• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Design and procedures
 Results and discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Appendices
 References
 Biographical sketch














Group Title: effects of client sex, counselor sex, and type of client problem on high school counselor facilitative responsiveness and desire to continue a counseling relationship /
Title: The effects of client sex, counselor sex, and type of client problem on high school counselor facilitative responsiveness and desire to continue a counseling relationship /
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 Material Information
Title: The effects of client sex, counselor sex, and type of client problem on high school counselor facilitative responsiveness and desire to continue a counseling relationship /
Alternate Title: Effects of client sex, counselor sex, and type of client problem ..
Physical Description: xii, 133 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ferguson, Lyn Elaine, 1947-
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Counseling in secondary education   ( lcsh )
Counseling   ( lcsh )
Sex discrimination   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 127-132.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Lyn Elaine Ferguson.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099515
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000098495
oclc - 06766259
notis - AAL3942

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Table of Contents
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Tables
        Page viii
    Abstract
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Review of literature
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
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        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Design and procedures
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Results and discussion
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
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        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Appendices
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
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        Page 103
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        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
    References
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
    Biographical sketch
        Page 133
        Page 134
        Page 135
Full Text











THE EFFECTS OF CLIENT SEX, COUNSELOR SEX,
AND TYPE OF CLIENT PROBLEM
ON HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELOR FACILITATIVE RESPONSIVENESS
AND DESIRE TO CONTINUE A COUNSELING RELATIONSHIP













BY

LYN ELAINE FERGUSON


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO TIE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY







UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

































Copyright 1980

by

Lyn Elaine Ferguson














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

My family, many friends, and colleagues contributed to the

completion of this study; and I want to take this opportunity to

thank them. Special thanks are due my committee chair, Dr. Robert

Stripling, for his encouragement over several years of study and

for his help with special arrangements necessary due to my distance

from the university. I also wish to thank committee members Dr.

Joe Wittmer for his conscientious reading of every manuscript

and Dr. Dorothy Nevill for serving on my committee.

Very special remembrance is extended to Dr. Richard Usher for

his role in kindling my interest in psychology and counseling and

his encouragement to undertake a doctoral program. I am grateful

to Dr. Elizabeth Rave for helping me with the first difficult steps

in designing this research study, and to Dr. Beatrice Heimerl and

Dr. Jim Collins for their enjoyable humor and unselfish help with

the research design and statistical analysis. I am thankful to Verdie

Peddycord for her excellent typing and to Barbara Neal for keypunching

the data.

I am very grateful to Clydette Stulp and Suzanne Keating for

their suggestions during the development of profiles and to Dr.

Robert Stewart, Dr. Michael Gimmestad, and Dr. Ed Dash for

their evaluation of profiles. Very special appreciation is










extended to the 410 Colorado counselors who freely took time to

participate as subjects in this investigation.

Finally, I am deeply grateful to my parents, Evelyn and

Chet Ferguson, for their belief in me, their encouragement, and

for being such special and exceptional parents. I am thankful to

my grandparents, Irene and Fred Miller, who have always supported

me. To my sisters Eileen and Charlene, and my brother John, I

express my thanks for helping me laugh, loud and often. And to

my very special friend, Kathy Bibbey, I am thankful for her

encouragement, understanding, patience, and friendship.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................ iii

LIST OF TABLES................................................. viii

ABSTRACT................. ............... ..................... ....... ix

CHAPTER

ONE INTRODUCTION ................... ....................

Rationale.........................................
Need for the Study.................. ............. 5
Purpose of the Study............................. 6
Procedure............... ......................... 7
Definition of Terms .............................. 8
Delimitations and Limitations .................. 10
Summary ........................................... 11

TWO REVIEW OF LITERATURE .............................. 13

Sexism Confronting the Young.................. 13
Cultural Sex Role Stereotyping ................. 17
The Psychological Effects of Sexism............. 21
Sexism in Counseling Theory and Practice........ 28
Facilitative Conditions and Sexism............... 40
Genuineness .................................... 41
Unconditional Positive Regard ................. 41
Empathy.......................................... 42
Effect of Sex and Six Specific Counseling
Problems on Facilitative Conditions............ 43
Summary ............................. .. ......... 46

THREE DESIGN AND PROCEDURES............. ............... 47

Sample................. .............. ............ 49
Procedure.................. .. ............... 51
Instruments ...................................... 52
Client Profiles ................................ 53
Continuum of Facilitative Responses............ 55
Desire to Continue the Counseling
Relationship Scale........................... 55









Rater Selection and Training..................... 57
Research Design and Analysis .................... 58
Phase I.......................................... 58
Phase II....................................... 60

FOUR RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.............................. 61

Introduction..................................... 61
Statistical Results............................... 62
Hypothesis One.................................. 62
Hypothesis Two.................................. 64
Hypothesis Three ............................... 66
Discussion..................................... 67
Rankings of Counselor Responses.................. 72
Research Question Four ......................... 72
Research Question Five.......................... 72
Discussion..................................... 82
Desire to Continue the Counseling
Relationship.................................. 82
Research Question Six... ....................... 83
Research Question Seven ........................ 83
Discussion..................................... 88

FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ............................ 90

Procedures....................................... 91
Results ......................................... 91
Conclusions....................................... 93
Recommendations and Implications................. 94
Summary......................................... 95

APPENDICES

A CONTINUUM OF FACILITATIVE RESPONSES................ 97

B DESIRE TO CONTINUE THE COUNSELING
RELATIONSHIP SCALE... ......... ................. .. 99

C LETTER TO COUNSELORS............................... 100

D PERSONAL DATA SHEET................................. 101

E FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR AGE OF SUBJECTS......... 102

F FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR YEARS OF
EXPERIENCE OF SUBJECTS........................... 104

G FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR HIGHEST
COLLEGE DEGREE................................... 105










H FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION FOR TYPE OF
CERTIFICATE...................................... 106

I ASSIGNMENT OF PROFILES TO COUNSELORS............... 107

J PROFILES AS MAILED TO SUBJECTS..................... 109

K STATEMENT CONTENT CATEGORIES AND COUNSELOR
RESPONSE LEVELS IDENTIFIED ...................... 116

L INSTRUCTIONS TO RATERS............................. 122

M RATER RESPONSES TO CLIENT STATEMENTS
AND COUNSELOR RESPONSES.......................... 124

N INDEPENDENT VARIABLES FOR THREE-FACTOR
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE............................. 126

REFERENCES....................................................... 127

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ......................................... 133















LIST OF TABLES


TABLE PAGE

1. Analysis of Variance of Facilitative
Responsiveness.................................. 63

2. Scheffe Post Hoc Pairwise Comparisons of
Mean Facilitative Responsiveness................ 68

3. Profile #1 Mean Rankings for Four Counselor-
Client Pairings and Mean Ranking Pooled......... 73

4. Profile #2 Mean Rankings for Four Counselor-
Client Pairings and Mean Ranking Pooled......... 75

5. Profile #3 Mean Rankings for Four Counselor-
Client Pairings and Mean Ranking Pooled......... 77

6. Profile #4 Mean Rankings for Four Counselor-
Client Pairings and Mean Ranking Pooled......... 78

7. Profile #5 Mean Rankings for Four Counselor-
Client Pairings and Mean Ranking Pooled......... 80

8. Profile #6 Mean Rankings for Four Counselor-
Client Pairings and Mean Ranking Pooled......... 81

9. Mean Desire to Continue the Counseling
Relationship for Female Clients
in Rank Order by Profile........................ 84

10. Mean Desire to Continue the Counseling
Relationship for Male Clients
in Rank Order by Profile......................... 85

11. Overall Mean Desire to Continue the Counseling
Relationship in Rank Order by Profile........... 87


viii














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


THE EFFECTS OF CLIENT SEX, COUNSELOR SEX,
AND TYPE OF CLIENT PROBLEM
ON HIGH SCHOOL COUNSELOR FACILITATIVE RESPONSIVENESS
AND DESIRE TO CONTINUE A COUNSELING RELATIONSHIP

By

Lyn Elaine Ferguson

June, 1980

Chair: Dr. Robert 0. Stripling
Major Department: Counselor Education

Investigations of counselor attitudes toward and treatment of

female and male clients consistently have revealed differences and

biases according to client sex, including a somewhat negative view

of females. Evidence was needed to determine if these biased atti-

tudes resulted in differences of counseling treatment and, if so,

to identify the differences in treatment.

Subjects for this investigation were 159 female and 248 male

high school counselors employed during 1979-1980 in Colorado public

high schools. Each counselor responded to either the female or male

client version of one of six simulated client profiles. Profiles

included one of six client statements relating to assertiveness,

emotionality, grief, independence, non-traditional career choice, or

rationality. Counselors rank ordered six counselor responses










according to their perceived helpfulness to the client. Responses

were designed to represent the levels of responsiveness according

to Wittmer and Myrick's Continuum of Facilitative Responses, (Joe

Wittmer and Robert D. Myrick, Facilitative Teaching: Theory and

Practice. Santa Monica: Goodyear Publishing Company, Inc., 1974,

p. 55). Counselors rated their desire to continue a counseling

relationship with the client described in the profile on a five-

point Likert type scale. Differences in counselor first choice

responses on the basis of client and counselor sex and type of

client problem were compared, using a three factor analysis of

variance design. Differences in counselor rankings of responses

and in ratings of counselor desire to continue a counseling relation-

ship were presented in the form of descriptive matrices.

Contrary to earlier investigations, the high school counselors

in this study did not respond to clients according to sex stereo-

types except when clients expressed a non-traditional career choice.

In addition, counselors indicated their desire to continue a coun-

seling relationship with female and male clients regardless of the

type of problem. More specifically, the following conclusions were

drawn:

1. The counselors in this study responded with significantly

higher facilitative responsiveness to client statements of

assertiveness, emotionality, and independence than to

client statements of a non-traditional career choice.

2. The counselors responded with essentially the same










facilitative responsiveness to female clients as to

male clients.

3. The female counselors responded to clients with essentially

the same facilitative responsiveness as male counselors.

4. The counselors in this study tended to respond to clients

with relatively low facilitative responsiveness on all

simulated profiles.

5. The counselors ranked responses in a way that did not

resemble the theoretically correct rankings. Rankings

appeared to have been affected by client sex, counselor

sex, and client problem.

6. Both counselor sex and client problem seemed to affect

counselor ratings of their desire to continue a counseling

relationship.

7. Counselors in this study tended to desire to continue a

counseling relationship with all clients, regardless of the

type of problem.

8. Counselors most desired to continue a counseling relationship

with clients who made statements of a non-traditional career

choice. However, counselors were significantly less facili-

tative with those clients than with clients who made state-

ments of assertiveness, emotionality, and independence.

9. Counselors indicated greater desire to continue a counseling

relationship with both female and male clients who expressed

female sex stereotyped counseling problems.










10. Counselors indicated less desire to continue a counseling

relationship with both female and male clients who expressed

male sex stereotyped counseling problems.


xii















CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

Rationale

Beliefs about, attitudes toward, and counseling treatment of

female and male clients by professional counselors are frequent

subjects of investigation in contemporary counseling literature.

The results of these investigations consistently reveal differ-

ences and biases in counseling treatment according to client sex

(Chester, 1972; Fabrikant, 1974; Abramowitz, 1977). The identi-

fication of specific differences in treatment, as well as the

effects on clients, particularly using high school counselors as

subjects, is explored minimally in the literature (McEwen, 1975).

The counseling profession's interest in examining sex biases

within itself parallels the interest of most major American insti-

tutions during the last ten years in taking steps to equalize all

facets of individual institutional operation. Changes relative to

assumptions about, and policies relating to women's roles, are

occurring in education, politics, religion, business and finance,

and health. Some specific changes are Title IX, affirmative action

employment practices, ordination of women, changes in social security

and credit laws, maternity leave and benefits, the ratification of

state equal rights amendments, and the ratification of the federal

Equal Rights Amendment in 34 states. These changes demonstrate










that, on a daily basis, American institutions are making and

reacting to radical changes in laws and regulations designed to

equalize opportunities for both women and men. The necessity for

changing many state and federal laws validates the contention that

biases do exist. These changes, however, do not necessarily imply

attitudinal changes among citizens toward the roles of women and

men; but they do seem to indicate that the issue of sex bias in our

society is no longer hypothetical, but is recognized as being very

real, especially in the legal sense.

It seems logical that counselors, as members of our society,

would possess the same cultural stereotypes and prejudices as

American society in general. Also, it seems logical to conclude

that counselors might treat women and men differently, both as

clients and as colleagues (Feidel, 1970; Guttman, 1972; Katrin,

1976; Gardner, 1971).

Chesler (1972) found, in her study of National Institute of

Mental Health statistics for the years 1960-1968, and also among

studies of small psychiatric populations, that a greater proportion

of females than males become psychiatric patients and stay in

treatment for a longer period of time. Fabrikant (1974) studied

therapists and their clients and found that female patients stayed

significantly longer in therapy than males. Brandon (1972), in a

review of psychiatric practices, concluded that women were more

likely than men to (1) be admitted to psychiatric hospitals, (2) stay

longer in hospitals, (3) be referred to a psychiatrist, and (4) be

defined by therapists as ill or suicidal. Brandon reported that










United Kingdom doctors were consulted for psychoneurotic disorders

three times more often by women than by men.

