Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Appendix 1: Personal feeling...
 Appendix 2: Capsule descriptions...
 Appendix 3: Questionnaire
 Appendix 4: Recall facilitating...
 Appendix 5: Daily record of personal...
 Appendix 6: Dream record sheet
 Appendix 7: Distribution of dream...
 Appendix 8: Judges' instructio...
 Appendix 9: Chi-square analysis...
 Appendix 10: Selected raw data...
 Biographical sketch

Title: Mood and dreaming
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099528/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mood and dreaming manifestations of personality traits and states in the dream
Physical Description: vii, 76 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Updegrove, Craig Arnold, 1952-
Publication Date: 1978
Copyright Date: 1978
Subject: Dreams   ( lcsh )
Personality   ( lcsh )
Psychology thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Psychology -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 56-59.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Craig Arnold Updegrove.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099528
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000084877
oclc - 05295271
notis - AAK0223


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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
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        Page 58
        Page 59
    Appendix 1: Personal feeling scales
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
    Appendix 2: Capsule descriptions of selected 16 PF factors
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Appendix 3: Questionnaire
        Page 65
    Appendix 4: Recall facilitating suggestions
        Page 66
    Appendix 5: Daily record of personal feelings
        Page 67
    Appendix 6: Dream record sheet
        Page 68
    Appendix 7: Distribution of dream recall over 28 days
        Page 69
    Appendix 8: Judges' instructions
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Appendix 9: Chi-square analysis of dream recall etc.
        Page 73
    Appendix 10: Selected raw data (males)
        Page 74
        Page 75
    Biographical sketch
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
Full Text



Craig Arnold Updegrove





Special thanks are due to my friends who donated their efforts by

serving as judges in this study. There are Helen Ammons, Mike Bonnet,

Terrie Buzcek, Hugh Davis, Dev Depper, Susan Douma, Everette Hall,

Molly Harrower, Vernon Van De Reit, Bernie Webb, and Marilyn Zweig.

You rate well in my book and not all that badly in my dissertation.

An extra word of appreciation is due Bernie Webb and Hugh Davis

who have given me so much recently and in the past four years. Your

consistent support, thoughtful feedback and general good humor has been

greatly appreciated.

Finally, I would like to acknowledge myself, without whom this

research would not have been possible nor, for that matter, necessary.



LIST OF TABLES . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . . . .

METHOD . . . . . .

Subjects . . . . .

Instruments . . . . .

Procedure . . . . . .

Judges . . . . . .

RESULTS . . . . . . .

Mood and Dream Recall . . .

Daily Mood and Dream Moods

Mood and Personality Traits

Judges' Ratings . . . .

. . . . . . . . iv

. . . . . . . . v i

. . . . . . . . 1

. . . . . . . 14

. . . . . . . 14

. . . . . . . . 14

. . . . . . . 19

. . . . . . . . 21

. . . . . . . . 23

. . . . . . . . 23

. . . . . . . . 26

. . . . . . . . 29

. . . . . . . 3 1

DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . .

The Relationship of Mood and Personality Variables to
Dream Recall . . . . . . . .

The Relationship Between Daily Mood and Dream Mood .

Mood and Personality Traits . . . . . . .

Judges' Ratings . . . . . . . . . .

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . .










QUESTIONNAIRE . . . . . . . .



DREAM RECORD SHEET . . . . . . .


. ii

. 39

. . 40

. . 43

. . 44

. . 47

. . 51

. . 56


. . 63

. . 65

. . 66

. . 67

. . 68












BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . . . . . 76


Table Page

SCALES . . . . . . . . . . . . 17






DREAM "TRAIT" RATINGS . . . . . . . . 35

SELECTED 16 PF FACTORS . . . . . . . . 36

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Craig Arnold Updegrove

December 1978

Chairman: Hugh C. Davis
Cochairman: Wilse B. Webb
Major Department: Psychology

Despite initial disclaimers by psychoanalysts, manifest dream

content has been shown to relate to a wide variety of important person-

ality variables. The literature strongly supports the notion that

dream content can reflect both state and trait characteristics of the

individual. The present study investigates the relationships between

mood variables and dreaming within the context of personality traits

and states.

Fifty undergraduate subjects rated their daily moods before bed-

time on 6 selected scales of the Wessman and Ricks Personal Feeling

Scales over a 28 day period. Subjects also recorded their dreams each

night and rated their moods as experienced in the dream using the same

mood scales. During the third week of data collection, subjects were

administered the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF,

Forms C and D), which serves as a personality trait measure criterion.

Frequency of dream recall is correlated with various mood and per-

sonality trait variables. Dream recall frequency is not found to re-

late substantially to personality trait variables although personality

state change is determined to affect recall. Males tended to recall

more dreams following a particularly "moody" day with the mood level in

the dream correlating positively with waking mood level on the day pre-

ceding the dream.

Rationally derived correspondences between selected 16 PF factors

and the six Personal Feeling Scales permitted trait-mood comparisons.

Correlations between mean day and dream mood levels and 16 PF factor

scores are obtained demonstrating moderate conceptual similarity. In

general, mean day moods are found to correlate more highly than mean

dream moods with the personality trait criteria.

A pool of 35 subjects was selected to be rated by judges on the

expressed or implied moods present in manifest dream content. Five

judge groups were formed with each group rating seven subjects. Judges

rated four dreams of each subject on six Personal Feeling Scales and

made composite "trait ratings" based on mood level for each subject.

Although reliability estimates varied, moderate inter-rater agree-

ment is obtained. Judges' trait ratings are correlated with correspond-

ing 16 PF factors. It is concluded that judges can predict personality

traits significantly above chance on the basis of moods present in four

dreams. Few consistencies in the judges' performance, though, were


The results are felt to be consistent with the notion that dreams

best reflect state changes in the individual and may be useful in pro-

cessing emotionally difficult material. Clinical and heuristic impli-

cations of the present research are discussed.


Despite the initial disclaimers by psychoanalysts of the signifi-

cance of surface dream content, an increasing amount of attention has

been directed at the diagnostic importance of manifest dream character-

istics (Hall & Van De Castle, 1966; Erikson, 1954). Although Freud

himself was skeptical that manifest dreams could directly reflect per-

sonality dynamics (1950), Langs (1966, p.635) infers from Freud that

the manifest dream may be seen as a "symptom," thus being a "deriva-

tive and disguised expression of the latent content and not an unre-

lated screen." In any event, manifest dream content has been described

as possessing certain regularities with respect to a wide variety of

variables including sex, age, SES, psychiatric status, pregnancy,

menstruation and creativity. This literature gives strong support for

the notion that manifest dream content can reflect both state and

trait characteristics of the individual. As such, the verbalized

dream may be of substantial diagnostic significance in assessing both

chronic and acute psychological conditions.

It is probable that the similarities in manifest dream content

accompanying distinct psychological states of the dreamer as well as the

consistencies apparent in the dreams of a single night (Kramer, Klasny,

Jacobs & Roth, 1976) reflect, at least in part, the prominent emotional

tone or moods of the day. Indeed, Freud (1950, p.50) said, "the effects

of the dream-thoughts undergo slighter alterations than their conceptual

content." In the Freudian scheme, affects can be directly expressed,

while being disguised by a dissociation with their conceptual referents.

Jacobsen (1957) has discussed the pervasive nature of mood in coloring

one's behavior and experience and has emphasized the importance of

mood as a barometer of the ego state.

The relationship between waking mood and personality variables

has been receiving increased attention in personality research (Wess-

man & Ricks, 1966). Mood variables have been demonstrated to relate to

the cognitive styles of sensation seeking and field dependence (Gorman

& Wessman, 1974), level of psychological differentiation (Frank, 1967)

and therapist facilitativeness (Gurman, 1972). The studies mentioned

have all utilized the Wessman and Ricks Personal Feeling Scales (1966),

a rationally derived instrument sampling a variety of moods and allowing

cross-subject comparisons. A few studies have compared sleep and dream

content variables to waking mood, although these investigations have

been exploratory or limited in nature (Piccione, Jacobs, Kramer & Roth,

1977; Kramer, Roehrs & Roth, 1976; Swanson & Foulkes, 1968).

) The present study examined a substantial, representative sample of -

an individual's dream experience with reference to stable and fluctuat-

ing moods as reflected in both daily mood and personality trait measures.

Mood parameters of manifest dream content were also explored in order to

determine the relative manifestations of personality states and traits

present in dreams. The intent of the present research was to determine

the extent to which dreams reflect day to day changes in the individual

or more enduring personality traits. Additionally, the present research

considered the possibility that the relative trait-state incorporation

in dreams may vary as a function of personality characteristics of the

individual. That is, the extent to which an individual "takes his wor-

ries to bed with him" (or can relate worrisome dreams) may be related

to the general personality organization of the dreamer.

The focus of the present research was the relationships between

mood and dreaming. Considering the prominent role attributed to mood

in dreams (Freud, 1950) and as a personality component (Jacobsen, 1957),

it is surprising that previous study of mood parameters has been sparse.

This study examined relationships between daily moods and frequency of

dream recall, dream moods and independent personality trait criteria.

Additionally, judges' ratings of dream mood were examined to assess the

clinical claim that personality judgments from dreams can be diagnostic-

ally useful.

Previous research has shown a variety of demographic variables to

be related to dream content dimensions (Winget, Kramer & Whitman, 1972).

These researchers concluded that the most important single demographic

factor affecting dream content is sex. Females were found to have more

friendly interactions, more emotions and more indoor settings in their

dreams. Male subjects were found to contain significantly more aggres-

sion, more achievement striving with successful outcomes, more castra-

tion anxiety and more overt hostility in their dreams.

Increased death anxiety or themes relating to death were.found

among older subjects. Socioeconomic status was also found to relate to

dream content. There were more misfortune dreams (mishap, danger with

no intentionality) in lower and lower middle class subjects than in the

upper middle class. There were also more people in the lower SES

dreams. Death anxiety was also found to increase as SES decreased.

The authors utilize a "continuity theory" of dreams to explain these

findings by assuming that lower SES subjects are realistically more

powerless and with fewer resources to deal with the threat of death

than higher SES subjects. Similarly it was hypothesized that the daily

waking existence of lower SES people is also more densely crowded with

people in their home and work situation than is true for higher SES

families. While the generalizability of this demographic study of

dream content is tempered due to the use of only one dream per subject,

some of these relationships have been supported in other studies (Hall

& Van De Castle, 1966; Hall & Domhoff, 1963).

A great deal of literature exists on dream content differences in

different psychiatric groups, principally depression and schizophrenia.

If dreams reflect chronic traits of the individual, it should be pos-

sible to demonstrate similarities within members of a given diagnostic

group as well as differences in dream content between divergent patient

groups. If dreams reflect transient state changes, then dream content

would be expected to change throughout the inception and recovery of

psychiatric illness.

Some correlates of acute phases of depression in dreams seem rea-

sonably established. When overtly psychotic, depressed patients report

relatively bland and barren dreams, usually involving a preponderance of

family members with few strangers (Van De Castle & Holloway, 1971;

Miller, 1969; Langs, 1966; Kramer, Whitman, Baldridge & Lansky, 1965).

