• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Dedication
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Methodology
 Results and discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Appendices
 Bibliography
 Biographical sketch
 Back Cover














Title: International education in Florida community colleges
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099513/00001
 Material Information
Title: International education in Florida community colleges an analysis
Physical Description: xiii, 168 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Blankenship, Edward S
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: International education -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Community colleges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Counselor Education thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Counselor Education -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis--University of Florida.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 157-166.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Edward S. Blankenship.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099513
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000099210
oclc - 06952675
notis - AAL4661

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page i
        Page ii
    Dedication
        Page iii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iv
        Page v
    Table of Contents
        Page vi
        Page vii
    List of Tables
        Page viii
    Abstract
        Page ix
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
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        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Review of literature
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
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        Page 63
        Page 64
    Methodology
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
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        Page 75
        Page 76
    Results and discussion
        Page 77
        Page 78
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        Page 128
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
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    Appendices
        Page 139
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    Bibliography
        Page 157
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    Biographical sketch
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
    Back Cover
        Page 171
Full Text










INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION IN FLORIDA COMMUNITY
COLLEGES: AN ANALYSIS













BY

EDWARD 5. BLANKENSHIP



















A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL OF
THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE
DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1980






























Copyright 1980

by

Edward S. Blankenship































In loving memory of my parents

Mr. and Mrs. T. A. Blankenship














ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This study would not have been possible without the assistance

of many people. Grateful appreciation is expressed to Dr. Harold

Riker, chairman of my advisory committee, for giving many hours of

untiring effort, helpful suggestions, enthusiastic support, and

professional guidance.

fly appreciation is extended to other members of my advisory

committee, Dr. Robert 0. Stripling, Dr. Roderick McDavis, and Dr.

John Nickens, who gave valuable encouragement and shared their wisdom.

A special thank you is extended to the Florida Community Junior

College Inter-Institutional Research Council for their funding,

support, and cooperation. Without their assistance, this study

would not have materialized.

A debt of gratitude is acknowledged to the following persons:

To Miss Marie Dence for her valuable help, patience, and con-

stant reinforcement;

To Dr. Richard Downie for his professional expertise in the

field of international education and his support of this study;

To Mr. Russell K. Burr for his contributions and helpful

suggestions;

To many colleagues of the National Association of Foreign

Student Affairs for their interest and encouragement in this study;








To Mrs. Lydia Quinn for her cooperation and personal concern

in typing the manuscript;

To my sister, Mrs. Carol Schubert, and my brother, Mr. Thomas

S. Blankenship, for their constant love, encouragement, and support.













TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . . . . ... . iv

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . iii

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . ... ...... .ix

CHAPTER

I. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . 1

Need for Study. .. . . . . . .. 3
Purpose . . . . . . . . . . 5
Theoretical Framework for International Education 6
Rationale . . . . . . . . .. . 9
Definition of Terms .............. 15
Organization of the Remainder of the Study . 17

II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE . . . . . .... 18

International Student Profile . . . ... 19
The Nation . . . . . . . ... .20
Florida . . . . . . . . 29
Issues and Problems . . . . . .... .30
Lowering of Academic Standards . . ... 37
Political Activists . . . . . . 38
Educationalization of America . . ... 39
Needs of International Students . . . ... 41
Values of International Education . . ... 46
Economic Considerations . . . . . . 50
International Student Programs . . . ... 57
Summary of Related Literature . . . ... 63

III. METHODOLOGY . . . . . . . . ... 65

Overview . . . . . . . . . . 65
Procedures . . . . . . . . ... 66
Samples . . . . . . . . ... .66
Instrumentation . . . . . . . 68
Data Collection . . . . . . ... .71
Analysis of Data . . . . . . ... .72
Part I . . . . . . . .. .. . 72
Part II . . . . . . . . ... 74
Assumptions and Limitations . . . .... 75
Part I Economic Considerations ...... 75
Part II Educational and Cultural Impact . 76





Page

IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . . . 77

Overview . . . . . . . . . 77
Participating Colleges . . . . .. 78
Demographic Data . . . . . . 79
Results . . . . . . . . . . 80
Economic Considerations. . . . . 80
Scope of Current Programs . . . ... 83
Educational and Cultural Impact ...... 85
Discussion . . . . . . . . . 121
Economic Considerations . . . .... 122
Scope of Current Programs . . . ... 123
Educational and Cultural Impact ...... 125

V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . ... 129

Conclusions . . . . . . . ... 133
Implications . . . . . . . ... 136
Recommendations for Further Research . . .. 137

APPENDICES

A. INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SURVEY . . . ... 140

B. INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION OPINIONNAIRE . . .. 144

C. LETTER OF INSTRUCTIONS . . . . .... .148

D. INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION SURVEY ECONOMIC AND
PROGRAM RESULTS . . . . . . .... 150

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . .... .. .. 157

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . . .... .167












LIST OF TABLES


Page

Table 1. Rate of Growth of International Students in
the U.S. 1954-1977/78 . . . . .... .22

Table 2. Distribution of International Students Studying
in U.S. Institutions of Higher Education by
Continent 1977-1978 . . . . . . . 23

Table 3. Leading Countries of Origin of International
Students 1977-1978 . . . . . . . 24

Table 4. International Student Enrollment Florida
Community Colleges 1976-77/1977-78 . . .. 31

Table 5. Responses of Sample to International Education
Opinionnaire by Absolute Frequency, Mean, Median,
and Standard Deviation. . . . . . ... 87

Table 6. Comparison of Educational and Cultural Impact
by Mean of Responses. . . . . . ... 88

Table 7. Responses of Sample to International Education
Opinionnaire by Relative Frequency (%] of Scale
Choices . . . . . . . . . 90

Table 8. Response of Students, Faculty, and Administrators
to International Education Opinionnaire by
Absolute Frequency, Mean, and Standard Deviation 92

Table 9. Responses of Students, Faculty, and Administrators
to International Education Opinionnaire by Relative
Frequency (%) of Scale Choices . . ... 96

Table 10. Responses of College Samples to International
Education Opinionnaire by Mean and Standard
Deviation . . . . . . . . . 101

Table 11. Responses of Colleges by Relative Frequency
(%) of Scale Choices . . . . .... 108

Table 12. Comparison of Responses by Groups to the
International Education Opinionnaire 128














Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the
Graduate Council of the University of Florida
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION IN FLORIDA
COMMUNITY COLLEGES: AN ANALYSIS



by

Edward S. Blankenship

August 1980

Chairman: Dr. Harold Riker
Major Department: Counselor Education


The purpose of this study was to determine the current status

of international education in Florida's community and junior colleges.

Areas examined included the economic considerations for the insti-

tutional community, the scope of current institutional programs and

services relating to international education, and the educational

and cultural impact of international students on an institution as

perceived by American students, faculty, and administrators.

The need for the study was demonstrated by the increased enroll-

ments of international students in Florida and in the U.S., the

growing attention of educators and the general public to the presence

of international students in U.S. institutions of higher education,

and the specific attention addressed by member institutions of the

Florida Community Junior College Inter-Institutional Research

Council to international education in Florida community and junior colleges.








This study was comprised of two parts. Part I studied the

economic considerations of international education for the insti-

tutional community and the scope of current institutional programs

and services relating to international education. The analysis

was based on data collected from 14 community and junior colleges

in Florida. The International Education Survey, developed by the

researcher, was used to collect economic and program data from

the colleges.

Formulae developed by the researcher were applied to the

economic data of a community college to determine an estimated

economic value to the institution and its community. The results

of the formulae application indicated a positive estimated economic

impact of international students on the institution and its community.

The scope of current programs and services relating to inter-

national students in Florida community and junior colleges appeared

to be somewhat limited in most institutions. There was a definite

relationship between the number of international students enrolled

and the scope of programs and services offered by an institution.

Part II of the study analyzed the educational and cultural

impact of international students on an institution as perceived by

American students, faculty, and administrators. The analysis was

based on data collected from 13 community and junior colleges in

Florida. The International Education Opinionnaire, developed by

the researcher, was used to collect respondents' opinions regarding

the educational and cultural impact of international students on

community and junior colleges.







Conclusions drawn from the results of the data analysis

regarding the educational and cultural impact of international

students on community and junior colleges in Florida include:

1. Administrators perceive a greater impact than do faculty

or students;

2. Faculty perceive a greater impact than do students;

3. Students, faculty, and administrators do not perceive a

relationship between the impact and the quality of education;

4. Individuals who have the most favorable perceptions include

those who are Caucasian, female, 51 years of age and older,

or who have had contact with international students outside

of the college setting;

5. Students, faculty, and administrators agree that it is more

important to have a few international students from a

variety of countries than many from just a few countries;

6. Students, faculty, and administrators agree that it is

important for American college students to share their

culture with international students; and

7. Students, faculty, and administrators perceive that the

impact:

a. provides perspectives that improve the learning

environment;

b. promotes better understanding of different people;

c. helps to improve people's ability to accept and

listen to others who are different;

d. helps to promote interaction between different people;








e. helps to decrease cultural stereotyping;

f. increases understanding of cultural differences

and similarities;

g. facilitates learning about other cultures;

h. helps Americans develop a greater awareness of

their own culture; and

i. promotes respect for cultures and other countries.












CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION


International education has become an essential and increasingly

important part of U.S. higher education. In a world of increasing

global interdependence, the need for an increase in the exchange of

knowledge about and among peoples of different nations has become

crucially significant. This reality is the concern of international

education, an area variously interpreted, defined and organized by

scholars in the field because it incorporates such a diverse range

of activities (Shane, 1969).

Edgerton (1978) defined international education as encompassing

activities as varied as exchange of students, scholars, distinguished

international visitors, and ordinary citizen groups of all ages and

types; international institutional linkages; international technical

cooperation and research; area and language studies; citizen education

on global perspectives; and activities that involve literally thousands

of educational institutions, private organizations, and community groups.

International education is based on "the assumption that there

are intangible personal and intellectual benefits to be gained by

relationships with individuals of varied cultural backgrounds. These

benefits can be psychologically rewarding and intellectually enriching

especially when mutual interests are discovered and the basis for a









lasting reciprocal relationship is established. Even at the most

superficial level, the contact between persons of various cultures

can help the individuals involved to better appreciate the impact of

culture and background on interpersonal behavior" (Guidelines U.S.--

Foreign Student Relationships, 1972, p. 1).

In the field of international education there are special

opportunities for community colleges. Gleazer stated that



if people in this nation are confronLed with issues that
transcend international boundaries and if education has
responsibilities in qualifying them to deal with these
issues, then the community colleges beyond any other post-
secondary institutions require an institutional dimension.
Why? Because community colleges are where most of the people
are. More than half of those beginning their college work
in this country now do so in community colleges. (1978, p. 85)



Davis (1971) noted five reasons why two-year colleges

should seek to enroll international students: (a) because community

colleges are educational institutions and international students

come seeking to be educated; (b) the presence of international students

contributes to a better education of American students; (c) a variety

of students helps the faculty in instructional interest and effectiveness;

(d) the presence of international students at a community college can

help the image of the United States throughout the world.

Yet, Kerr and Diener (1975) state, "Many community colleges in

the U.S. seriously question whether they should be involved with foreign

students or with international education at all. The rationale usually

given is that they are locally based educational institutions with local






financial support and therefore should not expand their responsibilities

beyond this scope" (p. 14).



Need for Study


The first recorded international student in the United States

was Francisco de Miranda, later a renowned Latin American statesman,

who studied at Yale in 1784 (Wheeler, King, & Davidson, 1925). At

present there are approximately 235,000 international students

studying in the United States and their numbers have been the subject

of moderate research of varying quality. Systematic investigation

into international exchange did not actually surface until two decades

ago and, even then, the focus centered on the psycho-sociological

influences of international students in the U.S. rather than upon the

problems facing American institutions of higher education with an

enrollment of international scholars (Walton, 1968).

U.S. institutions of higher education are questioning their role

in educating students from other countries, primarily because of in-

creasing financial pressures. Public institutions of higher education

find it more difficult to convince state legislatures and local

communities of the need to increase allocations; and private institutions

are experiencing the effect of social and economic changes which are

taking place in the U.S. (Benson & Kovach, 1976).

"Given these changes, and the concomitant nced for re-evaluation,

United States higher education must undergo a profound readjustment

if it is to continue to play a vital part in fostering international

understanding and good will, contributing to the advancement of know-

ledge, and encouraging cooperation within the international community








of scholars" (Benson & Kovach, 1975, p. iv). In order to foster

international education, U.S. higher education will require an explicit

formulation of national and institutional policies on international

education, as well as institutional assessments of existing programs.

International education has experienced a phenomenal growth in

the United States in recent years. In 1978 there were approximately

235,000 international students in institutions of higher education in

the United States (Julian, Lowenstein, & Slattery, 1979). The annual

rate of increase of international student enrollment nationally for

1977-1978 was 16 percent (Julian et al., 1979).