Why are women defined by counselors as more ill and more in

need of therapy than are men? What are counselor attitudes toward

the women they see as clients? In many instances, counselors both

demand a woman's adherence to a stereotyped role and, at the same

time, evaluate as unhealthy the behaviors of that role. Broverman,

Broverman, Clarkson, Rosenkrantz, and Vogel (1970) found that mental

health clinicians agreed strongly on the behaviors and attributes

characterizing a healthy man, a healthy woman, or a healthy adult.

The clinicians rated behaviors and characteristics judged healthy

for an adult (and thus reflecting the ideal standard of health) to

be the same as those judged healthy for men. Behaviors and char-

acteristics judged healthy for women were distinctly different and

significantly less healthy than those of men and adults. Slechta

(1971) interviewed a small sample of professional counselors who

maintained that they did not ascribe to sex role differences and

found marked similarities between the terms they used to describe

the "typical" woman and terms used to describe neurotic symptoms.

Neulinger, Schillinger, Stein, and Welkowicz (1970) found that 114

therapists, in describing the optimally integrated person, used sex

stereotyped qualities such as dominant and achieving to describe

mental health in men and nurturance and abasement to describe

mental health in women. In a survey of mental health workers,

Fabrikant, Landau, and Rollenhagen (1972), and Fabrikant (1974)

found their subjects' views of women were negative when subjects










were asked to use an adjective check list to select adjectives

describing females and males.

From a review of the literature, it would seem that counselors

have a different view of the nature and needs of women and men in

therapy, and a negative view of women in general. It seems inevitable

that counselors will convey personal attitudes and biases to their

clients during the therapy session. Oliver (1975), McEwen (1975), and

Tanney and Birk (1976), in their reviews of research in counseling

women, concluded that both female and male counselors exhibit

differential counseling responses based on client sex and respond

negatively to female and male clients who exhibit non-traditional

behaviors and life choices.

Facilitative conditions of accurate empathy, genuineness, and

unconditional positive regard have been documented as being not only

conducive to, but also essential for, optimum personal and psycho-

logical growth within a client (Carkhuff & Berenson, 1967). Because

these conditions stress honesty and authenticity on the part of the

counselor, it appears likely that sexist attitudes of counselors will

be communicated during therapy and will affect the therapy process.

Research is limited on the specific effects of sexist thinking on

the facilitative process and on the therapeutic effects of such

counseling, particularly when high school counselors are used as subjects.

Petro and Hansen (1977) found that both female and male high

school counselors demonstrated more empathy when responding to case

studies of females. Donahue and Costar (1977) found that high school

counselors, when given case studies of females and males, chose










occupations for girls that (1) paid less, (2) required less

pre-requisite education, and (3) were more closely supervised. The

authors concluded that counselors found it socially acceptable for

girls to have an education as long as they stayed in dependent,

supervised roles. Olesker and Baiter (1972) and Hill (1975) found

that counselors showed more empathy when judging people of the same

sex than when judging people of the other sex. Hill, Tanney, Leonard,

and Reiss (1977) found that counselors' reactions to female clients

varied according to counselor sex and type of client problem.

Similarly, Stewart (1977) found that counselor empathy seemed to be

influenced by the content and affect of client statements and was

different for female and male clients. Thomas and Stewart (1971)

found that, although female counselors gave higher acceptance scores

to both non-conforming and conforming clients, counselors regardless

of sex rated conforming goals as more appropriate than non-conforming

goals for females.

More information is needed on how counselor sex bias influences

the actual counseling process, particularly the facilitativeness of

responses. Accurate information is needed so that bias can be

measured accurately, and methods to eliminate it be developed.

Need for the Study

Because the majority of the research to date has focused on

clinical or university counselors as subjects, it seemed important

to utilize high school counselors as subjects to determine what sex

biases might be present (McEwen, 1975). Secondly, because the

research in which high school counselors are used as subjects











generally examines sex bias in career counseling, it was important

to determine in what other ways sex bias is manifested (Donahue &

Costar, 1977; Thomas & Stewart, 1971). Finally, it was the investi-

gator's opinion that high school counselors have opportunities for

significantly more association with more persons (nearly all students

who attend high school) than counselors within any clinical or post-

secondary educational setting; therefore; it was vital to identify

high school counselor biases. Additionally, because there is

research evidence that counselors do not respond as positively toward

clients who exhibit non-traditional behaviors and life choices, it

was important to determine to what degree this behavior exists among

high school counselors (Oliver, 1975; McEwen, 1975; Tanney & Birk,

1976; Haccoun, Allen, & Fader, 1976). It was felt, too, that results

may have implications for counseling practice and counselor prepara-

tion, as well as for future research.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to identify the differences in

levels of facilitative responses by high school counselors to female

and male high school clients expressing specific counseling problems.

A second purpose was to identify high school counselor desire to

continue a counseling relationship with female and male clients who

express specific counseling problems. More specifically, an attempt

was made to answer the following questions:

1. Is the facilitative responsiveness of high school counselors

affected by the sex of their high school clients?









2. Is the facilitative responsiveness of high school counselors

affected by the sex of the counselor?

3. Is the facilitative responsiveness of high school counselors

affected by the nature of their high school clients' problems?

4. On the average, do the rankings of counselor responses to

female clients resemble the theoretically correct rankings

for specific counseling problems?

5. On the average, do the rankings of counselor responses to male

clients resemble the theoretically correct rankings for spe-

cific counseling problems?

6. Are counselor ratings of their desire to continue the coun-

seling relationship with female clients affected by the sex of

the counselor or by the nature of the client's counseling

problem?

7. Are counselor ratings of their desire to continue the counsel-

ing relationship with male clients affected by the sex of the

counselor or by the nature of the client's counseling problem?

Procedure

The effects of client sex, counselor sex, and client problem on

the facilitative responsiveness of counselors was studied. Six

simulated profiles were developed upon which client sex was manip-

ulated. All public high school counselors in Colorado were invited

to participate in this study by rank-ordering given counselor

responses to simulated client profiles. Each counselor also was asked

to rate her/his desire to continue the counseling relationship with

the client described in the simulated profile by indicating









the degree of desire to continue on a five-point Likert scale

(Appendix B).

Subjects' rankings of responses were rated according to their

levels of facilitation, using the Continuum of Facilitative

Responses (Wittmer & Myrick, 1974, p. 55) (Appendix A). Differences

in first choice responses were tested, using a three-factor analysis

of variance design and the .10 level of significance (Winer, 1971).

In addition, rankings were tabulated in descriptive matrices, and

mean rankings were reported. Ratings from the Desire to Continue

the Counseling Relationship Scale were tabulated in descriptive

matrices, and mean ratings were reported. For the purpose of

describing demographically the final sample, personal and profes-

sional data were gathered on the subjects (Appendix D).

Definition of Terms

Sexism: the assumption that traits and capacities are deter-

mined by sex and that the sexes differ decisively from one another,

usually coupled with the belief in the inherent superiority of the

male sex over the female sex (Gardner, 1971, p. 710).

Sex role (stereotype): the group of traits and capacities

generally agreed upon as appropriate for one sex to display, but

not appropriate for the other sex to display. A sex role stereo-

type is a rigid belief that traits, characteristics, and behaviors

generally associated with one sex are rarely or never appropriate

for the other sex (Stewart, 1977, p. 7).










Facilitative response: a response given a client by a counselor

which to a greater or lesser degree moves the client toward behaviors

which enhance her/his personal and psychological growth. Facilitative

responses were defined operationally by ratings on the Continuum of

Facilitative Responses (Appendix A).

Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship: a measure of

a counselor's personal preference and wish to work further with a

client. The desire reflects the counselor's wish rather than the

client's need. The operational definition consisted of ratings on a

five-point Likert-type scale with "1" defined as "strongly desire not

to continue," and "5" defined as "strongly desire to continue"

(Appendix B).

Content categories: Content categories refer to the six types

of simulated client statements contained in the profiles in this

investigation. The six content categories were defined as follows

(English & English, 1970):

1. Assertiveness: a client behavior in which the client

stands up for her/his legitimate interpersonal rights

in such a way the the rights of others are not violated.

2. Emotionality: a client behavior characterized by the

client's sensitivity to the feelings and experiences

of self and others.

3. Grief: a client behavior characterized by feelings of

severe sadness, sense of loss and mourning, or sorrow

over a real life loss.










4. Independence: a client behavior characterized by self-

reliance, individualism, and autonomy, and accompanied by

such action.

5. Non-traditional career choice: a client behavior

characterized by consideration and/or actual choice of

a career atypical of the client's sex role.

6. Rationality: a client behavior characterized by logical

and systematic thinking, and a focus on the cognitive rather

than the emotional decision making processes.

Delimitations and Limitations

The investigator chose to delimit the study in various ways.

Each delimitation limited the possible conclusions and generaliza-

tions that could be made from the results of the study. Delimitations

and the consequent limitations were as follows:

1. The Continuum of Facilitative Responses, although designed

from documented knowledge about facilitative process, lacks

reliability and validity studies when used to evaluate coun-

selor facilitative responsiveness. Therefore, raters were

used to evaluate responses for plausibility and authenticity

as counselor responses and for accuracy of intended

content.

2. The Continuum of Facilitative Responses is grounded in

client-centered, Rogerian theory. The continuum was chosen

because of the amount of research conducted on client-centered,

Rogerian techniques, and because no alternative theory has been

developed which might be more appropriate in counseling women.










3. The Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship Scale

was developed specifically for this research. Although it

lacked reliability and validity studies, it was designed as

a Likert scale.

4. Of the many ways of examining the effects of sex biased atti-

tudes on the counseling process, this study was designed to

examine only counselor facilitative responsiveness and desire

to continue the counseling relationship. Therefore, it was

not possible to generalize results of this study to effects

of sex bias on other components of the counseling process.

5. Subjects were three or four year public high school coun-

selors and were expected to vary widely in age, years of

experience, and professional preparation.

6. Because subjects were from the state of Colorado, results

were most applicable to Colorado. The further away from the

population, the less generalizable the results.

Summary

Increasing numbers of studies of counselor attitudes toward the

women and men with whom they counsel reveal the existence of stereo-

typed beliefs about the nature of women and men and about the

different definitions of mental health for each. Evidence of biased

beliefs made it logical to assume that counselors might convey their

biases to clients during counseling sessions, and that female and

male clients might receive differing treatment during counseling.

This study attempted to measure possible differences in high

school counselor facilitative responsiveness and desire to





12




continue the counseling relationship based on client sex, counselor

sex, and client problem. High school counselors were mailed simulated

profiles of high school students and were asked to rank order given

counselor responses. Differences in first choice responses were

tested, using analysis of variance techniques. Counselor rankings

of responses were tabulated in descriptive matrices. Counselor

ratings of their desire to continue the counseling relationship were

tabulated in descriptive matrices.















CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter summarizes the available research results on the

prevalence of sexism and stereotyped beliefs about sex roles in

society and within the counseling profession. Research is reviewed

on sexism confronting the young, cultural sex role stereotypes,

psychological effects of sexism, sexism in counseling theory and

practice, and six specific counseling problems. The chapter also

includes research on the facilitative conditions, their nature and

effectiveness, as well as the influence of sexist thinking and beliefs

on the delivery of therapeutic conditions.

Sexism Confronting the Young

Evidence of the success with which adults transmit sexual

stereotypes to their children is apparent when the concepts held

by children as young as pre-school age are examined. Kuhn, Nash, and

Brucken (1978) studied the sex role concepts of children, ages two

and three, through a series of time-spaced interviews and story

completions. Interviews were time-spaced in recognition of the

short attention spans of children and in order to eliminate the

children's fatigue. Analysis of the children's responses to

questions and to story completions revealed that they possessed

substantial knowledge of appropriate sex role behavior

prevailing in our culture. The children demonstrated their

knowledge by assigning stereotyped roles to the female and










male characters in the stories. Another finding revealed that as

children began to recognize their gender as a permanent, unchangeable

facet of themselves, they began to value positively this aspect of

self (their sex) and to devalue what they perceived as not self

(the other sex). Findings of research, discussed later, seem to

indicate that a change in this process occurs as children enter

school. Boys continue to value their own sex, while girls begin

to learn to devalue the female sex, but to value the male sex.

Parents are the primary reinforcers of behavior which is deemed

appropriate for young children to display. Fagot (1978) studied the

influence of the sex of a toddler on the parental reactions to that

toddler. Toddler children and their parents were observed inter-

acting within their own homes. Forty-six different child behaviors

were studied, as were the parental reactions to each behavior when

displayed by both girls and boys. Nineteen possible parent reactions

were identified prior to the observations and were categorized as

either positive, negative, or neutral. Child behaviors were cate-

gorized as sex preferred, that is, for which sex the behavior is

deemed appropriate. Female sex preferred behaviors included play

dolls, ask for help, and dress up. Male sex preferred behaviors

included play with blocks, manipulate objects, and play with trans-

portation toys.

Results of observations revealed that parents reacted signif-

icantly more favorably to a child when the child engaged in same

sex preferred behavior, and were more likely to give a negative

response to cross sex preferred behaviors. Girls were given more










negative responses by parents when they engaged in large, motor

activities, and more positive responses when they engaged in adult

oriented, dependent behavior. Fagot concluded that parents allowed

boys to explore objects and learn about their environment with less

chance of criticism than they allowed girls these behaviors. Girls,

on the other hand, were given more positive feedback when they asked

for help or tried to help adults with a task, while boys were dis-

couraged from asking for help.

