.A l'IrovLc/inii sp.

Several piecess:
fotund in uppennost
Ocala Ls.: more
common in NWV FL.
and S\V GA.

Photo b\
Jonathan R. Bir\an
(I X)i


RIhin l/oliunpbal
goild(ii
(BOu~e. 1,N46)

Index ft.ssil
for Su'Iailnee
Limnestone


Photo b\ Scan Roberts
(0.75 X1


Ocala Limestone (upper member)


\\`iite, fine to coarse grained, poorly to
well indurated, poorly soiled, \ery
fossiliferous limestone (\\ackestone,
packstone, and grainstone). The unit may also
include layers of chert. Fossils
commonoil include large foraminifers
Lcpiu/ocycli/n sp., Hieteri o\te'giu otl/aln(I
and A Iterm -ocil in spp.. bryozoans.
mollusks. and a rich diversity ofechinoids.
Photo by Richard C. Green






Ocala Limestone (lower member)


\\ite to cream-colored, fine to medium
grained, poorly to moderately indurated
grainstone and packstone. The unit ma\ be
panrtiall\ dolomnitized. Fossils include miliolids
and other small foranlinifera. bryozoans, algae.
mollusks. crabs, and echinoids.
Photo by Jonathan R. Br\an








Avon Park Formation


Cream to light-brown to tan. \ ery fine to
medium grained, poorly indurated to well
indurated, variably fossiliferous lilnestone
(\vackestone, packstone. and grainstone)
interbedded w ith tani to brown, \very poorly
indurated to well indurated, \ery fine to
medium crystalline, (fossil) moldic and vuggy
dolostone. Fossils include foraminifers. algae.
echinoids. and carbonized plant remains.
Photo by Jonathan R. Bryan


_\'llllIllllllll_ '
willh-oxi
Heilpnn. 1882

Upper Ocala
and uppenmost part of
low% er (Ocala L imnesbone
("W\\illiston Ls.")


Pl1010 b\ Jonathani R. Br\anl
X \


Large Miliolid
foraminiftera

(Common in lower
Ocala Limestone and
A on Park Fonnation

Photo b\
.Jonathan R. Bnan
i2o X)


Dlctrvii OIIl<;

(Cushman, 19191

Photo bN
Jonathan R. Br)an
(S Nm
S(" ', X I


Fallowlhai spp..
iMNlaberg. 192v,
Also found in
SIw annee Limllestollne

Photo bh
Jonathan R. Br\an
i5 Xi


Lctpuli/Uilv !lih
ouCiltill
Cushman, 1920

ULipper (-)cala
and tlppermnost part of
lo%%er (Ocala Linlestone
l"\Villiston LN.")

Photos bi
Jonathan R. Bran

(extenlal \ ie)
S10 X)

(internal kiew i
(13 XN





.4Ilh7ll'lCgllll

Cushman and
Bennudez. 1936

Upper and
lo\w er Ocala
Limestone

Photo b\
Jonathan R Br~an
(15 X)


,Vtoni'l h't.
(Heilpin, 1Xs5)

Upper Ocala
Limestone

Photo bN
.Jonathan R. Br\an



F~ibub/iri~i1
l',II!21/~i/Ill
Cole and Ponton. 1934

Upper and lo%\er
Ocala Limestone

Photo b\
.Joniiathan R Br an








Ohgopl'f,,

Kicr. 1967

Lo \er Ocala

Photo b\
Ro'er \\. Portell
(I X)


ihilli
(T%%itchell. 1915>
Index fossil for Axon
Park Fonrmation

Photo bN
Roer \W Portell
SI Xi


Filtiihi
cl/.i'S
(Oppenheim, lI 96 )

Photo bN
Jonathan R. Br\an
loi X)


~.. 'I., ~ 3
- 3 .3


Oc,1ltllhll
(Cushiman. 1921)

Upper Ocala
Limestone

Photo bN
Jonathan R. Bran
I0 X






Per'iarth l/,
l o r i, 4 1/ n t ti
Fischer. 1951

Common in
Iowernlost O(cala
("Inglis Limestone"I

Phloto b\
Roger \\. Ponrell
i0.5 Xi


C/ypcimi sp.

A green das\ dad
algae

Photo b\
Jonathan R BrNan
(Xi



Dimormqin~plis
) 111111Cri
(Cole. 19411

Photo b\
Jonatihan R. Brnan
(lOXi


.,J


GEOLOGIC CROSS-SECTIONS


A
WEST
LAFAYETTE CO. GILCHRIST CO.
METERS
R14E R15E
60


150 50 @ W-1405

125 40 SUWANNEE
RIVER
100 -
-- 30 340 340


20
50

25 10

0 0


-30
-100

-125 -40

-150 -50


TD=3467'
B.L.S.


FEET METERS
150 50

125 40 E


WEST
R13E R14E
V-18426


A'
EAST


GILCHRIST CO.I ALACHUA CO.


R15E R16E


R16E R17E


R17E R18E


W-13995 W-16604 U W-16593 HIGH W-10341
SPRINGS
COW
CREEK
n129 340 1 (340n47 340 340 41 441


0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 MILES
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 KILOMETERS
SCALE
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION= 200 TIMES HORIZONTAL SCALE


TD=97' TD=155'
B.L.S. B.L.S.


R14E|R15E
5 W-6418


TD=281'
B.L.S.


B.L.S.


LEVY CO. GILCHRIST CO.
R15E R16E R16E R 17E


W-16663


FEET METERS
175 60
175


W-18536 150


125 40


20
50

25 10

0 0


-30
-100

-125- -40

-150 -50


-200


TD=311'
B.L.S.