Many factors have contributed to this growth. Factors which are

external to American educational institutions include the expanding

European Common Market, multinational corporations' participation

in international relationships, and the increased involvement of

developing countries in international affairs (Hood & Reardon-Anderson,

1979). Institutional factors include a decline in domestic student

enrollment, a need for additional financial resources, and expansion

of international programs.

Many educators view international education as a consumer and

export product. Others view it as a financial debit, but perhaps worth

the cost. Others question the value to Americans who pay the

educational bill.

Florida ranks seventh nationally in the enrollment of international

students in higher education with approximately 9,200 international

students (Julian et al., 1979). Because of Florida's large international

student population, and the rapid growth of international education

among institutions in the southern region of the United States, there

is a need for an assessment of current conditions.






The need for this study of international education in Florida

community colleges was specifically recognized by member institutions

of the Florida Community Junior College Inter-Institutional Research

Council in November 1979.



Purpose


The purpose of this study was to determine the current status

of international education in Florida's community colleges with

respect to the following:

1. The economic considerations for the institutional community--

Does the presence of international students at an institution provide

a significant economic value to the institution and the community?

2. The scope of current institutional programs and services

relating to international education--What additional programs and

services exist in community colleges for international students?

3. The educational impact on the institution--Does the

presence of international students at an institution provide an

educational impact as perceived by American students, faculty,

and administrators?

4. The cultural impact on the institution--Does the presence

of international students at an institution provide a cultural impact

as perceived by American students, faculty, and administrators?

This study provides a basis for evaluating the current value

of international education to a host institution. This study is of

significant interest because of current educational and community

concerns regarding the presence of international students in








American institutions. Many institutions regard increased inter-

national student enrollments as a possible alternative to the

projected decline of domestic traditional students in the 1980's.

This analysis provides an accurate basis for appropriate planning

for future enrollments of international students and international

programs and services.

"Currently, administrations, faculties, and other constituents

of most community colleges are not likely to generate strong initiatives

for programs and services on behalf of foreign students" (Martorana,

1978, p. 51). Yet, research is needed to determine evidence re-

garding the impact of international students on two-year colleges

as perceived by their hosts.



Theoretical Framework for International Education


In this age of accountability when all services in higher

education are being examined as to their effectiveness in the

total educational environment, international education must be

evaluated regarding its contribution to the entire institution.

This evaluation must incorporate the inclusion of North American

students into international programs in order to distinguish the

educational and social potential of international and domestic

students (Guidelines U.S.--Foreign Student Relationships, 1972).

When an institution admits international students it accepts

the responsibility of providing them with opportunities to meet and

interact with domestic students in an atmosphere which is conducive

to building positive relationships.








Many U.S. college students have not had much exposure to

persons of diverse cultures. Because of this lack of exposure and

familiarity with foreigners, U.S. students are likely to be quite

ethnocentric. For this reason, it is not unexpected that they might

view the U.S. culture as being, if not the only, at least the "best"

culture in the world. "In establishing an effective program to

enhance U.S. foreign student relationships, a major goal is to

try to sensitize students to the value of diversity, and thereby

change their outlook from this state of total ethnocentrism. To

do this, the students must be moved through a state of 'interculture

awareness' to a thorough understanding of another culture. This

is 'cultural penetration,' and leads finally to the condition of

'intercultural involvement'" (Guidelines U.S.--Foreign Student

Relationships, 1972, p. 7).

In the initial stage, intercultural awareness is characterized

by a superficial understanding of other cultures. It represents

a modification of ethnocentrism resulting from acquiring, through

personal acquaintance with persons of diverse national backgrounds,

familiarity with different cultures. This stage can be reached

through an effective program to enhance U.S. foreign student

relationships (Guidelines U.S.--Foreign Student Relationships,

1972, p. 7).

Cultural penetration can occur only when, as a result of

cultural awareness, a state of open-mindedness is attained which

recognizes the commoness of human needs and respects the different

ways of meeting these same needs. This penetration of superficial

human similarities progresses to the respect for differences and

sets the stage for the development of a more realistic understanding





8

of persons from other cultures (Guidelines U.S.--Foreign Student

Relationships, 1972 p. 7).

Intercultural involvement is characterized by empathy: that

understanding of another person's feelings, thoughts, and motives

which enables one to fully understand the position of another. The

feeling of empathy is normally accompanied by a predisposition

toward emotional involvement with others and an appreciation of the

values implicit in intercultural diversity. A person at this stage

understands and enjoys cultural differences, which are viewed as

both stimulating and rewarding (Guidelines U.S.--Foreign Student

Relationships, 1972).

Faculty members who have lived, taught and studied abroad have

an especially important role to play at this point because they

have experienced the trauma of trying to adjust to a different culture.

In this sense they can serve as bridges between international and

domestic students. Those faculty who have a special subject-matter

interest in the international field, or in the increasing importance

of cross-cultural communications, and those whose children have par-

ticipated in home stays and/or studies overseas are individuals who

are potentially important in helping to establish goals in inter-

national education at an institution (Guidelines U.S.--Foreign Student

Relationships, 1972).

Institutions need to focus on two goals of international education:



The major goal of encouraging U.S. foreign student
relationships is to create on the campus an atmosphere con-
ducive to accepting, listening, and learning from persons
of many different cultures. It is believed that such an
atmosphere will lend to interaction which can lend to under-
standing and hopefully to appreciation for persons of dif-
ferent backgrounds. Such an open, supportive atmosphere







will provide the intercultural dimension which will, in
turn, enhance the educational experience of all students.
A second goal is to make foreign students and U.S.
students aware of the similarities of all peoples. Such
awareness will enable them to more fully appreciate the
unique aspects of different cultures (Guidelines U.S.--
Foreign Student Relationships, 1972, p. 9).



Rationale


Conservative estimates predict that the total annual number

of international students attending post-secondary institutions

in this country will exceed one million in the next decade. Iron-

ically, this population is emerging at the same time that both

individual institutions and state-wide systems are faced with the

problems of spiralling educational costs, declining student en-

rollments, and increased public demand for accountability of tax-

revenue expenditures.

Whether or not individual institutions or state-wide systems

will become more involved in recruiting international students is

contingent upon their historical constraints and their willingness

to plan, budget, implement, and evaluate programs for international

students. Before educational planners reach this process it will

be necessary to develop and promulgate a rationale that is defensible

for a particular institution or system. Is it realistic that com-

munity colleges can consistently attract sufficient numbers of inter-

national students? Based upon its historical development, is it in

the best interest of the community college to pursue this objective?

The first question can be answered in the affirmative. The

community college offers international students the unique educational

choice of college-parallel, occupational, and vocational/technical









programs. Specifically, the community college offers third-world

nations the opportunity to develop rapidly technical manpower through

short-cycle education. This factor is important because approximately

11 percent of all international students in U.S. community colleges

receive funds directly from their home governments. This percentage

could conceivably be increased if institutions would conduct and

publish research on the increased productivity of community college

educated international students. Current research in the area of

the international students' re-entry into their country's labor

market is nonexistent.

The community college environment offers international students:

(a) a relatively low-cost education, (b) individualized instruction,

(c) performance-based instruction, (d) development courses (English),

and (e) a non-traditional student body which has similar educational

objectives. It is apparent that community colleges could success-

fully compete with colleges and universities for this target popu-

lation. However, Martorana (1978) reached a different conclusion:


It may be worth noting that in the future two- and four-
year colleges will be competing with each other for foreign
students as much as they will be for all students. However,
community colleges are in an unfavorable competitive position
because of their traditional concern for local community
services and individual student advancement. (p. 37)


The second question, involving the best interest of the community

college, is more difficult to answer because it calls for a value

judgment based upon definition of the role or educational mission of

the community college. The role of the community college has been








traditionally defined as an institution which is locally supported,

community oriented, and designed to serve the educational priorities

of its constituency. Whether or not international students are a

part of this constituency begs the question of the proper role of

the community college in international education.

The National Colloquium on the Foreign Students in the U.S.

Community and Junior Colleges (1978) concluded that:



1. community colleges as community based institutions are
uniquely qualified to make a significant contribution
to mutual understanding between U.S. citizens and people
of other countries through educational and cultural
exchange,

2. a strong community college international student pro-
gram can be an important facet of that contribution,
and

3. a most essential element in planning and implementing
a strong international student program is a commitment
by the college-governing board, administration, teaching
and support staff, students, and the community--to
provide an excellent educational experience that enriches
both international and U.S. students. (p. 77)



Why is international education important to community college

students? If international students are not presently considered

a part of a community college constituency, there is still a need

for international education to be included as a part of the cur-

riculum. Within limits, the rationale developed at Harvard to

broaden its undergraduate curriculum is applicable to the curriculum

for community college students. Harvard's (1978) proposed guidelines








address the issue of international education in the following manner:



An educated American, in the last third of this century,
cannot be provincial in the sense of being ignorant of
other cultures and other times. It is no longer possible
to conduct our lives without reference to the wider world
within which we live. A crucial difference between the
educated and uneducated is the extent to which one's life
experience is viewed in wider contexts. (p. 15)



Harvard's guideline embodies the concept of global inter-

dependence and the need for cross-cultural education. It is just

as important for community colleges to offer international education

to their students since the community college may be their only

exposure to higher education (Adams, 1973).

Fuller (1978) has depicted a future scenario of the U.S. as

the higher education factory of the world which he refers to as

the "educationalization of America" (p. 40). The basic premise

is that American higher education can be compared to other American

exports. As America becomes more dependent on imported natural

resources, higher education can become a major export in the balance

of international trade.

Although Fuller's "educationalization of America" is plausible,

there are many obstacles to be overcome by educational planners be-

fore it could be considered probable. Martorana (1978) categorized

these obstacles or constraints to planning and implementing programs

for international students in American community and junior colleges

into the following taxonomy: (a) educational and philosophical,

(b) fiscal, (c) political, and (d) logistical.










These constraints or obstacles are not insurmountable in

light of the growing need to improve American foreign policy. If

international students return to their countries to assume a leader-

ship role, it is conceivable that a spillover effect will provide

improved communications between respective countries. It can be

contended that these obstacles or constraints can be overcome

considering the importance of international education to American

foreign policy and higher education.

The following assumptions are basic to a rationale for in-

cluding international education as a part of the program of

community colleges:

1. Unless national public policy is changed to restrict the

entry of international students, the number of international

students that enter community colleges will continue to increase;

2. The American system of higher education will remain com-

petitive (in terms of direct/indirect educational costs,

quality of programs/services, etc.) with other countries'

educational systems;

3. There will be greater competition for students between two-

and four-year institutions and this factor will make the

recruitment of international students more acceptable

to the critics;

4. The obstacles or constraints to implementing programs for

international students at American community and junior

colleges are resolvable;








5. The community college has accomplished more in the

democratization process than any other segment of the

higher education system; and

6. The disparity between industrialized countries and third-

world countries could accelerate if human resources are

not shared, thus creating more conflict.

This rationale supports the position that community colleges

should assume a leadership role in international education:

1. The community college is a unique educational institution

which provides the educational programs that are vital to

an industrialized society.

2. International students, like their American counterparts,

require advanced educational opportunity.

3. International education is a vital component of the curriculum

in order to broaden the American students' context of life

experiences.

4. International students attending American community colleges

will provide American students, faculty, and the community

with a unique educational opportunity to explore cultural

differences and similarities.

5. The American-educated international students may be instru-

mental in their countries' understanding of American foreign

policy and thus improve communication between the two countries.

6. In an age of limited resources, educational planners should

interpret broadly the term "community" in community college.








Definitions of Terms


Cultural Impact: non-academic effects resulting from the presence

of international education at an institution.

Educational Impact: academic effects resulting from the presence

of international education at an institution.

International (Foreign) Student: a non-immigrant student enrolled

in an educational institution in the United States on an "F"

or "J" visa. (Some institutions include permanent residents,

who are also referred to as resident aliens, in their foreign

student populations.)

F-Visa (Student Status): "an F-1 visa and F-1 student status may

be granted to an alien who is a bona fide student qualified

to pursue a full course of study at an academic institution

authorized to admit foreign students. When applying for an

F-1 visa, the individual must prove to a U.S. consular official

that he wishes to enter the U.S. temporarily and solely for

purposes of study and that he has a permanent residence in a

foreign country which he has no intention of abandoning"

(Advisor's Manual of Federal Regulations Affecting Foreign

Students and Scholars, 1975, p. 11).

J-Visa (Exchange Visitor): "an alien having a residence in a foreign

country which he has no intention of abandoning who is a bona

fide student, scholar, trainee, teacher, professor, research

assistant, specialist, or leader in a field of specialized

knowledge or skill, or other person of similar description,

who is coming temporarily to the United States as a participant








in a program designated by the Secretary of State for the

purpose of teaching, instructing or lecturing, studying,

observing, conducting research, consulting, demonstrating

special skills or receiving training, and the alien spouse

and minor children of any such alien if accompanying him or

following to join him" (Advisor's Manual of Federal Regulations

Affecting Foreign Students and Scholars, 1975, p. 21).