Langs (1966) speculates that such dream content reflects the "excessive

denial and decathexis" that is typical for psychotically depressed


As depression lifts, dream content reflects more anxiety and hos-

tility (Kramer, Whitman, Baldridge & Lansky, 1965). With clinical

improvement depressed patients dream of hurting and coercing others

while being hurt and coerced by them (Miller, 1969). Miller related

this increased agitation in the recovering depressed patient to the

clinical observation that recovering depressives are a particularly

high risk group for suicide.

While the above aspects of dream content seem to change with the

clinical course of depression, other aspects of dream content remain

relatively more stable. Remitted patients continue to dream more often

about hostile environments with more inanimate objects exerting physical

effort (Hauri, 1976). Remitted patients also dream more often about the

past than do controls. Masochism and dependency themes remain persist-

ent even after considerable clinical improvement (Kramer et al., 1969;

Beck & Ward, 1961). Cyclical depressives were noted to have masochis-

tic themes at the same frequency even during remitted or symptom-free

segments of their manic-depressive cycle (Beck & Ward, 1961). Maso-

chistic dream themes therefore are not associated with depression per

se but more with "certain personality characterisitcs of individuals

who develop severe depressions" (Beck & Ward, 1961, p.465).

Depressed patients also exhibited more frequent themes of escape,

helplessness and hopelessness which remain unchanged with clinical im-

provement (Kramer et al., 1969; Kramer et al., 1965). The dreams of

depressed patients also have less color references, more parental fig-

ures as well as more adjectives referring to youngness (Van De Castle

& Holloway, 1971). Kramer and his associates (1969, 1965) conclude

that dreams are not absolute mirrors of the clinical state but lag be-

hind the current clinical status. This lag may reflect the "still pre-

carious defensive integration" of the recovering depressive as well as

a more general preoccupation with the past. These results seem to sug-

gest that some personality traits in depressed patients are chronically

disturbed and do not improve when patients improve clinically.

Manifest dreams of schizophrenic patients have been described as

"bizarre, uncanny, unrealistic and having a strange or cosmic quality"

(Richardson & Moore, 1963, p.289). In contrast to depressed patients,

schizophrenic patients have more strangers in their dreams than family

members or friends (Kramer & Roth, 1973). Schizophrenics also dream more

about men than women and have more aggressive social interactions than

friendly or sexual interactions. In a comparison of schizophrenic, de-

pressed and medical patients, Kramer et al. (1969) noted that schizo-

phrenics had the most implausible and most hostile dreams. In the

great majority of hostile dreams in paranoid schizophrenics, the hostil-

ity was directed toward the dreamer which was unlike both depressed and

medical patient groups. The most frequent emotion found in schizophren-

ic dreams is apprehension (Kramer & Roth, 1973) with fewer friendly

social interactions and more ambiguous and questionable settings

(Kramer, Trinder & Roth, 1972). The schizophrenic shows a greater ten-

dency to not be the central figure in the dream (Brenneis, 1954).

Schizophrenic dreams also reveal more "primary process indicators"

denoting a blurring of conceptual boundaries with arbitrary association

and combination of dream elements. This quality of schizophrenic

dreams was found to be highly predictive of psychiatric diagnostic

(Brenneis, 1954).

Additionally, dream themes of schizophrenic patients show a prone-

ness for conflict with others as well as a characterization of the en-

vironment as traumatizing and overwhelming (Langs, 1966). The relative

stability of these dream elements, despite the suggestion of Kramer,

Trinder and Roth (1972) that dream content did not differ with a change

in clinical state, is still unresolved due to some acknowledged methodo-

logical weaknesses in their study. These researchers did note that

activities in dreams became more active after clinical improvement than

before treatment. By and large the data available on schizophrenic

dreams is most compatible with a continuity between waking cognitive-

emotional factors and dreams in schizophrenic populations.

Van De Castle and Kinder (1968) reported characteristic dream con-

tent in females during pregnancy which presumably related to waking con-

cerns and emotions. Themes of physical or sexual unattractiveness were

prevalent as well as themes where the subjects' husbands were finding

other women more appealing and attractive. Also in the last trimester

many women exhibited various anxiety dreams related to birth complica-

tions or deformities of the fetus.

Hertz and Jensen (1975) discovered greater themes of emotional

conflict and emotional instability in menstruating women. Menstrual

dreams are more likely to contain emotions and hate than non-menstrual

dreams. There is also a greater preoccupation with male figures other

than the subjects' husbands or fathers. These relationships are inter-

preted in a continuity framework with citations of empirical findings

of greater accidents, violence, suicides and psychotic episodes occur-

ring in menstruating women. Additionally, Swanson and Foulkes (1968)

found that dream content was judged to be most unpleasant during the
"most depressed" phase of the menstrual cycle.

Dream content characteristics of creative writers have been demon-

strated to exhibit certain trait-like components. Adelson (1960)

distinguished creative and uncreative writers in a college English class

and found that absurdities (logical or physical impossibilities) in

dreams occurred significantly more often in creative than uncreative

writers. The incidence of humor in dreams was also related to high

literary creativity. Another notable finding of this study was that

20% of the creative subjects did not participate in the dream action.

Adelson suggests that the ability to stand apart from reality is a

first condition to seeing reality in an imaginative, creative manner.

In an effort to empirically test Jung's theory of the compensatory

aspect of dreams, Domino (1976) rated 3 dream reports per subject on 15

personality dimensions. These ratings were then compared with scores

on the same dimensions as measured by the Edwards Personality Preference

Schedule (EPPS) and the Adjective Check List (ACL). Significant posi-

tive relationships were found between the dream ratings and both the

EPPS and the ACL on the personality dimensions of Achievement, Defer-

ence, Dominance, Change and Heterosexuality. These positive correla-

tions are supportive of a continuous relationship between waking per-

sonality attributes as measured psychometrically and personality dimen-

sions which can be inferred from dream reports.

Two related studies (Rychlak & Brams, 1963; Rychlak, 1960) utilized

personality judgments formed from the MMPI, the Manifest Anxiety Scale

and the Personality Preference Schedule to compare with the dreams of

school children. Considerable consistency between dream themes and

personality trait characteristics were noted. Children with many Affil-

iative dream themes (pleasurable interpersonal relationships) were more

socially responsible and seeking close interpersonal relationships than

other children. Children with many Reward themes (positive,

pleasurable non-human contact) were found to be quite outgoing, domi-

nant, self-confident and achievement oriented. Children with many

Tension themes (anxiety, frustration, hostility) were found in the per-

sonality test data to exhibit some neurotic trends with frustration and

concern about physical health. These studies suggest a continuity be-

tween thematic elements in dreams and waking personality characteristics.

A variety of approaches have attempted to discover the degree of

continuity between waking and sleeping mentation. Starker (1974) was

able to demonstrate a good degree of commonality between daydreaming

styles and nocturnal dreaming. Subjects who had "Positive" waking fan-

tasies (vivid, absorbing, pleasant) also had dreams which were most

positive in tone and the least bizarre. Subjects with a "Negative"

daydreaming style (guilt, fears, conflict) had more bizarre dreams and

dreams which were more negatively toned. Subjects with an "Anxious-

Distractible" daydreaming style (bizarre, frightening, distractibility)

had the most bizarre and the most emotional dreams. Starker also re-

ports that these three daydreaming styles maintained a direct positive

relationship with the subject's frequency of nightmares. Starker draws

the conclusion that the daydreaming style a person typically utilizes

will be carried over as a nocturnal dreaming style. Inasmuch as an

individual's daydreaming style reflects transient or stable aspects of

mood and personality, these aspects also are expressed in nocturnal


Some support for the notion that dream content and daily moods are

directly related was provided by Kramer, Roth, Arand and Palmer (1972).

These researchers concluded that dream content does seem to relate to

changes in mood from before to after sleep. More specifically, mood

change from before to after sleep is related to the types of characters

and moods experienced in dreams, The dream is thus seen as a psycho-

regulatory intervening variable that can mediate psychological changes.

In a later study, Kramer and his associates (1976) took a somewhat

different approach to investigating state-trait representations in

dreams. If dreams have meaning for the individual, then they should be

distinguishable between individuals and within an individual over dif-

ferent nights. Accordingly, Kramer and his associates were able to

demonstrate that the dreams of both schizophrenics and normals could be

sorted well beyond chance levels both between individuals and according

to their occurrence on different nights. This latter observation would

seem to support the interpretation that dreams reflect day to day

changes in the individual. Kramer and his associates found that sorting

dreams into different nights was easier with schizophrenic dreams than

normal dreams while sorting dreams by the individual dreamer was easier

among normal subjects. These researchers were unable to reliably sort

dreams into their correct sequencing during a given night. While the

verbal style of the subject may have influenced the dream sorting, the

fact that a person's dreams of one night can be distinguished from

those of another night argues against verbal style being the only dis-

tinguishing feature of the dreams. To sort the dreams of the same per-

son by night requires that the dreams of a given night have more in com-

mon with each other than with those of another night, thus implying a

"state" distinction that is reflected in dreams. Another interesting

finding of this research is that the relative experience or inexperi-

ence of the judges in working with dreams did not have an effect on

their ability to sort the dreams correctly. This ability to see

connections among dreams without prior clinical experience suggests

that there is an order in dreams of a reasonably obvious nature.

In a study comparing daily activities, emotions and dream content

(Piccione, Jacobs, Kramer & Roth, 1977), significant incorporations of

emotionally intense waking activities were noted. These researchers

conclude that dream content is most concerned with the activity of the

day which is accompanied by intense emotion.

In summary, dream content research relating to personality dynamics

has suggested considerable continuity between waking state-trait person-

ality characteristics and those revealed in dreams. Select subject

groups, with presumably many similar personality dynamics and emotional

characteristics, have generally been shown to produce similar manifest

dreams. Similarly, patient groups with different psychiatric diagnoses

have somewhat consistently been shown to dream differently. In addition,

dream content of psychiatric and other more or less discrete subject

groups can be related to independent clinical hypotheses corresponding

to the active waking conflicts and concerns of the dreamer. As well,

the above studies have at least implicitly implicated the role of mood,

as a principal concomitant of personality states and traits, in influ-

encing dream content.

A major methodological problem which has hampered dream content

studies has been the use of only one or a limited number of dreams per

subject in investigating personality trait correlates. Requesting only

one dream per subject increases the risk that the selection character-

istics of the dream will not be random but will be related to the desire

to present oneself in a favorable light. A dream reported by a subject

because of its novelty or other distinguishing features may lessen the

likelihood that the dream will be representative of the total dream

repertoire of the subject. Garfield (1973) has argued the case for

longitudinal dream records in dream studies to circumvent these problems.

Many studies utilizing only one dream per subject also do not account

for how recently the dream occurred, thus introducing the additional

contamination of possible memory distortions.

In utilizing several dreams of the individual, the present research

allowed a more complete representation of an individual's dream life.

Collecting a series of dreams over time also provided a means of assess-

ing the relative manifestations of state-trait personality dimensions

in manifest dream content.

Subjects in this study recorded a variety of daily moods over a 28

day period. Also during this period, subjects recorded their dreams and

rated their moods as experienced in the dreams. In addition, judges

blindly rated dream narratives on mood levels suggested by dream con-

tent. Rationally derived correspondences between mood dimensions and a

personality trait criterion (16 PF) allowed comparisons between mood

ratings and the 16 PF. Some of the major expected hypotheses were as


1) That subjects' dream moods would correlate positively

with subjects' daily moods.