B'
EAST
R17E R18E


5 W-4929
(337) /-- I/-.


CRABGRASS MCCAIN < 2


t-26


7 141


SOUTHWEST


LEVY CO. GILCHRIST CO.


FEET METERS


150 50

125 40

100
30
75
20
50
25 10

0 0

-25 -10

-50
-20
-75
-30
-100-

-125- -40

-150 -50


TllS T10S


T 10S T09S


GILCHRIST CO.


T09S IT 08S


10 W-6418 ( W-14861 VW-318 1 W-16880 vW-5567 1 W-16624 nW-16636

(26) 129} 47) 47) 232) 47)
190 9l5 THREEMILE THREEMILE
L ] I [LAKE LAKE


S-80 TD=310'
-250 B.L.S.


FEET METERS
150 50


W-18472 125


0 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 MILES
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 KILOMETERS
SCALE
VERTICAL EXAGGERATION= 200 TIMES HORIZONTAL SCALE


ALACHUA CO.
T08S T07S


COLUMBIA CO.
S ALACHUA CO. COLUMBIA CO.


T07S T06S


W-10341 C W-18479 E W-18467
HIGH SPRINGS
340 27 41 441
SANTAFE S\NT kFE
I RIVER RI\ ER


7)5 18


D'
NORTHEAST
UNION CO.
FEET METERS
SW-4533
150 50
ZTUff
125 40
100
30
75
20
50

25 10

0 0
-25
-25 -10
-50


S -75
-100'

-125;

-150;

-175

-200

-225;
TD= 119'
B.L.S. -250


TD=59' TD=185' TD=200' TD=75' TD=150' TD-168' TD=500' TD=1l14' TD=195'
B.L.S. B.L.S. B.L.S. B.L.S. B.L.S. B.L.S. B.L.S. B.L.S. B.L.S.


FEET METERS
150 50


NORTH


W-3311


C'
SOUTH


GILCHRIST CO. SUWANNEE CO.
T 06 S I T 07 S


T07 S T 08 S


v W-13779 E W-17899 W-16537


T08S T09S


W-16604 L W-1624-, l-_ L V


T09S T 10S


V-16646


l W-16663


FEET METERS
150 50


LII Quaternary Beach Ridge and

I" |Quaternary Undiff.

- | Hawthorn Group Undiff.

WI IHawthorn Group
Coosawhatchie Fm.


LUndifferentiated Quaternary Sedimlents


Light broxx n to tan, medium-fine quailrtz sand wvith
variable adnixtures of clay and organic,
unconsolidated to poorly indurated. This unit ma\
contain significant amounts of cla\ and organic.
Local beds of fiesh-water marl (as seen in photo),
which only occur in the flood plains of the Santa Fe River
and Ichetucknee River, are limited in aerial extent and
are not mapped as a separate unit on the geologic map.
Photo by Richard C. Green


jC-
F1.


1.. *~'
2 2~
- *~, -

I


I..;-


2C~


C:


1~1.,

.1
'fA .A
















1.



-'I.,


4i


'A


~J ~J


'A.
'-^


i _
^ -i


'A
'-A 7

~J ~J


"
-' ,
Vs
A. A. A
'A^ L
_c =


I


I


cm


I


--i


I


-..90000=-


n.4111lsillilil
ot-at/tmt111/
Dall, 189%

Upper (Scala
L ime-stone

Photo b\
Jonaithan R. Biran
( l iX)



.spi/lh/nni/

Gabb, 161-1

ULipper O(cala
Liinesione

Plioto b\
Jonathan R. Bryan
1.5 >X









Oli'ziopvffi
\'i.hllh tn' i
de Lonol. 188"

Upper Ocala Ls.

Photo b\
Roger \\ Portell
I x












lb. iolwgli//
11I1dlleilHU
(Conrad. Is50li

Upper Ocala

Photo b\
Roei \\ Portell
I X


25 mm


STRA

OF THE






WIL]






Alt, D., and Bi
of Geology, v.

Altshuler, Z.S.
Montmorilloni
p.148-152.

Applin, P., 195
American Assc

Applin, P., and
of Florida and
Bulletin, v. 28,

Assefa, G., 19i
Formation, Ma
University of I

Brooks, H. K.,
Geological Soc

Bryan, J., 2004
Florida Paleon

Campbell, K. ]
Survey Open I

Campbell, K, ]
Open File Map

Clarke, W.E., T
of Alachua, Bi
Report of Inve

Col, N., Ruper
hydrogeology(
Geological Sur

Cooke, C.W.,
Professional P.

Cooke, C.W.,
Washington A

Cooke, C.W.,
Geological Sur

Cooke, C.W.,

Cooke, C.W.,
Survey 20th A

Dall, W.H., an
Geological Sur

Edwards, R.A.
Journal of Floi

Espenshade, G
deposits of noi
1118, 115p.

Flint, R.F., 194
Journal of Scie

Flint, R.F., 197
York, 892 p.

Glawe, L.N., 1
stratigraphic si

Healy, H.G., 1
Series No. 71,

Hopkins, O.B.
Press Bulletin,

Johnson, L., I!
Series, v. 36, p

MacNeil, F.S.,
United States (

Matson, G.C.,
Florida with sp
Second Annua

Matson, G.C.,
United States (

Miller, J.A., 19
Florida and in
System Analys
Washington, 9

Mitchell, C.L.,
Formation, De
thesis]: Gainse

Oyen, C.W., ar
Oligocene and

Pirkle, E. C., J
[Ph.D. disserta

Pirkle, E. C., J
Florida: Floric

Pirkle, E.C., Y
in Florida: Flo

Portell, R.W.,
Eocene Echinc


1 11


AIT 1 KKAA


w


FTVPX TT- I PtT


-L


, j I ,