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 Front Cover
 Half Title
 Title Page
 Letter of transmittal
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Introduction
 History of the Florida Geological...
 Florida Geological Survey...
 Early survey activities and field...
 Geological features and environmental...
 Mineral resources and mining
 Miscellaneous
 The search for oil in Florida
 State geologists
 References
 Appendix
 Back Matter
 Back Cover


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The The Florida Geological Survey
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 Material Information
Title: The The Florida Geological Survey an illustrated chronicle and brief history
Portion of title: Illustrated chronicle and brief history, Florida Geological Survey
Physical Description: iv, 70 p. : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lane, Ed ( Edward ), 1935-
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1998
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Geology -- History -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Florida Geological Survey.
General Note: Florida Geological Survey special publication number 42
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 39735605
issn - 0085-0640 ;
System ID: UF00099457:00001

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover 1
        Front Cover 2
    Half Title
        Half Title 1
        Half Title 2
    Title Page
        Page i
        Page i-a
    Letter of transmittal
        Page ii
        Page ii-a
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iii-a
        Page iv
        Page v
    Acknowledgement
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    History of the Florida Geological Survey
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Florida Geological Survey offices
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Early survey activities and field work
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Geological features and environmental hazards
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Mineral resources and mining
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Miscellaneous
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    The search for oil in Florida
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    State geologists
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    References
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Appendix
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Back Matter
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Back Cover
        Page 73
        Page 74
Full Text



















5FECIAL PM])LICATION NO. +2


TME
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL 5CIURVY

AN ILLUiSTRATED CHRONICLE
AND BRIF HISTORY



















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SCIENCE
LIBRARY
6

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t2 ILo,


Photographs on cover:


Falls on Falling Creek, about 5 miles north of Lake City on State Road 131, January 6, 1948. Falls
are about 10 to 12-feet high. #1764




Falls of Steinhatchee River, about 1 mile south of Tennille junction of State Road 19 with State Road
69, December 13, 1934. Falls are about 2 to 3-feet high. #1355















STATE OF FLORIDA


DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Virginia B. Wetherell, Secretary


DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
Nevin G. Smith, Executive Services Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


THE
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-

AN ILLUSTRATED CHRONICLE
AND BRIEF HISTORY


by

Ed Lane PG 141


Published by the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee, Florida
1998


ISSN 0085-0640









LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee, Florida
1998


Governor Lawton Chiles
Tallahassee, Florida 32301


Dear Governor Chiles:

The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Administrative and Technical Services, Department of
Environmental Protection, is publishing as Special Publication No. 42, The Florida Geological Survey -
An Illustrated Chronicle and Brief History, prepared by staff geologist Ed Lane. This publication
documents the early history of one of Florida's oldest governmental agencies. The Florida Geological
Survey has been contributing data and interpretations pertaining to Florida's natural resources,
ecosystems, conservation, and environmental issues for 90 years.





Respectfully,


34Jcl,_


Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey













CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOW LEDGEM ENTS....................................................................................................... vi
INT RO D U CT IO N ....................................................................................................................... 1
HISTORY OF THE FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY...........................................................................2
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OFFICES..............................................................................4
EARLY SURVEY ACTIVITIES............................................................................................. 11
FIELD W ORK.......................................................................................................................... 11
GEOLOGICAL FEATURES AND ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS ................................................21
MINERAL RESOURCES AND M INING ..................................................................... ................27
M ISCELLANEOUS................................................................................................................ 37
THE SEARCH FOR OIL IN FLORIDA ...................................................................................41
STA TE G EO LO G ISTS .............................................................................................................. 52
Elias H. Sellards 1907-1919 .................................................... .............................. 52
Herman Gunter 1919-1958 ......................................................................................... 53
Robert O. Vernon 1958-1971 ....................................................................................... 54
Charles W Hendry, Jr. 1971-1988........................................................................ ..... 55
W alter Schm idt 1988- ......................................... ........................ .......... ........... ...... 56
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................... 58
APPENDIX: Florida oil test wells drilled before Sunniland field discovery well .............................. 60

ILLUSTRATIONS

FIGURE

1. Comparison between Florida Geological Survey organizational charts for 1907 and 1957............. 3
2. Headquarters for the Florida Geological Survey from early-1908 to 1920 ................................5
3. Florida Geological Survey museum room in the Old Capitol building, February 1925...................6
4. Florida Geological Survey museum room in the Old Capitol building, February 1925.................7
5. Florida Geological Survey museum room in the Old Capitol building, February 1925...................8
6. Lobby entrance of the newly completed Florida Geological Survey building, 1958 .................. 10
7. Geological field vehicle in trouble, 1911 ............................................... ......................... 13
8. Field camp at Aspalaga, Apalachicola River near Bristol, March 5, 1909...................... ........ 13
9. An early Florida Geological Survey field vehicle, 1924.......................................................... 14
10. Dock at Wakulla Springs showing some of the mastodon bones taken from the spring, November
4 19 3 0 ......................................................................................................... ................. 14
11. On the dock at Wakulla Springs, with mastodon bones, November 4, 1930. ......................... 15
12. Geophysical logging of J.F. Baumgartner well on 20th and Coconut Avenue, Sarasota,
O ctober,1932. .................................................................................................................. 15
13. Fossil of a four-tusked mastodon, found in a phosphate mining pit near Nichols, Polk County,
Decem ber 19, 1933........................................................................................................ 16
14. Clay water bottle from the Hillsborough County Archeological Project, Thatcher Mound, Site IX
A, April 27 to June 7, 1937. ........................................................ .................................... 16
15. Artifacts from the Hillsborough County Archeological Project, Thomas Mound, Site IX A, April 27
to June 7, 1937 .............................................................................................................. 17
16. An early "swamp buggy" a caterpillar tractor with modified, oversized track lugs used to
investigate peat deposits in the Everglades, 1943 ................................................ ...............18
17. The Survey's first mobile auger rig, mounted on a new post-World War II jeep, 1953.............. 18
18a. Fossil Miocene cypress tree trunk unearthed at the Englehard Co. Midway Mine in 1963......... 19
18b. Fossil cypress tree trunk cleaned and on display at the Florida Geological Survey office in
Tallahassee............................................................................................................................... 20