Many additional reinforcers of sex stereotyped behavior are

encountered by children when they enter the educational system.

Reinforcement comes in the form of differing teacher treatment of

girls and boys, textbook content, school staffing patterns, and

opportunities. Feminist groups and parent groups in many cities

have analyzed the content of current textbooks at all grade levels

and have generally agreed on the sexism evident within the books.

The manner in which girls and boys are portrayed, their appropriate

activities, and their potential as adults and young adults are pat-

terned after sex role stereotypes. Boys are portrayed as active

doers and helpers, while girls are portrayed as passive watchers

and helpees (Sadker, Sadker, & Simon, 1973). These textbooks teach

children that it is the role of boys and men to lead, make decisions,

be inventive, and to test themselves in dangerous situations. It

is the role of girls and women to follow, carry out decisions made

for them, and to watch and applaud inventive and brave boys and men.










Stereotyped roles are further imprinted on the minds of children

when they observe the staffing patterns of the school which they

attend. Sixty-seven percent of their teachers are women--those who

follow and carry out administrative decisions; 79% of elementary and

97% of secondary school principals, and 99% of school superintendents

are men--those who lead and make decisions (Sadker et al., 1973).

As children are taught that girls and boys are quite different

in their capabilities and in their expected behavior, they begin to

regard the differences as qualities with either positive or negative

value (Koblinsky, Cruse, & Sugawara, 1978). Specifically, children

begin to feel that characteristics ascribed to males are positive

and more desirable, while characteristics ascribed to females are

negative and less desirable. In a study of elementary children,

lists of stereotypic items were generated by one group of fifth

graders and used in stories given another group of fifth graders

to read (Koblinsky et al., 1978). Both masculine sex typed and

feminine sex typed characteristics were used in describing both

females and males. When questioned later on story content, both

male and female children remembered more of the masculine sex typed

characteristics of male characters and more of the feminine sex

typed characteristics of female characters. All subjects were

found to be unlikely to remember feminine traits of male characters.

It was concluded that children used sex role stereotypes as an

organizational framework in their reading comprehension. The ease

with which children rejected atypical traits of both sexes was

evident.










The preceding studies seem to indicate that children, at a

young age, exhibit knowledge of sex role stereotypes which have been

taught and reinforced by their parents and educators. In addition

to their having the ability to identify appropriate sex typed

behaviors, young people experience a gradual decline in their regard

for female behavior and a parallel increase in their regard for male

behavior. Do similar attitudes and beliefs exist among adults?

Cultural Sex Role Stereotypes

Fernberger (1948) identified a persistence among college students

to maintain stereotypes concerning sex differences, even after he

lectured to 271 undergraduates and graduate students that the asser-

tion of sex differences was generally unproven in experimental

research. A few days after the lecture he gave the students a

series of sentences with the sex of the subject of the sentence

omitted, and asked the students to fill in the blank with "male" or

"female." Student responses indicated a high degree of stereotyped

beliefs about women and men. Men were described by students as

more intelligent, more crude, more dependent, and possessing an

all around superiority. Women were described as talking too much,

less passionate, more sensitive, and not liking to fight.

Sherriffs and Jarrett (1953) asked college students to

classify 58 adjectives as distinctly male or distinctly female and

found agreement between men and women, both with respect to behaviors

and characteristics which they imputed to females and males, as well

as to the values they placed on these qualities. The authors concluded:










There are very few behaviors and attributes not uniformly
ascribed by both men and women to one or the other of the
sexes. It would seem virtually no behavior or quality
escapes inclusion in either a male or female "stereotype"
and that these stereotypes are the same whether held by
men or women. (p. 161)

Further evidence of stereotypes held by the population and of

the differential evaluation of males and females was reported by

McKee and Sherriffs (1957). They instructed 178 undergraduates to

"indicate a position which most clearly describes your view of the

relative over-all worth, or merit of men and women." Over 507. of

the males and nearly 70% of the females responded that men are

somewhat to greatly superior to women. This finding illustrated

that significantly more subjects thought more highly of males than

of females and that women thought very poorly of themselves. McKee

and Sherriffs commented on this finding: "The content of the self

conceptions of men and women will very likely reflect the differ-

ences in the esteem with which the two sexes are regarded" (p. 371).

Firm beliefs about sex appropriate behavior and traits were

further illustrated by Sherriffs and McKee (1957). They instructed

female and male undergraduates in an introduction to psychology

course at the University of California to check adjectives from

Sarbin's Adjective Check List of 200 adjectives which were "in

general true of men" and also those "in general true of women."

Favorable adjectives assigned significantly more often to men by

both men and women were grouped according to similar meaning. The

first grouping of adjectives included easy-going, informal, and

frank, and seemed to imply a straightforward, extroverted social









style. The second grouping included thorough, industrious, steady,

logical, and sharp witted, and seemed to portray rational competence

and overall ability. The third grouping included ambitious,

courageous, dominant, independent, and dynamic, and seemed to

portray energy, action, and effectiveness.

Unfavorable adjectives assigned significantly more often to men

by both men and women seemed to be mild extremes of the favorable

adjectives and included boastful, stubborn, restless, and mis-

chievous. Overall, men were described by both females and males in

a positive way as competent, intelligent, stable, but also somewhat

cold human beings.

Favorable adjectives assigned significantly more often to women

by both women and men were grouped according to similar meaning.

The first grouping of adjectives included poised, well-mannered,

and modest, and seemed to emphasize social propriety and gracious-

ness. The second grouping included gentle, kind, understanding, and

sentimental, and implied warmth and caring. The third grouping

included artistic, religious, and dreamy, and alluded to a

spirituality.

As with men, the unfavorable adjectives ascribed to women were

related to the favorable, although many of the unfavorable adjectives

listed, particularly those listed by women, indicated relatively

"neurotic" behavior due to excessive emotionality. Those unfavorable

adjectives included submissive, touchy, fearful, emotional, confused,

and anxious.









In a similar study, Rosenkrantz, Vogel, Bee, Brovermnan, and

Broverman (1968) utilized a questionnaire with 122 bipolar items

to determine how college students described a typical adult male,

a typical adult female, and themselves. One pole for each of the

122 items had previously been defined by students as "socially

desirable." Results of student responses confirmed not only that

sex role stereotypes were clearly defined, but also that the roles

were held in complete agreement by females and males. Both females

and males agreed that more characteristics and behaviors stereo-

typically associated with men were socially desirable than

characteristics associated with women. The final finding: self

concepts of women and men were very similar to their respective

stereotypes, that is, women held negative values of their worth

relative to men.

It seems logical that decision making in the business and

industrial world would be in accordance with sex stereotypes held

by the general public (Dipboye, Arvey, & Terpstra, 1977). Rosen

and Jerdee (1974) explored the influence of sex role stereotypes

on the personnel decisions of bank supervisors. A total of 95

bank supervisors attending a summer institute were predicted to

make administrative decisions in which sex role stereotypes would

work to the disadvantage of women in banking. Administrative

decisions made by the supervisors, based on hypothetical case

studies of female and male bank employees, indicated that dis-

crimination against women was pervasive. Bias was demonstrated










in every situation including promotion, professional development,

and supervisory opportunities. Furthermore, in situations where

the desirability or appropriateness of particular administrative

decisions was not clear, the subjects depended on preconceived

stereotypes to make those decisions. They relied on their own

prejudices and/or widely held societal expectations; they did not

base decisions on the merits of the individual.

It is clear that very distinct sex role stereotypes do exist

among adults. In addition, both women and men consistently, and

nearly unanimously, agree on the content of those stereotypes. The

male stereotype is one of independence, rational competence, and

strength, while the female stereotype is one of dependence, social

competence, and irrational emotionality. Both women and men view

the male stereotype as positive, relative to the negative and

virtually neurotic female stereotype. How do these beliefs and

rigid stereotypes affect the self concepts of women and men? Are

there measurable psychological consequences to women and to men

from this dichotomous thinking?

The Psychological Effects of Sexism

The negative valuation of the female stereotype was mentioned

briefly in the previous two sections (Koblinsky et al., 1978;

McKee & Sherriffs, 1957; Rosenkrantz et al., 1968). An additional

component of the research conducted by Sherriffs and McKee (1957)

consisted of instructing the undergraduates to check off each










adjective from Sarbin's adjective check list that they felt to be

descriptive of themselves.

The most noticeable characteristic of the lists of adjectives

ascribed to self significantly more often by men and women was a

large discrepancy in the numbers of adjectives selected by women

and men. Men selected 10 positive adjectives and only three negative

adjectives. Women generated a list of 21 positive adjectives and 19

negative adjectives. Men described themselves favorably as aggressive,

rugged, self confident, and wise, and unfavorably as absentminded,

quarrelsome, and stern. Women described themselves favorably as

generous, honest, kind, poised, sincere, and tactful. Equally as

often, women described themselves unfavorably as confused, excitable,

immature, meek, submissive, and undependable. The negative view

women had of themselves was clearly evident.

Related conclusions were reached when McKee and Sherriffs (1959)

asked a new group of undergraduates to check adjectives describing

"what you'd ideally like to be like," "how you really are," "your

ideal woman or man," and "how you think the ideal woman or man would

be described by the opposite sex." Male undergraduates selected a

larger number of favorable adjectives than did female undergraduates

when describing what the other sex wanted in an ideal mate. Women

chose a larger number of unfavorable adjectives than men to describe

their real self. Women believed men wanted them to possess favorable

feminine characteristics to a much greater degree than favorable

masculine characteristics. Men believed women wanted their ideal










man to exemplify masculinity, "but also much that society alleges

to be feminine" (McKee & Sherriffs, 1959, p. 360).

Several conclusions emerged from these findings. Apparently,

women and men in this study felt that men had more freedom in the

characteristics they were allowed to possess, that is, men were and

believed they were allowed to have both favorable male and favorable

female characteristics. Conversely, appropriate female character-

istics were strictly defined. They not only included a large number

of unfavorable female characteristics, but also excluded favorable

male characteristics. This narrow definition of females was

illustrated further by the fact that males used none of the

following adjectives to describe their ideal woman: aggressive,

daring, dominant, forceful, and rugged.

One must wonder what are the consequences to women of main-

taining their inferiority by denying within themselves any

characteristics which might be defined as "masculine." Intellectual

development has been found to be one area of female development that

is hindered by conforming to social sex role expectations. Baruch

(1974) conducted several longitudinal studies of gain and loss in

children's intelligence. She found that the children of both sexes

who were least likely to gain in intelligence with a concurrent

gain in chronological age were those highest in the trait of

"femininity," as measured by psychological tests. Those children

most likely to gain in intelligence, with a concurrent gain in

chronological age, were those highest in "emotional independence."










While emotional independence is a trait encouraged in boys, it

is neither approved of or encouraged in girls. Consequently, Baruch

found that girls and boys with average intelligence continued to gain

in intelligence with age, as did bright boys. Only bright girls

became "less bright," or significantly slowed in intellectual

development, with age. Baruch (1974) stated that bright girls are

not encouraged to be emotionally independent or to fulfill their

intellectual potential, for if they develop a high degree of compe-

tence, they risk being considered masculine. If girls do not develop

the competence of which they are capable, they meet one female sex

role criterion. But, girls learn to devalue themselves by denying

the competence they possess. Low self esteem is related to perceiving

oneself as having "feminine" characteristics such as non-competence

and passivity (Baruch, 1974; Williams & King, 1976). High self

esteem is related to perceiving oneself as having "masculine" traits,

such as competence and ability.

Parental reinforcement during early childhood promotes the

development of independence which provides the basis for achievement

motivation. The behaviors of boys which parents tend to reinforce

lead directly to the development of independence. Girls, on the

other hand, are reinforced for dependent behavior which destines

them to minimal motivation to achieve. Females are taught to view

their esteem according to "affiliation achievement." They learn to

value themselves not for what they accomplish or for the progress

they have made, but from whom they have gained approval and affection

(Levine, Kamin, & Levine, 1974).










Frankel (1974) studied the relationship between achievement

and self concept by instructing 97 female undergraduates and

alumni of Northwestern University and of Lake Forest College to

use the semantic differential to describe themselves, and to describe

women in general. Responses of subjects led to the conclusion that

non-goal oriented women have lower self concepts and view themselves

as less dynamic and active. Goal oriented women have higher self

concepts, senses of self worth, and view themselves as more dynamic

and active. Furthermore, a positive self concept, in conjunction

with non-traditional attitudes regarding femininity and appropriate

sex role behavior, is significantly related to achievement and goal

oriented behavior. Likewise, a negative self concept, in conjunction

with traditional attitudes regarding femininity and appropriate sex

role behavior, is significantly related to non-goal oriented

behavior. It would appear that in order for women to hold them-

selves in higher regard, they must, to some degree, develop more

of their intellectual potential and incorporate certain "masculine"

sex role traits, such as independence and achievement, into their

own sex role (Williams & King, 1976).

Although it is clear that achievement is related to positive

self concepts in both females and males, girls and women exhibit

significant internal and external resistance to situations in

which they must compete with males. Horner (1960) and Lavach and

Lanier (1975) have identified a "motive to avoid success" (M-s)

among girls and women when in competitive situations with males.










Lavach and Lanier instructed high achieving black and white girls

in grades seven to 10 to create imaginative stories after giving

them Thematic Apperception Test cues of competitive situations.