2) That mean (28 days) of subjects' "average" daily moods

would correlate positively with associated 16 PF trait


3) That mean (28 days) of subjects' "average" ratings of

dream moods would correlate positively with associated

16 PF trait levels.


4) That judges' ratings of dream moods would correlate

positively with associated 16 PF trait levels.



Three Introductory Psychology classes at the University of Florida

(summer session) were informed that they could earn experimental credit

by participation in a research project on dreams. Potential subjects

were informed of the benefits and given the opportunity of earning ex-

perimental credit by recording their dreams while being apprised of

their responsibilities to participate diligently over a four week per-

iod. Thirty males and thirty females signed up for the experiment.

The subjects ranged in age from 17 to 30. Subjects were assured that

confidentiality would be maintained.


The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF Forms C and

D) and selected scales of the "Personal Feeling Scales" (Wessman and

Ricks, 1966) were the primary instruments used in the present research.

The Personal Feeling Scales are a battery of 10-point self-rating af-

fect scales devised by Wessman and Ricks (1966). Each point of the

scale contains a descriptive statement intended to provide the subject

with a comprehensive and exact vocabulary of affect and feeling that

would be suitable for repeated self-reports over an extended period,

In all, 16 rationally derived mood scales comprise the instrument, of

which six were extracted for the present research. Wessman and Ricks

constructed the scales to measure a variety of feelings with each scale

being as unidimensional as possible. Each scale encompasses a broad

and graduated range of feeling with extreme contrasting feelings at

each end of the continuum. Wessman and Ricks strived to have approxi-

mately equal subjective gradations between adjacent items as well as

cross-scale comparability. That is, a "9" on one scale would be ap-

proximately as extreme as a "9" on another scale. By characterizing

each scale position by a descriptive statement, Wessman and Ricks hoped

to allow some degree of cross-subject comparability of responses.

Although reliability and validity data have not been established

for the Personal Feeling Scales, it was felt that the desirable char-

acteristics of the scale as outlined above outweighed the fact that the

psychometric properties of the scales are, as yet, not fully explicated.

The scales chosen for use in the present study were Harmony vs.

Anger (1), Sociability vs. Withdrawal (II), Tranquility vs. Anxiety

(III), Impulse Expression vs. Restraint (IV), Self-Confidence vs, Feel-

ings of Inadequacy (V), and Elation vs. Depression (VI). These scales,

which are presented in Appendix 1, were chosen because of their rele-

vance to dream content and because each scale could be rationally

related to corresponding 16 PF factors,

Because the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16 PF) is

well known, a description here is superfluous. The 16 PF was chosen

because of its ability to measure a wide variety of more or less inde-

pendent enduring personality traits (Cattell, 1970). The 16 PF trait

scores were treated as independent criterion measures against which

trait indices based on mean mood levels were compared. Sten scores

based on combined forms C and D were used for selected primary factors

and second-order factors.

Table 1 presents the 6 selected Wessman and Ricks mood scales with

the associated 16 PF factors. For the 16 PF, the low score direction

is indicated by the first component of the personality dimension being

evaluated (e.g., low scores on the Introversion vs. Extraversion scale

signify a high level of Introversion). The opposite relationship holds

true for the Personal Feeling Scales. The presumed directionalities of

the relationships between the mood scales and the 16 PF factors are also

presented in Table 1.

Although many of the associations of the mood scales and 16 PF

scales are self-evident, some additional explanation may be helpful to

the reader. The following descriptions of 16 PF traits are taken from

Cattell (1972, 1970). More complete capsulized descriptions of the

selected 16 PF factors are presented in Appendix 2.

Mood Scale I, tapping Harmony with others vs, Anger was rationally

related to Factor F (Desurgency vs. Surgency) and the qualities of being

"happy-go-lucky, cheerful, active and enthusiastic." Similarly, Factor

I (Tough-minded vs. Tender-minded) contains elements of "tender-

mindedness, gentleness and kindliness" vs. "smugness and cynicism."

Positive relationships were predicted between these two 16 PF scales

and Mood 1 (Harmony vs. Anger).

Sociability vs. Withdrawal (Mood Scale II) could be rationally re-

lated to several 16 PF factors. Self-evident positive correspondence

was posited with Factor QI (Introversion vs. Extraversion) and Factor

H (Shy vs. Venturesome). The "outgoing and participating" qualities of

Factor A as well as the "happy-go-lucky, active, unrestrained" attri-

butes of Factor F were felt to relate positively to high sociability.

Additionally, the "group dependence, joiner" characteristics of Factor



MOOD I Harmony vs. Anger (how well you got along with, or how angry
you felt toward other people)
Factor F (+) Sober (Desurgency) vs. Happy-go-Lucky (Surgency)
Factor I (+) Tough-minded vs. Tender-minded

MOOD II Sociability vs. Withdrawal (how socially outgoing or withdrawn
you felt today)
Factor A (+) Reserved vs. Outgoing
Factor F (+) Sober (Desurgency) vs. Happy-go-Lucky (Surgency)
Factor H (+) Shy vs. Venturesome
Factor Q2 (-) Group Dependent vs. Self-sufficient
Factor Q, (+) Introversion vs. Extraversion

MOOD III Tranquility vs. Anxiety (how calm or troubled you felt)
Factor C (+) Affected by Feelings vs. Emotionally Stable
Factor 0 (-) Placid vs. Apprehensive
Factor Q4 (-) Relaxed vs. Tense
Factor QII(-) Low Anxiety vs. High Anxiety

MOOD IV Impulse Expression vs. Self-Restraint (how expressive and im-
pulsive or internally restrained and controlled you felt)
Factor F (+) Sober (Desurgency) vs. Happy-go-Lucky (Surgency)
Factor G (-) Expedient (Weaker Superego Strength) vs.
Conscientious (Stronger Superego Strength)
Factor Q3 (-) Undisciplined self-conflict vs. Controlled

MOOD V Self-Confidence vs. Feelings of Inadequacy (how self-assured
and adequate, or helpless and inadequate, you felt)
Factor H (+) Shy vs. Venturesome
Factor 0 (-) Placid vs. Apprehensive

MOOD VI Elation vs. Depression (how elated or depressed, happy or
unhappy, you felt)
Factor F (+) Sober (Desurgency) vs. Happy-go-Lucky (Surgency)
Factor 0 (-) Placid vs. Apprehensive

Q2 seemed to correspond more with a tendency for sociability as opposed

to withdrawal.

Mood Scale III (Tranquility vs. Anxiety) seemed synonymous with

16 PF scales QII (Low Anxiety vs. High Anxiety), Q4 (Relaxed vs. Tense)

and 0 (Placid vs. Apprehensive). Additionally, Factor C (Affected by

Feelings vs. Emotionally Stable) with its attendant qualities of "lower

ego strength and being fretful" seemed to bear a positive relationship

with the "troubled, jittery, worried" components of Mood Scale III.

Impulse Expression vs. Self-Restraint (Mood Scale IV) was felt to

directly correspond with 16 PF scale Q3 (Undisciplined self-conflict vs.

Controlled). The "weak ego strength, unconscientious" attributes con-

tained in 16 PF factor G (Expedient vs. Conscientious) seemed to relate

rationally to the dimension of impulsiveness contained in Mood Scale IV.

Similarly, elements of "expressiveness and impulsivity vs. restraint vs.

prudence" are tapped in 16 PF Scale F.

Mood Scale V (Self-Confidence vs. Feelings of Inadequacy) could be

positively related to the "venturesome, socially bold" vs. "timid, in-

feriority feelings" continuum measured by 16 PF Scale H (Shy vs. Ven-

turesome). Similarly, 16 PF Scale 0 (Placid, untroubled adequacy vs.

Apprehensive, self-reproaching) seemed to be tapping the "confidence,

self-assurance" vs. "feelings of inadequacy and incompetence" of Mood

Scale V.

Finally, Mood Scale VI (Elation vs. Depression) was rationally

related to 16 PF factors F (Desurgency vs. Surgency) and 0 (Placid vs.

Apprehensive). Both 16 PF scales measure depression, pessimism and



Subjects met in 3 groups of 20 with the experimenter to obtain data

sheets and to fill in a brief questionnaire (Appendix 3). A list of sug-

gestions to facilitate dream recall (derived from Faraday, 1972) was

presented to the subjects at this first meeting (Appendix 4). Subjects

were asked to supply the following:

1. Daily mood ratings using the six following Wessman and

Ricks (1966) Personal Feelings Scale.

I. Harmony vs. Anger

II. Own Sociability vs. Withdrawal

III. Tranquility vs. Anxiety

IV. Impulse Expressions vs. Self-Restraint

V. Self-Confidence vs. Feelings of Inadequacy

VI. Elation vs. Depression

These scales appear in Appendix 1 while the mood rating

sheets appear in Appendix 5. The Personal Feeling Scales

are a battery of 10-point self-rating affect scales con-

taining descriptive statements encompassing a broad and

graduated range of feelings. An additional "Does Not

Apply" category was also available to the subjects.

Subjects rated their 1) high, 2) average, and 3)

low levels for each of the six mood scales as soon as

possible before bedtime.

2. One written dream narrative, to be recorded in as much

detail as possible upon awakening each morning. Subjects

were given daily dream record sheets (Appendix 6) on which

they were asked to rate their moods as experienced in the

dream in the same manner as described for daily moods

(above). Subjects were instructed to write "No Recall"

on the dream record sheet if unable to remember a dream

on a given morning.

Subjects met with the experimenter in brief, weekly sessions (of

20 subjects each) to turn in completed data sheets and to receive a new

data packet for the following week. These weekly meetings were in-

tended additionally to increase experimental control and to facilitate

the subjects' motivation in providing data. During the third week of

collection, subjects filled out the Sixteen Personality Factor Question-

naire (16PF Forms C and D). Subjects met for a fourth week to turn

in data and receive a brief rationale for the study including discus-

sion of some of the major hypotheses being explored.

Fifty of the initial subjects (25 male, 25 female) who signed up

for the experiment completed the entire four weeks of data collection.

These subjects produced a total of 346 dreams with a range of from 0 to

16 dreams per subject. A frequency plot, illustrating the distribu-

tion of dream recall frequency for all subjects is presented in Appen-

dix 7. To qualify as a dream an operational requirement of at least

three sentences in length and ability for subject to rate the dream on

at least one mood dimension was instituted. Subjects averaged 27 days

of data recording. Although some subjects with as few as 19 days of

data recording were included in the analysis, 80% of the subjects re-

turned complete data sets (28 days).

Of the total 50 subjects, 41 subjects recorded at least 4 dreams

over the 28 day collection period. Thirty-five of these subjects were

selected on a semi-random basis for inclusion in judges' ratings of

dream moods. Criteria for selection involved sorting subjects into

three categories based on the length of their dream narratives. The

first four dreams recorded by the subjects were extracted for analysis.