19. Removal of overlying phosphate-bearing sediments exposed these pinnacles of karstified Ocala
Limestone in the Central Phosphate Company pit #25, Alachua County, 1909............................ 21
20. Solution pipe in limestone, showing debris from clay filling, Levy Lime Rock Company, Levy
County, 1950.................................................................................................................... 22
21. Rock Spring, 6 miles north of Apopka, Orange County, 1929 ..............................................23
22. Cave 12 miles north of Marianna, Jackson County, with stalactites and stalagmites, 1929......23
23. Lake Lafayette, a few miles east of Tallahassee, showing low water stage in the sinkhole lake
basin, due to a drought in the area, December 18, 1931 .......................................................... 24
24. Lake Lafayette low water stage, view from north end of sinkhole basin, December 18, 1931 ...24
25. The dry basin of Lake lamonia, November 11, 1934 ......................................................... 25
26. A resort hotel at White Springs, Hamilton County, showing flood stage of the Suwannee River,
O october 4, 1928 ............................................................................................................... 25
27. Photograph of the flooded main street in River Junction, Gadsden County, April 2, 1948.........26
28. Aerial photograph of the Pitt Landslide, April 2, 1948 ............................ ......... .................. 26
29. Phosphate mining with floating dredge on Withlacoochee River, near Dunnellon, Marion
County, 1908 ........................................................................................................................ 27
30. Mining river pebble phosphate with floating dredge on Peace River, near Arcadia, DeSoto
County, 1908 ........................ ........................... ............................................................... 28
31. Pebble phosphate mining with steam shovel, Mulberry, Polk County, 1908.......................... 28
32. Land pebble phosphate washer at Dominion Phosphate Mine, Bartow, 1908...........................29
33. Percussion drill (lift-and-drop) mounted on a horse-drawn wagon, at the Southern Phosphate
Development Company, near Inverness, Citrus County, 1909, or earlier....................................... 29
34. Prospecting for land pebble phosphate, Polk County, 1910, with primitive percussion drill rig ...30
35. Pick-and-shovel mining of hard rock phosphate, Franklin Phosphate Company Pit, Newberry,
Alachua County, 1920......... ................................... ........... ........ ............... .................... 30
36. Phosphate washer and drying shed at Franklin Phosphate Company, about 2 miles northwest of
Newberry, Alachua County, 1920 ................................................... ................................. 31
37. Hard rock phosphate washer at the Camp Phosphate Company mine, Felicia, Citrus
County, 1929 ......... ............... .................... ....................................................................... 31
38. Hard rock phosphate pit with floating dredge at the Blue Run mine, Camp Phosphate Company,
Dunnellon, Marion County, 1929.................................................... ................................... 32
39. Hydraulic mining of land pebble phosphate, American Cyanimid Company, about 1-1/4 miles
west of Brewster, Polk County, 1929 ................................................................ ................... 32
40. Hydraulic mining of land pebble phosphate, 1941, location unknown ..................................33
41. Peat processing plant, Florida Humus Company, Zellwood, Orange County, July 19, 1930.......33
42. Excavating peat bog by shovel at Florahome, Putnam County, 1944...................................... 34
43. Pulverized peat in bags loaded on tram cars for transport to shed or truck, Florahome, 1944....34
44. A 5.5-feet thick deposit of fibrous, pond-prairie peat, Florida Nursery and Landscape Company at
Leesburg, Lake County, 1944 ....................................................... ........... .................... ......... 35
45. In contrast to the labor-intensive method of peat removal used in Figure 42, this mechanical peat
excavator loads a truck from a peat deposit near Pinescastle, Orange County, 1944. ..................35
46. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers quarrying coquina rock from the Anastasia Formation
on Anastasia Island, near Jacksonville, Duval County, 1939. ........................................ ....... 36
47. Quarrying Key Largo Limestone on Windley Key, Monroe County, May 1940....................... 37
48. Giant hornet nest found 4 miles north of Tennille, on State Road 51, north of Dixie County line in
Lafayette County, August 1952. .................................................... .................................. 38
49. Construction of earth-fill dam that created Lake Talquin on the Ocklockonee River, western Leon
County, looking w est, M arch 9, 1929...................................................................................... 38
50. East abutment of Lake Talquin dam exposing Jackson Bluff Formation sediments, March
9, 1929 .......................................................................................................................... 39
51. Water level control gates under construction at Lake Talquin dam, March 9, 1929................39
52. Hanging tree at Mulberry, Polk County, March 12, 1929................................................40
53. Chipley Oil Company, Dekle No. 1 (W-1), south of Chipley, Washington County, 1920............43










54. An early oil exploratory well, showing the drilling rig of the Calhoun Gas & Oil Company, near
Clarksville, Calhoun County, March 24, 1920 ..........................................................................43
55. Oil test well of the Surprise Oil Company, Palmetto, Manatee County, March 19, 1932..........44
56. Northwest Florida oil field location map .................................... ........................................45
57. South Florida oil field location map................................................ .............................. 45
58. Sunniland field structure map, showing location of the first oil discovery well, Humble Oil and
Refining Company's (HORC) Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1. ..................................... ...46
59. Humble Oil and Refining Coporation's (HORC) Gulf Coast Realties #1, the oil discovery well at
Sunniland, Collier County, 1943.......................................................... .............................. ..... 47
60. HORC's Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1, 1943. ....................................... ............. 48
61. HORC's Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1, 1943. ....................................... ............. 49
62. HORC's Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1, 1943, showing pumping equipment .................50
63. HORC's Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1, 1943, showing separator and tank farm .........51










ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The author wishes to express his appreciation to the many former employees of the Florida Geological
Survey, who provided the material upon which this chronicle is based. Most of the photographers
who took the pictures presented here are unlisted in the Survey's photographic archives. Credit for
establishing the archives is due to the foresight of the first State Geologist, Dr. Elias H. Sellards. The
extent and quality of the photographic archives attests to the dedication of Dr. Sellards and
subsequent State Geologists and staff.

In 1983, in recognition of its 75th anniversary, the Florida Geological Survey printed Special
Publication 26, "The Florida Bureau of Geology -- Past, Present, and Future" (Hoenstine and
Weissinger, 1983). This publication's press-run was limited to about 20 copies, and is now out of
print. Because of their pertinence, selected portions of that publication have been revised, updated
and utilized herein; specifically: the chapter on the Survey's history; and the background information
for the State Geologists: Sellards, Gunter, Vernon, and Hendry.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


The
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY-

AN ILLUSTRATED CHRONICLE

AND BRIEF HISTORY


by

Ed Lane PG 141


INTRODUCTION


In fiscal year 1996-97 the Florida Geological
Survey (FGS) celebrates its 90th year of
service to the state. Established in 1907, the
FGS is the oldest state agency functioning
under both its original legislative enabling
statute and its original title.

The FGS is an organizational unit within the
Florida Department of Environmental
Protection. One of the Survey's primary
objectives is to study Florida's geological
resources and to make the data and
interpretations derived from these
investigations available to other governmental
agencies, the general public, and the scientific
community. A few of the many services and
products prepared by the Survey are, for
example: geologic maps showing the
distribution of rock formations; mineral
resource maps identifying the locations of
potentially economically valuable mineral
deposits; and a variety of other maps useful to
environmental management (coastal zone,
slope, potential hazards). Furthermore, staff
geologists serve in an advisory capacity to
governmental groups; conduct projects aiding
earth-science education in public schools;
maintain repositories of subsurface rock cores
and samples; and assist in siting of public and
private institutional and industrial facilities. This
information is essential to the formulation and
evaluation of effective policies dealing with the
management, utilization, and conservation of
Florida's valuable natural resources. In
addition, the Survey is responsible for
regulating various phases of exploration and
production of oil and gas.


The necessity for geological surveys was
recognized shortly after the birth of the new
United States. The first state geological
survey was established in 1823 by North
Carolina. By 1840 a total of 15 state
geological surveys were in existence. The
present incarnation of the Florida Geological
Survey was established in 1907 and, by 1908,
there were at least 23 state surveys.

Between 1852 and 1907, the Survey twice
lost its struggle for existence. Even after
existence was assured in 1907, the FGS has
experienced four reorganizations and several
administrative name-changes. In part, these
changes reflected Florida's response to the
increasing demand for efficient utilization of its
mineral resources, and increased concern for
the environment.

The Survey's early history dates back to the
mid-nineteenth century. Florida, as well as
other states throughout the young nation, was
struggling to establish funding for its
governmental activities. Consequently, during
this period the discovery and development of
mineral resource deposits on public lands was
of special interest. This concern continues
today, as Florida's future depends upon the
identification, wise use and stewardship of its
abundant, but finite, natural resources.
Necessary to the effective management of
these resources is cooperation among such
agencies as the FGS, the Department of
Environmental Protection, the state
government's executive, legislative, and
judicial branches, water management districts,
city and county planners, and the public.








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


The manner in which Florida came to discover
and use its rich mineral potential is closely
interwoven with the history of the Florida
Geological Survey. The occasion of the
Survey's 90th anniversary presents an
opportunity to look back to times that,
nostalgically, at least, appear to have been
simpler and slower paced.

HISTORY OF THE
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
(from: Hoenstine and Weissinger, 1983)
The beginnings of the Florida Geological
Survey can be traced to the year 1852 when
the office of State Engineer and Geologist was
authorized by the legislature. The man chosen
to head this new office was "General" Francis
L. Dancy, a former militia officer and mayor of
St. Augustine. Although he lacked a
geological background, Dancy's extensive
experience in engineering and construction
was useful since his responsibilities included
overseeing the drainage of lowland areas for
agricultural development. However, funding
proved a problem. In November of 1855 he
requested $500 to pay for testing soils in
various parts of the state, whereupon the
legislature abolished his post.

It wasn't until 1880 when the Alabama State
Geologist, Eugene A. Smith, reported the
presence of phosphoric acid in a sample of
Florida building stone that the potential
economic value of Florida's mineral resources
began to be recognized. Since phosphoric acid
is an essential substance which is easily
depleted from the soil by intensive cultivation,
the possibility of commercially valuable
phosphate in the state represented a windfall.
Not only was phosphate valuable as a fertilizer,
but increased mining activities would attract
northern capital, provide employment
opportunities, encourage construction of
railroads, harbor facilities, and in other ways
"open up" the state to further development.