Analysis of the girls' stories, in which success for female char-

acters would involve direct competition with males, revealed a

strong motive among subjects to avoid success for their female

characters. Adolescent girls seem to anticipate many negative

consequences from their success in relation to boys. Although

high achieving girls understood and accepted the importance of

doing well in school, many felt success in school would bring neg-

ative personal and social consequences, and therefore avoided success

when in competition with boys. Lavach and Lanier concluded that the

M-s is not a desire to fail, not a seeking of failure because of

expected positive consequences from failure, but an inhibition of

achievement directed behaviors by the expectation of negative social

consequences.

In research with college women possessing high intellectual

ability, Horner (1969) identified the same motive to avoid success.

In a test situation, two-thirds of the male subjects performed

better when in competition with females than they performed when

alone. In contrast, two-thirds of the female subjects performed

worse when in competition with males than they performed when alone.

In addition, significantly higher test anxiety scores for women

than for men were recorded during the competitive situation.

Horner concluded that women will demonstrate their intellectual










potential fully only when not in competition with men. It appears

that reinforcement for competitiveness and achievement that men

receive as they grow up serves them well in the competitive cir-

cumstances of adult life.

Miller and Mothner (1971) have compared the attitudes toward

women in our society to characteristics of other unequal relationships

throughout history. They describe the characteristics of the "domi-

nant" and "subordinate" groups according to who has the power. They

also describe predictable patterns of behavior for both groups and

state that "all relationships that are irrationally unequal share

characteristics that lead to profound psychological results" (p. 768).

The authors assert that the dominants:

1. are tied to and need the subordinates.

2. negatively label the less powerful group, or sometimes ele-

vate the subordinates (e.g., "no woman can be trusted," or

"thank heaven for little girls").

3. obscure the true nature of the unequal relationship by

rationalizing or employing false explanations for the

relationship (e.g., "women are meant to be passive, sub-

missive, and docile" and therefore secondary).

The less powerful group, or the subordinates, on the other hand:

1. are tied to and need the dominant group.

2. are concerned with their survival and consequently avoid

direct resistance to any destructive treatment. (Consequences










to women of any resistance can be economic hardship, social

ostracism, or psychological isolation.)

3. absorb many of the untruths told by the dominants (e.g.,

believe in and perform appropriate sex role behavior).

It seems clear that the unequal relationship between men and

women in our society has historical precedent, and that interaction

among unequals follows a predictable pattern. Both the more powerful

dominants (males) and the less powerful subordinates (females) lose

much in the inequitable arrangement. According to Miller and Mothner,

males tend to lose their humanness and compassion, while defending

their beliefs and behavior at all costs. Females, while living in

dissonance between what feels healthy and what they know to be

socially acceptable, fear retribution for any efforts toward creating

a more fulfilling existence and more equal relationship. Heide (1971)

summarized the dilemma:

If it is good for men to be curious, independent, problem
solving, policy making, and adventurous, it is good for people;
if it is good for women to be sensitive, compassionate, caring,
patient, and intuitive, it is good for people. (p. 9)

Where do counselors and the counseling profession belong in

these patterns of beliefs and interaction? Do they too accept, and

therefore promote, harmful sex stereotypes?

Sexism in Counseling Theory and Practice

Examination of the existence of sexist psychological theory,

counselor preparation, and counseling practice has occurred only

in recent years. Regan (1975) reviewed the report of the American

Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Sex Bias and Sex









Bias and Sex Role Stereotyping in Psychotherapeutic Practice. Two

thousand female therapists were asked to identify areas of sex bias

within the profession. The therapists drew their conclusions from

the experiences of female clients who were dissatisfied with their

former therapists. Clients reported that their former therapists

tended to promote traditional sex roles despite the client's

expressed desire to change. Therapists accomplished this by

advocating marriage or perfecting the role of wife, depre-
cating the importance of a woman's career, and using a
woman's attitude toward child bearing and child rearing as
an index of her emotional maturity. (Regan, 1975, p. 186)

In a follow-up report, the National Advisory Council on Women's

Educational Programs (1977) identified three important areas of

bias: (1) the expectations for women and devaluation of women by

their therapists, (2) the sexist interpretation and use of psycho-

analytic concepts by therapists, and (3) the response to women

clients as sex objects, including the seduction of female clients

by male therapists.

Prior to APA's enumeration of biases within the counseling

profession, Chesler (1972) described several basic premises she

felt were shared by most practicing clinicians: (1) only men could

be mentally healthy, due to the existence of a double standard of

mental health and treatment for women and men; (2) women needed to

be mothers, and children needed exclusive female parenting. Conse-

quently, mothers were responsible for child behavior problems such

as neurosis and criminality; and (3) inappropriate or socially

acceptable sexual behavior was always female initiated, that is,










incest was a result of a female child's seduction of her male parent,

and prostitution was a woman's aggressive revenge.

It seems logical that counselors, as members of our sexist

society, will share similar sex role stereotypes and biased beliefs.

Evidence validating this assertion was demonstrated by Broverman,

Broverman, Clarkson, Rosenkrantz, and Vogel (1970). A sex role

stereotype questionnaire was used which consisted of 122 bipolar

items, with one pole of each item characterized as typically mascu-

line, the other as typically feminine (Rosenkrantz et al., 1968).

Thirty-eight of the items classified in previous research as

"stereotypic" were used in the present study. On 27 of the 38

stereotypic items, the masculine pole was judged to be more socially

desirable (male-valued), and on the remaining 11 stereotypic traits,

the feminine pole was the more socially desirable (female-valued).

Seventy-nine clinicians, 33 female and 46 male, were given the

122-item questionnaire with one of three sets of instructions.

Clinicians were to describe a healthy, mature, socially competent

adult (sex unspecified), man, or woman, by marking the appropriate

end of the pole. Only the stereotypic items which represented

highly consensual differences between women and men, as perceived

by lay people, were analyzed.

Several results were obtained. First, male clinicians and

female clinicians responded consistently in the same way. Second,

clinicians as a group, strongly agreed on the behaviors and

attributes which characterized a healthy man, a healthy woman, or

a healthy adult. Thirdly, clinicians rated socially desirable










masculine characteristics healthy for men more often than they rated

them healthy for women. Only about half of the socially desirable

feminine characteristics were considered healthy for women more

often than they were considered healthy for men. The authors stated:

On the face of it, the finding that clinicians tend to ascribe
male-valued stereotypic traits more often to healthy men than
to healthy women may seem trite. However, an examination of
the content of these items suggests that this trite-seeming
phenomenon conceals a powerful, negative assessment of women.
For instance, among these items, clinicians are more likely
to suggest that healthy women differ from healthy men by being
more submissive, less independent, less adventurous, more
easily influenced, less aggressive, less competitive, more
excitable in minor crises, having their feelings more easily
hurt, being more emotional, more conceited about their
appearance, less objective, and disliking math and science.
This constellation seems a most unusual way of describing
any mature, healthy individual. (Broverman et al., 1970,
pp. 4-5)

Clinicians clearly accept the sex role stereotypes prevalent

in our society and, by so doing, help to perpetuate the stereotypes.

The authors theorized that the double standard of health for women

and men originated from an "adjustment" theory of health:

For a woman to be healthy, from an adjustment viewpoint,
she must adjust to and accept the behavioral norms for her
sex, even though these behaviors are generally less socially
desirable and considered to be less healthy for the gener-
alized competent, mature adult. (p. 6)

Results similar to those reported by Broverman et al. (1970)

were obtained by Fabrikant (1974). Therapists were asked to

respond to an adjective check list describing sex role character-

istics as applied to either the female or male. Significant

agreement was found in female and male therapist descriptions of

the male as aggressive, assertive, bold, breadwinner, chivalrous,










crude, independent, and virile. Male therapists added achiever,

animalistic, attacker, competent, intellectual, omnipotent, powerful,

and rational. Female therapists added exploiter, ruthless, strong,

unemotional, and victor.

In describing the female, both female and male therapists agreed

on chatterer, decorative, dependent, dizzy, domestic, fearful,

flighty, fragile, generous, irrational, nurturing, over-emotional,

passive, subordinate, temperamental, and virtuous. Male therapists

added manipulative and perplexing. Female therapists added devoted,

empathic, gentle, kind, sentimental, slave, and yielding.

The words were grouped by the therapists with respect to their

positive and negative values according to society. Male therapists

rated 71% of the male words as positive, but only 30% of the female

words as positive. Similarly, female therapists rated 67% of the

male words as positive, and only 327. of the female words as positive.

The existence of a double standard of mental health applied by

counselors to women and men is clear from the research. Counselors

also have been shown to ascribe to the same sex role stereotypes as

the general public--stereotypes which are primarily ones of power

for men, and primarily ones of powerlessness for women. A question

is posed by Levine et al. (1974): "Can we not accept the prob-

ability of differences between the sexes without assigning a

demeaned position to the female?" (p. 329).

In addition to the presence of well defined sex role stereo-

types present among counseling practitioners, numerous feminist










writers have criticized research methodology and biased interpreta-

tions of research findings (Kasten, 1972; Kronsky, 1971; Torrey,

1971; Fields, 1973; Chesler, 1972). Silveira (1973) identified

examples from comparative psychology to illustrate research bias

and poor methodology. She stated that in comparative psychology

research, when female and male animal behavior is the same, dif-

ferent value laden words are used to describe each. When female

and male animal behavior is different, unwarranted value laden

words are used to imply that the male behavior is superior. Thus,

female animal behavior is defined as different from and inferior to

male animal behavior. Silveira contended that male bias in research

methodology leads to:

Poor experimental methods--the questionable statistics, biased
observations, misclassification of data, and poorly defined
and untestable concepts. Use of the male as the model for
what is human--thereby explaining only male behavior, treating
women as error or deviance, and ignoring women's articulation
of our own experience. The construction of theories with
little factual foundation and the ignoring or failing to look
for facts which disconfirm the theory. An addiction to word
magic--turning every description of female and male behavior
into an assertion of male superiority. Refusal to go beyond
lay stereotypes to look more deeply into known sex differences
or to explore the possibility of an underlying sameness--the
result here being a fractionate psychology, with numerous
mini-theories and sets of unassimilated data. (p. 16)

The research has indicated that counselors describe healthy

female behavior and healthy male behavior in stereotyped terms

that parallel the terms of lay persons, that counselors negatively

value stereotyped female behaviors, and that methodological bias

in research casts doubt upon any conclusions that can be drawn.

It would logically follow that counselors possessing such biases










might treat their female and male clients differently. Do psy-

chiatric statistics reveal differences in the psychiatric treatment

females and males receive?

Chesler (1972), in a summary of National Institute of Mental

Health statistics for the years 1960-1968, found that a greater

proportion of females than males became psychiatric patients and

stayed in treatment for a longer period of time. Specifically, in

1968, women comprised 59% of the population in general psychiatric

wards, 60% in private hospitals, 50% in state and county hospitals,

and 54% in outpatient clinics. The number of female patients

increased from 479,167 in 1964, to 615,112 in 1968--a growth of

nearly 136,000 patients. By 1968, 50,363 more women than men were

psychiatrically hospitalized and treated in public facilities. The

number of women in psychiatric wards increased nearly 40,000 from

1968 to 1969, while the number of men increased fewer than 10,000

from 1968 to 1969.

Brandon (1972) found that women were more likely to (1) be

admitted to psychiatric hospitals, (2) stay longer in hospitals,

(3) be referred to a psychiatrist, and (4) be diagnosed by thera-

pists as ill or suicidal. These findings indicate that women

populate psychiatric facilities in disproportionate numbers.

Levine et al. (1974) state that certain diagnoses which are

not sex-linked by definition are applied overwhelmingly to women.

Those diagnoses are schizophrenia, affective psychoses, and

psychoneuroses. The authors assert that 60-757 of all outpatients










are women. This finding seems incongruent with the morbidity and

mortality rates for most childhood disorders which are significantly

male dominated (Levine et al., 1974).

A contention can be made that counselors do not "know" women.

Evidence exists as to male counselors' lack of knowledge about

female body functioning, sexuality, menstruation, pregnancy, child-

birth, and menopause (Sherman, Koufacos, & Kenworthy, 1978).

Biological knowledge is fundamental to working with female clients,

and it would be easy for a counselor to make serious errors in

evaluating clients when not informed on current research findings.

Responses to the Sherman et al. (1978) questionnaire revealed

that 18% of the therapists studied either agreed or were not sure

whether rape victims are somewhat seductive. Twenty-six percent of

male therapists did not know that most women selecting abortions

do not experience serious psychological consequences. Seventy

percent of male therapists were either neutral about or thought

marriage or its prolongation is an important goal in therapy for

women. Fifty-five percent of males either did not know or agreed

that it is preferable for women with young children to be at home.

Seventy-one percent of therapists felt that the cure of frigidity

is an important goal for female clients, even though the concept

of "frigidity" and its "cure" is being questioned by many other

therapists.

Other studies demonstrate that, even in initial interviews,

the presenting problems of women and men are defined differently










but follow predictable sex stereotypes (Abramowitz, 1977; Hill,

Tanney, Leonard, & Reiss, 1977; Garai, 1970). Collins and Sedlacek

(1974) reviewed the ratings by counselors of 565 female and 645

male clients seen at the counseling center, University of Maryland,

from June, 1970, to June, 1971. The authors discovered that there

were systematic differences in the way counselors perceived female

and male clients and diagnosed their counseling concerns. Males

were more likely to be rated as having vocational-educational

problems than were females. Females were more often rated as having

emotional-social problems.