Based on typed lines of 75 spaces each, cutoffs for short, medium and

long dream reports were established. Groups were formed by combining

the lengths of all four dreams. Short, medium and long dream length

subjects were defined respectively as having less than 18 total lines,

between 19 and 30 total lines, and over 30 lines. A representative

sample of short, medium and long dream length subjects was assigned to

each of five subject groups (in the proportion of 1-2: 4: 1-2). Sub-

jects were assigned additionally on the basis of sex (three to four

males/females per group).


A total of 12 judges were randomly assigned to 5 judge groups. Two

judge groups contained three judges each while the other three groups

were comprised of two judges each. The judges included seven Ph.D.

psychologists, three clinical psychology graduate students, one R.N.

Family Therapist and one non-psychologist adjunct member of the psych-

ology faculty. All judges had at least a passing interest in dreams and

three had participated in a pilot study on dream ratings preparatory to

the present research.

The pilot study was initiated in order to iron out any difficul-

ties judges might experience with the instructions and to determine if

judges could rate dream reports reliably. The dreams used were taken

from a previous research project. An acceptable level of agreement was

obtained and rating examples were derived from the pilot ratings for

which there was uniform agreement.

Each of the five judge groups was randomly assigned to rate sub-

jects from one of the five subject groups described earlier. That is,

each individual member of a given judge group rated seven subjects

which were common to the other judges in that judge group. For each of

the four dreams of each subject, judges were asked to rate the ex-

pressed or implied mood level in the dream narrative. Judges were to

make their ratings based on the six previously mentioned Wessman and

Ricks Personal Feeling Scales. Judges therefore assigned ratings on a

10-point scale to each individual dream of each subject for each of the

six moods. If a given mood could not be evaluated, judges were in-

structed to assign a neutral rating of "5."

Additionally, judges were asked to consider the four dreams as a

whole and infer a "trait level" as suggested by the four dreams.

Judges rated blindly and were informed only of the sex of the dreamer.

For both the individual dream ratings and the dream "trait" rat-

ings, judges were asked to assign a level of confidence for their rat-

ing. Judges employed a 5-point scale ranging from "very uncertain" to
"very certain." The complete instructions given to judges are pre-

sented in Appendix 8.


Of the 345 dreams recorded overall for 50 subjects, males averaged

7.2 dreams (180 total, standard deviation = 3.2) and females averaged

6.6 dreams (166 total, standard deviation = 3.7). Accounting for the

fact that some subjects had missing data, the probability of dream re-

call for males and females was .32 and .31 respectively.

Mood and Dream Recall

Several correlational analyses were conducted relating number of

dreams to selected mood and personality variables. Although the mood

and personality data approximate interval scaling which would justify

parametric correlation, it was felt that the Spearman rank correlation-

al statistic would be better suited to the data and not result in a sig-

nificant loss in efficiency (Hotelling and Pabst, 1936; cited in Siegel,

1956). All correlational analyses utilized the Spearman statistic un-

less otherwise noted.

Frequency of dream recall was correlated with the means of 36

variables representing the subjects' high, medium and low levels for

the 6 day and dream mood dimensions over 28 days of data collection.

Four correlations were significant and these appear in Table 2. In-

spection of these data show only significant correlations for Day Mood

IV and only for males.

The two measures of daily mood variability given in Table 2 were

examined for their relation to dream recall. One measure was the



All Ss Males Females

Means of Day and Dream Mood
Level Over 28 Days
Day Mood IV
High rating -.48**
Medium rating -.50**
Low rating -.35*
Dream Mood V
Low rating .34*

Mood Variability
1) Standard deviation of
"overall" (medium) mood
Day Mood I .50**
2) Mean range (High-Low
Dream Mood II -.34* -.43*

16 PF Variables
M (Practical vs. -.48**
Imaginative) *
Q1 (Conservative vs. .34*

* p <.05
** p <.01

standard deviation of the subjects' ratings of their overall (medium

level) daily mood level over the entire data collection period. Only

Mood I (medium level) was significantly correlated with frequency of

dream recall and then only for males.

As subjects were rating daily moods on a high, medium and low

basis, mood variability based on the difference between high and low

daily ratings was also examined. The average daily range between sub-

ject's high and low mood ratings was computed for the 28 data collection

days and correlated with number of dreams. This second measure of mood

variability yielded two significant correlations which also appear in

Table 2.

Finally, shown in Table 2 are all 16 PF variables correlated with

number of dreams. Three significant correlations were found and are

presented in Table 2 for all subjects and by sex.

A chi-square analysis was performed to test whether significant

daily deviations from an individual subject's mean mood level (state

change) was related to dream recall. Daily mood values which were 2

standard deviations above and below the subject's 28 day means for

high, medium and low mood level were isolated and evaluated against

the presence or absence of dream recall. For each subject then, signif-

icantly deviant daily mood values were compared with the presence or

absence of dream recall for each mood dimension. Deviant values from

the average high, medium and low levels for each mood dimension were

computed separately but were considered together for the purpose of the

chi-square analysis. Recall vs. no recall frequencies of individual

subjects were compiled resulting in summated frequencies for each sex.

Appendix 9 shows two-celled contingency tables were set up comparing,

for example, males' observed frequencies of dream recall vs. no recall

following days of significant variation of Mood I with the overall fre-

quency of dream recall (i.e., 32 for males).

Included in the analysis were days in which the range between high

and low mood levels were two standard deviations greater than the sub-

ject's average range (High Variability) and less than the subject's

average range (Low Variability). There were four significant chi-square

results, all for males. Males were significantly more likely to dream

on nights following significant daily deviations on Mood I (X2 = 4.01,

p <.05), Mood V (X2 = 4.34, p <.05), and Mood VI (X2 = 4.07, p<.05).

Additionally, days with abnormally low variability on Mood IV were sig-

nificantly associated with less dream recall than expected (X2 = 6.35,

p <.02).

While subjects were not absolutely equally represented in the above

calculations, inspection of the data revealed that no subject was gross-

ly overrepresented. It was felt that a chi-square analysis, while not

strictly theoretical appropriate, would provide the most useful empiri-

cal information.

Daily Mood and Dream Moods

In order to more fully describe the mood scores, measures of day

to day consistencies in day and dream moods were obtained, For all

three levels (high, medium, low) of each mood dimension, the summated

mood ratings of the first and third dreams were correlated with the sum-

mated mood ratings of the second and fourth dreams. Pearson product

moment correlations were computed for subjects with four or more dreams.

For the day moods, the same procedure was used. Summated mood ratings

of the eighth and tenth day were correlated with the summated mood

ratings of the ninth and eleventh day. These correlations appear in

Table 3. Day mood consistencies were significant in 15 of 18 correla-

tions for males and 9 of 18 correlations for females. These correla-

tions suggest considerable "trait-like" stability in day mood ratings.

For dream moods, however, no significant correlations were obtained for

males or females. That is, ratings of dream moods from dream to dream

were very inconsistent or labile.

Before retiring each evening, subjects rated their daily mood lev-

els on six different mood dimensions (on the Wessman and Ricks Personal

Feeling Scales). Each mood had three levels: high, medium and low.

The corresponding moods were also rated for each following night's

dream (if available) at the same three levels. The ranges (differences

between high and low levels) were also calculated for each of the six

moods for each day and night. For each mood dimension then, four day

mood variables (high, medium, low and range) could be correlated with

the four corresponding dream mood variables.

A series of six correlational matrices was computed for each sub-

ject in which the high, medium, low and range levels for each of the

six day mood dimensions were correlated in all possible pairwise combi-

nations with the corresponding levels on the same six dream mood dimen-

sions. That is, six 4 x 4 correlational matrices were computed for each

subject, one for each mood dimension yielding 96 correlations per sub-

ject. The number of significant correlations for each subject served

as a measure of the tendency to incorporate daily moods into the moods

of that night's dream.

Since each subject would be expected to yield approximately five

significant correlations by chance alone, subjects were divided into





Males 20 .43 .70**.45 .67**.72**.58**.64**.45 .57**.77**.74**.69**.76**.69**.63**.68**.78**.71**
Females 19 .77**.24 .14 .86**.52**.65**.57**.34 .39 .81**.72**.83**.62**.23 .08 .58**.24 .33


Males 19 .20 .14 -.03 .02 -.45 -.44 .34 .14 -.17 -.13 .24 .18 -.02 -.33 -.18 -.14 -.15 .02
Females 19-.11 .25 .16 .29 .37 .06 -.15 .33 .34 .00 -.05 .18 -.14 .00 -.03 .17 .34 .06

p <.05
** p <.01

two groups. These two groups were formed to assess whether personality

factors were related to incorporating day moods into dream moods. The

groups consisted of subjects who had 6 or more significant correlations

(9 males, 12 females) or 5 or less (13 males, 8 females). A comparison

of the means of all 16 PF variables for these 2 groups, even when sorted

by sex, resulted in no significant differences. Excluded from this

analysis were three males and five females who had three dreams or less

over the entire collection period.

Table 4 shows a Spearman rank correlational analysis done on ex-

treme daily mood levels (two standard deviations or more above the sub-

ject's mean) and that night's corresponding dream mood level. These

analyses were computed separately for men and women for each mood scale.

Males and females yielded two and three significant correlations, re-

spectively, all of which were positive. Included in Table 4 are the

number of mood level pairs used in the correlations.

Mood and Personality Traits

In order to assess the relationship between day and dream moods and

personality traits, the rationally derived correspondences between the

Wessman and Ricks Personal Feeling Scales and the 16 PF (previously pre-

sented in Table 1) were utilized. Correlations were obtained between

subjects' mean high, medium and low daily and dream mood levels with

selected 16 PF factors.

Spearman rank correlations for all subjects yielded only two sig-

nificant correlations with 16 PF factors. The range for Day Mood III

(Tranquility-Anxiety) correlated positively with both Q4 (.37, p <.007)

and Q, (.29, p <.03). These correlations were derived from a matrix

consisting of 136 correlations. Separate analyses by sex were computed























p <.05
** p <.02
*** p <.01
**** p <.001

resulting in several significant results at the .05 level, particularly

for females. Only 3 of a total of 57 significant correlations were not

in the predicted direction. Males and females yielded 17 and 40 signi-

ficant correlations, respectively, of which 12 were shared by males and

females. These shared correlations, all of which were in the predicted

direction, include factors F, Q2, and Q, with Mood II; factor C with

Mood III; factor Q3 with Mood IV; and factors F and 0 with Mood VI.

Tables 5 and 6 present the significant mood- 16 PF correlations for

males and females. Males and females respectively had 10 and 29 sig-

nificant correlations with day moods and 7 and 10 significant correla-

tions with dream moods.

When the .01 level of significance is used as a cutoff, males and

females yielded 3 and 19 significant correlations. These include 16

significant correlations with day moods and only 6 correlations with

dream moods. Only one of these correlations was not in the predicted


Judges' Ratings

It will be recalled that judges were divided into five groups with

each judge group rating a common set of seven subjects. For each sub-

ject, judges rated four individual dreams on each of the six ten-point

Wessman and Ricks mood scales. In addition, judges assigned a "trait

rating" for each of the six mood scales based on considering the four

dreams as a whole. Because each judge group rated common subjects, es-

timations of inter-rater reliability were possible. The procedure used

for estimating the reliability of judges' ratings was the intraclass

correlation coefficient (as described in Bartko, 1966; Ebel, 1951).