Because of the phosphate and the possible
existence of other valuable minerals, Governor
E.A. Perry appointed Dr. John Kost, a medical
doctor and amateur geologist, as State
Geologist in 1886. Upon assuming his post,
Kost initiated studies of phosphate and other


minerals in the state, which he reported on
(Kost, 1887). The report began:

To His Excellency, E.A. Perry, Governor of
the State of Florida. Sir: / have the honor to report
that I proceeded immediately to the work of the
State Geological Survey, after receiving my
commission, and that I have improved all my time in
the work of the survey that my other professional
duties permit ... I am ready now to state that the
results of my observations will fully justify the
Legislature this spring to provide for a two year's
work in a regular geological survey of the state ....

Dr. Kost's recommendations suffered a fate
similar to General Dancy's and his request for
funding to extend the survey was rejected. As
a result, during the following two decades, the
study of Florida's geology was principally
conducted by the United States Geological
Survey, mining companies, and other private
industries.

Legislative action to provide a full-fledged state
geological survey was initiated in 1903 by
freshman Senator E.S. Crill of Palatka and
Representative DeWitt Webb of St. Johns
County. This legislation, which was finally
passed in 1907, provided for an autonomous
permanent geological survey and an office of
State Geologist, who, with his staff, would
conduct a geological survey of Florida. This
new organization was called the Florida
Geological Survey.

This law was exemplary in that the state was
willing to subsidize a geological survey which
would be permitted latitude in its choice of
studies and research. The law remained
unchanged until 1933, at which time the FGS
was placed under the newly-formed State
Board of Conservation. This organization was
comprised of the FGS, the Department of
Game and Fresh Water Fish, and the office of
Shell Fish Commissioner. Though the
administrative structure was altered, the FGS
remained essentially autonomous in function,
as it had been since 1907. Figure 1 compares
the Florida Geological Survey's organizational
charts for 1907 and 1957.











SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


1907

STATE
GEOLOGIST


Assistant State
Geologist

+ 2 part-time assistants


1957


+ 4 part-time research consultants


+ 10 part-time employees


Figure 1. Comparison between Florida Geological Survey organizational charts for 1907 and
1957 (Sellards, 1908; Vernon, 1959).










FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OFFICES

The FGS has been quartered in six locations in
Tallahassee since its inception (Gunter, 1957).
Herman Gunter (1957), State Geologist from
1919 to 1958, stated that:

The Survey began rather humbly housed in
an unused committee room (in the Old Capitol
building), fortunately vacant because the Legislature
had adjourned for that year. In the early part of
1908, the coal room for the State Capitol was
remodeled and four rooms were added to the office
space available at the Capitol. Two of these were
courteously assigned to the Survey by Captain R.E.
Rose, State Chemist. As additional responsibilities
were given the State Chemist in 1920, this space
was needed, and the Survey had to find space in a
private office building, no State-owned building
being available.

For a short period (1920 to 1923) space
was rented in the back part of the second floor of
the Perkins Building on Monroe Street but upon
completion of the west extension of the Capitol
Building, the Survey was given three rooms on the
south side of the lower floor, one room of which
was a museum.

The first description of the Survey's quarters in
the Old Capitol's coal storage building was in
its Fifth Annual Report, for fiscal year 1912,
which stated that:

The State Survey is at present housed in
two small rooms. Of these one is used as store
room, photo room and exhibition room; the other
serves as library, office and work room. These small
rooms including about 1,000 square feet of floor
space are totally inadequate to the requirements of
effective work. Fully 10,000 square feet of floor
space is necessary to meet the immediate
requirements of the Survey (Sellards, 1913).

The building, shown in Figure 2, was the one
referred to as "the coal room of the Capitol,"
which housed the Survey from early-1908 to
1920. It was located adjacent to and a few
feet from the southeast corner of the south
wing of the Old Capitol Building, as shown by
photographs in Rogers et al. (1988). A
photograph taken during construction of the
new south extension that was being built onto
the Old Capitol Building in 1946 showed that
this coal room had been demolished (Rogers et
al., 1988). According to Dr. Vincent E.
Stewart, State Chemist (retired 1973), this


was, "... a two-story, red brick building,
adjacent to the (old) Capitol, which had been
used for various purposes, including storage of
firewood for the Capitol." Dr. Stewart also
stated that a State Geologist shared office
space with the State Chemist in this building
(personal communication, May 1991).

For the next 16 years, practically every annual
report lamented the fact that the legislature
had never increased the Survey's original
annual appropriation for salaries and expenses
($7,500) nor had it increased its office space.
Conditions improved somewhat during 1923,
reflected by the 15th Annual Report's
statement that the appropriation for the
maintenance of the Survey was increased to
$10,345, effective July 1, 1923. The Report
also announced that the Survey had moved
into new quarters (Gunter, 1924):

NEW SURVEY QUARTERS

Upon completion of the addition to the
Capitol Building the Survey was provided space on
the south side of the lower floor of the west
extension. In its new location the Survey has one
room 27 by 33 feet (891 square feet), which is used
for displaying geological material and for the library.
Connected with this are two rooms, the one used
as office of the State Geologist, while the other is
for the Secretary. Additional room is needed,
particularly for the purpose of mailing and for the
purpose of storage. The exhibition room is likewise
too small, since there is scarcely any space for
additional exhibition cases.

This move probably took place in January
1923, because the list of expenses for that
month showed $61.00 for "moving office and
museum supplies. Figures 3, 4, and 5 show
the room used as a museum in these quarters.




























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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


Conditions for the Survey improved in 1927;
the 20th Annual Report stated that the
appropriation had been increased to $12,425,
and that the Survey had again moved to new
quarters (Gunter, 1929):

NEW SURVEY QUARTERS

During December, 1927, the Survey moved
from the Capitol Building to more adequate quarters
in the Martin Building, erected to accommodate the
State Road Department and the Motor Vehicle
Department. At its new location the Survey
occupies the ground floor of the south wing of the


building. One room is devoted to the exhibition of
geological material and to the library. Additional
exhibition cases have been provided, so that the
Survey Museum now presents at least a suggestion
of what might be done toward a more adequate
display of the State's mineral resources and fossil
remains. Across the corridor are the Survey offices
and microscopic laboratory room. In the basement
is the clay-testing laboratory which has been
equipped with physical testing apparatus.

The report further stated that, "... In its new
location the Survey has been allowed a room
measuring about 20 by 60 feet (1,200 square


FIGURE 3. Florida Geological Survey museum room in the Old Capitol building, February 1925.
#1207a









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


feet) which for the most part is devoted to
exhibition purposes, one end however serving
as the library. At present there are ten cases
serving the double purpose of display and
storage, two wall cases of similar design and
one special case.


The Survey's circumstances had shown steady
improvement through fiscal year 1931, during
which the annual appropriation was $25,400.
The stock market crashed in late-1929, and
the subsequent Depression, reached even to
the Survey. As the Depression worsened, so
did the problems of the Survey. By 1932 its
budget was reduced to $20,160 (Gunter,
1933).

During the 1933 legislative session a general
conservation law was passed creating a State


Board of Conservation composed of the
Governor and his Cabinet. In the passage of
this Act, three departments that formerly
operating as separate units (the Geological
Survey, the Shell Fish, and the Game and
Fresh Water Fish), were abolished and merged
into the newly created Conservation
Department. The Act became effective July 1,
1933, at which time the Geological Survey
became a division under the direction of the
Supervisor of Conservation. Herman Gunter
was retained as head of the Geological
Department under the title of Assistant
Supervisor, but two full-time assistants were
laid off. The Survey's appropriated budget
was not transferred to the Board of
Conservation, so operating funds were further
reduced to $7,579.07 for the year from July
1, 1933, through June 30, 1934 (Davis,
1935).