Nowhere has there been more criticism directed at psycho-

therapeutic theory relative to women than at the psychoanalytic

concepts of Sigmund Freud. Feminist psychoanalytically trained

therapists, in particular, have shared their insights and anger

concerning the concepts promulgated upon them throughout their

long training. Many therapists believe, though, that the coun-

seling profession does not readily respond to criticism

(Levine et al., 1974):

We in the profession frequently have not dealt with crucial
issues raised by our detractors, but rather have vilified,
maligned, or worse, made fun of these serious critics. They
have been called inadequate, love-starved, queer, radical,
ugly, disturbed--we have (just) tended to stop short of
applying psychopathological labels to them. Perhaps it is
time to pay attention to the message and overlook the medium.
(p. 327)

Many feminists feel that psychotherapy epitomizes the dominant-

submissive relationship in which women find themselves in this










society, and that the acquisition of personal power is not a goal

for women in therapy (Silveira, 1973; Whiteley, 1974; Walstedt, 1972):

Psychotherapy is an unproven and expensive tyranny of one
individual over another, supposedly in an effort to "help,"
but often to the detriment of the recipient. It is an
intransitive and hierarchical relationship in which the
therapist is defined as a person able to understand the
patient, but not the reverse. The term "therapy" implies
illness and a need for "treatment"--that something is wrong
with the person who seeks it. At its best, it may not harm,
but it is always disrespectful. There is no way to use the
terms "therapist" and "patient" that does not put the latter
at a disadvantage. (Tennov, 1973, p. 107)

Freud proposed that a girl's relationship with her father and

all men was affected by her biological deficiencies, specifically,

the lack of a penis. She would, during her life, attempt to correct

her clitoral inferiority by acquiring a penis or, if not possible, a

child. From a woman's envy of the penis emerged her inborn traits

of passivity, narcissism, and masochism (Levine et al., 1974).

Freud believed that the "normal" woman was unable to subli-

mate, and was characterized by a lack of moral sense, intellectual

inferiority, selfishness, emotional bias, and a weaker sexual

instinct. To be a normal woman in Freud's opinion was to be a

far less than adequate human being (Levine et al., 1974).

In addition to the many criticisms one can direct at Freud's

clientele, his research methodology, and his personal maladjustments,

it is important to note that he gave no consideration to the social

and cultural conditioning under which women were to conduct their

lives, that might have partially explained their behavior

(Levine et al., 1974).










Freud viewed assertiveness in women, for example, as neurotic

and believed that non-neurotic assertiveness could be achieved by

women only in their becoming mothers. Thus, when a strong and

forceful woman was seen clinically, her strength was often ascer-

tained as her illness (Kasten, 1972). Assertiveness in women,

while rewarded economically and culturally in some few instances,

is disdained psychologically. There is some truth in Freud's

theory that women who were assertive had made "masculine" identi-

fications, but the reasons for this were sociological and cultural,

not biological.

Once we dismiss Freud's view of women as biologically deprived
creatures, we can be quite clear that women who identify with
males or envy males do so because of the social and political
advantages which accrue to males in our society, and because
of their awareness that males do not have to internalize such
painful and inconsistent prohibitions as do fe.lales. The
concept of "penis envy" can thus be decontaminated of its
invidious biological comparisons predicated by Freud; it can
then be viewed as any other mechanism in which preoccupation
with alleged inferiority is present. The lack of penis, in
brief, has become for some women a symbol of their general
feelings of unacceptability and powerlessness. (Kronsky,
1971, pp. 90-91)

Sexism in psychological theory is pervasive. Even contemporary

humanists have incorporated sexism into theories which logically

would require the exclusion of sexist beliefs (Kasten, 1972). Many

of Abraham Maslow's assumptions about human potential were predi-

cated in his belief that masculinity and femininity were basic

dichotomies. His phrase "feminine creativeness" implied an

unchangeable, genetic quality that existed in wome'i. Maslow

theorized that self actualization took place by way of feamleness









or maleness, preceding general human self actualization. That

is, one must be a healthy "femaleness-fulfilled" woman or "maleness-

fulfilled" man before human self actualization. Maslow stated that

all men were capable of self actualization, while only intelligent

women had such a capability (Kasten, 1972). Thus, intelligence in

women was equivalent to masculinity in general.

The existential, or Rogerian, counselor is committed to the

belief that the counselor primarily helps the client attain her or

his own personal version of happiness. Counselor values are not

to be introduced into the therapy process:

And it is in keeping with the psychologist's typically ivory
tower, introspective naivete concerning the real world
lack of commitment to radical societal change, which would
eliminate many sources of human misery. (Kasten, 1972, p. 41)

The insistence on treating women for individual solutions to a sexist

society is an effective way to avoid making any structural changes in

society.

Research indicates that the diagnosis and treatment women receive

from counselors follow predictable patterns. A larger number of

women are psychiatric patients than are men, and women tend to stay

in treatment for longer periods of time (Chesler, 1972; Brandon,

1972; Levine et al., 1974). Some diagnoses which are not sex linked

by definition are applied disproportionately to women (Levine et al.,

1974; Abramowitz, 1977; Collins & Sedlacek, 1974). Male counselors,

in particular exhibit a lack of knowledge about female biological

functioning and research on women (Sherman et al., 1978). The sexist

premises of several counseling theories were briefly reviewed and










were found to promote both the concept of inferiority of women and

the double bind facing women to choose between appropriate social

behavior or mental health. Most theories were found to exhibit a

lack of consideration of the social and cultural conditioning to

which women are subjected (Kronsky, 1971; Levine et al., 1974).

How do these biases, general misinformation, and lack of

knowledge about women become translated into the actual counseling

process? Is there evidence that counselor sex stereotyped beliefs

affect the presence and quality of therapeutic conditions required

for positive client change? If so, what are the ways in which

therapy is affected, and what need is there for further

investigation?

Facilitative Conditions and Sexism

Although there is clear evidence that counselors accept

societal sex role stereotypes and a double standard of mental

health for women and men, it is not yet clear how counselor biases

affect the actual components of the counseling process. This section

reviews literature on the facilitative conditions and the effects of

client sex on the facilitative conditions.

The goal of counseling is to "facilitate" the process of

psychotherapeutic change and constructive personality change. These

changes imply change in the personality structure of the client,

both superficially and internally, in a way which counselors would

agree means integration, less internal conflict, more eagerness for

living, and change in behavior away from immature to mature

(Rogers, 1967).









There are several conditions which seem to be necessary to

initiate constructive personality change. When given together,

they appear to be sufficient to begin that process. The conditions

are genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy.

Genuineness

Genuineness requires that the counselor be, within the

counseling relationship, a congruent, genuine, integrated person,

and deeply her or himself (Rogers, 1967). The greater the degree

to which the counselor is congruent in the relationship, the greater

will be the indications of movement in the client, and the greater

the degree of constructive personality change in the client during

therapy (Rogers, Gendlin, Kiesler, & Truax, 1967). The importance

of genuineness is in its promotion of feelings of trust and open-

ness in the client (Altmann, 1973).

Unconditional Positive Regard

To the extent that the counselor experiences a warm acceptance

of every facet of the client's life as being a valid part of that

client, the counselor is experiencing unconditional positive regard.

Unconditional positive regard means caring for the client as a unique

individual, allowed to have her or his own feelings and experiences

(Rogers, 1967). The greater the degree of unconditional positive

regard for the client in the counseling relationship, the greater

will be the indications of the client's participation in the process

of therapy and her or his consequent personality change

(Rogers et al., 1967).










Empa thy

The counselor experiences empathy when an accurate, empathic

understanding of the client's cognizance of the client's individual

experience is both felt and communicated by the counselor. The

counselor perceives the client's personal world as if it were the

counselor's own, while never losing the "as if" property. When the

client's world is so clear to the counselor, the counselor can com-

municate her or his understanding of what is known to the client,

as well as an understanding of what is not clearly known to the

client (Rogers, 1967). The greater the degree of accurately empathic

understanding demonstrated by the counselor toward the client, the

greater will be the client's involvement in the process of therapy

and her or his consequent personality change (Rogers et al., 1967).

Furthermore, accurate empathy plays a vital role in determining

whether clients will continue or terminate counseling after the

initial interview with the counselor (Altmann, 1973).

Genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and empathy are

referred to as the facilitative conditions. They are the counselor

offered conditions which "move" the client toward positive growth

and change. It has been demonstrated that the presence of these

conditions is necessary for optimum client growth and change,

regardless of the counselor's theoretical orientation (Mickelson

& Stevic, 1971; Truax, 1971; Altmann, 1973; Truax, 1963).

Client self disclosure is crucial to the client's movement

in therapy. The depth and extent of client self disclosure is









dependent on the genuineness, unconditional positive regard, and

empathy communicated by the counselor:

In all patient and non-patient groups thus far studied with
the exception of juvenile delinquents, the depth and extent
of self disclosure during therapy is significantly and pos-
itively related to degree of improvement. (Truax, 1971, p. 352)

Because client self disclosure is so imperative to the client's

improvement during therapy, it is clear that the facilitative

conditions, offered at the highest degree possible, are essential.

Truax (1971) reviewed the findings from a five-year research

program studying the facilitative conditions and their effects,

with outpatient neurotics and hospitalized schizophrenics as sub-

jects. Data revealed that high levels of facilitative conditions

during therapy were related to patient improvement, while lower

levels were related to patient deterioration.

Effect of Sex and Six Specific Counseling Problems
on Facilitative Conditions

There is a dearth of research on counseling younger girls,

from elementary school into high school (McEwen, 1975). The

research which has been conducted with these age groups is pri-

marily research on career counseling, hence its selection as one

content category for this investigation. Results reveal a clear

pattern of counselor discrimination against girls considering a

"masculine" career, that is, a non-traditional career for females

(Schlossberg & Pietrofesa, 1974).

However, analysis of data from various vocational interest

inventories in which sex norms were not used revealed very similar









vocational interest patterns for females and males (Prediger &

Hanson, 1978). This finding probably comes much closer to reality

than do the highly divergent interest patterns for females and males

produced by vocational interest inventories normed by sex. The

authors concluded:

The data accumulated so far suggest that the sex differences
currently found in interest inventory items, scores, and
reporting procedures may simply be an unfortunate legacy
from an era that took traditional sex roles for granted.
(p. 96)

Abramowitz (1975) found that women aspiring to medical school

evoked stern judgments from counselors. Counselors labeled the

women as "less psychologically adjusted." Thomas and Stewart (1971)

played tapes for counselors of high school girls choosing either a

deviate or conforming career goal, as defined by sex role stereo-

types. Female counselors gave higher acceptance scores to both

deviate and conforming clients than did male counselors. But high

school counselors, regardless of sex, rated conforming goals as more

appropriate than deviate. In addition, high school counselors,

regardless of sex, rated female clients with deviate career goals

to be more in need of counseling than female clients with conforming

goals.

Donahue and Costar (1977) found that high school counselors,

when given case studies of female and male high school students,

chose occupations for females that (1) paid less, (2) required less

pre-requisite education, and (3) were more closely supervised than

occupations chosen for males. Even though counselors sometimes










chose careers requiring formal education for females, they seldom

chose a career that paid well, or was supervisory in nature. It

appeared that counselors felt it was socially acceptable for females

to have an education as long as they stayed in dependent, supervised

roles; in other words, as long as they did not use their education

(Donahue & Costar, 1977).

Counselors consistently rate behaviors of assertiveness, inde-

pendence, and rationality as positive and desirable male qualities

(Broverman et al., 1970; Fabrikant, 1974; Kasten, 1972). Females

who behave assertively, independently, or rationally, however, are

viewed by counselors as exhibiting inappropriate and "masculine"

behavior.

The full and open expression of emotions is considered by

counselors to be positive and desirable female behavior (Broverman

et al., 1970; Fabrikant, 1974). Males who openly express their

emotions, particularly emotions of grief or sadness, are viewed by

counselors as displaying inappropriate and "feminine" behavior. It

was felt that the selection of these specific content categories

might help to elicit sex biased responses from the subjects of this

investigation.

The limited research on the relationship between client sex

and counselor empathy yields conflicting results. In some studies

(Hill, 1975; Olesker & Balter, 1972), counselors at all levels of

experience demonstrated less empathy with opposite sex clients

than with same sex clients. Freeman and Stormes (1977) found that










clients were more willing to accept negative feedback when they

received it from a same sex counselor. Petro and Hansen (1977)

and Whalen and Flowers (1977) found that both female and male

counselors demonstrated more affective sensitivity, that is,

empathy, to male referents than to female referents. The authors

theorized this was possibly due to the counselors' belief that

males are more reluctant to share their feelings and thus engender

a stronger motivation on the part of the counselor to listen more

closely. Hill (1975) reported that both female and male clients

expressed more satisfaction with a counseling session with a female

counselor than with a male counselor. Because female and male

counselors exhibited no behavioral differences in their treatment

of clients, apparently female counselors were simply perceived as

more empathic.

Summary

Research on the facilitative conditions of genuineness, uncon-

ditional positive regard, and empathy identifies the necessity for

the existence of the conditions within the therapy session in order

for maximum client growth to occur. How client sex affects the

presence and degree of facilitative conditions is much less clearly

understood. The research findings suggest that client sex does

affect counselor behavior during counseling sessions. There is a

need to examine more specifically how client sex affects the facili-

tativeness of counselors.