MOOD- 16PF Direction High Medium

I. F + -- --

I + ---- ----

---- ---- ----

.39* -- --
---- ---- ----

-.43* -- ----

.58** .49** .42*

.40* .38* ---

--- --- ----.38*
---- --- ---

---- ---- ----

---- ---- -.38*

---- ---- ----

---- ---- ----


Low Range High Medium Low Range

---- ---- ---- --- --.33* ----
--- ---- ---- ---- .42* --


---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- ----

--- -- ---- --.42*

---- ---- ---- ----

VI. F + .40* .39*

-.53**-- --

* p <.05
** p <.01












V. H







MOOD- 16PF Direction High Medium Low Range

I. F + .38* ---- -- --
I + --- .53** -- --

II. A + .50** .46* -- --

F + .44* .46* -- --

H + .57** .60***---- ---

Q2 -.59** -.51** ---- -.50**
QI + .63*** .58** -- .45*

III. C + .59** .54** ---- .40*

0 ---- --- ---- ----

Q4 -- -- -- --

QII -.45* -.44* --- --

IV. F + .39* --- -- ---
G ---- --- ---- ----
Q3 ---- --- -.44* .64***

V. H + .70*** .76*** .41*

0 -.39* -.44* ---- --

VI. F + .44* .46* -- --

0 ---- ---- ---- ----


High Medium Low Range

---- ---- ---- ----.40*

---- ---- ---- -.36

---45* -45* -- --

---.52** -.58** -.50-- ---

----.44* -.50** -.--- 49**----
---- ---- ---- --.40*

---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- 36*

---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- ----

---- ---- ---- ----

-.44* -.50** -.49** ----

p <.05
** p <.01
*** p <.001

Intraclass correlation coefficients, which give essentially an

average intercorrelation between all possible pairs of raters, were

computed for the judges' "trait ratings" of subjects for each of the

six mood scales. Reliability coefficients ranging from .03 to .90 were

obtained for each of the five judge groups and are presented in Table 7.

Thirteen out of 30 correlations were significant at the .05 level.

Median coefficients, ranging from .42 to .69 are also presented in

Table 7.

To determine whether judges' dream "trait ratings" were associated

with independently measured personality traits (16 PF), correlations

were computed utilizing the 16 PF-Personal Feeling Scales correspond-

ences previously presented (Table 1). Spearman rank correlation coef-

ficients between judges' "trait ratings" and associated 16 PF traits are

presented in Table 8. Correlations appear for each individual judge

with designations for the five judge groups. In all, 35 subjects are

represented in the correlations. While only 5 correlations were signi-

ficant beyond the .01 level of significance, 28 correlations were sig-

nificant at the .05 level.

It was felt that the low reliability for some judge groups may have

detracted from the correlations between judges' "trait ratings" and 16

PF scores. In order to maximally consider the relationship between

judges' "trait ratings" and 16 PF scores, a correlational analysis was

done using only the mood ratings which were significantly reliable

(p <.01). The mood ratings expected were as follows:

Judge Group 1 Moods I, III, V

Judge Group 2 Mood II

Judge Group 3 Moods I, III

Judge Group 5 Mood VI





























p <.05
** p <.01
*** p <.005
**** p <.001

(X)Judge groups 3-5 composed of 2 members each



2 '



















Mood- 16PF Direction J-1 J-2 J-3

F + .08 -.33 .29
I + -.75* -.72* -.83*

A + -.34 -.24 -.14
F + -.84* -.67 -.55
H + -.30 -.69 .20

Q2 .20 .06 -.11
QI + -.34 -.60 .05

C + -.30 -.32 -.49
0 -.40 -.43 -.22
Q4 -.58 -.52 -.37
QII -.38 -.28 -.09

F + -.31 -.65 .39
G -.89** -.72* -.11

Q3 -.14 .44 -.09

H + -.50 -.34 .40
0 -.75* -.71* -.90**

F + -.51 -.40 -.67
0 -.88* -.42 -.17


J-4 J-5 J-6

.43 .22 .23
.55 .84* .30

.18 .76* .08
.43 .46 .11
.43 .60 .41
-.46 -.71* -.21
.49 .92** .10

-.10 .52 .70*
.21 .11 .30
-.37 .41 .26
-.13 .08 -.14

.48 -.11 .13
-.75* -.47 -.40
-.58 -.40 -.21

-.22 .00 -.18
.18 .34 .33

.64 .48 .00
.13 .45 .00

*p <.05
**p <.01

TABLE 8 (Cont'd)


Mood- 16PF Direction J-7 J-8 J-9 J-10


J-11 J-12

+ .22 .43 .24 -.72* -.83* -.41
+ .30 .16 .27 -.38 -.32 -.29

+ .49 .53 -.24 .37
+ -.17 .49 -.48 .15
+ .20 -.53 -.13 .51
.41 .48 -.14 -.17
+ -.12 .09 .14 .73*

+ -.22 -.51 -.84* .09
- -.12 .07 .49 -.12
- .29 .34 .68 -.18
- .33 .40 .74* .09

+ .75* .28 -.94** .58
-.09 -.61 .57 .21
.08 .31 -.69 .14

+ -.42 -.17 .19 .39
.40 .32 .07 .21

.49 .80*
.35 .39
-.65 -.48
.06 -.30
.32 .44

.87* .53
-.62 -.39
-.73* -.61
-.94** -.70*

-.15 -.45
.46 -.62
.51 -.25

.55 -.55
.14 .11

F + .23 .50 .13 -.72* -.55 -.33
0 .28 -.10 .12 .65 .32 .12

* p <.05
** p <.01


This correlational analysis thus included ratings for all moods

except Mood IV (Impulsiveness vs. Self-restraint). Mood values used

in the correlations were the summed "trait ratings" of the members of

a given judge group. In no case did the summed "trait ratings" corre-

late more highly with the associated 16 PF scores than the "trait

rating" of the "best" individual member of a judge group. The corre-

lations obtained are therefore not presented here.


In assessing the significance of the present findings, a few key

points should be kept in mind. Several of the analyses performed on the

data have employed a large number of correlations, thereby increasing

the probability of obtaining chance correlations. As this problem can

be corrected for in part by selecting a more stringent significance

level, the .01 level of significance was adopted to assess most results.

Occasionally correlations of interest which were significant at only the

.05 level of significance are discussed. The greater probability that

these results may be spurious should, however, be kept in mind.

Another important point to be kept in mind in these discussions is

the question of sex differences. Although previous research has sug-

gested sex differences related to dream content (Winget, Kramer & Whit-

man, 1972; Hall & Domhoff, 1963), it was felt that the general mechanism

or psychodynamic function of dreams would be the same for both males

and females. Separate analyses by sex were therefore designed as a

replication paradign with the knowledge that, in some ways, dream con-

tent may vary by sex. The possibility was also realized that mean mood

and 16 PF values may be different for males and females. Separate analy-

ses by sex minimized the likelihood that different mean values related

to sex would confound the results.

In a few instances, however, it is clear that sex differences ac-

counted for some failures in replication between males and females.

Inspection of the data revealed that women as a group were more variable

than males (as indicated by standard deviation) in their ratings of day

and dream mood as well as in their 16 PF scores. Women had higher

standard deviations in approximately two-thirds of the instances for

day moods, dream moods and 16 PF scores. It is therefore possible that

the relative restriction of mood and 16 PF variability in males may

have attenuated the correlations obtained for males. This issue will be

discussed in further detail below.

Although several significant relationships were observed in the

present study, the data included a preponderance of negative results.

While it is tempting to grandly discuss the few significant findings

with their implications, the overall nature of the data speaks more

strongly to the lack of relationships observed. The following discus-

sions will therefore attempt to consider individual significant results

within the context of all the results obtained.

The Relationship of Mood and Personality Variables to Dream Recall

The probability of dream recall for the population under study is

consistent with what has been reported previously in the literature

(Webb & Agnew, 1973). It is therefore not unreasonable to assume that

the present population is representative of the young adult population

on at least the general mechanism of dream recall.

The data do not support the notion that personality traits are as-

sociated with dream recall. Although personality traits were quanti-

fied primarily by 16 PF factor scores in the present research, mean

day mood levels computed over 28 days served as an additional trait

measure. The high degree of day to day consistency in daily mood rat-

ings (Table 3) strongly supports this conceptualization of day moods

reflecting trait characteristics.

The correlational matrix comparing 28 day means for day and dream

mood levels with number of dreams recalled yielded 36 correlations of

which 2 were significant. Frequency of dream recall was significantly

negatively correlated for males with Impulsiveness (Mood IV). Thus,

males who tended to be more internally restrained and controlled re-

ported more dreams. This result is contradicted by several studies

comparing recall frequency with scores on the Repression-Sensitization

scale of the MMPI. "Repressers" have consistently been shown to recall

fewer dreams than "Sensitizers" (Domhoff & Gerson, 1975; Lewis, Good-

enough, Shapiro & Sleser, 1966). Additionally, the 16 PF factor which

corresponds to Mood IV (Factor Q3, Undisciplined Self-conflict vs.

Controlled; See Table 1) did not independently corroborate this ob-

served relationship. Considering the absence of 16 PF corroboration

and contrary indications in the literature, it seems most sensible to

view the obtained significance with considerable caution.

Two of the selected 16 PF factors correlated significantly with

dream recall over all subjects. Factor M (Practical vs. Imaginative)

was negatively related to recall frequency. Subjects who were more

imaginative, inner-directed and self-motivated reported less dreams

than those who were more practical, careful and unimaginative. While

this correlation was significant for all subjects at the .05 level, no

correlation was found for males alone. The reported positive correla-

tion for Q01 (Conservative vs. Experimenting) signified that subjects who

were more experimenting and skeptical tended to report more dreams. The

correlation was significant for all subjects only at the .05 level and

was not significant for males or females alone. The reported correla-

tions for 16 PF factors M and Ql then, while significant, are not

particularly strong. It seems reasonable to conclude that the data do

not convincingly support the notion that personality traits, as measured

by the 16 PF or inferred through mean ratings of daily moods over an

extended period have much to do with dream recall frequency.

The data, however, are moderately supportive of a positive rela-

tionship between dream recall and personality state change. The chi-

square analyses of significant daily deviations from an individual sub-

ject's mean mood level address this issue. In these analyses, the over-

all frequency of dream recall (.32 for males, .31 for females) was used

as the theoretical frequency of dream recall. For males only, Mood di-

mension V (Self-confidence vs. Feelings of Inadequacy) and Mood dimen-

sion VI (Elation vs. Depression) resulted in a significantly higher in-

cidence of dream recall than expected. This relationship supports the

view that on days when the individual is more "moody," dream recall is

facilitated. Quite possibly, dreams occurring on the nights of moody

days are more vivid or "salient" (Cohen & Wolfe, 1973), thus enhancing

the chance of recall.

The above relationship observed for men is additionally supported

by the finding that abnormally low mood variability (high mood level -

low mood level) on a given day for Mood dimension IV for males resulted

in a significantly lower incidence of recall than expected. That is,

days which were significantly "unmoody" lessened the likelihood of sub-

sequent dream recall.