Permanent Resident (Immigrant Status or Resident Alien): "an

immigrant is an alien who has been lawfully admitted for

permanent residence in the United States. In common usage,

the word immigrantt' is interchangeable with 'permanent

resident' or 'PR'. Acquiring immigrant status gives an

alien the right to stay in the U.S. for an indefinite period

of time without any need to request extensions of stay, work

permits, etc. An immigrant is never compelled to become a

naturalized citizen. The immigrant of good moral character

may elect to become naturalized at any time five years or

more after he becomes a permanent resident (three years for

the immigrant with a U.S. citizen spouse)" (Advisor's Manual

of Federal Regulations Affecting Foreign Students and Scholars,

1975, p. 45).

Visa: "a visa to enter the U.S. as a non-immigrant is stamped entry

on a page of the passport. It enables the passport's bearer

to request the immigration officer at the port of entry to

grant him admission to the U.S. under the conditions specified

for the type of visa the bearer holds" (Advisor's Manual of

Federal Regulations Affecting Foreign Students and Scholars,

1975, p. 8).





17


Organization of the Remainder of the Study


The remainder of the study will be presented in four additional

chapters:

Chapter II presents a literature review of research and

writing related to the purposes of this study.

Chapter III outlines the specific methodology used in

implementing this study.

Chapter IV presents the results of the study.

Chapter V presents a summary and discussion of the results and

implications to be drawn from the study.













CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF LITERATURE


International students comprise an important and significant

minority of the college and university student population in the

United States. Although the definition of an international

student usually refers to students on "F" or "J" visas, the scope

is much larger when other categories of foreign-born individuals,

such as resident aliens (permanent residents), are added.

Just as institutions differ in academic programs and procedures,

services for international students in American colleges and uni-

versities provide a complex picture of ambiguities and levels of

effectiveness. An outstanding weakness in services for international

students nationwide is the lack of developmental cross-cultural pro-

grams which are creative and properly utilized. Unfortunately, most

American institutions have not discovered appropriate and effective

ways to tap international students as an available resource to enhance

their academic communities or benefit the cross-cultural experiences

of their American students (Martorana, 1978).

The future projections of international student enrollments

are promising. As American colleges and universities are concerned

more and more with economic pressures and deficits, the possibility

of bringing more international students to American campuses becomes

more attractive. International students, with their guaranteed









financial support and determination to complete their programs

become a positive target to fill programs and create revenue

for institutions.

Research data and current programs at many institutions indicate

some positive future developments. The policy statement of the

American Association of State Colleges and Universities (1977) attempts

to clarify the future obligations and opportunities of the inter-

national dimension of higher education. A call for commitment is

made to plan and prepare for the American institutions' responsi-

bilities for the international student. Edgerton (1975) points out

the future increase of students from the Middle East and Africa,

and sees this as an opportunity for Americans to help other nations

in their growth and development.

This literature review focuses on the following: (a) a profile

of international students in the U.S. and Florida; (b) current issues

and problems; (c) needs of international students; (d) values of

international education; (e) economic considerations; and (f) inter-

national student programs.



International Student Profile


The national totals of international students reported in this

study follow the Institute of International Education's (IIE) guide-

lines (Julian, Lowenstein, & Slattery, 1979). These tabulations include

non-immigrant visa holders and refugees, not immigrants (permanent

residents) (Julian et al., 1979).









The Nation

One outstanding characteristic of the international student

flow into this country is its phenomenal growth rate over the years.

In 1930, approximately 9,600 students from foreign countries studied

in the United States (DuBois, 1956). Since 1954, when the IIE began

recording enrollment totals, the number of international students

in the U.S. has increased from 23,232 to more than 235,000. Although

the growth rate has been continuous, the rate of growth has varied

during different time periods. The IIE has accumulated extensive

data regarding international students attending post-secondary

institutions in the U.S. When the Institute published its first

issue of Open Doors (1955), it reported that there were 23,232

international students attending colleges and universities in this

country. Although there was a substantial increase in the number

of international students between 1957-1958, the rate of growth in

1962-1963 was 50 percent greater (Open Doors, 1963).

In 1966, President Lyndon Johnson supported the establishment

of the International Education Act which authorized the creation

of centers for advanced international studies and grants for students

to study at those centers. Although the legislation was passed,

Congress did not appropriate any federal funds for its implementation.

In spite of this limitation, national attention was focused on the

importance of international education. The number of international

students increased to 82,709 in 1966 (Open Doors, 1966).

In 1967, the total population of international students sur-

passed 100,000 (Open Doors, 1967). This population represented

more than 170 countries. Table 1 summarizes the rate of growth






in the number of international students in the U.S. Although

there has been a continued growth in the 1970's, the rate of

growth has decreased to one-fifth of the average rate of the

1960's. This decrease in the rate has occurred because of the

rising costs of higher education in the U.S. compared to other

countries,major cutbacks in federal and private grants at the

graduate level causing graduate schools to give priority to

students currently enrolled, cancellation of preferential tuition

rates for international students in some states and increased

emphasis on providing educational opportunities for U.S. students,

especially minority students and women.

Until the violence of Iranian demonstrations (1977-1980)

politicized public opinion, few U.S. citizens realized the number

of international students attending American institutions. Table 2

shows the distribution of international students studying in U.S.

institutions of higher education by continent. During the last three

years, Iran exported more students to this country than any other.

Iranian students currently comprise more than 15.4 percent (36,220)

of all international students in the U.S. The Republic of China is

second with 13,650 students or 5.8 percent. Nigeria is a close third

with 5.7 percent or 13,510 students (Julian, Lowenstein, & Slattery,

1979). Table 3 shows the rank order of countries and their interna-

tional student populations in the U.S.

More than 80 percent (82.9%) of all international students study

at post-secondary institutions located in four U.S. geographical

regions: (a) Midwest, (b) South, (c) Northeast, and (d) Pacific.

The following states are rank-ordered in terms of international













Table 1

Rate of Growth of International Students in the U.S.


1954-1977/78


Year Number of Students Annual Rate of Increase


1954-5 23,232

1964-5 82,045 13.0%

1970-1 117,976 6.2%

1975-6 179,344 16.0%

1976-7 203,068 13.2%

1977-8 235,509 16.0%



Compiled from Table 4 Open Doors 1977-78 (1979), p. 3













lable 2

Distribution of International Students Studying in U.S.
Institutions of Higher Education by Continent 1977-1978



Continent Number of Students Percentage


Africa 29,560 12.6%

Asia 130,970 55.6%

Europe 19,310 8.2%

Latin America 38,840 16.5%

North America 12,920 5.5%

Oceania 3,810 1.6%


Compiled from Table 16 Open Doors 1977-78 (1979), p. 14














Table 3


Leading Countries of Origin of International Students 1977-78





Rank Country Number of Students Percentage
Change from 1976-77


Iran
China
Nigeria
Canada
Hong Kong

India
Japan
Venezuela
Vietnam
Saudi Arabia

Thailand
Mexico
Korea
United Kingdom
Cuba

Lebanon
Malaysia
Brazil
Pakistan
Colombia

Israel
Germany
Greece
Jamaica


36,220
13,650
13,510
12,600
12,100

9,080
9,050
7,420
6,640
6,560

6,340
5,170
4,220
4,050
3,530

3,370
3,250
2,830
2,740
2,560

2,550
2,510
2,490
2,150


55.4
12.8
13.8
13.3
10.3


(-3.5)
26.4
29.0
(-15.8)
42.9

4.4
(-19.8)
16.3
13.1
(-14.5)

51.8
13.2
14.6
(-2.5)
4.5

19.2
23.0
27.0
19.4


Compiled from Table 23 Open Doors 1977-78 (1979), p. 18









student populations: California, New York, Texas, Massachusetts,

Illinois, Michigan, and Florida (Julian et al., 1979).

The current distribution of international students by academic

level shows that 56.4 percent are undergraduates and 43.6 percent

are graduate students.

Many international students major in Engineering (28.8 percent).

Other academic majors chosen by international students include

Business and Management (16.8 percent), Natural and Life Sciences

(9.9 percent), and Social Sciences (9.9 percent) (Julian et al.,1979).

The primary source of data on international students is the

Institute of International Education (Julian et al., 1979). Although

these data are the most accurate, the precise definition of "inter-

national student" and the undernumeration of international students

by reporting institutions are methodological problems inherent in

this census (Diener, 1978). This situation is particularly true

of the data on international students attending community college.

Only one-half of the 20 states, which have more than three-quarters

of the nation's community colleges, compile statistics on enrollments

of international students in community and junior colleges (Martorana,

1978). Included among the states that do not compile these statistics

are Florida, Illinois, New York, and Texas. Therefore, the statistics

that are available are conservative estimates.

The growth rate in the number of international students attending

two-year institutions has been dramatic. In the last seven years

the international student population at two-year colleges has increased

by a factor of 2.5 (Julian et al., 1979). Currently 37,446, repre-

senting 15.9 percent, of all international students attend two-year








institutions based on figures from reporting institutions. Miami-

Dade Community College (MDCC), in reporting data on international

students for 1977-1978, had the largest international student

population (3,456) of any single American institution.

Diener(1978) reports that until the mid-1960's, the flow of

international students into community and junior colleges was quite

small. With some exceptions, mostly in the private sector, few

public or independent community and junior colleges enrolled more

than a handful of international students. By the early 1970's the

development of public community and junior colleges which offered

many and often unique learning opportunities, together with the

increased interest and ability of developing nations and learners

to use these learning opportunities, produced a substantial growth

in international student involvement in these institutions.

In 1974, the Community/Junior College Committee of the National

Association for Foreign Student Affairs (NAFSA) surveyed all two-year

institutions to find out how many international students were enrolled

in two-year colleges in the U.S. The results of the survey, which

were considered to have a dramatic and impressive impact on community

college educators, showed that over 50,000 international students

were enrolled in the institutions that responded to the survey.

This total represents international student holders of visas, refugees,

and immigrants. Although approximately 50 percent of the community

colleges in the U.S. responded to the survey, these institutions

represented more than two-thirds of the students enrolled in two-

year colleges. The study indicated that over 7 percent of all students







enrolled in community and junior colleges in California, Hawaii,

and Nevada were international students. Miami-Dade Community

College responded with the largest enrollment having 6,543 (in-

cluding resident aliens and refugees) or 20 percent of the student

body. Nationally, the study showed that almost 2.5 percent of all

students in community and junior colleges in the U.S. were inter-

national students.

In 1977, the NAFSA Community/Junior College Committee and the Joint

Task Force on Data Collection, composed of representatives of the

American Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers

(AACRAO), the Institute of International Education (IIE) and NAFSA,

conducted a comprehensive and in-depth census of international

students in the U.S. (Diener, 1978). There were 356 community and

junior colleges which responded to the survey. They reported a total

20,794 international students enrolled in two-year colleges. Although

it appears that there was a decrease of over 30,000 international

students in two-year colleges since the 1974 study, the change in

numbers seems to have been the result of differing definitions. "The

1974 NAFSA study counted as foreign students holders of visas,

refugees, and immigrants. The 1977 task force survey includes only

visa holders and refugees--immigrants are not counted" (Diener, 1978,

p. 17). By including the immigrants in the total, the enrollment of

international students in two-year colleges is approximately 68,000

(Diener, 1978).

From the data of this 1977 Task Force Survey, Diener (1978)

concluded that: (a) there has been a recent and dramatic increase

in the number of international students in community and junior








colleges in the U.S.; (b) it is possible that as many as one out

of every five international students in the U.S. is now attending

a community or junior college; (c) in some institutions, sufficient

numbers of international students are enrolled to create sizeable

minorities within those student bodies; and (d) in hundreds of

U.S. institutions international students are enrolled in sufficient

numbers to require special programs, services, and administrative and

counseling staff.

The demographic data generated by the 1977 Joint Task Force

survey are critical to the profile of international students currently

enrolled in the U.S. It was found that of the international students

in two-year colleges: (a) 68 percent are male and 32 percent are

female; (b) 80 percent are single; and (c) 47 percent have an F-l

visa, 38 percent have refugee status, and the remaining numbers have

F-2, J-1, J-2, or other non-resident visa types (Diener, 1978).

Cuba (23 percent) and Iran (14 percent) dominate the enrollment

figures of international students in two-year colleges (Diener, 1978).

By geographic region, Latin America is represented by 40 percent of

the international student enrollment in two-year colleges, while

the Near and Middle East have 25 percent (Diener, 1978).

Gleazer (1978) has pointed out that

countries will vary in the aspects of American community
colleges that interest them most, but in almost every case
the need for middle level manpower, for those trained in
technical and vocational education, attracts them to com-
munity colleges. . Prestige of vocational-technical
programs increases as students see the broad range of options
available to them in initial employment and as they make
other career choices during their lives. (p. 17)








Grafton (1970) has reported that 80 percent of international

students in two-year colleges were in transfer programs. He also

noted that international students tended to enroll in two-year

colleges that were near four-year institutions to which they

planned to transfer.

Florida

As in the nation, the number of international students is

continuing to increase in Florida. Villa (1970) identified the

first two international students to study in Florida as two

Russian students who enrolled in the College of Agriculture at the

University of Florida in 1889. In 1963, Florida ranked 15th

nationally with a total international student population of 1,076.