FIGURE 4. Florida Geological Survey museum room in the Old Capitol building, February 1925.
#1207b









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


In 1935 the legislature removed the
Department of Game and Fresh Water Fish
from the Board of Conservation, adding in its
place an Archeological Department. The
Survey's operating budget was reduced to
$6,249.45 for the fiscal year July 1934 June
1935 (Davis, 1935). This represented the low
point in the Survey's fiscal problems, because,
for the six-month period from July 1935
through December 1935, its operating
expenditures were $5,771.10 (Davis, 1937).
The Survey's situation began to improve from
then on, with funds for calendar years 1936,
1937, and 1938 being, respectively,
$10,701.43, $21,292.56, and $20,752.99
(Dowling, 1939).


After 12 years in the Martin Building, the
Survey again moved its quarters in December
1939. Office space was provided on the
campus of the Florida State College for
Women (now Florida State University), in the
Old Lower Dining Hall. This space was
remodeled and provisions for offices,
laboratory and museum were made. The
Survey now had approximately 3,000 square
feet of space, with about 1,100 square feet
devoted to offices and the library, about 600
square feet for the laboratory and specimen
storage, and the remainder for museum
exhibition. Funding had increased to
$45,330.93 (Dowling, 1941).


FIGURE 5. Florida Geological Survey museum room in the Old Capitol building, February 1925.
#1207c









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


The 5th Biennial Report, for the calendar years
1941 and 1942, centered around the United
States entry into World War II, in December
1941. Florida, because of its year-round mild
climate and relatively undeveloped nature,
offered excellent possibilities for military
operations, and many training facilities for all
branches of the armed forces were established
throughout the state. Normal activities of the
Survey were considerably interrupted as "it
worked to help win the war (Gunter, 1943)."

The Survey was active in site selection for
military facilities and acted as consultant on
engineering problems associated with them,
such as obtaining good water supplies.
National interest in Florida's mineral resources
heightened, and the Survey became a focal
point in the exploration and exploitation of
them. The Governor appointed the State
Geologist as Emergency Coordinator of Mines
for Florida. Under war rationing regulations
priorities were attached to everything, and this
authority helped Florida's mine operators
obtain scarce supplies and equipment.

Demands made on the Survey increased during
this time and the State Board of Control
granted additional space in December 1941, so
that it took over all of the Old Lower Dining
Hall. The FGS quarters occupied
approximately 4,700 square feet, of which
about 1,800 square feet were for offices and
library, 1,000 square feet for laboratory and
storage, and 1,900 square feet for exhibition.
The 5th Biennial Report stated, for the first
time, that the Survey provided office space for
the Ground Water Division of the U.S.
Geological Survey, as part of a cooperative
program (Gunter, 1943).

Also, during this biennium, the Survey
obtained its first, small drilling machine and a
truck to transport it, provided through a
Special Fund. It was used in a war-related,
critical materials cooperative investigation with
the U.S. Geological Survey to explore for
dolomite resources along part of the western
side of the peninsula. After the investigation
was finished, the truck was sold, and the other
equipment was stored, awaiting the end of the
war (Gunter, 1943).


With the increased activities came improved
funding; for 1941 the Survey's budget was
$67,204.23, and for 1942 it was $66,665.84.
The 5th Biennial Report also had some implied
administrative changes, since it was prepared
under the aegis of "Herman Gunter, Director,
Florida Geological Survey (Gunter, 1943)." It
appeared that the Survey had regained some
of its autonomy from the Board of
Conservation.

The 6th Biennial Report, for the calendar year
1943 and 1944, pointed out that the war's
demands for military recruitment of personnel
depleted the staff, making it difficult to carry
on Survey activities (Gunter, 1945). The big
news during this time was the discovery of
commercial oil in Florida in 1943, and the
subsequent flurry of activity by oil companies
and geologists (see the section titled "The
Search For Oil In Florida").

World War II ended in September 1945, and
the Survey's activities began to regain
momentum, again. A Widco electric logging
unit was purchased in May 1949, and Survey
funding was $111,797.32 during calendar year
1949, the first time in its history that it topped
$100,000 (Gunter, 1951). A mobile auger rig
was purchased in the biennium 1953-1954
(Gunter, 1955) (see Figure 17). Ground
breaking took place for the Survey's new
headquarters building, in Tallahassee, on
December 3, 1956, and the new building was
occupied in December 1957 -- almost 50 years
to the day since the Survey was created
(Vernon, 1959, Figure 6). Shortly thereafter,
on March 31, 1958, Herman Gunter retired
with nearly 51 year's service ... he had seen
the culmination of his dream of having the
Florida Geological Survey in its own
headquarters building.












FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

































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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


EARLY SURVEY ACTIVITIES

When Florida became a state in 1845, its
population of about 66,000 people was
scattered throughout 26 counties. The 62
years between statehood and 1907, when the
FGS was established, saw tremendous
changes in Florida: the Civil War had been
fought; the state now consisted of 46
counties; and population had grown by more
than 10 times to about 685,000 (Morris,
1992).

The 1880s and 1890s were pivotal decades
for Florida. The intense personal competition
between the very wealthy Henry Flagler and
Henry Plant produced extensive railroad lines
down the east and west coasts, respectively.
These main rail lines, with subsequent
branches into the interior, opened up the
"frontiers" to prospective settlers, and to
agricultural and industrial interests. Citrus
became a major agricultural industry, and by
1886 Florida production reached 1,000,000
boxes. Cattle ranching became a big business.
Deposits of phosphate were discovered in the
Dunellon area and in the Peace River valley in
the late-1800s. These rich phosphate deposits
were commercially valuable and provided the
basic ingredient for the manufacture of
fertilizer. The first shipments to market began
in 1888. An ever-increasing demand for
fertilizer spurred exploration and development
of Florida's vast phosphate deposits. By the
turn of the century, the state had a huge
phosphate industry.

The importance of Florida's mineral resources
to the economic well-being of the state was
becoming evident to the legislature. Section 3
of the Survey's 1907 enabling act stated that:

The State Geologist shall make to the Governor
annually a report of the progress of his surveys and
explorations of the minerals, water supply and other
natural resources of the State, and he shall include
in such report full description of such surveys and
explorations, occurrence and location of mineral and
other deposits of value, surface and subterranean
water supply and power and mineral waters, and the
best and most economical methods of development,
together with analysis of soils, minerals and mineral
waters, with maps, charts and drawings of the
same; and it shall be the duty of the State Geologist


and his assistants, when they discover any mineral
deposits, or other substance of value, to notify the
owner of the land upon which such deposits occur.
(Florida Statutes, 1907)

In keeping with this prime directive, much of
the Survey's resources and manpower were
devoted to investigating Florida's mineral
resources, as documented by the archive's
many photographs of these subjects. As an
extra dividend for us today, the photographs
also provide insights into the style and pace of
life of workers and, sometimes, of the
geologists themselves.

For instance, they show that Florida was
largely agrarian, with motive force, as well as
transportation, supplied by humans, mules or
horses. The archival photographs indicate that
all mining and industrial activities were very
labor intensive, at least through the 1920s,
when more modern, mechanized equipment
began to appear. At the same time, though,
Survey personnel also were documenting the
state's other natural resources, such as its
physiographic features, its flora and fauna,
and, occasionally, other oddities.

The photographs that follow were selected
from the hundreds in the Survey's archives.
They are arranged in general categories, to
show the diversity of the Survey's activities.
Each photograph's FGS archival accession
number (# ) follows the caption.

FIELD WORK

The Survey staff, though usually limited to one
or two full-time geologists and, occasionally,
some part-time help, managed to cover the
entire state during the early years. Activities
included mapping, investigating and evaluating
mineral deposits, water resources studies,
exploring for and cataloging fossils,
deciphering and interpreting Florida's
stratigraphy, and cooperative studies with
other agencies in such things as archeology.

Most of Florida at the turn of the century was
without improved roads, and even many
communities had only dirt streets. If one
needed to get off the dirt roads, conditions
deteriorated to wagon tracks and trails. Much








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


of the field work was conducted by flivverr"
(Figure 7) and horseback, and, sometimes,
even by boat on the streams and lakes.

Tourism, with its attendant motel chains, had
not been invented yet, so field expeditions had
to be self-sufficient, both in food and shelter.
Living out of tents and bedrolls was common
(Figure 8). However, there is an incongruous
element in the photographs. Formal attire,


including white shirt and tie, was standard
practice for professionals during the early
decades of the 20th century, even under
grueling field conditions. Snake-boots or
leggings seemed to be about the only
concession to that rule. Laid-back informality
did not appear until the 1950s. Figures 7
through 18 impart a sense of the Survey's
early activities.