CHAPTER III
DESIGN AND PROCEDURES

This study was designed to examine the effects that the

sex of a client, sex of a counselor, and type of client problem

have on the facilitative responsiveness of a high school coun-

selor and on the counselor's desire to continue a counseling

relationship with a client. Specifically, an attempt was

made to answer the following null hypotheses and research

questions:

Hol: There will be no difference between the mean facilitative

responsiveness of counselors toward female clients and

the mean facilitative responsiveness of counselors toward

male clients.

Ho2: There will be no difference between the mean facilitative

responsiveness of female counselors toward clients and

the mean facilitative responsiveness of male counselors

toward clients.

Ho3: There will be no difference in the mean facilitative

responsiveness of counselors between client profiles.

Q4: On the average, do the rankings of counselor responses to

female clients resemble the theoretically correct rankings

for specific counseling problems:












Q5: On the average, do the rankings of counselor responses to

male clients resemble the theoretically correct rankings

for specific counseling problems?

Q6: Are counselor ratings of their desire to continue the

counseling relationship with female clients affected by

the sex of the counselor or by the nature of the client's

counseling problem?

Q7: Are counselor ratings of their desire to continue the

counseling relationship with male clients affected by

the sex of the counselor or by the nature of the client's

counseling problem?

One of six simulated profiles of high school clients

was mailed to all high school counselors employed in Colorado

during the 1979-1980 school year. Each counselor was asked to

rank order a list of six counselor responses, from most to

least helpful, as they pertained to one simulated client's

profile. In addition, each counselor was asked to indicate

the degree to which the counselor desired to continue a coun-

seling relationship with the client described in the profile.

Differences in first choice responses were tested, using

analysis of variance techniques. Counselor rankings of responses

were tabulated in descriptive matrices as were counselor ratings

of desire to continue a counseling relationship.












Sample

All Colorado high school counselors who were employed in three

or four year public high schools during 1979-1980 were invited to

participate in this investigation. This sample included 563 coun-

selors, of whom 232 were female and 331 were male.

One of the six simulated profiles was mailed to six groups

of approximately 94 counselors (39 female and 55 male). Thus,

approximately 47 counselors (19 female and 28 male) were mailed

the "female client" version of one of the six profiles, while the

remaining 47 were mailed the "male client" version of the same

profile.

Profiles were designed to require a brief response time in

order to encourage participation in the investigation. However,

the profiles were number coded by order of mailing, in the event

that a follow-up letter was required. A cover letter was enclosed

in the mailing to invite the response of subjects (Appendix C).

The letter emphasized the brevity of response time and identified

a specific date for return of the completed profile. Of the 563

counselors invited to participate in this investigation, 410 (72.8%)

responded. Of those 410 responses, 407 were usable and included

159 female counselors and 248 male counselors.

Several categories of personal and professional data were

gathered on each subject (Appendix D). The personal data sheet









was detached from the rest of the instrument when completed and

returned to insure the anonymity of respondents. Data were summarized

in the form of frequency distribution tables in order to describe

demographically the final sample (Appendices E through H).

Counselor ages ranged from 23 to 66, with an overall mean age

of 42.4 years (Appendix E). Mean age for female counselors was

41.8 years, and mean age for male counselors was 42.8 years. Over

one-third of the respondents were in the age range 31 to 40 and

another one-third, 41 to 50. Nearly 20% were 51 years or older,

and less than 9% were 30 years or younger.

High school counseling experience ranged from one to 31 years,

with an overall mean of 10.5 years (Appendix F). Mean years of

experience for female counselors was 9.1 and for male counselors,

11.4. Over half the respondents had from one to 10 years of coun-

seling experience; nearly one-fourth, 11 to 15 years; and nearly

one-fourth, 16 years or more.

Approximately 87% of the respondents held at least a master's

degree and over 10%, a specialist or doctorate. Less than 4% of

the respondents held only a bachelor's degree (Appendix G).

Nearly one-fifth of the respondents held a Colorado Type A,

bachelor's degree teaching certificate and over 57%, a Type B

certificate (master's degree in counseling, plus three years school

counseling experience). Less than 6% held a Type E (master's












degree in counseling, plus two years alternative counseling experi-

ence), and less than 2% were qualified for certification but had

not applied (Appendix H). Almost 17% answered "other" which in-

cluded a Type D administrative certificate or "life" endorsement

in counseling.

Procedure

The Colorado School Counselors Directory (CSCA, 1979) was used

to obtain names and mailing addresses of subjects. This directory

was the most comprehensive and current listing available, of Colo-

rado counselors. Within the directory counselors were listed

alphabetically by school, school district, and county. Each public

high school counselor listed was mailed a package containing four

enclosures: cover letter, personal data sheet, one simulated

profile, and postage-paid pre-addressed envelope.

Profiles were randomly assigned to counselors in the following

manner (Appendix I). Beginning on page one of the directory, the

first male counselor listed was mailed the male version of profile

one; the second male counselor was mailed the female version of

profile two; and so on, alternating the version of profiles in

ascending order so that the sixth male counselor was mailed the

female version of profile six. The seventh male counselor was

mailed the female version of profile one; the eighth male

counselor was mailed the male version of profile two; and so on,










alternating the version of profiles in ascending order so that the

12th male counselor was mailed the male version of profile six.

Beginning with the 13th male counselor, and with every 13th male

counselor after that, the assignment of profiles to counselors

repeated the pattern just described. This procedure assured that

an equal number of male counselors was mailed each version of all

profiles.

The first female counselor listed was mailed the female

version of profile six; the second female counselor was mailed the

male version of profile five; and so on, alternating the version of

profiles in descending order so that the sixth female counselor was

mailed the male version of profile one. The seventh female counselor

was mailed the male version of profile six; the eighth female

counselor was mailed the female version of profile five; and so on,

alternating the version of profiles in descending order so that

the 12th female counselor was mailed the female version of profile

one. Beginning with the 13th female counselor, and with every 13th

female counselor after that, the assignment of profiles to counselors

repeated the pattern just described. This procedure assured that an

equal number of female subjects was mailed each version of all

profiles.

Instruments

Six simulated profiles of high school clients were developed

to measure possible differences in counselor responses based on

client sex, counselor sex, and client problem (Appendix J). The












two versions of any one profile were identical except for client sex.

Client sex was designated by randomly assigning a hypothetical common

female or male name to versions of the profile.

Profiles included client name, client statement made in coun-

seling, test data, and grade level. Following the profile information

were six counselor responses designed to portray the six possible

levels of responding found on the Continuum of Facilitative Responses

(Appendix A). The Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship

scale followed each profile and counselor responses. Instructions

for completing all parts of each profile were written directly on

the profile (Appendix J).

Client Profiles

Information included in the profiles and held constant for

all profiles consisted of a grade level of 12th grade, an I.Q.

score of 110, a verbal percentile ranking of 75, and a percentile

ranking of 72 in mathematics. Test scores were written to fall

within the band one standard deviation above the mean on the

normal curve and to describe a high school senior with somewhat

above average academic skill and intellectual ability.

Six content categories of client statements were included in

profiles to provide a varied assortment of possible client state-

ments, as well as to gather data on the possible differences in

counselor responses toward specific client problems. The statements










were written to represent high school client statements from actual

counseling sessions.

The categories selected were ones similar to those which have

been used in previous research examining sex bias among counselors in

clinical and college or university settings: (1) assertiveness

(Broverman et al., 1970; Chesler, 1972; Kasten, 1972);

(2) emotionality (Broverman et al., 1970); (3) grief (Broverman et al.,

1970); (4) independence (Broverman et al., 1970); (5) non-traditional

career choice (Thomas & Stewart, 1971; Donahue & Costar, 1977); and

(6) rationality (Broverman et al., 1970) (Appendix K).

Previous research had revealed that counselors regarded the char-

acteristics of assertiveness, independence, and rationality as

appropriate male stereotyped behaviors, while emotionality and grief

were regarded as appropriate female stereotyped behaviors. Career

choices were considered appropriate when they followed sex stereotypic

patterns. It was felt that the selection of these content categories

might elicit existing sex biased responses from the subjects in this

investigation.

The language used in the client statements was as sex neutral as

possible to insure that the statement, whether made by a female or

male client, was plausible. Each statement was evaluated for

authenticity as a client statement and for accuracy of intended

content, by one doctoral level counselor in private practice and

two doctoral level counselor educators.










The order of presentation of the client profiles was randomized,

using a table of random numbers. The same order was used for both

versions of profiles.

Continuum of Facilitative Responses

The six hypothetical counselor responses following each client

profile were written to represent the six levels of responses on the

Continuum of Facilitative Responses (Wittmer & Myrick, 1974, p. 55)

(Appendix A). The levels, ascending from most facilitative to least

facilitative, are defined as (1) reflecting or understanding of

feeling, (2) clarifying or summarizing, (3) questioning,

(4) reassuring or supporting, (5) interpreting or analyzing, and

(6) advising or evaluating. The continuum was selected by the inves-

tigator as a way to evaluate the level of facilitation of counselor

responses to specific client problems and to the same problems,

when experienced by a female and male client.

The responses were written to appear as plausible counselor

responses to client statements made in actual counseling sessions

and to portray accurately the content of each of the six levels of

responses (Appendix K). The language used in each response was as

sex neutral as possible. Each response was evaluated for authen-

ticity as a counselor response and for accuracy of intended content,

by one doctoral level counselor in private practice and two doctoral

level counselor educators. The order of presentation of the six

counselor responses was determined by die tosses for each profile

and was the same order on both versions of profiles.










To the investigator's knowledge, the Continuum of Facilitative

Responses, although widely used in teacher education, had not been

used in the present way to evaluate counselor responses to clients

on the basis of client and counselor sex and type of client problem.

Therefore, neither the reliability nor validity of the continuum for

use in the present study has been established. However, the con-

tinuum's theoretical basis, founded upon Rogerian techniques, has

been researched and validated (Carkhuff & Berenson, 1967). There is

some postulating that Rogerian techniques may not be optimally

helpful for counseling with women. However, no alternative theory

had been developed, and the continuum was selected with these con-

siderations in mind (Kasten, 1972).

Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship Scale

Desire to continue the counseling relationship with the

client described in the simulated profile was measured by asking

the counselor to rate the degree of perceived desire to continue.

The ratings were made on a five-point Likert scale with "1" defined

as "strongly desire not to continue," and "5" defined as "strongly

desire to continue." The rating scale and instructions for it were

presented following each profile and six responses (Appendix B).

Instructions were written so that counselor ratings would reflect

the counselor's desire to continue working with the client rather

than the counselor's judgment of whether or not the client needed

further counseling. Because the scale was developed specifically

for this investigation, neither its reliability nor validity had











been established. However, the scale was a Likert-type scale, a

widely used rating scale, and was designed and selected with this

information in mind.

Rater Selection and Training

One doctoral level counselor educator at the University of

Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado; one doctoral level counselor

educator at Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado; and

one doctoral level counselor in private practice in Greeley, Colorado,

served as evaluators of both client statements and counselor responses.

A description of the Continuum of Facilitative Responses was given to

raters and discussed until a consensus of definitions for each level

on the continuum was reached. Sample client statements and coun-

selor responses were given to the raters who were asked to identify

the level of each response, until agreement on all levels was

unanimous.

Raters were given definitions of the statement content categories,

and definitions were discussed until a consensus of definitions

for each category was reached. They were also given the actual

client statements and counselor responses and were asked to

(1) read and evaluate each statement for its face validity, that

is, for its plausibility and authenticity as a client statement and

for the accuracy of its intended content, (2) read and evaluate each

response for its plausibility and authenticity as a counselor

response and its accuracy of intended content as a specific level










on the continuum, and (3) write suggestions for improvements of

statements and responses (Appendix L).

Suggestions for improvement were classified into three

categories: word changes (from one to three words), phrase changes

(from four to 10 words), or no changes (Appendix H). Raters made

only one suggestion for improvement of a client statement, that is,

they judged essentially adequate the content validity of client

statements.

Raters one and two offered essentially no suggestions for

improvement of counselor responses, that is, they judged adequate

the content validity of counselor responses. Rater three suggested

nine word changes and 11 phrase changes. The investigator made a

judgment as to which of rater three's suggested changes to use.

Nineteen responses were altered--13 with word changes and six with

phrase changes.

Research Design and Analysis

This investigation was designed to determine whether high school

counselors respond differently to female and male clients who make

the same statements in counseling sessions. The analysis of data

proceeded in two phases:

Phase I

Subjects' rankings were rated according to their levels of

facilitation, using the Continuum of Facilitative Responses.

Part A: In order to compare female and male counselor first

choice responses to female and male client versions of profiles, a









three-factor analysis of variance design was selected (Appendix M).

The null hypotheses mentioned earlier in this chapter were tested,

using counselor sex, client sex, and profile type as the independent

variables, with level of counselor response on the continuum as the

dependent variable.

Because of the paucity of research measuring the effects of

client sex on facilitative response and desire to continue the

counseling relationship, and because high school counselors and

high school students are seldom used as subjects and clients for

such research, the present study can be termed exploratory research.

Many social scientists feel that "different classes of research

problems may require different levels of alpha" and in "exploratory

research . it would seem advisable to tailor (the) level of sig-

nificance to the open ended character of research design" (Skipper,

Guenther, & Nass, 1972, p. 144). Therefore, in an effort to avoid

a Type II error, the false conclusion that a difference does not

exist when in fact it does, a .10 level of significance was selected.