Most of these students attended the University of Miami, University

of Florida, and Barry College, in that order.

Presently Florida ranks seventh nationally behind California,

New York, Texas, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Michigan in the total

number of international students attending post-secondary institu-

tions (Julian, Lowenstein, & Slattery, 1979).

In 1978 there were 9,209 international students enrolled in

institutions of higher education in Florida (Julian et al., 1979).

This total represents 3.9 percent of the total student enrollment

in Florida. As reported to the IIE (Julian et al., 1979), 76.3 percent

(7,030) of the international students are enrolled in two- and

four-year public institutions of higher education in Florida. Two-

year colleges comprise 51.1 percent (4,707) of the international

student enrollment in Florida. This total represents 12.6 percent








of all students attending four-year public and private insti-

tutions in Florida. Table 4 lists alphabetically Florida's

two-year institutions and their respective international student

enrollments as reported to the IIE.

Kaplan (1973) reported that, of the international students

enrolling in Florida's State University System (SUS) institutions,

58 percent were undergraduate and 40 percent were graduate students.

These students represented 3 percent of the total enrollment of SUS.

The median age for these students was 25. The distribution by sex

was 70 percent male, 14 percent female, and 16 percent unreported.

More current demographic data regarding SUS international student

characteristics were not available for this report.



Issues and Problems


As the number of international students has grown so rapidly,

so have the issues and problems. An important issue is the admissions

policy for international students. Since other countries have

different standards of instruction and evaluation, it is difficult

to evaluate the academic status of an international student applying

to an American institution. The evaluation process for the international

applicant is frequently complicated by the inability of American

admissions personnel to establish academic credentials by course

credits and grade point averages. There is further confusion in

trying to define terms used in international educational systems

such as "high school," "baccalaureate," "college,' and "doctorate"

which often differ from their use in the United States.













Table 4

International Student Enrollment-Florida Community Colleges

1976-77/1977-78


Non-Immigrants
Institution 1976-77 1977-78 % Change


Brevard Cmty. College 30 100* 233
Broward Cmty. College 56 60* 7
Central Fl. Cmty. College 45 49 9
Chipola Jr. College 5 6 20
Daytona Beach Cmty. College 30 46 53
Edison Cmty. College 9* 10* 11
Fl. Jr. College Jacksonvl 12* 22 83
Fl. Keys Cmty. College 2 1 50-
Gulf Coast Cmty. College 27 42 56
Hillsborough Cmty. College 59* 46 22-
Indian River Cmty. College 37* 50* 35
Lake City Cmty. College 27 6 78-
Lake-Sumter Cmty. College 8* 7* 13-
Manatee Jr. College 42 12* 71-
Miami-Dade Cmty. College 3,808 3,456 9-
North Fl. Jr. College 18 57 217
Okaloosa-Walton Jr. College 2* 19 850
Palm Beach Jr. College 59* 60* 2
Pasco-Hernando Cmth. College 0 0
Pensacola Jr. College 14 17 21
Polk Cmty.College 20 19 5-
Santa Fe Cmty. College 97 135 39
Seminole Cmty. College 25 24 4-
South Fl. Jr. College 2 2
St. John's River Jr. College 8 7 13-
St. Petersburg JC Clearwater 31 0 N 100-
St. Petersburg Jr. College 97* 317 227
Tallahassee Cmty. College 33 38 15
Valencia Cmty. College 77 85* 10

Legend: N-No Reply *-Estimate



Compiled from Open Doors 1977/78 (1979) pp. 37-38








In addition, the lengths ofschool programs in foreign countries

differ from our own. Parrish (1977) says, "although it is not as

commonplace now as in the past, significant numbers of foreign

students have been admitted through error to graduate study in

United States institutions on the basis of a 'bachelor's' degree

awarded by a secondary school" (p. 3).

The failure of American institutions to develop effective

admissions policies for international students has created a major

problem. Unfortunately, admissions officers fail to adhere to

appropriate admissions policies for international students once

critical policies are established (Parrish, 1977).

A major complaint of many officials in higher education in

the U.S. is that the prestige of American institutions abroad is

in jeopardy. This is a result of the acceptance of many inter-

national students who have been denied admission to advanced

programs in their own country because of poor qualifications.

This issue has created an urgent plea from professionals that

American institutions be careful to admit only international

students who can be expected to complete their academic programs

(Parrish, 1977). Dart (1975) relates that the primary problem

with the admission of international students is the failure of

American institutions to inform international students accurately

about their procedures, policies, and programs.

Another issue of concern is the English proficiency of inter-

national applicants. "There is a high correlation between a

foreign student's academic progress in U.S. educational insti-

tutions and his proficiency in English" (Parrish, 1977, p. 2).








The Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to

measure a student's proficiency. "It is well known that testing

alone does not always give a completely accurate picture of every

foreign student's ability in English" (Parrish, 1977, p. 3).

Probably the most important issue regarding international /

students in American institutions is the difficulty that many

have in adjusting to a new environment. The culture shock that

occurs can be extremely damaging to an international student's

academic performance and emotional stability. Marjorie Klein

(1977) explores the sociological and psychological problems,

patterns, and phases of adjustment to new environments. Klein

points out that conflict and stress are key elements in adjust-

ment to a new culture. She defines four phases of adjustment:

(1) spectator phase; (2) stress and adaption phase; (3) coming-

to-terms phase; and (4) decision phase. The most commonly

observed patterns of adaption are instrumental adaption, iden-

tification, withdrawal, and resistance. Klein points out that

it is important to understand that an individual's own culture

determines the role of adjustment conflict and what is to be

considered stressful. Yet, Klein suggests that the patterns

of adaptive responses to stress are similar across cultures.

The attitudinal changes that occur in cross-cultural in-

volvement are critical in terms of negative or positive experiences.

The social status of being somehow different presents international

students with a certain amount of ambiguity. "Foreign students

often are expected to understand things to the same degree that

U.S. students do, are expected to participate adequately in all









things that American students do, and are granted little recognition

of their difficulties" (Hendricks and Skinner, 1977, p. 125).

It has become crucial for the American institution to understand,

define, and implement for international students appropriate cross-

cultural programs which will create the most rewarding environment

for their adjustment. Kohne (1976) relates that international

students must be understood in terms of the actual academic and

social milieu of their particular college or community, rather than

in terms of sweeping psychological or social generalizations.

A moral and ethical issue which has been complicated by

university and governmental policies is one of financial assistance

for international students. Many believe that financial aid should

be directed to American students since most international students

return to their home countries with their new knowledge and skills.

Yet, many also feel that our obligation to people of underdeveloped

countries is a moral, financial, and educational responsibility.

In a statewide study of international students' concerns in

public two-year colleges in Florida, Breuder (1972) found that

financial aid ranked first in order of importance. Other problem

areas were proficiency in English, admissions selection, and

academic advising. Interestingly, students who had been on campus

for some time perceived problems in about the same way as the newly

enrolled international students indicating that areas of concern

do not change over time.

Hart (1974), in a study of international students in Texas

public community colleges,drew conclusions similar to those








resulting from Breuder's Florida study. Advisors and inter-

national students perceived financial aid concerns, admissions

selections, and academic advising to be problems ranked highly.

The study did find that international students in colleges

enrolling 25 or fewer international students had more problems

than those in institutions enrolling more than 25 international students.

In a similar study, Winchester and Gilbertson (1973) analyzed

the programs for international students in Washington's colleges

and universities. Their results, received through responses to

an International Student Problem Questionnaire, indicated that

problem areas include admissions, financial aid, residency require-

ments, tuition waivers, and exchange problems. The authors

suggested that a clearinghouse for international student programs

should be created.

Winkler (1974) stated that international students have

experienced financial difficulties because of the rising cost

of living in the U.S., declining numbers of assistantships, the

extreme difficulty in obtaining work visas, and the increasing

tuition costs.

Bailey and Powell (1978) studied the international student

population at the University of California at Berkeley. Their

study produced some specific recommendations regarding inter-

national student enrollment. These include: 1) international

students should be no more than 4-6 percent of the student

population on campus; 2) they should be admitted once a year, with

early admissions deadlines; 3) they should have adequate financial








support; 4) they should be better distributed geographically and

by academic disciplines; 5) English language proficiency should

be assured before admitting them; 6) international student offices

should have sufficient staffs; 7) physical facilities should be

designated to promote interaction between international and /

American students; and 8) orientation programs should be expanded.

Martorana (1978) found that 65 percent of the community

colleges he surveyed did not provide for the special needs of inter-

national students enrolled in their institutions because of

insufficient financial resources, the lack of institutional policy,

and the lack of staff trained and committed to providing for the

needs of international students. Parrish (1977) concludes that

'in accepting foreign students, a United States institution should

constantly be aware of its responsibilities to the student, to

other educational institutions, and to United States higher edu-

cation as a whole. Lax admissions policies or procedures which

permit non-qualified foreign students to enter programs in which

they have little chance for success can only result in waste of

the institutions' resources, frustration for the student, and

damage to the cause of international education" (p. 7).

Kerr (1975) states that "an educational institution which

accepts foreign students must assume certain continuing obligations

to them. Students from other cultures present special problems

of acculturation and have special educational needs related to their -

own cultures. Educational institutions, therefore, must be mindful

of their capabilities and make suitable provision to meet them"

(p. 1). Bailey (1975) states that because of a greater need for








national leaders and the citizenry to be better informed on

international affairs, international education in U.S. insti-

tutions of higher education needs greater attention in a more

interdependent world.

Three additional issues must be addressed: (a) lowering of

academic standards, (b) political activists, and (c) the edu-

cationalization of America (Fuller, 1978).



Lowering of Academic Standards

A recent criticism raised about the substantial increase in

the number of international students enrolled is that institutions

are lowering their academic standards (Fuller, 1978). This

criticism has occurred because some institutions have altered their

curricula to suit the needs of international students and have

indiscriminately recruited international students. However, Baker

(1975) found in a study at Texas Tech University that two-year

college international student transfers did better than carefully

screened international students directly from high school, entering

domestic students, or international student transfers from other

four-year institutions.

If institutions accept international students, they should

provide the educational programs that international students will

be able to utilize upon returning to their countries. This need

for programs is compounded by the difficulties that admissions

officers face in evaluating the past academic record of the inter-

national student. Although most institutions require a passing

score on the TOEFL, the test does not guarantee that the international

student has mastered the language to compete academically with








native speakers or that the international student will adjust to

the American way of doing things. A more comprehensive data-

acquisition system about international students' academic success

in American colleges and universities is needed in order to

evaluate the criticism of lowering academic standards.



Political Activists

Political activism in the form of public demonstrations is

an apparent modus operandi by some international students to rally

support for their causes. The news media report on a daily basis

the outbreak of new confrontations between differing factions around

the world. Although Americans value freedom of speech and the right

to assemble, a conflict in values occurs when international students

demonstrate on college and university campuses. The conflict in

values is increased by the public's expectations of how international

students should conduct themselves in this country. Perhaps the

following description by Eve H. Varellas, discussed by Middleton (1978),

regarding the change in public attitude towards international students

in Texas as a result of Iranian demonstrations pinpoints the issue:



It's really a "we and they" attitude--Texans are real angry
that Iranians don't appreciate being here. They want the
international students to come visit their churches and wear
their pretty little costumes and cook their international
dishes--and tell them how much they love Americans. (p. 9)



After the Iranian demonstrations have become history, there is the

possibility of a backlash in public support for all international

students. This reaction may have the unfortunate effect of curtailing









public support to increase international student enrollments

at a time when international education could facilitate com-

munication between countries.



Educationalization of America

Fuller (1978) defines the "educationalization of America" (p. 40)

as a future scenario of the U.S. as the higher education factory of

the world. With the anticipated enrollment of 10,000 mainland

Chinese students in the U.S. in the next few years and the prediction

that international student enrollment will increase to a million in

the next decade (Fuller, 1978), the U.S. higher education factory

may become a reality sooner than expected. Will the American taxpayer

support the education of international students? Are American insti-

tutions prepared to provide the necessary educational support

services such as counselors trained in cross-cultural counseling,

on-going cultural orientation programs, international career and job

placement programs, and special alumni programs? These and similar

questions will have to be resolved before there will be the "edu-

cationalization of America" (Fuller, 1978).

Who benefits from international education? The beneficiaries

include the international students and their countries, U.S. edu-

cational institutions, foreign policy, and U.S. students. The

international student benefits from exposure to the advanced edu-

cational and technological opportunities provided by our institutions.

Foreign countries benefit by having a more educated citizenry which

is particularly important in light of the growing disparity in








technology among countries, the increasing interdependence of

countries for resources, and for third-world countries that are

striving to advance technologically. U.S. educational institutions

and their respective communities benefit by having students who

can help pay the direct and indirect costs of higher education.