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


1 pE
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FIGURE 7. Geological field vehicle in trouble, in 1911. The tire isn't flat, but the wooden spokes were
broken by running through the pot-hole behind the car. An argument for good roads! #331


FIGURE 8. Field camp at Aspalaga, Apalachicola River near Bristol, March 5, 1909. Left to right: E.H.
Sellards, R.M. Harper, Herman Gunter. Mapping instruments include long stadia rod in rear and plane
table on right. #2174








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 9. An early Florida Geological Survey field vehicle. The sign on this air-conditioned Ford
"woody wagon" reads "Florida Geological Survey." Photographed on the beach at Cape Sable,
Monroe County, 1924. #726


FIGURE 10. Dock at Wakulla Springs showing some of the mastodon bones taken from the spring,
November 4, 1930. The reconstructed skeleton of this gigantic, ice-age beast is now in the Museum
of Florida History, Tallahassee. #1317








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 11. On the dock at Wakulla Springs, with mastodon bones, November 4, 1930. Left to right:
George M. Ponton, George Christie, Herman Gunter, and Clarence Simpson. #1318


FIGURE 12. Geophysical logging of J.F. Baumgartner well, on 20th and Coconut Avenue, Sarasota,
October 1932. This season the well dressed geologist wore jodhpurs, high leather campaign boots,
tie, and tam-o-shanter. #1328









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 13. Fossil of a four-tusked mastodon, found in a phosphate mining pit near Nichols, Polk
County, on December 19, 1933. It was recovered from 45 feet below land surface and about 12 feet
into the phosphate matrix. On the right side of the photograph, from right-to-left: pelvic girdle, femur,
portion of skull with teeth in place, portions of upper tusk. #1430


FIGURE 14. Clay water bottle from the Hillsborough County Archeological Project, Thatcher Mound,
Site IX A, April 27 to June 7, 1937. #1435









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 15. Artifacts from the Hillsborough County Archeological Project, Thomas Mound, Site IX A,
April 27 to June 7, 1937. First row, left to right: two copper-coated wooden ear plugs and two
human effigy pottery lugs, one string of glass beads screened from top soil; second row: arrowhead
and four pendants of stone; third row: four silver objects; fourth row: two carved bone objects and
one bead made from a fossil manatee rib bone. #1437









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 16. An early 'swamp buggy' a caterpillar tractor with modified, oversized track lugs used
to investigate peat deposits in the Everglades, 1943. #1682
























FIGURE 17. The Survey's first mobile auger rig,
mounted on a new post-World War II jeep, driven
by staff geologist, Bill Yon, April 1953. #2082










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42




















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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 18b. Fossil cypress tree trunk cleaned and on display at the Florida Geological Survey office in
Tallahassee (Rupert, 1990).







SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


GEOLOGICAL FEATURES
and
ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS

Staff geologists photo-documented many
geological features. A large number of the
archive's photographs are related to karst
phenomena. Karst is a generic term that refers
to landforms that have been shaped by the
dissolution of the underlying carbonate rocks.
Percolating ground water dissolves the
limestone bedrock, creating voids. Karst
terrains, such as Florida, have drainage
systems that are distinctly different from the
usual surface drainage systems that have
connected rivers, streams, and lakes. Karst
terrain is characterized by having underground
drainage systems, sinkholes, disappearing
streams, caves, and springs.

Figure 19 shows what the top of the
underlying limestone bedrock surface in much
of Florida would look like if the overlying
sediments were stripped off. Figure 20
illustrates quite graphically what a sinkhole
would look like if the earth were sliced down
through its center. Figure 21 shows a spring
outlet from limestone, and in Figure 22


stalactites and stalagmites can be seen in a
cave.

Figures 23 to 25 document a karst
phenomenon associated with several lakes
near Tallahassee. Periodically, about every 20
to 30 years, these lakes drain dry through
sinkholes in their bottoms, then the sinkholes
plug again with sediments, and the lakes refill.

Concern for protecting the environment has a
high profile today. The Survey's photographic
archives has evidence that many of today's
environmental problems are inherited and are
the cumulative results of decades of activities
that started with the State's early residents.
Figures 26 and 27 show how ill-advised it has
always been to build on the floodplains of
streams.

An unusual event, in terms of its magnitude,
occurred April 2, 1948, near Greensboro,
Gadsden County. The heavy rains that caused
the flooding in Figure 27 also produced a
spectacular landslide, referred to locally as
"Pitt's Pit" (Figure 28). The landslide made a
semi-circular, 500-feet diameter pit, with
saturated soil flowing into nearby Flat Creek.


FIGURE 19. Removal of overlying phosphate-bearing sediments exposed these pinnacles of karstified
Ocala limestone in the Central Phosphate Company pit #25, Alachua County, 1909. #6









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 20. Solution pipe in limestone, showing debris from clay filling, Levy Lime Rock Company,
Levy County, 1950. #1930








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 21. Rock Spring, 6 miles north of Apopka, Orange County. Spring flows out of the round
karst cave in the lower center, 1929. #1240


FIGURE 22. Cave 12 miles north of Marianna, Jackson County, with stalactites and stalagmites,
1929. #1234











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 23. Lake Lafayette, a few miles east of Tallahassee, showing low water stage in the sinkhole
lake basin, due to a drought in the area, December 18, 1931. #1283


-66


FIGURE 24. Lake Lafayette low water stage, view from north end of sinkhole basin, December 18,
1931. #1284


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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 25. The dry basin of Lake lamonia, about 10-miles north of Tallahassee. Lake lamonia is a
karst lake, with several sinkholes in its bottom, and has a historical record of draining dry every few
decades. The two active sinks shown here received the final waters of Lake lamonia. The one most
plainly seen in right center was said to have a depth of 70 feet, but this was not verified; November
11,1934. #1353


FIGURE 26. A resort hotel at White Springs, Hamilton County, showing flood stage of the Suwannee
River, October 4, 1928. #1070











FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 27. Photograph of the flooded main street in River Junction, Gadsden County, April 2, 1948
(Rupert, 1990). #1788


FIGURE 28. Aerial photograph of the Pitt Landslide, April 2, 1948, at T3N R5W sec 32dc (Rupert,
1990). #1763


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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 29. Phosphate mining with floating dredge on Withlacoochee River, near Dunnellon, Marion
County, 1908. #266


MINERAL RESOURCES
and
MINING

Since its discovery in the late-1800s, to the
present, phosphate has been the state's
largest mineral industry. The series of
photographs from Figure 29 to 40 document
phosphate mining techniques and technology
that evolved from before the turn-of-the-
century through the 1940s.


Figures 41 to 47 illustrate other mineral
commodities produced in Florida. The Windley
Key quarry (Figure 47), in the Upper Keys,
provided large quantities of decorative facing-
stone for many mansions and public buildings
throughout southern Florida. The stone was
highly prized because it was composed of the
fossils of an ancient coral reef. The quarry
was closed for several decades, but was
recently designated one of Florida's significant
geological sites.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 30. Mining river pebble phosphate with floating dredge on Peace River, near Arcadia, DeSoto
County, 1908. #181


FIGURE 31. Pebble phosphate mining with steam shovel, Mulberry, Polk County, 1908.