The absence of a relationship between personality state change and

dream recall for females seems puzzling. It is apparent from the data

in Table 4 that females had fewer daily mood values which were two or

more standard deviations from their individual means. Considering that

females were in general more variable in their mood ratings, it seems

likely that females more frequently assigned extreme ratings to their

daily moods. Consequently, the nature of each female's distribution of

scores may have limited the number of daily ratings which were two or

more standard deviations from their own individual mean.

It is possible that extreme daily moods were more unsettling for

males due to their relatively low mood variability (as indicated by

standard deviation). Extreme daily moods for women though may have been

more commonplace and thus less unsettling. Mood swings for females

could be seen then as more ego syntonic, requiring less psychological

adaptation. Presumably, factors affecting recall (salience, restless-

ness during sleep) would be accordingly minimized.

The above discussion is supported by the positive relationship

found for males (presented in Table 2) between dream recall frequency

and the mean variability of Mood dimension I (Harmony vs. Anger).

Males who fluctuated to a greater extent in how well they got along

with others had significantly more dreams. Even though males were not

that variable in their moods as a group, individual males who varied to

a greater extent in getting along with others had significantly more

dreams (p <.01). Factors affecting dream recall (salience, restless-

ness during sleep) presumably would be maximized for these males.

The Relationship Between Daily Mood and Dream Mood

It is apparent from the analyses of the day to day consistencies of

day and dream mood (Table 3) that day mood ratings were highly stable

while dream moods were quite unstable. Daily mood ratings therefore,

because of their consistency over time, can be considered as enduring

"trait-like" aspects of personality. By contrast, the dream mood

ratings, because of their instability, would seem to bear little rela-

tionship to personality traits. Because dream moods do not correlate

with themselves, it could not be expected that they would correlate

with anything else.

To look further into this issue, it was of interest to examine the

process of incorporation of daily mood into the dream. One might expect

considerable variability in the extent to which subjects' daily mood

levels are directly represented or transformed in the dream. The ser-

ies of correlational matrices comparing day mood variables (high, med-

ium, low, and range for all six moods) with dream mood variables for all

subjects did not reveal any personality trait differences between "in-

corporators" and "non-incorporators." A general relationship then be-

tween day mood and dream mood is not supported by the present research.

The data from Table 2, however, do suggest a continuity between

dream mood and daily mood on days where a "state change" was observed.

All significant correlations were positive, indicating that dream moods

are related to and to some extent "carried over" from the day, but only

if the dreamer was significantly "moody" during the day. The present

data thus corroborate the findings of Piccione, Jacobs, Kramer and Roth

(1977) that intense emotion experienced during the day is reflected in

that night's dream.

Mood and Personality Traits

It is apparent from the data relating day and dream moods to per-

sonality traits as measured by the 16 PF that sex differences must be

taken into account. The two significant correlations found with all

subjects were not observed when analyses for each sex separately were

conducted (Tables 5 & 6). Additionally, the obtained results run

contrary to theoretical expectation and are not supported by other data.

It seems most reasonable to conclude that these correlations are a

spurious consequence of computing a large correlation matrix.

Even though some of the significant mood-personality trait corre-

lations were sex specific, several cross subject consistencies were

noted. While females were found to produce significant 16 PF correla-

tions in all six mood dimensions, males failed to produce significant

correlations for Mood I (Harmony vs. Anger) and Mood V (Confidence vs.

Inadequacy). Inspection of the data indicates that males were consider-

ably less variable than females (standard deviation) in their ratings

of daily moods for these two mood dimensions. The fact that males were

more comparable with females in the variability of all other daily

mood ratings is supportive of the interpretation that limited variabil-

ity for males for Moods I and V attenuated these correlations.

Interestingly, both males and females produced significant nega-

tive correlations between Factor 0 (Placid vs. Apprehensive) and Mood

VI (Elation vs. Depression) in their dreams yet not as a daily mood.

While intriguing, the low between-dream consistencies noted earlier

(Table 3) suggest that these significant correlations are most likely

spurious. Due to theoretical interest and the fact that several of the

correlations were significant at the .01 level, these dream mood rela-

tionships with the 16 PF will nevertheless be discussed.

The obtained correlations suggest that the "guilt proneness" qual-

ity of Factor 0 is represented in dream mood more than day mood. It

is possible that while an individual may be consciously aware of daily

"surgency-desurgency" (Factor F), the apprehensive, insecure, self-

reproaching quality of Factor 0 is more readily expressed in dream

moods. Additionally, for females, Factor 0 correlated well with dream

mood III (Tranquility vs. Anxiety) while not correlating with waking mood

III. In fact, the data suggest that Factor 0 as a personality trait is

better predicted from dream mood level than from mood level during wak-

ing, at least for females. Cattell (1970) notes that the person high in

Trait 0 is "unable to sleep through worrying," broods often, and has an

"emotionally deep sense of general unworthiness." It seems that when

the person high in Factor 0 does get to sleep, considerable worrying and

foreboding is carried over into the emotional tone of the dream. This

observation is well supported by the bountiful literature on dream con-

tent in depressed patients (Hauri, 1976; Kramer et al., 1965).

For all other 16 PF factors it appears that day mood levels are

much better correlated with personality traits than are dream moods.

Indeed only 6 significant correlations with dream moods were observed

while 16 correlations were noted with waking mood levels. Generally

speaking, dream mood correlations were found to be in the same direction

as day mood correlations, further implying some degree of continuity be-

tween day and dream moods. Dream moods may often be unrelated to daily

moods yet there is little indication that dream moods are ever negative-

ly related to daily mood.

In general, the obtained correlations between day mood ratings and

16 PF factors demonstrate moderate overlap. This implies a conceptual

similarity between traits measured by the 16 PF and mean day mood lev-

els considered over a 4 week period. The majority of significant cor-

relations are derived from the "high" and "medium" (overall) mood rat-

ings, both seeming to be equally good predictors of the associated 16

PF trait.

Obviously, stronger statements can be made for mood-16 PF rela-

tionships which were significant for both males and females. Discount-

ing Moods I and V for males, where 16 PF factor variability was limited,

males demonstrated relationships which were essentially the same as

those of females.

Judges' Ratings

Taken as a whole, judge ratings of personality traits of subjects

based on four dream reports were confusing. Using the .05 level of

significance, judges rated significantly above chance, obtaining 28 sig-

nificant correlations of which 18 were in the predicted direction. Few

consistencies, however, were noticeable in the judges' ratings. While

only five correlations were significant at the .01 level of signifi-

cance, the .05 correlations were felt to warrant special interest.

As noted earlier, the low between-night consistencies in the sub-

jects' own dream ratings argues against personality traits being repre-

sented in dream mood. The relative success of the judges in predicting

traits from dreams is thus puzzling. It may well be that the judges are

using other information besides mood, such as context or other content

consistencies in their ratings. Despite the lack of consistency in the

judges' performance, it is clear that many accurate discrimination were


Judges seemed relatively successful in their trait ratings of

Sociability-Withdrawal (Mood II), Impulsiveness-Self Restraint (Mood

IV), and Self-Confidence- Inadequacy (Mood V). Positive hits were ob-

tained respectively in five of six, four of five, and three of three

significant correlations.

Mood II and the associated 16 PF traits all encompass personality

dimensions of Sociability-Withdrawal, Introversion-Extraversion. The

generality of the judges' relative success in predicting this personal-

ity trait is tempered by the fact that three of the significant corre-

lations came from one judge. Regardless, the results indicate that

Factors A (Reserved vs. Outgoing) and QI (Introversion-Extraversion)

were predicted from dreams with relative success.

The personality dimension of Impulsiveness-Restraint, Strong-Weak

Superego strength are represented in Mood IV and the associated 16 PF

traits. Predicted correlations of this personality trait with Factor

G (Superego strength, Expedient vs. Conscientious) were obtained for

three different judges. Interestingly, Factor G was not correlated

with the subjects' own ratings of their day or dream moods suggesting

that external judgments of Impulsiveness-Restraint based on dream moods

may be more valid than the subjects' own ratings.

The other personality dimension which judges predicted with rela-

tive success was Mood V (Self-confidence vs. Feelings of Inadequacy)

and Factor 0 (Placid, untroubled adequacy vs. apprehensive, guilt prone-

ness). It is interesting that both judges' and subjects' ratings of

dream Mood V correlated well with 16 PF factor 0 while the subjects'

correlations with day Mood V were not significant. The provocative im-

plication is that judges might be better able to predict apprehensive,

brooding guilt proneness from a subject's dreams than from the subject's

waking verbal content.

Judges seemed to have the most difficulty rating Mood I (Harmony

vs. Anger) in that five of six significant correlations were in the

"wrong" direction. Since subjects themselves did not relate their

dream moods on Mood I with the associated 16 PF factors an expected

result would have been no relationship for the judges' ratings of Mood

I. The several significant correlations thus are quite puzzling.

Of all the mood dimensions explored in the present research,

Harmony-Anger seems conceptually linked least well to 16 PF factors.

Individuals high on Factor F (Desurgency-Surgency) are described by

Cattell (1970) as "happy-go-lucky, cheerful, active and enthusiastic,"

yet also "frank, expressive, impulsive and mercurial." These latter

qualities could have been associated with a propensity to feel angry

toward other people which would account for the negative correlations


Similarly, Factor I (Tough-minded vs. Tender-minded) lacks tight

conceptual ties with Harmony-Anger. Individuals high on Factor I are

described by Cattell (1970) as "kindly and gentle" yet also "sensitive,

fussy, demanding of attention and impatient." Presumably these indi-

viduals could get quite ill-tempered if these needs were not met.

In summary, it appears that judges were able to assess personality

traits from four dream narratives significantly above chance, but not

in a very useful way. One third of the significant correlations were

in the opposite direction from what was predicted. While 28 significant

correlations were found overall, this represents an average of slightly

more than 2 significant correlations for each judge. In fact, the

"best" judge only managed four significant correlations that were in

the predicted direction. For the mood-16 PF correlations which were

significant for both males and females (and thus presumably representing

a more general relationship), judges fared slightly better, with six of

nine correlations being in the predicted direction. The trait ratings

were more accurate for these selected correlations, yet the correlations

were not more plentiful.

When considered less critically, however, the judges' performance

can be considered good, if not outstanding. After all, attempting to

assess long-standing personality traits on the basis of four randomly

selected dreams is certainly a demanding task. Given the extent to

which the riddle of dreams has perplexed many over several centuries,

it would have been unrealistic to have expected much better success

from the judges.

The reliability coefficients for the raters are in general respect-

able though certainly not uniformly impressive. Of the median coeffi-

cients, Mood III (Anxiety vs. Tranquility) attained the highest level

of reliability (.69). Clearly not all mood dimensions were equally re-

liable nor were judge groups equally successful. Mood IV (Impulsiveness

vs. Self-restraint) was perhaps the most difficult scale to rate reli-

ably. Judge groups 1, 2 and 3 rated at least 3 of the mood scales at

a statistically reliable level.

Analysis of the judges' ratings revealed that some judges used a

restricted range of values for their ratings, thus limiting the obtained

correlations. On 12 occasions, the range of values assigned by a judge

to 7 subjects was just 1, and in one case, the same rating was assigned

to all 7 subjects. Clearly, the judges' performance could be expected

to be better using a less conservative rating strategy.