This factor will become increasingly important as the costs of

higher education continue to spiral and the projected U.S. student

enrollment in the 1980's declines. As international students

return to their countries to assume leadership roles, it is con-

ceivable that a "spillover" effect will provide improved commu-

nications between the respective countries. Kenneth Holland (1972),

President of the IIE, has said:



Not only do we need Americans who are informed about other
countries. We need leaders and potential leaders in other
countries who are informed about the United States through
first-hand experience in it. Without question, the vast
majority of foreign students who study in the U.S. go back
to their countries with an understanding of this country,
of our people and our way of life, that they could gain in
no other way. (Open Doors, p. 1)



Perhaps the greatest potential benefit which has not come to fruition

is the cross-cultural educational opportunity for American students.

Scully (1978) states that "the U.S. educational system is woefully

deficient in preparing Americans to live in a highly interdependent

world" (p. 1). He also reports that a growing number of educators,

including Ernest L. Boyer, former U.S. Commissioner of Education,

recommend that "'education for global interdependence' be given a

high priority not only at colleges and universities but at elementary

and secondary schools" (p. 1).








McKeown (1974) developed a taxonomic view of rationales for

international education. He hypothesized that individuals and,

therefore, society/governmental policy, may pass through distinct

developmental stages that are hierarchical. According to his

hypothesis, there are three categories with nine stages:

1. The National Orientation Category

stage 1. To avoid National injury.

stage 2. To increase National worth.

stage 3. To promote National image.

2. The Personal Orientation Category

stage 4. To develop self appreciation.

stage 5. To increase personal enjoyment.

stage 6. To gain self fulfillment.

3. The International-Interhuman Orientation Category

stage 7. To prevent international conflict.

stage 8. To secure international order.

stage 9. To attain international justice. (p. 21)



Needs of International Students


The educational progress of the international student covers

a broader range, and is even more difficult to measure, than that

of the American student (Mueller, 1961). There is a variety of

needs to be considered regarding the dynamics of the international

student's life. The specific needs and expectations of international

students must be accommodated differently than are those of American

students (Ramberg, 1977).








The individual international student tends to operate within

a limited social field, which includes people who play instrumental

roles in the student's strategy for coping. Because of this limited

social field, the international student may neither expect nor

encourage interference in his life. The value of social inter- J

action with American students may be hindered by American prejudices

and ignorance. Therefore, "most foreign students choose friends

who are fellow nationals or foreign students from other countries"

(Hendricks and Skinner, 1977, p. 126).

"Adaptation takes place on different levels: for instance,

the surface adjustment, achievement of specific goals, and global

satisfaction may mask a deeper failure of meaningful interpersonal

contact or enduring cognitive and affective change" (Klein, 1977, p. 6).

The educational progress of international students, like

that of other students, depends on their native potential, the

strength of the motivation, and their preparatory experiences

(Mueller, 1961). The American institution is responsible for

providing an appropriate and constructive learning environment,

understanding the unique problems and needs of the international

student, and maintaining supportive services to enhance the lives

of the students while they are in the United States and when they

return home.

The educational value of the living and academic environments

is critical to the social and emotional development of the inter-

national student. Since the primary objective of international

students studying in the U.S. is to get an education, the development

of a conducive learning environment is the responsibility of the








university and the community. The international student and the

university need to work together within the environment to

develop a favorable relationship which will humanize the edu-

cational experiences and allow living and learning to converge.

The need for academic staff and faculty to understand the cultural

differences of international students is relevant to the need of

the institution to develop an environment where the interchange

of cultural knowledge can be utilized as a valuable educational resource.

Within this framework, the role of the international student

advisor is most important as an agent to facilitate learning. The

advisor must understand the cultural relativism and the close re- -

lationship between personality and culture, while remaining alert

to personal attitudes and motivations which are not openly expressed

(Mueller, 1961).

Johnson (1971) found that international students experienced

problems similar to or the same as problems experienced by American

students. Through the dynamics of a conducive educational environ-

ment the international student can grow academically while reinforcing

his self-concept and enhancing his interpersonal relationships

(Huang, 1977). Huang points out that, as well as struggling with

the difficulties of adjusting to a new culture and new values,

international students suffer from the same anxieties as do American

students towards academic performance and success. He states that

too frequently these anxieties are overlooked by counselors and

greater emphasis is placed on the cultural adjustment problems.

The international student may be functioning at a higher level of








motivation and the importance that he places on success in school

may exceed that of his American counterpart. Because of this

motivation, his anxiety over the academic realm of his life may be

extremely high.

The university, through its philosophical foundation, be-

lieves in the dignity of each individual and the potential of each

person's self-development. To better comprehend the significance

of individual differences of international students, the university

needs to understand their special problems upon their arrival.

International students are confronted with unfamiliar customs and

food, a novel educational system, loneliness and isolation, com-

munication problems, prejudice, confusion about etiquette and

American survival skills (Altscher, 1976).

The value of the counseling process focuses on the development

of self-worth and a positive self-concept for each individual. The

counseling process becomes a search for a satisfactory personal status

and for interpersonal relationships which support this status in the

face of the many factors which inevitably counteract it. "The

needed self-esteem may be damaged by an inadequate ability to com-

municate--whether because of faulty English, as with many Asians;

or racial barriers as with the non-whites; or cultural distance as

with those from geographically distant and underdeveloped countries.

Self-esteem may suffer also through failure to achieve expected

academic goals, due to language disability, educational handicaps,

or poor placement; or through financial or emotional difficulties"

(Mueller, 1961, p. 497).









Vroman (1972) indicates that many of the problems that inter-

national students encounter on American campuses could be alleviated

by more extensive counseling and advising for students in their

home countries. Uroman suggests that information resources and

overseas communication should be expanded and improved by 1) clearly

defining institutional roles, requirements and enrollment policies

for international students, 2) evaluating catalogs and institutional

publications regarding international students, and 3) evaluating

the procedures for serving international students at the institutions.

UeAntoni (1972) suggests that an important area of service

needed for international students includes career counseling

because of the complex problems that international students face

in job-hunting. Higgenbotham (1979) relates that serious attention

must be given to providing psychological services for international

students. He stresses the importance of considering the patterns

of international student adjustment, the ethical implications of

cross-cultural counseling, counselor competency, and the value of

transporting a therapy across cultures when working with international

students in a clinical setting. Dominiques (1970) addresses the

impact of international students on American campuses by stressing

the need to provide effective and appropriate services with special

attention to academic advising.

The goals and objectives of international students are primarily

educational. "Learning, both formal and informal, is a worthy goal

in its own right, even though it may not in itself assure world peace,

economic progress for the home country, or enthusiasm for the host








country. The ancient and worthy tradition of cross-cultural

education will be proportionately strengthened to the extent that

it is kept free from motivations toward what should be merely

fortuitous by-products" (Mueller, 1961, p. 486).


Values of International Education

Americans have much to learn from the enormous variety of

alternative values, life styles and cultures of other nations.

The opportunity for our students to grow and learn through the

human experience is offered by the international exposure available

on American campuses.

The introduction of an international dimension to all edu-

cation is seen as one of the measures needed to encourage human

coexistence in a shrinking world. Educational institutions should

also include the design that different kinds of vocational

pursuits acquire an increasing international component. Ostar

(1977) stressed the need to expand the curriculum in liberal arts

programs to include extensive international studies to better

prepare students living in today's world. This need for expansion

of curriculum to include international perspectives requires the

development of cross-cultural awareness on the part of the institution.

The importance of cross-cultural awareness is of particular

value to individuals who must come into contact with people from

different cultures. Previous research has developed a set of common

goals for cross-cultural awareness training which have been compiled

and addressed by Brislin and Pedersen (1976):

1. develop a positive regard for other nationals;








2. develop an understanding of the fundamental similarities

among human beings;

3. develop habits of dealing with other nationals on an

individual rather than a stereotyped level;

4. provide the trainee with a way of observing, analyzing,

and integrating cross-cultural phenomena which permits

him to deal independently and realistically with the

situations and problems that he encounters in a new country;

5. prepare trainees to withstand culture shock;

6. develop feelings of responsibility in each person for the

improvement of relationships with other nationals;

7. reinforce training through group facilitation and support,

and develop within each individual a sense of group involvement;

8. give specific information about the attitudes and customs

of the different nationals in the group;

9. improve the awareness of customs and interpersonal skills;

10. impart knowledge about foreign cultures, including practical

skills needed to get along satisfactorily in the culture;

11. attempt to impart sensitivity to others by reducing

prejudice and inducing respect for foreign cultures;

12. attempt to induce enthusiasm for the training; and

13. emphasize honesty in relations with others.

(Bass, 1969; Eachus, 1968; Grace and Hofland, 1967;

Guthrie, 1966, 1975; Jordon, 1966; Loubert, 1967;

Spector, 1969; Triandis, 1975; and Wedge, 1968)









Worley (1978) found that American students who participated

in the National Student Exchange broadened their perspective of

foreign cultures and their cross-cultural sensitivity.

Possibly the most significant educational value of inter-

national education,in terms of future orientation, is the value of

developing positive attitudes in international students about

their educational experiences in the U.S. This is not only beneficial

to the international student, but also to the institution and the

United States. Nelson and Dolibois (1972) suggest that it is

important for staff, faculty, and public relations individuals to

become involved with international students. They feel that this

involvement is in the interest of the international students, the

university, the community, and the nation. The image and prestige

of the institution, as well as America, is important for future

educational and political growth and development. It is a vital

concern how the international student projects his American educational

and living experience into his life after his return to his home country.

Frelick (1969) indicates that a particular problem of student

personnel workers at universities is how to encourage cultural con-

tact between American and international students while simultaneously

encouraging the conformity necessary for effective functioning.

Frelick relates that the dominant culture seeks to absorb the sub-

sidiary one to provide commonality. He feels that the role of the

university should be to encourage cultural exchange and not to

defend the ideological rationale of the majority culture. Thus the

educational value of the cross-cultural experience enhances the

learning of domestic and international students.









Presently, the international student remains an untapped resource

in the university community. The limits of cultural and educational

contributions are as yet unknown. Only through innovative educational

planning and leadership can the dimensions of international and inter-

cultural education ever be experienced. Only when educational insti-

tutions combine cognitive and experiential learning through inter-

personal contacts can the possibilities of international education

become realities. The leadership role in a democratic society has

a responsibility to provide an environment which is conducive for

its people to interpret and respond intelligently to international

opportunities and challenges. The internationalizing of education

is pertinent to America's need to nurture a citizenry adequately

sophisticated to be effective and interdependent in today's global

society (Mueller, 1961).

Yet, the internationalizing of education is not necessarily

an easy task for educational planners. Accountability necessitates

that educational leaders consider several constituencies in

determining the priorities of programs, services and curriculum

development.

Martorana (1978) grouped the constraints on effective planning

and implementation of programs and services for international

students in community colleges into four categories: 1) educational

and philosophical; 2) fiscal; 3) political; and 4) logistical:



the first category of constraints stems from the historical
and educational conditions that surrounded the emergence of
community and private colleges in this country and the defi-
nition of their educational mission. The second is the








result of the intensifying difficulty community colleges
are encountering in acquiring needed funds for current
operations and capital needs. Contributing to the third
are the attitudes and reactions of the constituents of
community and junior colleges that combine a typically
narrow definition of the mission of community colleges
and growing pressures of financing, especially when these
conditions occur in middle-sized or small centers of
population. Constraints falling in the logistical category
reflect the fact that in most community and junior colleges
and in most of the programs they offer, foreign students
represent only very small proportions of the students
enrolled and are not, therefore, strongly considered in
institutional decisions about programs and services or
modes of operations. (Martorana, p. 47)



Economic Considerations


In addition to the cultural and political impact inter-

national education has on a college, economic advantages are

becoming increasingly important as funding formulae undergo

extensive study in higher education.

Research on the economic impact of colleges and universities

on the community is not new. An early study by Kraushaar (1964)

found that the University of Bridgeport (Connecticut) generated

additional spending by attracting substantial numbers of students

from outside the region. In addition to direct expenditures to

the university environment, these students also contributed in-

come to other areas of the community. In estimating these

expenditures, Kraushaur found distinctions among spending patterns

by: (a) non-local students living in residence halls, (b) non-

local students living in the community, and (c) non-local students

commuting to the university.









In 1968, Bonner noted that, at that time, there was "a

general lack of published material dealing specifically with

education's local economic impact" (p. 339). He extended the

norm of reporting only direct economic impacts by including:

1. How much of total community production can be traced

to its origin as a university expenditure,

2. What part of the total employment in the community may

be considered as "service" to the university.

3. What will be the possible effects of university growth

on the economic activity of the locality. (p. 339)

Bonner stated that "each dollar directly expended generates a host

of indirect transactions, some of which take place among firms

having no obvious direct contact with the university" (p. 339).

These secondary transactions are referred to as indirect effect.

He noted that the total impact of the university upon a community

should include direct, indirect, and induced effects.

Bonner developed a multiplier to estimate the total impact

of new monies introduced into a community and noted that changes

in a university community's employment are directly related to

the university's growth. In measuring the impact of expenditures

by students he notes that the portion of a student's income that

originates from outside of the region has a substantial impact on

the community.