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#174








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 32. Land pebble phosphate washer at Dominion Phosphate Mine, Bartow, 1908. #179


FIGURE 33. Percussion drill (lift-and-drop) mounted on a horse-drawn wagon, at the Southern
Phosphate Development Company, near Inverness, Citrus County, 1909 or earlier. This drill was used
to prospect for phosphate-bearing sediments. Behind the drill is a flume made of boards, probably to
move water around the property. #23









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 34. Prospecting for land pebble phosphate, Polk County, 1910. Primitive percussion drill rig,
but probably effective, for finding deposits that are within a few feet of land surface. Note the sand
bags on the cross-bar to force the hollow drill pipe down as the men on the lever "jogged" it up-and-
down. The long tool in the foreground has flexible, split-pronged "fingers" that would grab samples
from the bottom of the hole. #44


FIGURE 35. Very labor-intensive, pick-and-shovel mining of hard rock phosphate, Franklin Phosphate
Company pit, Newberry, Alachua County, 1920. #623








SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 36. Phosphate washer and drying shed at Franklin Phosphate Company, about 2 miles
northwest of Newberry, Alachua County, 1920. #627


FIGURE 37. Hard rock phosphate washer at
County, 1929. #1124


the Camp Phosphate Company mine, Felicia, Citrus


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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FIGURE 38. Hard rock phosphate pit with floating dredge at the Blue Run
Company, Dunnellon, Marion County, 1929. #1122b


Mine, Camp Phosphate


FIGURE 39. Hydraulic mining of land pebble phosphate
about 1-1/4 miles west of Brewster, Polk County, 1929.


in the pit of American Cyanamid Company,
#1128


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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 40. Hydraulic mining of land pebble phosphate, 1941, location unknown. Hydraulic water jets
wash the phosphate-bearing sediments into the sluice pit where centrifugal pumps force it to the
washer. #1780


FIGURE 41. Peat processing plant of the Florida Humus Company, at Zellwood, Orange County, July
19, 1930. The excavated peat was spread over the 8-acre field in the foreground to be air-dried. The
truck on the left appears to have a hopper with a whirling spreader mechanism to disperse the wet
peat. #1263









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 42. Excavating peat bog by shovel at Florahome, Putham County, 1944. #1725


FIGURE 43. Pulverized peat in bags loaded on tram cars for transport to shed or truck, Florahome,
1944. #1727









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 44. This 5.5-feet thick deposit of fibrous, pond-prairie peat, on the property of the Florida
Nursery and Landscape Company at Leesburg, Lake County, rests directly on the sand on which the
man is standing. The peat was removed by pumping out the water and most of the excavating was
done by hand, 1944. #1704


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FIGURE 45. In contrast to the labor-intensive method of peat removal used in Figure 42, this
mechanical peat excavator loads a truck from a peat deposit near Pinecastle, Orange County, 1944.
Note board runways on which truck and excavator must operate. #1706


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 46. Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) workers quarrying coquina rock from the Anastasia
Formation on Anastasia Island, near Jacksonville, Duval County, in 1939, to be used to restore the
Castillo de San Marcos and Fort Matanzas. Except for the trucks and clothing, the scene might have
been the same in 1672, when the Spaniards built the fort, using the same material. #1633









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 47. Quarrying Key Largo Limestone on Windley Key, Monroe County, May 1940. A row of
holes was drilled and the stone split off from the quarry face. The rough blocks were then taken to an
on-site plant, where the soft stone was trimmed using a wire-rope saw, and polished. The Key Largo
Limestone is a fossil coral reef, which has been very popular as a decorative dimension stone since
the 1920s. #1822


MISCELLANEOUS

During their travels the Survey staff
photographed a lot of things that do not fall
into the category of geology. They are,
nevertheless, interesting from a cultural
standpoint.

Figure 48 is an example of the kind of odd
photographs in the archives which illustrate the
unusual natural phenomena that Survey


staff investigated. This giant nest of hornets
was investigated by cutting down the tree. No
record exists of what happened to the nest
after it was measured and photographed.
Figures 49 to 51 show various phases of the
construction of the hydroelectric dam on the
Ochlockonee River, which created Lake
Talquin. Figure 52 gives a sense of how close
to the frontier Florida was, until recently.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 48. Giant hornet nest found 4 miles north of Tennille, on State Road 51, north of Dixie
County line in Lafayette County, August 1952. #2062c (left), #2063d (right)


FIGURE 49. Construction of earth-fill dam that created Lake Talquin on the Ochlockonee River,
western Leon County, looking west, March 9, 1929. #1177









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 50. East abutment of Lake Talquin dam exposing Jackson Bluff Formation sediments, March
9,1929. #1180


FIGURE 51. Water level control gates under construction at Lake Talquin dam, March 9, 1929. #1183








FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 52. Hanging tree at Mulberry, Polk County, March 12, 1929. Public hangings reportedly took
place from this tree in the past. Bullet holes can be seen in the trunk. Herman Gunter is on the right.
#1147










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


THE SEARCH FOR OIL IN FLORIDA

It has been 53 years since oil was discovered
in Florida. Florida's first commercial oil well,
Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No. 1, often
referred to as the "Sunniland discovery well,"
began production September 26, 1943, in
Collier County. The successful completion of
this well marked the end of a quest that had
begun 50 years or more earlier.

Florida did not have any laws regulating the
drilling for oil and gas prior to June 5, 1945.
Consequently, records and information on oil
exploration during the last century and the
early part of this century are meager. The
limited information available is the result of
diligent efforts by early Survey staff members,
including interviews of people who had been
involved in the exploration operations.

The documentation of the search for "black
gold" in Florida was first published by Herman
Gunter (1949), the second State Geologist.
Because of the historical significance of this
information, and because the original
publication has been out-of-print for over 40
years, the following text is excerpted from the
Florida Geological Survey's Information Circular
No. 1 (Gunter, 1949). Also, Gunter (1949)
lists the 86 known oil test wells drilled before
the Sunniland discovery well; this information
is reprinted in the Appendix. Probably others
were drilled, too, for which no records exist.


As nearly as has been established, the
earliest test for oil in Florida was about 1900 or
1901, at Pensacola, Escambia County. This well
was drilled by the Escambia Oil Company at the foot
of Palafox Street to a depth of 1,320 feet.
Apparently this rig was then sold to another local
company, Pensacola Development Company, and
two wells were drilled: No. 1 about 5 miles west of
Pensacola in what is now New Warrington, and No.
2 on East Hill in Pensacola at the intersection of
Tenth Avenue and Mallory Street. These wells
attained depths of 1,702 and 1,620 feet,
respectively. Driller's logs on both of these have
been preserved and published in Water Supply Paper
102 of the U.S. Geological Survey (Fuller, 1904),
and in the 14th Annual Report (Sellards and Gunter,
1922) and 17th Annual Report (Mossom, 1926) of
the Florida Geological Survey.


Upon completion of these wells, interest in
this west Florida area seemed to diminish
temporarily and the next wells of record were drilled
in Sumter County, central peninsular Florida, in
1903. Two wells were put down, the first
apparently being abandoned at about 1,200 feet
because of drilling difficulties, and the second
completed at a depth of 2,002 feet. It is not known
why these particular areas in western and central
peninsular Florida were selected, unless it was on
the basis of general surface geology. Sumter County
lies within the region referred to in literature as the
"Ocala Uplift," being that part of Florida where the
upper Eocene limestones are exposed at the surface,
or only thinly mantled by more recent sediments. It
has long been recognized as a regionally geologic
high area, and could therefore have attracted the
attention of the early explorers for oil in the same
manner as it has intrigued those in more recent
years.

From these early beginnings the interest in
the possibility of oil or gas in Florida has waxed and
waned through the years. From rather close
familiarity with the oil prospecting developments in
Florida for many years it is evident that some of this
interest was prompted by enthusiastic, overzealous,
professional promoters whose first concern was
personal gain. By far the larger number, however,
made serious attempts to find oil, as is evidenced by
the several deep wells drilled by operators of highest
integrity whose motives were never questioned.
Even the first wells of record in Escambia County
were of this character and for that early day the
depths of these were quite impressive, ranging from
1,320 to 1,702 feet.

In 1939 a well was completed near
Pinecrest, Monroe County, at a depth of 10,006
feet. This was the first well in Florida to attain that
depth and, although it did not produce oil, it was
drilled under the constant supervision of a trained
geologist who kept detailed data on the formations
penetrated and gave personal attention to the
collection of cuttings and cores, as well as other
pertinent data. The complete information yielded by
this deep test, terminating as it did in sedimentary
formation at more than 10,000 feet, drew the
attention of major oil companies to the potential
possibilities of Florida. The year 1939 is, therefore,
an appropriate dividing point between early
prospecting in Florida and the present period of
prospecting by major companies. During this first
period from about 1900 to and including 1939,
there were at least 87 tests drilled. Many of these
were very shallow and, except for having been
dn7led by operators who so designated the well,
could hardly be labelled as "oil test But there were
many wells dilled during this first period that are
acknowledged to be as completely tested,









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


adequately sampled, and recorded as any in the
state.