Unfortunately, previous studies utilizing dream mood ratings have

not reported reliability data. The present coefficients, however, are

in line with what has been reported in the literature with regard to

ratings of various need scales (Domino, 1976; Bender & Kramer, 1967;

Robbins, 1966). Presumably, judge reliability could be augmented with

more systematic and comprehensive rating instructions.


One of the major questions addressed by the present research was

exploring the extent to which dreams reflect state and trait components

of personality. Mood was considered as a "barometer of the ego state"

(Jacobsen, 1957) and reflective of psychodynamic change, thus particu-

larly relevant to the study of personality states and traits. The ini-

tial part of this investigation explored the role of mood and personal-

ity variables on the phenomenon of dream recall. For the most part,

frequency of dream recall seemed to be independent of long standing per-

sonality characteristics. Some support for increased recall following

"moody days" was found for males only. While the "salience" of a dream

may be greater in conjunction with a personality state change, enhanced

recall may also be due to greater restlessness during sleep which could

potentiate awakenings and thus facilitate dream recall.

The results indicate, though, that when a dream occurs following a

personality state change, the mood level in the dream tends to parallel

the daily mood level. While the obtained correlations account for a

relatively small part of the variance and while sex differences were

noted, the data support a continuity between day and dream feeling lev-

els. If transformations occur in dreams, they are not likely to occur

at a feeling level. It should be noted that the present data do not

support a general continuous relationship between day and dream mood

but just on days when the mood is atypical for the individual. While

further study would be required to make a definitive statement, it is

as if the atypical mood (personality state) presents the dreamer with

an unfinished emotional experience requiring adaptation. By carrying

the mood over into the dream, the dreamer can re-experience and poten-

tially adapt to or integrate the "unsettling" disequilibrium of the

waking mood state.

It is apparent that the most useful measure of "personality state"

in the present research was a rating 2 standard deviations from the

subject's mean rating over the 28 day period. The use of "high" and

"low" daily mood levels to indicate state aspects was not found to be

useful. This may be due to the fact that "high" and "low" ratings could

be highly transient, lasting but a moment, and not necessarily represent

a significant state change.

Considerable overlap between day mood ratings and associated 16 PF

factors was observed in the present study, particularly for females.

As noted before, males evidenced less variability in their reported

mood levels which in all likelihood attenuated the obtained correla-

tions. It is possible that the males in the present study typified the

frequent conception of the male as relatively insensitive and unaware

of gradations of affect. At any rate, the data suggest that the concept

of personality trait as defined by the 16 PF and by the average of

daily mood ratings are reasonably equivalent. Furthermore, day mood

ratings alone, by virtue of their considerable consistency over days,

were strongly "trait-like" in nature.

The present research suggests that dream moods better reflect per-

sonality states. This conclusion is consistent with the notion that

dreams primarily aid in the processing of information which the indi-

vidual has difficulty assimilating. Personality states, by definition,

are foreign or at least atypical to the dreamer and tend to be

represented in the night's dream. By contrast, someone who is chronic-

ally angry, for example, would not need to assimilate or process day-

time feelings of anger. Put in another way, dreams deal with emotional

material that is ego dystonic.

Inferring enduring personality traits blindly from 4 dreams was

certainly shown in the present research to be tricky business. Although

judges demonstrated the ability to correlate dream moods with 16 PF

traits well above chance, the few consistencies noted in the judges'

"successful" ratings limit the formation of clear-cut conclusions.

Clearly further inquiry is needed to better understand the parameters

of assessing personality through dream content, particularly expressed

feelings in dreams.

As noted before, the task set before the judges was a prodigious

one. Reliably deriving personality traits from four random segments of

impressionistic verbal behavior is, on the face of it, a rather pompous

undertaking. Obviously the clinical relevance of such data, while min-

imal in isolation, could become considerably more useful in conjunction

with other clinical material. As well, accuracy of prediction of per-

sonality features may well be enhanced solely by utilizing a greater

number of dreams from which to make judgements.

All in all, the present research suggests promising possibilities

for diagnosing personality by focusing on the moods present in manifest

dream content. The paucity of research examining mood in dreams is

surprising in the face of the strong theoretical statements that have

been made concerning the role of feeling in dreams (Bonime, 1962;

Freud, 1950). The wealth of research evidence supportive of an informa-

tion processing-adaptation function of dreams (Greenberg & Pearlman,

1974) predicts that dreams deal primarily with difficult emotional

adaptation. If this is true and if "the affects of the dream-thoughts

undergo slighter alterations than their conceptual content" (Freud,

1950), it is clear that much stands to be learned by devoting greater

attention to dream moods.

It is difficult to discern the extent to which varying patterns and

relationships for individual subjects may have obscured the uncovering

of general relationships for all subjects. Research on the manifest

dream has seldom utilized single subject methodology, although this has

been shown to be a fruitful approach (Bell & Hall, 1974). Proceeding

inductively with many corroborative psychometrics as well as clinical

material may elucidate more clearly general waking-dreaming relation-


Clinical implications of the present research point toward devoting

special attention to dreams which follow particularly moody days. The

dreamer can examine how the mood is expressed in the dream together

with its enactment and consequences. If the dreamer can accept the

dream as a new or different experience or perspective relative to the

dreamer's conception of himself, psychological growth, or at least a

restoration of equilibrium, may be achieved.

The present research also supports the notion that most essential

personality information can be learned about an individual through di-

rect waking verbal content. A rigid adherence to using dreams in psy-

chotherapy would seem unnecessary and probably counterproductive.

Dreams seem most useful for understanding personality dynamics at times

when therapeutic progress is slowed due to resistance, conscious avoid-

ance or other obscurities. This seems particularly true when anxiety


and depression are components of the clinical picture. In these and

other instances the therapeutic use of dreams offers the individual a

different perspective and experience, fostering richer conceptions of

capabilities, potentials, and solutions.


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I. Harmony vs. Anger (how well you got along with, or how angry you
felt toward other people).

9) Boundless good will and complete harmony.
8) Enormous good will and great harmony.
7) Considerable good will.
6) Get along well and rather smoothly.
5) Get along pretty well, more or less good feeling.
4) A little bit annoyed, somewhat "put out," Minor irritations.
3) Annoyed, irritated, provoked.
2) Very angry. Ill will.
1) Enraged. Seething with anger and hostility.
0) Violent hate and fury. Desire to attack, destroy.

II. Own Sociability vs. Withdrawal (how socially outgoing or with-
drawn you felt today).

9) Immensely sociable and outgoing.
8) Highly outgoing, congenial and friendly.
7) Very sociable and involved in things.
6) Companionable. Ready to mix with others.
5) Fairly sociable. More or less accessible.
4) Not particularly outgoing. Feel a little bit sociable.
3) Retiring, would like to avoid people.
2) Feel detached and withdrawn. A great distance between myself
and others.
1) Self-contained and solitary.
0) Completely withdrawn. Want no human contact.

III. Tranquility vs. Anxiety (how calm or troubled you felt).

9) Perfect and complete tranquility. Unshakably secure.
8) Exceptional calm, wonderfully secure and carefree.
7) Great sense of well-being. Essentially secure, and very much
at ease.
6) Pretty generally secure and free from care.
5) Nothing particularly troubling me. More or less at ease.
4) Somewhat concerned with minor worries or problems. Slightly
ill-at-ease, a bit troubled.
3) Experiencing some worry, fear, trouble, or uncertainty.
Nervous, jittery, on edge.
2) Considerable insecurity. Very troubled by major worries and
1) Tremendous anxiety and concern. Harassed by major worries and
0) Completely beside myself with dread, worry, fear. Overwhelm-
ingly distraught and apprehensive. Obsessed or terrified by
insoluble problems and fears.

IV. Impulse Expression vs. Self-Restraint (how expressive and impul-
sive or internally restrained and controlled, you felt).

9) Wild and complete abandon. No impulse denied.
8) Exhilarating sense or release. Say whatever I feel, and do
just what I want.
7) Quick to act on every immediate desire.
6) Allowing my impulses and desires a pretty free rein.
5) Moderate acceptance and expression of my own needs and desires.
4) Keep a check on most whims and impulses.
3) On the straight and narrow path. Keeping myself within strong
2) Obeying rigorous standards. Strict with myself.
1) Refuse to permit the slightest self-indulgence or impulsive
0) Complete renunciation of all desires. Needs and impulses
totally conquered.

V. Self-Confidence vs. Feelings of Inadequacy (how self-assured and
adequate, or helpless and inadequate, you felt).

9) Nothing is impossible to me. Can do anything I want.
8) Feel remarkable self-assurance. Sure of my superior powers.
7) Highly confident of my capabilities.
6) Feel my performance and capabilities and my prospects good.
5) Feel fairly adequate.
4) Feel my performance and capabilities somewhat limited.
3) Feel rather inadequate.
2) Distressed by my weakness and lack of ability.
1) Wretched and miserable. Sick of my own incompetence.
0) Crushing sense of weakness and futility. I can do nothing.

VI. Elation vs. Depression (how elated or depressed, happy or unhappy,
you felt).

9) Complete elation. Rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy.
8) Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and
7) Elated and in high spirits.
6) Feeling very good and cheerful.
5) Feeling pretty good, "O.K.."
4) Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so.
3) Spirits low and somewhat "blue."
2) Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue."
1) Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, miserable, "just
0) Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and



ore) (high sc


Reserved, detached, critical cool
skeptical, aloof

Affected by Feelings, easily upset,
fretful, low frustration tolerance

Sober (Desurgency), prudent,
serious, taciturn, restrained,
reticent introspective, dour

Expedient (Weaker superego strength),
evades rules, casual

Shy, restrained, timid, withdrawing,
inferiority feelings

Tough-Minded, self-reliant,
practical, realistic, smug, cynical

Outgoing, warm-hearted,
easy going, participating

Emotionally Stable, calm
mature, unruffled, higher ego

Happy-go-lucky, (Surgency),
enthusiastic, active, frank,
expressive, impulsive,

Conscientious (Stronger
Superego strength, staid
persevering, rule bound

Venturesome, socially-bold,
uninhibited, spontaneous,

Tender-minded, dependent,
sensitive, fastidious, demand-
ing of attention, impatient,

(low scc


Practical, careful, proper,
conventional, unimaginative

Placid, self-assured, confident,
serene, secure, untroubled

Group Dependent, a joiner, group

Undisciplined self-conflict,
follows own urges, careless of


Relaxed, tranquil, torpid,
sedate, composed, unfrustrated

Introversion, shy, self-sufficient,
interpersonally inhibited


Low Anxiety, adjustment,

Imaginative, absent-minded,
self-motivated, inner directed

Apprehensive, worrying,
depressive, troubled, moody,
brooding, full of foreboding,

Self-Sufficient, resourceful,
prefer own decisions

Controlled, socially precise,
strong control of emotions,
socially aware and careful

Tense, driven, overwrought,
frustrated, excitable, rest-
less, fretful, impatient

Extraversion, socially out-
going, uninhibited

High Anxiety, dissatisfied




1) Check 1 I usually remember my dreams
I sometimes remember my dreams
I hardly ever remember my dreams

2) I can usually remember a dream about nights per week


3) I like my dreams
4) I wish I could remember more dreams
5) I wish I didn't remember so many dreams
6) I often have nightmares
7) I often have the same dream over and over again
8) I think dreams reveal our true psychological selves
9) I think dreams are very interesting
10) I think dreams are meaningless thoughts which occur during sleep
S11) I pay a lot of attention to my dreams
12) I pay very little attention to my dreams

Additional comments:



Several research studies have demonstrated that people can recall

more dreams if they learn to pay more attention to them. I want to

tell you about some things which have helped other people to remember

more of their dreams. I know that some days you either won't be able

to do them, forget to do them, oversleep, or something else may come up.