A definitive, comprehensive report on the methods for

measuring the economic impact of a university on its community

was presented by Caffrey and Issacs (1971) under a grant by the








ESSO Education Foundation to the American Council on Education.

In response to the cumbersome data-collection techniques re-

quired for this type of study, Caffrey and Issacs developed models

for studying this type of economic impact based on normal records

kept by the college, local governments, and businesses. These

models addressed the impact of the college as a corporation and

expenditures by faculty, staff, students, and visitors as

private individuals.

In developing these models, Caffrey and Issacs identified

many economic interrelationships among the college, the student,

and the community. For example, expenses to the community might

involve: (a) the use of tax-exempt land, (b) the use of public

schools and facilities by students, staff members, and their

families, (c) competition with local businesses, and (d) the use

of tax-supported services. Contributions from the college to the

community might include: (a) wages, (b) purchases from businesses,

and (c) investments. The college and the community might provide

students with financial aid and wages.

According to Caffrey and Issacs, students contribute to the

university and to the community through their expenditures for:

tuition, fees, food, rent, entertainment, school supplies, clothing,

medical services, cars, gasoline, insurance, repairs, hotels and

motels, restaurants, banks, sales and gasoline taxes, automobile

tax, utilities, beverages, furniture, appliances, travel, laundry,

and magazines and newspapers.

The concept of an income-expenditures multiplier is a standard

tool of economic analysts. Caffrey and Issacs (1971) defined the









income multiplier concept as that which "measures the multiple

impact of an initial income stimulus" (p. 44). Money received by

individuals or businesses is recycled to purchase additional

wages, goods, and services. Although they developed the standard

multiplier as 1.9, they noted that the multiplier will change for

different types of initial income and in different localities. The

multiplier concept can also be used to determine the value that

direct payments to the university by the students will have in

contributions by the college to the community, such as volunteer

labor, cultural events, job training, recreation facilities,

research and consultation (Caffrey and Issacs, 1971).

In a trial test using Caffrey and Issacs models at the

University of Pittsburgh, Montgomery (1973) found that the models

required extensive staff time in obtaining data from sources

outside of the university. He recommended further streamlining

by extrapolating from data available within the university and

by employing regional economic multipliers. Montgomery (1973)

reiterated that studies of economic impacts must take into con-

sideration the intangible and indirect services provided to a

community by a university.

This recommendation was further extended in a study by Selgas,

Saussy, and Blocker (1973), who noted that state and federal

funding is an additional source of income. Their study of the

Harrisburg Area Community College (Pennsylvania) emphasized the

distinction between the impact of local and non-local students

because non-local student monies come from outside the local

economy and do not require a local tax supplement which creates








a more positive impact. They further noted differences for

community colleges based on the absence of on-campus housing

which placed more students living in the community. An issue

which was raised in their study concerned the problem of in-

vasion of privacy through available data-gathering techniques.

They felt that this concern justified the use of general

community-based estimates and averages as the basis against which

to apply the multiplier. Higher impacts were found in those cases

where persons would not be in the area if the community college

were not present.

Selgas, Saussy, and Blocker (1973) state that


the sources of funding are private, state, and local.
. Private funding has the positive impact on a
local economy provided it does not come from the local
area. State funding does not come through "local"
taxes, so it has the next most positive impact. Local
funding, of course, reduces the quality of the impact
in that it reduces any net increases in the cash flow
of the local economy.
Non-local students coming into an area can have a
more positive impact than students who are primarily
local going to a local college. (p. 66)


In utilizing the multiplier concept, Selgas, Saussy, and Blocker

(1973) observed that "additional income flows generate additional

purchases, which in turn create additional income. A circular

process results in the period of a year causing a 'multiplied' or

increased total income for the participants (businesses and residents)

as a group" (p. 5). They noted that a dollar spent has an increasing

effect as it cycles through the economy. As it changes hands, the

impact of the dollar is multiplied. However, they noted that taxes








have a multiplied impact, and that "when an additional dollar is

taken in taxes, the negative impact on total community income is

greater than just one dollar" (p. 62). They devised a net impact

by subtracting the multiplied tax impact from the full estimated

expenditure impact. This refined multiplier effect was applied to

averaged expenditures, supporting the use of this procedure for

data gathering and analysis for measuring economic impact.

When institutions admit international students they assume

certain special responsibilities. Some of these responsibilities

include making sure that prospective international students are

academically, linguistically, and financially capable of succeeding

at the institution. In order to ascertain the financial capability

of prospective students, institutions: 1) provide prospective

students with information about educational and living expenses at

the institution; 2) obtain information from prospective students

regarding their financial resources by means of a documented

financial statement; and 3) determine if the prospective students'

financial statements are sufficient to meet the financial re-

quirement of the institution's annual educational and living

expenses for international students (Selection and Admission of

Foreign Students, 1978).

Most international students in two-year colleges are primarily

self-supporting and financially independent (Diener, 1978). Approx-

imately 66 percent of the international students in community

colleges support themselves with private funds, 25 percent support

themselves with government and private sponsorships and grants, and

9 percent use various sources such as campus employment, or income








of spouse (Diener, 1978). Kaplan (1973) reported that the self-

supporting international students contribute substantial sums of

incoming capital to the community through their purchases and

through the payment of local and federal sales taxes. He predicted

that international students in the State University System of

Florida could bring approximately 10 million dollars annually

into Florida.

Edgerton (1978) noted that international students are not

usually discussed in terms of their economic impact, "as the

motives of most agencies and educational institutions involved

in educational interchange are not those of monetary gain. It

is arresting to note, however, that if one multiplies the $5000

average cost of a year of U.S. higher education by over .200 ,000

students, one arrives at a total economic impact that exceeds one

billion dollars" (p. 5). He emphasized that more than 60 percent

of enrolled international students receive their major funding

from overseas sources. This indicates that these students possibly

introduce $600 million annually into the U.S. economy.

Edgerton (1978) stated that "the Institute of International

Education (IIE) alone, which is only one of several dozen U.S.

exchange organizations, channeled approximately 35 million dollars

in tuition, student maintenance grants, and other expenditures

to its 65,000 sponsored foreign students at 500 U.S. colleges and

universities last year. The bulk of these funds came from overseas

and private sources" (p. 6). These sums,coupled with increasing

international student enrollments,constitute a significant economic

impact on U.S. higher education, the national economy, and on U.S.








communities. Edgerton (1978) compared international education to

other intangible social investments, such as the arts, whose benefits

are not often measureable and whose public support is frequently

dependent on public visibility. He recommended that evaluations

of international education incorporate the areas of professional

and personal development, political, economic, and sociopolitical

relations.

Selgas, Saussy, and Blocker (1973) cautioned that



the fundamental purpose of a college, however, is certainly
not to stimulate current consumer spending, output, and em-
ployment. It is presumed that the careful assessment of the
many long-run, intangible, and non-qualifiable opportunity
cost parameters of a college's local operations was made as
part of the initial decision-making process. That decision
having been made, all further questions in terms of comparative
employment and expenditures impact are not really germane.
If the present operation of the college is economically
beneficial to the community, so much the better. If the
"bottom line" in money items were negative, this would only
enable citizens to determine the cost of "having a college."
The mere existence of a negative dollar impact in no way
establishes a presumption in favor of eliminating the
revenue-using activity and replacing it with a revenue-earning
activity. (p. 88)



International Student Programs


While international students utilize personnel services

available to all students, these alone do not always adequately

meet the needs or address the issues previously discussed. The

present study focuses on programs developed to address the special

needs of international students.

One such program at the University of Minnesota was developed

to give American and international students an inter-disciplinary








exposure to other cultures. The program uses educational modules

and interviewing techniques to bring students together for a unique

learning experience (Mestenhauser, 1976). The learning modules

include interviewing international students, classroom and curriculum

enrichment programs, and experiential learning projects. The

programmed studies are divided accordingly: 1) cross-cultural

learning of future vocational, academic, and career objectives;

2) identification of various disciplines and majors that are

benefited from exposure to other cultures; 3) elite systems and

study of socialization and leadership; 4) country and area studies;

5) cross-cultural learning; 6) cross-cultural communication;

7) study of national and international conflicts; B) cross-

cultural dimensions of education; and 9) cross-cultural perspectives.

At Pomona College, a program in a residence hall, the

Oldenborg Center, promotes international and intercultrual

experiences for students. Five major language sections maintain

separate living areas; yet films, lectures, radio and tape programs

and activities are used to allow students cross-cultural

participation (Baumann,1976).

While existing programs of student cross-cultural interaction

offer a source of reference for future trends, the greatest

developmental change is taking place in the counseling and placement

of international students (La Berge & Levy, 1976). Colleges provide.

a variety of support services for the incoming American student,

but all too often ignore the unique problems of the international

student. Counselors need to understand the problems of international

students and should be able to provide the appropriate services and








referrals as needed. The shortcoming of the present-day counseling

center is the inability to identify and comprehend the intricate

difficulties of cross-cultural counseling and programming (Altscher,

1976). This weakness indicates a need for cross-cultural training

of counselors within graduate counselor education programs.

Moran (1974) found that role-playing and simulation exercises

in orientation programs for international students at the Uni-

versity of Minnesota helped new arrivals to better define the

roles and the problem-solving techniques needed in their new culture.

At the University of Tennessee, a project developed through

a cooperative effort between the international student advisor and

the placement office personnel assisted international students in

securing employment in their home countries. A series of orientation

programs was presented utilizing an international job file, video-

taped programs, and a career resource packet. Orientation groups

were small in number, and some sessions were held at the place-

ment center. Cross-cultural interaction occurred while focusing

on career development. The results of this program could have

an influence on the future operations of career planning and

placement offices (La Berge & Levy, 1976).

Through a structured curriculum, Dowd (1976) suggests that

international students can better understand the difficulties they

encounter while attending American institutions. Dowd had de-

veloped a course that helps students deal with their concerns

regarding identity conflicts, socialization processes, prejudices,

value conflicts, and decision-making procedures. Phipps (1976)

suggests that international students in community colleges should








be required to take an on-going orientation course that would

develop a better understanding of the American culture, values,

and socialization process.

McMullen (1977) studied the services for international

students in community colleges in Texas. Of the recommendations

for improved services indicated on the returned questionnaires,

the most prominent were: 1) the creation of an international

advisor organization; 2) requirements that students acquire

automobile and health insurance; and 3) an increase in budgetary

and staff support.

Masters (1977) reviewed five community colleges that are

considered to have had dramatic increases in international student

enrollments and the special programs being developed. The five

community colleges are: Kirkwood, Iowa; Gulf Coast, Florida;

Seminole, Florida; Shelby State, Tennessee; and Rockland, New York.

Rising and Copp (1968) studied the adjustment experiences

of international students at the University of Rochester. Their

results offer information on orientation programming, international

student advising, and international student counseling.

The National Association of Foreign Student Affairs (NAFSA)

offers an excellent handbook for planning and implementing inter-

national student orientation programs. Specific suggestions are

provided for organizing programs into general, non-academic, and

academic categories. NAFSA also offers handbooks for 1) academic

and personal advising, 2) American-foreign student relationships,

and 3) housing. Included in these handbooks are discussions on








programming, housing, advising, counseling, and the role of

the international student advisor.

Too frequently, institutions of higher education develop

international educational programs without appropriate policy

and management plans. In response to the need for comprehensive

guidance in establishing and maintaining programs in international

student education, the NAFSA Field Service Program published the

Guideline on Responsibilities and Standards in Work With Foreign

Students in 1964. Ihe purpose of that document was to provide

policy guidelines and direction for professionals involved in

foreign student affairs, including administrative officers of

colleges and universities, career guidance counselors working with

international students and academic advisors of international

students. An update to these standards and policies was made by

NAFSA in 1979 based on a consensus and common experience of

individuals who work with international student affairs at colleges

and universities in the U.S. and abroad.

International Student Services and International Student

Advisors have unique roles and functions compared to their

counterparts who work with American students. The responsibilities

encompass a variety of services and activities. The International

Student Advisor serves as the designated institutional representative

in the fulfillment of obligations under Immigration and Natural-

ization Service (INS) Regulations. By maintaining a working

relationship with INS officials and advising students, faculty,

and other local officials in immigration and related matters, the

duties of the Advisor include:









1. provides liason service between Immigration Offices and

international students;

2. explains and interprets INS policies and regulations to

international students, advising them on their particular

concerns and options;

3. explains and interprets to INS officials the unusual or

complex situation of international students with compli-

cated immigration problems;

4. consults regularly with INS officials seeking relevant,

up-to-date information regarding the interpretations of,

and changes in, INS regulations and policies;

5. insures that INS is aware of the investment and interest

the university has in the student completing his academic

program despite legal difficulties;

6. provides information regarding INS policies and regulations

to university and local officials;

7. provides information and advice to academic advisors and

departments regarding INS regulations and informs them of

changes;

8. administers the Exchange Visitor Program including the

acceptance of new exchange visitors and assisting other

exchange visitors who wish to transfer to other programs;

9. assists international students in changing visa status and

intercedes with INS for special consideration of an inter-

national student's situation;

10. endorses international students' applications for extension

of stay permits and visas;








11. assists students in obtaining passport renewals from their

own governments;

12. assists international students in obtaining permission from

INS to transfer from one university to another;

13. approves or endorses work permits and practical training

applications of international students;

14. assists exchange visitor spouses in obtaining permission

to work;

15. processes requests from international students for 1-20's

and IAP-66's;

16. assists international students in meeting INS requirements

for travel outside the United States;

17. reports completion or termination of student's program to

INS. (Miller and Benson, 1971)



Summary of Related Literature


This chapter has presented a comprehensive review of available

literature research and writing related to international education

in the United States. This review shows that there are significant

increases in the enrollments of international students in the U.S.

and Florida community colleges, and that there are critical issues

relating to this growth, such as problems pertaining to admissions,

institutional policy relating to international education, English

proficiency, financial assistance, and the need for special programs.