Part B: In order to determine if the rankings of counselor

responses to male and female clients resemble the theoretically

correct rankings for specific counseling problems (research questions

four and five), rankings for each of the four counselor client

pairings were presented in a descriptive matrix for each profile.

A mean ranking for each profile was reported.





60



Phase II

To determine if counselor ratings of their desire to continue

a counseling relationship were affected by the sex of the counselor,

or by the nature of the client's counseling problem (research

questions six and seven), ratings were tabulated in descriptive

matrices. Two matrices presented ratings for female and male

clients, and a third matrix presented mean ratings.















CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Introduction

This study investigated the effects of client sex, counselor

sex, and type of client problem on the facilitative responsiveness

of high school counselors and the counselor's desire to continue

a counseling relationship. High school counselors in Colorado

were asked to respond to either the female or male version of one

of six simulated client profiles (Appendix J). Counselors rank

ordered given counselor responses (Appendix J). Facilitative

responsiveness was assessed by the Continuum of Facilitative

Responses (Wittmer & Myrick, 1974) (Appendix A). Counselor desire

to continue a counseling relationship was assessed by the Desire

to Continue the Counseling Relationship Scale (Appendix B).

Results and discussion of each statistical analysis and all

descriptive data are presented in three sections. Section one,

Statistical Results, includes null hypotheses one through three,

followed by a discussion of the pertinent data reported in Table 1,

the summary table generated by the analysis. Section two, Rankings

of Counselor Responses, includes research questions four and five,

followed by a discussion of subjects' rankings of counselor

responses. Section three, Desire to Continue the Counseling

Relationship, presents research questions six and seven, followed









by a discussion of subjects' desire to continue a counseling

relationship with clients.

Statistical Results

Hypotheses were tested with a 2 x 2 x 6, three-way analysis

of variance (Appendix N). The criterion for rejecting each null

hypothesis was the .10 level of significance. Since this was a

three factor investigation, interaction effects as well as main

effects are available from Table 1. No interaction effects were

significant at p <.10, so little elaboration of interaction effects

was necessary.

Hypothesis One

There will be no difference between the mean facilitative

responsiveness of counselors toward female clients and the mean

facilitative responsiveness of counselors toward male clients.

Results. Table 1 presents the analysis of variance of the

facilitative responsiveness of counselor first choice responses to

female and male clients. The difference in mean facilitative

responsiveness of counselors toward female and male clients was

not significant at the .10 level; therefore, null hypothesis one

was retained.

The counselors in this study responded to female and male

clients with essentially the same facilitative responsiveness.

Client sex did not affect high school counselor facilitative

responsiveness.
















Table 1

Analysis of Variance of Facilitative


Responsiveness


Source SS df MS F


Main Effects:

Client Sex .41 1 .41 .17

Counselor Sex 2.22 1 2.22 .90

Profile 91.06 5 18.21 7.36*


Interaction Effects:

Profile x
Client Sex 11.37 5 2.27 .92
Profile x
Counselor Sex 6.10 5 1.22 .49
Client Sex x
Counselor Sex 2.16 1 2.16 .87
Profile x Client
Sex x Counselor
Sex 21.16 5 4.23 1.71

Error Term 948.26 383 2.48



* p <.10










The mean facilitative responsiveness of counselors toward

female clients was 2.96 (standard deviation 1.63). The mean facil-

itative responsiveness of counselors toward male clients was 2.90

(standard deviation 1.66). Counselors responded to male clients

with higher facilitative responsiveness than to female clients,

although this difference was not statistically significant. (Accord-

ing to the Continuum of Facilitative Responses, the higher the

numerical value of counselor responses, the lower the degree of

facilitative responsiveness.) (Appendix A)

Because there was no significance with the main effect of client

sex or with the client sex-profile interaction, it was logical to

expect that there would be no difference in counselor facilitative

responsiveness toward female and male clients at all levels (i.e.,

on all profiles). The profile by profile pattern was examined for

differences undetected by the statistical test. Male clients were

responded to with higher facilitative responsiveness on four profiles

(independence, grief, non-traditional career choice, and emotion-

ality). Counselors responded to female clients with higher

facilitative responsiveness on the profiles of assertiveness and

rationality.

Hypothesis Two

There will be no difference between the mean facilitative

responsiveness of female counselors toward clients and the mean

facilitative responsiveness of male counselors toward clients.










Results. Table 1 presents the analysis of variance of the

facilitative responsiveness of female and male counselor first

choice responses to clients. The difference in the mean facili-

tative responsiveness of female and male counselors toward clients

was not significant at the .10 level; therefore, null hypothesis

two was retained.

Female and male counselors in this study responded to clients

with essentially the same facilitative responsiveness. Counselor

sex did not affect high school counselor facilitative responsive-

ness.

The mean facilitative responsiveness of female counselors

toward clients was 2.81 (standard deviation 1.60) and the mean

facilitative responsiveness of male counselors toward clients was

3.00 (standard deviation 1.67). Female counselors responded to

clients with slightly higher facilitative responsiveness than

male counselors, although this difference was not statistically

significant.

Because there was no significance with the main effect of

counselor sex or with the counselor sex-profile interaction, it

was logical to expect that there would be no difference in female

and male counselor facilitative responsiveness at all levels

(i.e. on all profiles). The profile by profile pattern was exam-

ined for differences undetected by the statistical test.

Female counselors responded with higher facilitative responsive-

ness on the profiles of independence, assertiveness, and










non-traditional career choice. Male counselors responded with

higher facilitative responsiveness on the profiles of grief,

rationality, and emotionality.

Hypothesis Three

There will be no difference in the mean facilitative

responsiveness of counselors between client profiles.

Results. Table 1 includes the analysis of variance of the

facilitative responsiveness of counselor first choice responses

to clients on the six profiles. Differences in the mean facili-

tative responsiveness of counselors toward clients between profiles

were significant at the .10 level; therefore, null hypothesis

three was not retained.

High school counselors in this study responded to clients

with different facilitative responsiveness, depending on the client

problem presented. The type of client problem did affect the

facilitative responsiveness of counselors.

In order to determine where the significant differences

between profiles occurred, a Scheffe post hoc pairwise comparison

test was conducted with a .10 level of significance. The critical

value used was 9.50.

The mean facilitative responsiveness of counselors toward

clients on each profile was compared to the mean facilitative

responsiveness of counselors toward clients on every other profile.

For example, the mean facilitative responsiveness on independence










(2.63) was compared to the mean facilitative responsiveness on

grief (3.06).

Table 2 gives the results of the series of Scheffe tests.

Of the 15 comparisons, three were significant at the critical

value of 9.50. Significance occurred when the facilitative

responsiveness of counselors toward clients on the profile of

non-traditional career choice was compared to the facilitative

responsiveness of counselors toward clients on the profiles of

independence, emotionality, and assertiveness. Counselors

responded with significantly higher facilitative responsiveness

when clients expressed problems related to independence, emotion-

ality, and assertiveness, than when clients expressed problems

related to choosing a non-traditional career.

The mean facilitative responsiveness scores for each profile

were rank ordered from most to least facilitative. The order was

assertiveness, emotionality, independence, grief and rationality

(equal), and non-traditional career choice. However, only the

differences described in the previous paragraph were statistically

significant.

Discussion

There were no significant differences in female and male

counselor facilitative responsiveness toward female and male

clients in this investigation. Neither client nor counselor sex

affected counselor facilitative responsiveness.










Table 2

Scheffe Post Hoc Pairwise Comparisons
of Mean Facilitative Responsiveness


Profiles


Independence-Grief

Independence-Assertiveness

Independence-Rationality

Independence-Non-traditional
Career Choice

Independence-Emotionality

Grief-Assertiveness

Grief-Rationality

Grief-Non-traditional
Career Choice

Grief-Emotionality

Assertiveness-Rationality

Assertiveness-Non-traditional
Career Choice

Assertiveness-Emotionality

Rationality-Non-traditional
Career Choice

Rationality-Emotionality

Non-traditional Career Choice-
Emotionality


Mean
Facilitative
Responsiveness

2.63-3.06

2.63-2.36

2.63-3.06


2.63-3.80

2.63-2.48

3.06-2.36

3.06-3.06


3.06-3.80

3.06-2.48

2.36-3.06


2.36-3.80

2.36-2.48


3.06-3.80

3.06-2.48


3.80-2.48


* p< .10
,+ Critical Value 9.50


Scheffe Test
Statistic**


2.57

1.00

2.57


18.51*

.29

7.00

.00


7.94

4.86

7.00


29.57*

.14


8.18

4.86


23.22*










Research exists which reveals that both female and male coun-

selors ascribe to the same sex role stereotypes as society in general

and hold a double standard of mental health for women and men

(Sherman et al., 1978; Prediger & Hanson, 1978). Additional research

reveals that counselors respond with less empathy and acceptance

to clients who express non-sex stereotyped problems in counseling

sessions (Donahue & Costar, 1977; Freeman & Stormes, 1977; Hill et al.,

1977; Petro & Hansen, 1977). Therefore, it was hypothesized that the

counselors in this study might exhibit their biases by responding

with lower facilitative responsiveness to female and male clients

who expressed non-sex stereotyped problems in simulated profiles.

Contrary to earlier investigations, the counselors in this

study did not respond differently to clients on the basis of client

sex. This finding was encouraging considering the examples of bias

against women's attainments still evident within higher education

psychology and counseling departments (National Advisory Council on

Women's Educational Programs, 1977). While 50% of master's degree

and 22% of doctoral degree counselor education students are women,

85% of counselor educators are men, and fewer than 8% of counselor

education departments are chaired by women (National Advisory Council

on Women's Educational Programs, 1977). In private practice, 90% of

psychiatrists and 75% of psychologists are men (Katrin, 1976).

The counselors in this study responded with significantly higher

facilitative responsiveness to clients who expressed problems related











to assertiveness, emotionality, and independence, than to clients who

expressed problems related to choosing non-traditional careers. In

the non-traditional career choice profile, female clients expressed the

desire to become electricians, and male clients expressed the desire

to become nurses. Therefore, the counselors in this study were signif-

icantly less facilitative (i.e. less helpful) toward both female and

male clients who discussed their intentions of selecting a career not

traditional for their sex, than toward clients who expressed other

problems in counseling. The degree of facilitative responsiveness of

counselors appeared to depend on how traditional were their clients'

career decisions.

Counselors selected the least facilitative of responses, advising

or evaluating, most often when responding to a non-traditional career

choice of clients (Appendix A). The advice giving response read, "If

I were you, I'd investigate the field even more by talking with men in

the nursing field (or women in the electrical field) and reading more

in our library career center on specific job activities" (Appendix J).

Counselors selected the fourth response on the continuum,

reassuring or supporting, second most often when responding to a non-

traditional career choice of clients (Appendix A). That response read,

"Non-traditional careers are opening up to men (women), and I think the

desire and enthusiasm you express will help you succeed" (Appendix J).

These two most frequently selected counselor responses illustrate

the dichotomy in career counseling philosophy with which high school

counselors are confronted. Should counselors emphasize to students










the reality of the job market and of making a realistic career decision

(e.g., there are few male nurses and few female electricians), and

advise students to explore other career options? Or should counselors

encourage and support students in seeking and fulfilling non-traditional

goals despite patterns of employment and employer discrimination?

The responses of the counselors in this investigation to clients

choosing a non-traditional career, although consistent with earlier

findings, was surprising because Title IX regulations were first re-

leased in 1972. Those regulations state that schools must insure that

counselors do not direct or urge any student to enroll in a par-
ticular career or program, or measure or predict a student's
prospects for success in any career or program based upon the
student's . sex.
Where recruitment activities involve the presentation or portrayal
of vocational and career opportunities, the curricula and programs
described should cover a broad range of occupational opportunities
and not be limited on the basis of the . sex . of the
students. (Federal Register, 1979, p. 17167)

History has demonstrated that rules and regulations covering biases

and prejudices do not easily or quickly change attitudes. The coun-

selors in this investigation illustrated that point.

The overall mean facilitative responsiveness of 2.93 indicated that

counselors responded to no profile with a high degree of facilitative

responsiveness. Counselors responded to assertiveness with the highest

facilitative responsiveness (2.36) and to non-traditional career choice

with the lowest (3.80). Three profiles were responded to with a mean

facilitative responsiveness between the third and fourth most facilita-

tive of responses on the continuum. Therefore, it can be concluded

that the high school counselors were not particularly helpful to any

clients in this study.









Rankings of Counselor Responses

Subjects' rankings of counselor responses were examined by profile,

answering together research questions four and five. For each profile,

mean scores for responses "a" through "f" were determined (Appendix J)

and rank ordered from most to least often selected. Finally, scores

were translated into their corresponding placement on the Continuum of

Facilitative Responses (Appendix A). For example, in profile one male

counselors' first choice response to female clients was "2" (clarifying).

Male counselors' second choice response was a tie between "1" and "3"

(reflecting and questioning) (Table 3). Mean rankings for the four

counselor-client pairings and an overall mean ranking for each profile

were presented in tables three through eight.

Research Question Four

On the average, do the rankings of counselor responses to female

clients resemble the theoretically correct rankings for specific

counseling problems?

Research Question Five

On the average, do the rankings of counselor responses to male

clients resemble the theoretically correct rankings for specific

counseling problems?