As an index, however, of the increased
interest and activity in oil prospecting, the period
from 1940 to 1949 records the completion of 129
wells, with five wells in process of being drilled on
January 1, 1949. It was on September 26, 1943,
that the Humble Oil and Refining Company
completed their Gulf Coast Realties Corporation No.
1 well at a total depth of 11,626 feet, and brought
in the first oil well in Florida. The initial production
was 97 barrels of oil with 425 barrels of salt water,
the oil having a gravity of 20.80 A.P.I.


The first discovery well did not flow, but had
to be pumped. Tested on December 6, 1943,
the well produced 111 barrels of oil and 475
barrels of salt water. The well was operated
until June 16, 1946, at which time the
production had decreased to 10 barrels per day
and the salt water had increased to
approximately 600 barrels per day. An
unsuccessful attempt was made in May 1947
to shut off the salt water. When this failed the
well was converted into a salt water disposal
well. The lifetime production from this well
was approximately 20,550 barrels of oil (FGS
records).

Interestingly, Florida Statutes (1941), Chapter
20667 (459), stipulated that a bonus of
$50,000 would be paid for completing the first
oil well in Florida. The award was made to
Humble Oil and Refining Company in 1944.
Humble donated the $50,000 to the University
of Florida and the Florida State University (then
the Florida State College for Women). Humble
supplemented the award with a gift of
$10,000, dividing the total equally between
the two colleges.

The discovery of commercial oil in Florida
prompted the legislature to formulate rules and
regulations pertaining to the exploration for
and production of crude oil. The evolution of
oil and gas regulations, from 1945 to present,
closely parallels the growth of the oil industry
in Florida and is, in itself, an interesting story.
Lloyd and Ragland (1991) give a detailed
historical account of Florida's oil and gas
regulations, and the reader is referred to that
publication.


Hughes (1993) recounts many details of the
wheelings-and-dealings, and tales of the
colorful characters who inhabited the deep
south's oil patches in the late-1800s and early-
1900s. According to his research, the earliest
oil-test wells were drilled in Florida in 1892, by
the Owl Commercial Oil Company (a subsidiary
of the White Owl Cigar Company). They were
drilled in Gadsden County, west of
Tallahassee. The first well was about 1,000-
feet deep; the second went to about 1,750
feet; both were "dry holes." One of the more
flamboyant "oil prospectors" in Florida was
William G. Blanchard, who was involved in
several leasing and test-well drilling schemes in
various parts of the state during the 1930s and
1940s (Hughes, 1933). In early-1940,
Blanchard drilled a test-well on his Everglades
lease, a few miles west of Miami (see
Appendix, Dade Co., W-466). The well began
producing some type of natural gas from a
depth of about 1,300 feet. The escaping gas
was burned as a flare for over two-and-a-half
months. Blanchard wanted to entice other
investors to finance a second well. To
convince them, he ran a pipeline from the well
to the Tamiami Trail, where he installed a
kitchen gas stove and other gas-fired
appliances in a trailer. In the best Hollywood
public relations spirit, he got Governor Fred
Cone and Governor-Elect Spessard L. Holland
to visit the demonstration. No one was
impressed enough to give him any speculation
money, though.

Figures 53 to 55 show drilling rigs used in the
1920s and 1930s to prospect for oil. Figures
56 and 57 show the location of the Sunniland
field relative to other oil fields in Florida. Figure
58 shows the situation of the discovery well in
the present Sunniland field. Figures 59 to 63
illustrate the scope of the Sunniland
exploratory well drilling project and the
subsequent oil production equipment.
Comparisons between Figures 53 to 55 and
Figures 59 to 63 demonstrate the different
approaches over the decades to oil exploration
in Florida.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


FIGURE 53. Chipley Oil Company, Dekle No. 1 (W-1), about 3 miles south of Chipley, Washington
County, 1920. This exploratory well was located in what is now Falling Waters State Recreation Area.
#635


FIGURE 54. An early oil exploratory well, showing the drilling rig of the Calhoun Gas & Oil Company,
near Clarksville, Calhoun County, March 24, 1920. #633







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 55. Oil test well of the Surprise Oil Company, about one mile from Palmetto, Manatee
County, March 19, 1932. Well was flowing a large volume of fresh water which was running in ditch
in the left foreground. #1293


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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


R33W R32W R31W R30W R29W R28V R27V R26W


EXPLANATION


o ACTIVE OIL FIELD
O INACTIVE OIL FIELD


SCALE
0 10 20

i0 10 O 30
o IQ 2o 30


MILES


FGS600491


FIGURE 56. Northwest Florida oil field location map (Lloyd, 1994).






EXPLANATION I .r PA 1 I
1 TOWNSENDO. CANAL
ACTIVE OIL FIELD IAT1N -L
0 INACTIVE OIL FIELD \ I wor e n-SUrOCO-FELDA I I


o 10 20
0 10 20 30


FIGURE 57. South Florida oil field location map (Lloyd, 1994).









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 58. Sunniland field structure map, showing location of the first oil discovery well, Humble Oil
and Refining Company's (HORC) Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1, Permit #42, in the lower right of
the structure (after Lloyd, 1997).













SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


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FIGURE 59. Humble Oil and Refining Company's (HORC) Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1, the oil

discovery well at Sunniland, Collier County, Florida, 1943. #2185d






47


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


FIGURE 60. HORC's Gulf Coast Realties Corporation #1. This is the pumping derrick and pumping
equipment, which replaced the drill rig in Figure 59 after the well was completed, 1943. #1923a


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SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


STATE GEOLOGISTS

ELIAS H. SELLARDS
1907- 1919

Since passage of the 1907 law, there have
been five state geologists. The first was Dr.
Elias Sellards who was appointed by Governor
Napoleon B. Broward. Sellards, who for two
years was assistant paleontologist with the
Kansas Geological Survey, received his BA and
MA degrees from the University of Kansas and
his PhD from Yale University. Then, in 1904,
he became an instructor at the University of
Florida.

While at the University of Florida, Sellards
devoted a considerable amount of time to the
study of Florida's ground-water resources, a
subject of special concern to the state's
agricultural interests. Subsequently, water


resources studies became a primary focus of
the early work done by the Survey staff. These
early investigations, which included the
underground water supply of central Florida
and a survey of road materials, were directed
toward serving Florida's economic needs. In
later years the emphasis became more
academic, and expanded to include
paleontology and general Florida geology.


Under Sellards's guidance, the FGS continued
as a permanent department of state
government, and notably without political
interference. Sellards resigned in April 1919 to
join the Bureau of Economic Geology of the
State of Texas. After Sellards's resignation,
his former student and staff assistant, Herman
Gunter, assumed the position of State
Geologist.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


HERMAN GUNTER
1919-1958

Herman Gunter's association with the FGS
spanned almost 52 years -- a length of service
unmatched by any other state geologist.
Gunter graduated from the University of Florida
with a BS degree in 1907 and in that same
year joined the FGS staff. His advancement to
State Geologist in 1919 ensured that the
position was staffed by someone well-versed
in Florida geology.

As the Survey's second director, he changed
its emphasis somewhat by making its reports
more diverse and less academic in outlook, and
by more closely relating the Geological
Survey's work to the needs of state
government. In his role as administrator,
Gunter encouraged cooperation with the
state's public schools, enlarged the Survey's
museum and library, and thereby acted on his
belief that a primary purpose of the FGS was
to serve as a highly accessible source of
information on Florida geology.

Under Gunter's direction the FGS initiated a
conservation campaign aimed at exposing the
gross damage done to the state's ground and


surface water supplies by careless drilling
practices and misuse of water. In response to
this campaign, a bill was introduced in 1937 to
protect the state's water resources; however,
it failed to pass the legislature.

His interest in the preservation of the water
resources of Florida propelled him to the
forefront as an opponent of the Cross Florida
Barge Canal, which was originally conceived as
a sea level ship canal across Florida. Also
under Gunter, work was begun on
investigating Florida's mineral resources. He
sought and obtained funding for a cooperative
venture with the U.S. Geological Survey to
complete topographic mapping of the state.