International students appear to have unique needs in the areas

of cultural adjustment, academic advisement, and cross-cultural








experiences. The literature has illustrated that international

students provide institutions, and therefore communities, with a

significant economic value. Because of the unique needs of inter-

national students and the internationalizing of curricula, many

institutions have developed special programs which focus on the

international student as a resource on the campus.

Just as the relationships between community colleges and their

communities differ from place to place, so will the programs for

international students and the economic, cultural, and educational

dynamics which surround them (Martorana, 1978).

A noticeable characteristic of the available literature is

that, while many recommendations are made, few studies are reported.

The present study will extend this literature through a specific

investigation of international education in Florida community colleges.













CHAPTER III
MEfHODOLOGY



Overview


The preceding review of literature indicates that the number

of international students enrolled in American institutions of

higher education is growing rapidly. Florida is ranked seventh

nationally in the total number of international students enrolled

in institutions of higher education. A significant number of

Florida's international students are enrolled in community colleges.

Important areas addressed in the literature include economic

considerations, programs and services, and the cultural and edu-

cational impact of international students on American educational

institutions and communities. There has been very little research

which addresses these areas in Florida, or that attempts to measure

the educational and cultural impact of international students on

educational institutions as perceived by American students, faculty,

and administrators.

Specifically, this study analyzed the current status of

international education in Florida's community colleges with

respect to:

1. the economic considerations for the institutional community;

2. the scope of current institutional programs and services

relating to international education;








3. the educational impact on the institution; and

4. the cultural impact on the institution.

This research is a descriptive study consisting of two parts.

Part I addresses economic considerations for the institutional

community and the scope of current institutional programs and

services relating to international education. Part II addresses

the educational and cultural impact of the presence of international

students on an educational institution as perceived by American

students, faculty, and administrators.

The data required for these analyses were obtained from the

International Education Survey (see Appendix A) distributed to the

junior and community colleges in Florida that are members of the

Florida Community Junior College Inter-Institutional Research

Council (IRC), and from the International Education Opinionnaire

(see Appendix B) distributed to selected students, faculty, and

administrators of those institutions.



Procedures

Sample

The population utilized for this study included the 14 community

and junior colleges that are members of the IRC and the selected

American students, faculty, and administrators in those institutions.

All member institutions of the Florida Community Junior College

Inter-Institutional Research Council were invited to participate:

Brevard Community College, Broward Community College, Edison Community

College, Florida Junior College at Jacksonville, Gulf Coast Community









College, Hillsborough Community College, Lake-Sumter Community

College, Manatee Junior College, Miami-Dade Community College,

North Florida Junior College, Pasco-Hernando Conmmunity College,

Santa Fe Community College, Seminole Community College, and

Valencia Community College. All schools participated in Part 1

of the study. Edison Community College did not participate in

Part II of the study. At each IRC member institution, the IRC

research representative selected sample groups of American students,

faculty, and administrators, and administered the instruments

and collected the data.

In order to optimally obtain a student sample which was

representative of each college and to minimize external threats

to the validity of the data, required English or mathematics classes

were used as the student sample. Ns=30 for each college and Ns=390

for all schools. This means of sample selection was considered

to be both feasible and adequate. The administration of the

instrument during class time encouraged a 100 percent return.

The following eight disciplines were considered to be representative

of the junior and community college curriculum: Biology, English,

Geography, History, Math, Psychology, Political Science, and

Sociology. The department chairperson, curriculum coordinator or

instructors from these disciplines comprise the sample of faculty:

Nf=8 for each college and Nf=104 for all colleges.

The sample of administrators consisted of the President and

his or her council of each college. This procedure insured repre-

sentation of administrators from student personnel services and








academic affairs. The size of this sample varied by institution,

Na=x for each institution and Na=76 for all institutions. Respon-

dents who were not U.S. citizens were not included in the data used

for analysis.



Instrumentation

Two instruments were used in this study, the International

Education Survey to determine the economic and programming con-

siderations and the International Education Opinionnaire to

collect data on the perceptions of American students, faculty,

and administrators regarding the educational and cultural impact

of international students on the institution.

Content and face validation for these instruments were obtained

from a panel of experts composed of 14 IRC representatives who are

researchers at their respective institutions. A preliminary version

of each instrument was submitted to this panel. After revisions

were made which incorporated their suggestions, a second draft was

submitted to the panel before the final instruments were developed

in order to incorporate their suggestions. The instruments for the

two parts of the study are described below.



Part I. The International Education Survey was developed by the

researcher for the purposes of this study to collect information

on: 1) existing programs and services relating to international

students at community colleges in Florida, and 2) the economic factors

necessary for measuring the costs and economic impact of international

students on the institution and the community.








This survey requested the following information for each

college: total international student enrollment of the college,

the college's annual financial requirement for international

students, criteria for admission for international students,

tuition for international students, additional fees charged to

international students, annual estimate for books and supplies

for international students, annual estimate for food, housing,

transportation, and miscellaneous expenses, number of full-time-

equivalent non-instructional personnel utilized specifically for

international students, salaries of non-instructional personnel

utilized specifically for international students, money budgeted

annually specifically for international student programs and

services, specific courses designed and taught only for inter-

national students, specific courses predominantly attended by

international students, number of full-time instructional personnel

involved in the teaching of courses specifically and predominantly

for international students, total salaries for full-time equivalent

instructional personnel involved in teaching courses specifically

or predominantly for international students, clubs and organizations

for international students at the college, membership totals for

these clubs and organizations, and programs and activities sponsored

by community organizations and groups for international students.

A copy of this form is found in Appendix A. Total enrollments of

each institution, total full-time-equivalent staff and faculty,

and the total annual budget for each college were obtained from

the Division of Community Colleges in Tallahassee, Florida.









Part II. No instruments were found that were specifically designed

to measure the educational and cultural impact of international

students on an institution as perceived by American students,

faculty, and administrators.

The International Education Opinionnaire was developed by the

researcher for the purposes of this study to measure the educational

and cultural impact of international students at a community college

as perceived by American students, faculty, and administrators.

Demographic data were collected through the opinionnaire (items 1-5),

together with information regarding contacts with international

people outside the community college setting (item 6).

The International Education Opinionnaire consisted of 30

items. Items 1 through 5 addressed demographic data and item 6

addressed contact with international people. Items 7 through 12

addressed the perceptions of the sample regarding the educational

impact of international students, and items 19 through 30 addressed

the sample's perceptions of the cultural impact of international

students on the institution. These items were developed from

recommendations and assumptions implicit in the NAFSA Guidelines,

U.S.-Foreign Student Relationships (1972), and the aspects of cross-

cultural awareness training outlined by Brislin and Pedersen (1976),

as described in Chapter II of this study.

Respondents were instructed to respond to the International

Education Opinionnaire using a Likert rating scale. The scale consisted

of five choices: Strongly Agree -- 5; Agree -- 4; No Opinion -- 3;

Disagree -- 2; Strongly Disagree -- 1. Choices were made by darkening

the selected choice on a computer-readable answer sheet.








The items on the International Education Opinionnaire addressed

the following topics: personal experience, learning about cultures,

educational perspectives, curriculum enrichment, cultural activities,

social activities, emotional involvement, classroom experience, out-

of-class educational or academic experiences, and extra-curricular

activities.

The IRC representative at each member institution distributed

and collected the opinionnaires and returned them by mail to the

IRC office at the University of Florida.



Data Collection

Part I. Data concerning the economic and program considerations

were collected by using the International Education Survey which

was mailed with an instruction letter (see Appendix C) to each

member institution of the IRC. The IRC representative of each

member institution completed, or designated the appropriate school

official to complete, the survey. The survey was then returned

by mail by the IRC representative to the IRC office at the Uni-

versity of Florida. The responses were recorded and categorized

for presentation in this study. Tables developed from the responses

of these surveys are presented in Chapter IV.



Part II. Educational and cultural impact data were obtained from

the International Education Opinionnaire administered to samples

of American students, faculty members, and administrators at 13

IRC member institutions. The IRC representative of each institution








distributed and collected the opinionnaires and returned them

by mail to the IRC office at the University of Florida. The

responses were recorded for statistical analysis.



Analysis of Data


Part I

Data from the International Education Survey were collected

and recorded. A Table indicating responses by the institutions

for each variable is presented in Chapter IV.

Based on formulae developed by the researcher, the estimated

figures from the International Education Survey were used to

compute economic impact factors. Application of these formulae

to data collected from Santa Fe Community college, an IRC member

institution, were used to determine the estimated economic value

of international student education to that institution and its

community. This step-by-step application should serve as a guide

to the other institutions in developing the estimated economic value

of international education for their institution and community. The

economic factors include:

1. total amount of money brought by all international students

to the institutional community (B). This total was obtained

by multiplying the minimum amount of money that each inter-

national student is required to have annually (A) times

the total international student enrollment at that insti-

tution (E):


B = AE








2. estimated total amount of money all international

students will pay to the college annually (R). This

total was obtained by multiplying the cost of books

and supplies (h), tuition (t), and additional fees (f)

estimated for each international student, by the en-

rollment of international students for an institution (E):

R = (h + t + f)E

3. total estimated cost to the college to provide special

services to international students (C) was obtained by

adding the total annual cost for personnel (S), which is

full-time-equivalent non-instructional personnel (Sl),

plus full-time equivalent instructional personnel (S2),

programs (P) and organizations (0) that are specifically

for international students:

C = P + S + 0

These factors were utilized in the following formulae to

determine the economic value of the presence of international

students to the institution (V2), and the economic value of the

presence of international students to the community (VI).

The formula utilized to develop the economic value to the

institution is:

V2 = R C
where R is the estimated total amount of money annually paid to

the institution by international students, C is the estimated total

annual cost to the college to provide special services as described

above, and V2 is the economic value to the institution.








The formula utilized to determine the economic value to

the community is:

(B R)m = V1

where B is the total amount of money brought into the community

annually by international students, R is the total amount paid

to the institution by international students annually, and m is

the multiplier effect forthe community applied to the remainder

to determine VI, the economic value to the community.

These formulae for determining economic value are based on

the concepts of the models developed by Caffrey and Issacs (1971),

Montgomery (1973), Selgas, Saussy, and Blocker (1973) and applied

to the international student population to determine economic impact

of international students on the institutional community as recom-

mended by Edgerton (1978).


Part II

The data from the International Education Opinionnaire were

recorded using an optical character reader for statistical analysis

by computer. Responses were analyzed using the Statistical Package

for the Social Sciences (SPSS) on the Amdahl 470 computer at North-

east Regional Data Center of the State University System located

on the University of Florida campus.

Means and standard deviations were computed for items, groups

and colleges. Descriptive statistics are presented in tables in

Chapter IV.

The data were further analyzed using Probable Impact Exploration

System (PIES) (Nickens, Purga, and Noriega, 1979). PIES is a computer








program for converting data into probabilities, which insti-

tutions may wish to consider in planning, by computing the

statistics of the normal curve based on the data (Nickens,

Purga, and Noriega, 1979). "This follows the central limit

theorum which states that the sampling distribution of means

is approximately normal. Thus we can supply the probability of

the occurrence of any assessment in the population if we have a

mean and standard deviation (or range) of the assessment" (Nickens,

Purga, and Noriega, 1979, p. 90).

The results of Part II, using descriptive statistics, are

presented in tables in Chapter IV.



Assumptions and Limitations

Part I Economic Considerations

For the purposes of this study, the methodological

assumptions and limitations of Part I are that:

1. the figures provided by the institutions on the Inter-

national Education Survey are current and accurate.

2. the estimated figures, as recommended in the literature,

are appropriate for determining the cost and expenditures

necessary in calculating the economic value of international

students to the institution.

3. the 14 member institutions of the IRC are representative

of the 28 community colleges in Florida.

4. the formulae developed specifically for the purposes of

this study provided only general estimates of the economic

value of international students to the IRC colleges and communities.








Part II Educational and Cultural Impact

For the purposes of this study, the methodological assumptions

and limitations for Part II are that:

1. the responses to the International Education Opinionnaire

accurately reflect the opinions of the sample.

2. content and face validity of the International Education

Opinionnaire as determined by the panel of research experts

was sufficient for the purposes of this descriptive study.