That would be understandable but I'd like for you to try these tech-

niques out as much as you can for this week.

1) When you awaken in the morning, lie quietly with eyes closed and try

to remember a dream; don't jump out of the bed right away.

2) Try to awaken fairly abruptly; an alarm clock is best. Turn down

the radio on a clock/radio so that just the alarm sounds.

3) Keep a pen and paper alongside the bed by you so when you wake up in

the morning you can just reach over to get it without getting out of


4) Suggest to yourself before falling asleep (while in bed) that in the

morning you will wake up and will be able to remember a dream.

5) When you wake up in the morning, always write down your dream; do it

in as much detail as possible. Make every effort not to doze while

doing this or your dream will disappear.



S#- Day of Week

(Please fill in completely, 3 ratings on each scale, before retiring
every day. Remember to record the "highest" and "lowest" you felt even
though they may have been experienced only for a brief moment. The
"average" represents your overall summary of the day. If after consid-
erable reflection, you decide a mood is unratable or does not apply,
mark it DNA. If at all possible, try to avoid this rating.)

(Detailed comments are very valuable to me. Any
observations on how you felt, and why you felt
that way, will be appreciated.)
I. Harmony vs. Anger
II. Own Sociability vs. Withdrawal
III. Tranquility vs. Anxiety
IV. Impulse Expression vs. Self-Restraint
V. Self-Confidence vs. Feelings of Inadequacy
VI. Elation vs. Depression



S# Day of Week

(Use the space below to write out 1 dream you can remember this morning.
Try to write the dream in as much detail as possible. If you are un-
able to recall a dream this morning, write "No Recall." Following the
writing of your dream, fill in the brief mood rating scale focusing on
your moods and emotions that you experienced in the dream.) If after
considerable reflection, you decide a mood is unratable or does not ap-
ply, mark it DNA. If at all possible, try to avoid this rating.

I. Harmony vs. Anger

II. Own Sociability vs. Withdrawal

III. Tranquility vs. Anxiety

IV. Impulse Expression vs.

V. Self-Confidence vs. Feel-
ings of Inadequacy

VI. Elation vs. Depression



Number of Dreams

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Males 0 2 0 2 1 2 2 4 3 2 4 1 1 1 0 0 0

Females 0 3 2 0 1 1 4 5 3 1 2 2 0 0 0 0 1

Total 0 5 2 2 2 3 6 9 6 3 6 3 1 1 0 0 1



Use the enclosed Personal Feeling Scales to rate each dream sequen-

tially for moods which are expressed in the dream. Ratings should be

based on moods which either appear directly or are merely implied by

the action, circumstances, or tone of the dream narrative (e.g., a

dream taking place on a frail ship in the midst of a storm would merit

some measure of Anxiety regardless of whether this feeling was directly

expressed). If however an implied mood is specifically contradicted

(e.g., "A ship swaying in stormy seas which gently rocked me to sleep"),

then the mood inference should not be made.

Ratings should be made with primary consideration given to the

dreamer's own actions and feelings. Actions and feelings attributed to

others in the dream may be rated when the dreamer's own reactions are

obscured (e.g., "I stood by watching my friend faint when challenged to

a fistfight" would suggest some feelings of inadequacy (Mood V).

Moods should be rated on a high/low basis of a fluctuation in mood

is evident. (See Example B.) In many cases, a single value to denote

the general level of a given mood or feeling state in the dream will be

sufficient. A given mood may also not apply in certain dreams. If a

mood is not applicable to a dream or is otherwise unratable, assign a

rating of 5. Try to avoid this rating if at all possible.

After rating each of the four dreams per subject individually,

reflect back on the set of four dreams and make a clinical judgment on

a "trait level" of those moods as expressed collectively in the four

dreams. That is, use the four dreams to predict the level of enduring

and stable moods (traits) of the individual. Although it is permissible

to review your ratings of individual dreams, this is not necessary.

Enter only one value for this "trait" rating (Do not use "high" or


After each assigned rating, assess your level of confidence with

the rating on a Scale of 1-5. That is, if you are very confident in

your rating of a dream, assign a 5. If you are making an off-the-wall

guess, assign a 1. Use intermediate values accordingly.

All subjects to be rated are undergraduates taking Introductory

Psychology. The sex of each subject is indicated on the dream protocol.

It is suggested that you take a moment before starting to familiar-

ize yourself with the mood scales and the sample ratings provided below.

A) Three of us were in my front yard playing a water game

(hoses and balloons filled with water). After awhile,

they took sides against me (like brothers against sis-

ters). I got mad (not wanting to get wet) and flew up

to the top of the roof and looked down at them. They

couldn't reach me with the water.


B) Was out camping--was walking from this small town--was

trying to find a place to hide. I had a gun with me. I

had shot a few people in leaving town, rather matter-of-

factly though there were others in it. I was walking or

running down the street with the gun. At first I didn't

even try to find it. I later came upon this stream and

got in. There was Spanish music in the background. I

wanted to rest there a while, smoke some dope and find

out on a map where I was (it was not like just a stop-off

in a car trip). I swam around in the stream and had a

good time.


C) Had remembered one day early that I was to be in a talent

show and hadn't prepared too well. I decided that I

wasn't ready--was a bit surprised that I could have at

one time volunteered. I went to the show but had been

left off the program anyway. I talked with Jim who was

in it, professing that I didn't have much talent.


D) I dreamed I had an accident and broke my leg. The rest

of the dream I was in the hospital getting just loads of

attention and sympathy. Friends came to see me and one

of my overseas friends was even given a furlough to come

home for a while. The pain I might have had from a bro-

ken leg never entered the dream. It was all very plea-

sant and I was the center of attraction.





Mood Deviations Males Females

Mood I 4.01* 2.03
Mood II 2.08 .31
Mood III .90 1.52
Mood IV 2.20 .33
Mood V 4.34* .31
Mood VI 4.07* .33

High Variability
Mood I 1.10 .13
Mood II .72 2.15
Mood III .16 .21
Mood IV 1.10 2.58
Mood V .60 2.94
Mood VI 1.20 .84

Low Variability
Mood I 3.81 .00
Mood II .65 1.24
Mood III 1.89 2.60(x)
Mood IV 6.35 .95
Mood V 3.53 .39
Mood VI .75 .37

* p <.05
(x) Yates correction for continuity applied




# of Dream Judge
Dreams Length Group ACF G H

16 PF Factor Stens
i J I I I

1 10 23 -- 6 7 6 7 8 5 3 3 4 7 6 8.1 4.9
2 11 13 5 6 7 9 6 5 3 7 6 3 9 5 7.4 5.3
3 8 18 2 3 4 3 5 3 4 3 8 9 4 5 2.5 5.1
4 7 18 5 3 8 1 9 4 5 5 6 8 9 7 2.8 4.6
5 7 24 2 5 2 5 6 4 8 8 4 4 4 7 5.8 8.0
6 8 -- 3 9 5 3 5 6 4 4 4 6 8 5 5.4 4.9
7 9 16 4 7 4 5 5 7 5 7 6 7 4 6 6.7 6.7
8 13 33 1 4 6 5 6 5 5 6 6 8 5 4 4.8 4.9
9 5 29 1 3 5 5 4 3 2 5 9 7 3 3.5 3.0
10 8 13 -- 6 2 4 1 6 5 6 7 8 4 8 4.1 7.0
11 6 18 5 4 8 5 657 4 5 5 5 7 5.4 5.3
12 9 16 1 3 6 7 4 6 3 5 6 10 1 5 5.7 5.2
13 0 -- -- 6 5 5 4 7 3 4 4 5 6 5 6.6 4.5
14 6 33 2 3 3 8 2 3 4 5 7 7 2 4 4.9 5.7
15 7 14 -- 7 2 6 7 4 5 10 4 1 2 9 6.8 10.0
16 8 16 3 5 6 5 7 7 9 6 7 5 7 7 5.9 5.7
17 8 28 2 2 6 2 7 6 8 6 8 7 7 6 3.3 5.5
18 3 -- -- 6 5 3 7 5 3 10 5 4 6 7 5.2 8.2
19 12 16 4 6 2 4 4 4 8 10 7 10 3 9 3.5 8.9
20 12 37 4 3 2 2 4 4 5 6 7 4 2 8 4.0 7.8
21 12 31 5 5 2 4 6 3 6 8 3 8 6 10 3.6 8.7
22 1 -- -- 8 8 6 3 9 3 3 5 5 6 2 7.8 2.5
23 10 13 3 5 8 4 7 9 4 1 6 4 6 2 7.1 2.4
24 8 21 4 3 8 4 8 4 3 7 7 8 9 4 3.9 5.1
25 5 26 3 3 44 5 3 4 8 3 7 4 6 3.3 7.1


APPENDIX 10 (Cont'd)


# of Dream
Dreams Length

16 PF Factor Stens
Judge ,, .-

Group A C

HI I 0

QWQ2iQ3IQ~ Qi IQii
9 -4-- -

61 6 5 7 8

S8 5
6 3
S4 7
3 6
5 3
6 6
5 5
6 4
6 5
2 7
10 6
7 4
3 4
9 7
4 6
6 7
5 5
9 7
2 8
2 2
4 4
8 5
6 8
4 8
3 3
4 4


Q : Q2 Q3 Q Q II


Craig A. Updegrove was born in Arlington, Virginia, on October 21,

1952. He lived in nearby Falls Church through high school where he

was involved with several musical organizations, the varsity tennis

team and a few cheerleaders. Following high school he enrolled at

the University of Richmond where he studied for two years. Becoming

disillusioned in 1972, he transferred to Duke University where he had

a good time, was active with several choral organizations and graduated

with distinction in psychology. Following graduation Magnaa cum laude)

in 1974, he enrolled in the graduate program in clinical psychology at

the University of Florida. The Master's degree was received in 1976

under the chairmanship of Wilse B. Webb. Having been admitted to doc-

toral candidacy, and still a young man, he decided to go west for a

year of clinical internship. While interning at the Veterans Adminis-

tration Hospital in Palo Alto, California, he trained on the Family

Study Unit and on a coeducational acute treatment psychiatric ward.

By all accounts, it was a very good year. Upon graduation, he expects

to return to California to continue riding the wave.

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate,in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

Hugh C. avis, h TYrman
Profess r of Clinical Psychology

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate,in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

Wilse B. Webb, Cochairman
Graduate Research Professor of Psychology

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate,in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

Everette Hall
Associate Professor of Psychology

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate,in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

Vdrnon Van De Riet
Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology

I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is fully
adequate,in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the Degree of
Doctor of Philosophy.

Marilyn Zweig
Associate Professor of Philosophy

This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the Depart-
ment of Psychology in the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences and to
the Graduate Council, and was accepted as partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

December 1978

Dean, Graduate School


3 1262 08285 173 3

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