Results: Profile one, Independence, Table 3: Male counselors were

most likely to give a clarifying response to female clients. Female

counselors were equally as likely to give a clarifying or questioning

response. Male counselors were least likely to respond with advice,

while female counselors were least likely to respond with reassurance.

Rankings of male and female counselors while similar to one another

were dissimilar to the correct ranking.













Table 3

Profile #1 Mean Rankings
for Four Counselor-Client Pairings
and Mean Ranking Pooled

Profile #1-Independence

Female Client Male Client Mean
Correct Ranking
Ranking Male CO Female CO Male CO Female CO Pooled


1st 2* 3/2 2 2 2


2nd 3/1 3 3 3


3rd 1 1 1 1


4th 5 5 5 5 5


5th 4 6 4 4 4


6th 6 4 6 6 6


* Note: 1 = reflecting
2 = clarifying
3 = questioning
4 = reassuring
5 = interpreting
6 = advising










Male and female counselors responded with the same ranking of

responses to male clients, selecting a clarifying response most often

and an advising response least often. Rankings of male and female

counselors were dissimilar to the correct ranking.

Overall, the four rankings were similar to one another but dis-

similar to the theoretically correct ranking. A clarifying response

was the mean first choice overall, while reflecting, most facilitative

on the continuum, was the mean third choice.

Results: Profile two, Grief, Table 4. Male counselors were most

likely to respond to female clients with advice while female counselors

were most likely to give a clarifying response. Male and female coun-

selors were least likely to give an interpretive response. Male and

female counselor rankings were dissimilar to each other and to the

correct ranking.

Male counselors were most likely to give a reflective response

to male clients while female counselors were most likely to advise

male clients. Male and female counselors were least likely to give

an interpretive response. Male and female counselor rankings were

dissimilar to each other and to the correct ranking.

Overall, the four rankings were dissimilar to each other and to the

theoretically correct ranking. Advice was the mean first choice response.

Counselor first choice responses were facilitative to same-sex clients

expressing grief and non-facilitative to opposite-sex clients.

Results: Profile three, Assertiveness, Table 5. Male and female

counselors were most likely to give a clarifying response to female

clients. Male counselors were least likely to reassure and female















Table 4

Profile #2 Mean Rankings
for Four Counselor-Client Pairings
and Mean Ranking Pooled

Profile #2-Grief

Mean
Correct Female Client Male Client Ranking
Ranking Male CO Female CO Male CO Female CO Pooled


1st 6* 2 1 6 6


2nd 4 6 2 2 2


3rd 2 1 6 1 1


4th 1 4 3/4 4 4


5th 3 3 3 3


6th 5 5 5 5 5


*Note: 1
2
3
4
5
6


reflecting
clarifying
questioning
reassuring
interpreting
advising










counselors were least likely to advise. Rankings were dissimilar to

each other and to the correct ranking.

Male and female counselors were most likely to give a clarifying

response to male clients. Male and female counselors were least

likely to give an advising response to male clients. Rankings were

dissimilar to each other and to the correct ranking.

Female counselors responded with the same rankings for both

male and female clients. Male counselors responded similarly to both

male and female clients, although male and female counselor rankings

were dissimilar to each other and to the theoretically correct

ranking. The overall mean ranking was similar to the correct

ranking, with a clarifying response as the mean first choice response.

Results: Profile four, Rationality, Table 6. Male counselors

were most likely to give a reflective response to female clients

while female counselors were most likely to reassure female clients.

Male counselors were least likely to give a questioning response

while female counselors were least likely to give advice. Male and

female counselor rankings were dissimilar to each other and to the

correct ranking.

Male counselors were most likely to reassure male clients

while female counselors were most likely to give a reflective

response to male clients. Male counselors were least likely to

advise and female counselors were least likely to give a questioning

response. Male and female counselor rankings were dissimilar to

one another and to the correct ranking.

















Table 5

Profile #3 Mean Rankings
for Four Counselor-Client Pairings
and Mean Ranking Pooled

Profile #3-Assertiveness


Female Client Male Client Mean
Correct Ranking
Ranking Male CO Female CO Male CO Female CO Pooled


1st 2* 2 2 2 2


2nd 3 1 3 1 1


3rd 1 5 1 5 3


4th 5 3 5 3 5


5th 6 4 4 4 4


6th 4 6 6 6 6


* Note: 1
2
3
4
5
6


reflecting
clarifying
questioning
reassuring
interpreting
advising

















Table 6

Profile #4 Mean Rankings
for Four Counselor-Client Pairings
and Mean Ranking Pooled

Profile #4-Rationality


Correct Female Client Male Client Mean
Ranking
Ranking ale CO Female CO Male CO Female CO Pooled



1st 1* 4 1 1 4


2nd 2 1 5 5 1


3rd 4 2 2 4/6 2


4th 5 5 1 5


5th 6 3 3 2 6


6th 3 6 6 3 3


* Note: 1
2
3
4
5
6


reflecting
clarifying
questioning
reassuring
interpreting
advising








Overall, the four rankings were dissimilar to one another and to

the correct ranking, with reassurance selected as the meanfirst choice

response. Counselors' first choice responses were facilitative to

opposite-sex clients, and non-facilitative to same-sex clients.

Results: Profile five, Non-traditional Career Choice, Table 7

Male and female counselors were most likely to give a reassuring response

to female clients and were least likely to give an interpretive response.

Male and female counselor rankings were similar to each other but dis-

similar to the correct ranking.

Male counselors were most likely to give advice to male clients

while female counselors were most likely to give a clarifying response.

Male and female counselors were least likely to give an interpretive

response. Male and female counselor rankings were dissimilar to each

other and to the correct ranking.

Overall, the four rankings were similar to one another but dis-

similar to the theoretically correct ranking. Advising was the mean

first choice response. Of all profiles, the rankings were the most

dissimilar to the correct ranking.

Results: Profile six, Emotionality, Table 8. Male counselors were

most likely to give a reflective response to female clients while female

counselors were most likely to give a clarifying response. Male coun-

selors were least likely to interpret and female counselors were least

likely to advise. Male and female counselor rankings were similar to

each other and to the correct ranking.

Male counselors were most likely to give a reflective response to

male clients while female counselors were most likely to give a

clarifying response. Male and female counselors were least likely to
















Table 7

Profile #5 Mean Rankings
for Four Counselor-Client Pairings
and Mean Ranking Pooled

Profile #5-Non-traditional Career Choice


Correct Female Client Male Client Mean
Correct
Ranking Ranking
Pooled
Male CO Female CO Male CO Female CO Pooled


1st 4* 4 6 2 6


2nd 6 2 4 6 4


3rd 2 6 2 4 2


4th 1 1 1 1 1


5th 3 3 3 3 3


6th 5 5 5 5 5


* Note: 1
2
3
4
5
6


reflecting
clarifying
questioning
reassuring
interpreting
advising


















Table 8

Profile #6 Mean Rankings
for Four Counselor-Client Pairings
and Mean Ranking Pooled

Profile #6-Emotionality


Correct Female Client Male Client Mean
Ranking Male CO Female CO Male CO Female CO Ranking
Pooled


1st 1* 2 1 2 2


2nd 2 1 3 1 1


3rd 3 3 2 4 3


4th 4 4 4 3 4


5th 6 5 5/6 5 5


6th 5 6 6 6


* Note: 1
2
3
4
5
6


= reflecting
= clarifying
= questioning
= reassuring
= interpreting
= advising









advise male clients. Counselor rankings were similar to each other

and to the correct ranking.

Overall, the four rankings were similar to one another and to

the theoretically correct ranking. Of all six profiles, this mean

ranking most closely approximated the correct ranking.

Discussion

On the average, the rankings of counselor responses to female and

male clients did not resemble the theoretically correct rankings for

specific counseling problems. The counselors in this study did not

rank correctly the responses for any of the six profiles. Instead,

there appeared to be great diversity among the counselors as to their

beliefs about the "helpfulness" of specific counseling responses.

Counselor rankings varied according to all three variables: client

sex, counselor sex, and profile.

Inconsistent and incorrect rankings perhaps reflected a belief

that different counseling responses were required, both in reaction to

different counseling problems and for female and male clients, even

when clients expressed the same content in simulated profiles. It is

possible, too, that the facilitative skill of counselors varied,

depending upon the counseling problem, sex of client, and sex of coun-

selor. It would be appropriate to question both the overall facilita-

tive skills of this sample of counselors and the possible existence

of sex stereotyped beliefs.

Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship

Female and male counselor mean desire to continue with female and

male clients was computed for each profile. Profiles were rank ordered

from most to least mean desire to continue (Tables 9 and 10). Rankings

for research questions six and seven are discussed together.








Research Question Six

Are counselor ratings of their desire to continue the counseling

relationship with female clients affected by the sex of the counselor

or by the nature of the client's counseling problem?

Research Question Seven

Are counselor ratings of their desire to continue the counseling

relationship with male clients affected by the sex of the counselor or

by the nature of the client's counseling problem?

Results. Both counselor sex and client problem appeared to affect

the desire of counselors to continue a counseling relationship with

female and male clients. Female and male counselors indicated differing

degrees of desire to continue a counseling relationship with female and

male clients. First, there were differences in the order in which the

profiles were ranked according to mean desire (tables nine and ten).

Male counselors most desired to continue with female clients expressing

a non-traditional career choice and least desired to continue with female

clients expressing rationality. Female counselors most desired to con-

tinue with female clients expressing grief and least desired to continue

with female clients expressing rationality.

Male counselors most desired to continue with male clients expressing

grief and least desired to continue with male clients expressing ration-

ality. Female counselors most desired to continue with male clients

expressing a non-traditional career choice and least desired to continue

with male clients expressing rationality. The remaining profiles were

ranked dissimilarly by female and male counselors.

Second, female counselors indicated a greater desire than male

counselors to continue with female clients on five of the six


















Table 9

Mean Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship
for Female Clients
in Rank Order by Profile


Female Clients

Male Counselors Female Counselors

Mean Desire, Mean Desire,
Most to Profile Most to Profile
Least Least


4.14 5 Non-trad. 4.56 2 Grief
Career

4.11 2 Grief 4.53 5 Non-trad.
Career

3.95 6 Emotionality 4.20 3 Assertiveness

3.93 1 Independence 4.18 1 Independence

3.89 3 Assertiveness 4.11 6 Emotionality

3.81 4 Rationality 3.73 4 Rationality

















Table 10

Mean Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship
for Male Clients
in Rank Order by Profile


Male Clients

Male Counselors Female Counselors

Mean Desire, Mean Desire,
Most to Profile Most to Profile
Least Least


4.24 2 Grief 4.43 5 Non-trad.
Career

4.11 5 Non-trad. 4.27 6 Emotionality
Career

4.00 3 Assertiveness/ 4.08 1 Independence
4.00 6 Emotionality

4.00 2 Grief/
3 Assertiveness

3.95 1 Independence

3.62 4 Rationality 3.55 4 Rationality










profiles and with male clients on three profiles (independence,

emotionality, and non-traditional career choice). Male counselors

indicated a greater desire than female counselors to continue with

female clients on the profile of rationality. Male counselors

indicated a greater desire than female counselors to continue with

male clients on grief and rationality. Female and male counselors

equally desired to continue with male clients on the profile,

assertiveness.

In summary, the female counselors in this study were more

desirous than male counselors of continuing the counseling

relationship with female clients and slightly more desirous than

male counselors to continue with male clients. No clear pattern

emerged, though, to explain the rankings, from most to least desire

to continue.

Mean desire to continue for all four counselor-client pairings

was rank ordered according to profile (Table 11). The overall mean

desire was 4.05, indicating that, as a group, counselors desired to

continue a counseling relationship with all clients, regardless of

the problem expressed. Counselors indicated their greatest desire to

continue (4.25) with clients who expressed a non-traditional career

choice and least desire to continue (3.69) with clients expressing

rationality. It was interesting that counselors were least facilita-

tive toward clients who expressed non-l riald tion;l l e;rterr clio. c

(see hypothesis three discussion).





















Table 11

Overall Mean Desire to Continue the Counseling Relationship
in Rank Order by Profile


Mean Desire, Standard
Most to DeviProfile
Deviation
Least


4.25 .72 5 Non-traditional
Career

4.24 .82 2 Grief

4.06 .67 6 Emotionality

4.02 .71 1 Independence

4.00 .66 3 Assertiveness

3.69 .72 4 Rationality










Discussion

When female counselor responses to female and male clients

were compared (tables 9 and 10), it was evident that female

counselors preferred to continue with female clients on all pro-

files except emotionality. Similarly, it was evident that male

counselors preferred to continue with male clients on all profiles

except non-traditional career choice and rationality. Counselors

in this study appeared to prefer to continue a counseling relation-

ship with same-sex clients.

Mean desire of female (4.07) and male counselors (3.99) to

continue with male clients, and mean desire of female (4.22) and

male counselors (3.97) to continue with female clients were

compared. Female counselors indicated a higher mean desire to

continue with both female and male clients.

Client statement content categories were selected to convey

sex stereotyped counseling problems. Profiles of grief and

emotionality were considered female sex stereotyped while profiles

of independence, assertiveness, and rationality were considered

male sex stereotyped (Broverman et al., 1970). Non-traditional

career choice was considered male sex stereotyped for female clients

and female sex stereotyped for male clients.

The numbers of female and male sex stereotyped profiles were

determined for both the top and bottom three rankings in tables 9

and 10. Among the top three desired profiles were eight female sex




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