3. in light of the absence of more specific criteria in the

literature, the recommendations of NAFSA Guidelines, U.S.

Foreign Student Relationships (1972) and Brislin and Pedersen

(1976) were valid criteria for the development of items for

the opinionnaire.

4. the representative sample was appropriately selected by

each IRC representative and all opinionnaires were properly

distributed, collected, and returned by each IRC representative.

5. the findings of this study reflect the educational and

cultural impact of the presence of international students

on the community colleges involved in this study, not

necessarily on other institutions of higher education.













CHAPTER IV
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION



Overview


This study was designed to gather and analyze information

from IRC institutions on the economic considerations of inter-

national education, the scope of current international programs,

and the educational and cultural impact of international students

on community and junior colleges as perceived by American students,

faculty, and administrators.

This chapter addresses the following areas: participating

colleges, demographic data, and the results of the four focus

areas of the research:

1. The economic considerations for the institutional

community--Does the presence of international

students at an institution provide a significant

economic value to the institution and the community?

2. The scope of current institutional programs and

services relating to international education--What

additional programs and services exist for inter-

national students?

3. The educational impact on the institution--Does the

presence of international students at an institution








3. provide an educational impact as perceived by American

students, faculty, and administrators?

4. The cultural impact on the institution --Does the

presence of international students at an insti-

tution provide a cultural impact as perceived by

American students, faculty, and administrators?



The results of the study were determined by analyses of

data obtained from the International Education Survey (Appendix A)

and the International Education Opinionnaire (Appendix B).

The analysis of the International Education Survey data was

determined by the application of formulae developed by the

researcher for the purposes of this study. The analyses of

the International Education Opinionnaire data were determined by

the application of the "Statistical Package for the Social

Sciences" (SPSS) computer program for means, medians, standard

deviations, frequencies, and cross tabulations, and by the

application of the "Probable Impact Exploration System" (PIES)

computer program to the data to determine the probabilities

useful for planning.



Participating Colleges

The International Education Survey, used to collect in-

formation on economic considerations of international education

and the scope of current programs and services, was completed

by the 14 member institutions of the IRC: Brevard Community







College, Broward Community College, Edison Community College,

Florida Junior College at Jacksonville, Gulf Coast Community

College, Hillsborough Community College, Lake Sumter Community

College, Manatee Junior College, Miami-Dade Community College,

North Florida Junior College, Pasco-Hernando Community College,

Santa Fe Community College, Seminole Community College, and

Valencia Community College.

The International Education Opinionnaire, used to collect

the responses of American students, faculty, and administrators

regarding their perceptions on the educational and cultural

impact of international students on their institutions, was

completed by 13 IRC member institutions. Only Edison Community

College did not participate in this part of the study.



Demographic Data

Respondents from 13 community and junior colleges completed

the International Education Opinionnaire. All IRC member insti-

tutions participated in this part of the study except for Edison

Community College.

The sample was comprised of a total of 625 respondents from

the 13 institutions. Respondents who answered "no" to item 5,

"Are you a U.S. citizen?," were deleted from the sample for

analyses purposes because the focus of this part of the study

addresses the perceptions of American students, faculty, and

administrators regarding the educational and cultural impact of

international students on their institutions. There were 45

non-citizens in the sample which resulted in a total of 580

respondents used for data analysis.







Respondents included 389 students (67.1 percent), 115

faculty members (19.8 percent), and 76 administrators (13.2 percent).

Of these respondents, 265 (45.7 percent) were female, and 315

(54.3 percent) were male. Ages ranged from below 21 to above 51

years of age: 284 (49.0 percent) were 21 years old or younger;

81 (14.0 percent) were 22 to 30 years old; 88 (15.2 percent) were

31 to 40 years old; 56 (9.7 percent) were 41 to 50 years old; and

71 (12.2 percent) were 51 years old or older.

By race, the sample consisted of: 48 Blacks, not of Hispanic

origin, (8.3 percent); 5 Asians or Pacific Islanders (.9 percent);

1 American Indian (.2 percent); 504 Caucasians, not of Hispanic

origin, (86.9 percent); 20 Hispanics (3.4 percent). Two respondents

(.3 percent) did not respond to this item.

There were 270 respondents (46.6 percent) who indicated they

had personal contact with an international student outside of the

college setting (item 6); 310 respondents (53.4 percent) had not.


Results


The results of this study are presented for economic considerations,

scope of current programs, and educational and cultural value.


Economic Considerations

The International Education Survey was used to collect data

from variable estimates provided by each college to compute economic

impact factors. Appendix D shows the data collected from the

community and junior colleges by the International Education Survey.







Based on the following formulae developed by the researcher,

the estimated figures provided by Santa Fe Community College in

Gainesville, Florida, were used as an example for applying the

formulae. It must be emphasized that the formulae provide estimated,

yet conservative, results of the economic value of international

education to the institution and its community. This economic

value for international students is significant because it is

"new" money brought into the community, and, more specifically,

brought into the community from outside the U.S., therefore it

does not come from another U.S. community.



Value to the institution

The economic factors for Santa Fe Community College are

presented below:

1. the total amount of money brought by all international

students to the institutional community (B) is $2,142,000.

This total was obtained by multiplying the minimum amount

of money ($6,000) that each international student is re-

quired to have annually (A) times the total international

student enrollment (E) of the college (357 students).

Therefore:

B = AE

$2,142,000 = $6,000 x 357

2. the estimated total amount of money all international

students pay to Santa Fe Community College is $527,646 (R).

This total is obtained by multiplying the cost of books

and supplies (h), $260; tuition (t), $1,218; and additional







2. fees (f), $0, estimated for each international student

by the enrollment (E) of 357 international students.

Therefore:

R = (h + t + f)E

$527,646 = ($260 + $1,218 + $0)357

3. the total estimated cost to Santa Fe Community College

to provide special services to international students

is $26,360 (C). This total was obtained by adding the

total annual cost for personnel (S), $26,100, which is

full-time-equivalent non-instructional personnel (S1),

$18,000; plus full-time-equivalent instructional per-

sonnel (S2), $8,100; programs (P), $260; and organizations

(0), $0; that are specifically funded for international

students, therefore:

C= P+ S + 0

$26,360 = $26,100 + $0

These factors were utilized to determine the economic value

of the presence of international students to Santa Fe Community

College. This economic value (V2), $501,286, was determined by

subtracting the total estimated cost to provide special services

to international students (C), $26,360, from the estimated total

amount of money all international students pay to the college (R),

$527,646:

V2 = R C

$501,286 = $527, 646 $26,360







Value to the community

The economic value of the presence of foreign students at

Santa Fe Community College to the Gainesville and the Alachua

County community is $4,035,885 (VI). This economic value was

determined by subtracting the estimated total amount of money

all international students pay to the college (R), $527,646,

from the total amount of money brought by all international

students to the institutional community (B), $2,142,000,

times the multiplier (m), 2.5. This multiplier was obtained from

the Bureau of Economic and Business Research at the University

of Florida. Therefore:

Vl = (B R)m

$4,035,885 = ($2,142,000 $527,646)2.5

This value (V1) includes the categories of direct spending

by the students and the effects of the money spent as it further

cycles through the economy: room and board, entertainment,

clothing, medical services, restaurants, vending machines,

furniture, appliances, travel, cars, car repairs, laundry and dry

cleaning, magazines, newspapers, airline and bus tickets, sales

taxes, gas taxes, automobile tag fees, local utilities, cable

television, and various miscellaneous purchases.



Scope of Current Programs

Data collected on the International Education Survey, item 1,

and items 8 through 21, address the current programs and services

for international students at the IRC institutions. Appendix D

presents the responses given by each institution. The enrollment

figures of international students at the IRC institutions range







from 0 for Lake-Sumter Community College to 2,790 for Miami-Dade

Community College. There are nine institutions which provide

full-time-equivalent (FTE) non-instructional personnel utilized

specifically or partially in providing services to international

students. These institutions are: Brevard Community College,

Broward Community College, Florida Junior College at Jacksonville,

Gulf Coast Community College, Hillsborough Community College,

Miami-Dade Community College, Santa Fe Community College, Seminole

Community College, and Valencia Community College. Miami-Dade

Community College reported the greatest number of FTE, 8, non-

instructional personnel, while Gulf Coast Community College

reported the least with .05 FTE.

Salaries for the FTE non-instructional personnel ranged from

$100,000 for Miami-Dade Community College to $4,400 for Gulf Coast

Conmunity College.

Brevard Community College reported the largest amount of

money ($50,000) budgeted specifically for non-instructional

programs and services for international students. There were

nine institutions which reported no funding for this category.

Classes specifically for international students and

classes predominantly attended by international students were

reported by six institutions with Miami-Dade Community College

reporting the largest number (10 classes) at a total salary cost

of $75,000.

Five institutions reported having clubs or organizations

exclusively for international students: Brevard Community

College, Florida Junior College at Jacksonville, Gulf Coast







Community College, Miami-Dade Community College, and Valencia Com-

munity College. Only one institution, Brevard Community College,

reported funds ($300) given by the college specifically for its

international student organization which has a membership of 200.

Programs and activities, sponsored by community organizations for

international students, were reported by seven institutions (Appen-

dix D).

There were four institutions reporting exchange programs with

foreign institutions. These colleges and their exchange programs

include:

1. Brevard Community College with the University of

Konstanz (Germany) and Malaspwa College (Canada);

2. Florida Junior College at Jacksonville with Nelson and

Coline College (England), Dawson College (Canada), and

the University of Konstanz (Germany);

3. Valencia Community College with the University of

Valencia (Spain) and with community colleges in western

Canada; and

4. Broward Community College with universities in London,

Israel, and Spain.



Educational and Cultural Impact

The International Education Opinionnaire was used to assess

the perceptions of American students, faculty, and administrators

at 13 IRC institutions regarding the educational and cultural im-

pact of international students on community and junior colleges.

A total of 625 respondents completed the opinionnaire. There were








45 respondents deleted from the sample because they were not U.S.

citizens, leaving a sample of 580. The sample used for the data

analyses consisted of 389 students, 115 faculty members, and 76

administrators.

Items. The opinionnaire consisted of 30 items. Items 1 through

7 requested demographic data: association with the college, sex,

age, race, citizen status, and personal contact with international

students outside the college setting. Items 7 through 18 addressed

the educational value of the presence of international students

at an institution; items 19 through 30 addressed the cultural value

of the presence of international students at an institution. The

following Likert type scale was used for items 7 through 30: Strongly

Agree -- 5; Agree -- 4; No Opinion -- 3; Disagree -- 2; and Strongly

Disagree -- 1.

Table 5 presents the absolute frequencies, means, medians, and

standard deviations of the responses from the entire sample on items

7 through 30. Only item 8, which suggests that having international

students at a community college improves the quality of education,

had a mean below 3.0 (2.99). Item 11, which suggests that having

international students at a community college helps to promote a

better understanding of different people, had the highest mean (3.91)

and median (4.03). Responses to item 12 indicate that the respondents

prefer seeing at their colleges a few international students from

a variety of countries to having many from a few countries.

Means of 3.50 and above indicate that the respondents tend to

agree with the item. This positive indication is reflected in














Table 5


Responses of Sample to International Education Opinionnaire
by Absolute Frequency, Mean, Median, and Standard Deviation




Absolute
Frequency Standard
Item (N = 580) Mean Median Deviation


3.50
2.99
3.30
3.75
3.91
3.88
3.77
3.37
3.76
3.55
3.64
3.28
3.87
3.72
3.10
3.42
3.73
3.33
3.70
3.03
3.70
3.58
3.70
3.60


3.73
2.97
3.46
3.93
4.03
3.95
3.94
3.55
3.91
3.76
3.85
3.48
3.99
3.90
3.10
3.50
3.90
3.59
3.88
3.03
3.88
3.78
3.91
3.80


1.118
1.164
1.116
.995
.924
.909
.964
1.036
.909
.998
1.034
1.109
.865
.980
1.044
.978
.985
1.136
.952
1.013
.936
.987
.986
.990








66 percent of the items, eight for educational impact and eight

for cultural impact (Table 5). Item 13, with a mean of 3.77, and

item 15, with a mean of 3.76, relate to the presence of international

students improving the interaction between different peoples in

a college. Items 19 (3.87), 20 (3.72), 23 (3.73), 25 (3.70),

28 (3.58), 29 (3.70) and 30 (3.60) relate to the presence of

international students improving the understanding of cultural

differences, cultural values, and the importance of sharing cultural

information. Item 10, with a mean of 3.75, relates to the improve-

ment of the learning environment by the different perspectives

and points of view provided by international students.

Table 6 shows that the means of the responses of the sample

regarding the educational impact (items 7 through 18) and the

cultural impact (items 19 through 30) do not have a distinguish-

able difference.





Table 6

Comparison of Educational and Cultural Impact
by Hean of Responses


Impact N
Mean Mean

Educational Impact 3.55 379.5
(Items 7 through 18)

Cultural Impact 3.54 379.0
(Items 19 through 30)




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