His contributions to geologic research were
formally recognized by the University of Florida
when, in 1944, he was awarded an honorary
Doctorate of Science. His accomplishments
were varied and distinguished, and laid a firm
foundation for the future. When he retired in
1958, Herman Gunter had served almost 52
years with the Florida Geological Survey. In
recognition of his service, the building which
now houses the FGS is named the Herman
Gunter Building.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


ROBERT O. VERNON
1958- 1971

Herman Gunter's successor was Robert O.
Vernon, who joined the Survey as an assistant
state geologist in 1941. Vernon received his
BS from Birmingham Southern College, his MS
from the University of Iowa, and his PhD from
Louisiana State University.

Emphasizing geologic research, Vernon
conducted or participated in a large number of
investigations on Florida geology. Part of this
emphasis resulted in the expansion of the
Florida Geological Survey/U.S. Geological
Survey cooperative program in water resources
investigations.

Recognizing the need for conservation of
Florida's limited water resources, much of his
time was spent informing the public about
Florida geology and hydrology through
numerous publications, public forums, and
presentations to schools and civic
organizations. The Florida statutes relating to
conservation of water resources are principally
the direct result of Vernon's efforts.


It was also largely through his efforts that the
legislature authorized and funded the
construction of a geologic center comprised of
the Florida State University's Department of
Geology and the Florida Geological Survey. The
proximity of these entities, which are housed
next to each other on the campus of Florida
State University, has provided for a
cooperative use of scientific equipment and
library facilities, and has encouraged an open
and stimulating exchange of ideas between the
university and the Survey over the years. It
also has enhanced opportunities for student
employment at the FGS and has benefited the
Survey staff by supplying skilled,
knowledgeable graduate students to assist in
areas involving practical geological research.

In November 1971 Vernon resigned as State
Geologist and accepted the position of Director
of the Division of Interior Resources in the
Department of Natural Resources. Robert O.
Vernon is remembered as a dedicated
professional, who devoted many years of
thought and energy to Florida geology.









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


CHARLES W. HENDRY, Jr.
1971 -1988

Upon Vernon's resignation in 1971, Charles W.
"Bud" Hendry, Jr., assumed the post of State
Geologist and Chief of the Florida Geological
Survey. An employee of the Survey since
1949, Hendry held a number of positions,
including draftsman, stratigrapher, director of
water resources investigations, and assistant
state geologist. In addition to earning his BS
from Florida State University, Hendry had the
distinction of receiving the first MS degree in
geology awarded by Florida State University.

Aware of a growing population and its
increasing impact on Florida's environment,


Hendry recognized the importance of the role
of the Survey in providing the geological data
necessary to evaluate and mitigate these
impacts. Consequently, under Hendry's
direction the primary focus of the programs of
the Survey was on "applied geology." This
approach directed the efforts of the FGS to
seek answers to questions and problems
concerning society's impact on the state's
geologic environment. In the process of
pursuing this objective, the Survey significantly
increased its geologic data base. These data
and their interpretations are provided to other
governmental agencies and the general public
through publications, seminars and service as
geologic consultants.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


WALTER SCHMIDT
1988-

Dr. Walter Schmidt was appointed Chief of the
Florida Geological Survey in 1985 and became
State Geologist in 1988 on the retirement of
C.W. Hendry, Jr. Schmidt obtained his BA
degree from the University of South Florida in
1972. His MS was obtained from Florida State
University in 1977, and his PhD was
completed at Florida State University in 1983.

Schmidt joined the Survey in 1975 and began
his work as a graduate student assistant to the
Northwest Florida Water Management District
geologist. When the district geologist resigned,
Schmidt assumed that position. He
subsequently held a number of scientific and
administrative positions with the Survey before
being appointed as its Chief.

As Chief of the FGS, Dr. Schmidt has
emphasized cooperation between Survey
research geologists and state agencies which
require geologic information in order to carry
out their respective missions. This cooperation
has generated a number of joint projects in
which Survey geologists supervise graduate


student assistants in the collection and
interpretation of geologic data. In addition,
there is a renewed commitment to such
research areas as paleontology, geochemistry,
and geologic mapping.

One of Dr. Schmidt's first acts as Chief was
the creation of two sections within the Survey:
the Office of Mineral Resources and
Environmental Geology, and the Office of
Geological Investigations. The Office of
Mineral Resources and Environmental Geology
focuses on the preparation of reports and
maps in which geologic data are applied to the
solution of specific problems. The group has
prepared a number of mineral resource
potential maps as land-use planning aids for
counties. In addition, environmental geology
reports have been prepared for several high-
growth urban areas. This section also
prepares educational reports that pertain to the
geology and hydrology of Florida. Data from
this section is often utilized in the
comprehensive geological reports prepared by
the Geologic Investigations Section, as well.
The Geological Investigations section prepares
maps and reports pertaining to Florida's









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


geology, structure, hydrogeology, stratigraphy,
and paleontology.

The first statutes governing the exploration
and production of oil and gas in Florida were
passed by the legislature in 1945. The
responsibility for overseeing this program was
placed with the Florida Geological Survey. Dr.
Schmidt has recently overseen the extensive
revision of the state's oil and gas rules. This
rule revision is complex in that it must take
into account continuing technological changes
associated with the industry, and the
heightened environmental awareness of


Florida's citizens, while at the same time
responding to the requirements of the statutes.

Dr. Schmidt has been active on a number of
boards and committees since becoming State
Geologist. He holds an appointment as
Adjunct Professor with the Department of
Geology at Florida State University. He serves
as a board member on the Florida Board of
Professional Geologists. Additionally, Dr.
Schmidt participates on the Governor's Outer
Continental Shelf Advisory Committee. He also
is a member of the Associacion of American
State Geologists, and served one term as
president of that organization.









FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REFERENCES

Davis, G.W., 1935, First Biennial Report: State Board of Conservation, 101 p.

1937, Second Biennial Report: State Board of Conservation, 29 p.

Dowling, R.L., 1939, Third Biennial Report: State Board of Conservation, 32 p.

1941, Fourth Biennial Report: State Board of Conservation, 92 p.

Fuller, M.L., 1904, Hydrology of Eastern United States Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Water
Supply Paper 102, p. 238-275.

Florida Statutes, 1941, Chapter 20667 (459).

Gunter, H., 1924, Fifteenth Annual Report: Florida Geological Survey, 266 p.

1929, Twentieth Annual Report: Florida Geological Survey, 294 p.

1933, Twenty-Third Twenty-Fourth Annual Report: Florida Geological Survey, 234 p.

1943, Fifth Biennial Report: Florida Geological Survey, 32 p.

1945, Sixth Biennial Report: Florida Geological Survey, 29 P.

1949, Exploration for oil and gas in Florida: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular 1
(revised), 106 p.

1951, Ninth Biennial Report: Florida Geological Survey, 32 p.

1955, Eleventh Biennial Report: Florida Geological Survey, 60 p.

1957, Twelfth Biennial Report: Florida Geological Survey, 86 p.

Hoenstine, R.W. and Weissinger, S., 1983, The FlOrida Bureau of Geology -- Past, Present, and
Future: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication 26, 48 p.

Hughes, D.J., 1993, Oil in the Deep South, University Press of Mississippi, 267 p.

Kost, J., 1887, First Report of the Geological Survey of Florida: Floridian Steam Printing House,
Tallahassee, 31 p.

Laws of Florida, 1907, Chapter 5681, Florida Geological Survey enabling statute.

Lloyd, J.M., 1991, 1988 and 1989 Florida petroleum production and exploration: Part I of: Florida
Geological Survey Information Circular 107, 122 p.

1994, 1992 and 1993 Florida petroleum production and exploration: Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular 110, 30 p.

Lloyd, J.M., 1997, 1994 and 1995 Florida petroleum and exploration: Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular 111 (in press).









SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 42


Sand Ragland, J.M., 1991, Petroleum exploration and development policies in Florida:
response to concern for sensitive environments: Part II of: Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular 107.

Morris, A., 1992, The Florida Handbook, 1991-1992: The Peninsular Publishing Co., Tallahassee,
FL, 720 p.

Mossom, S., 1926, A review of the structure and stratigraphy of Florida, with special reference to
the petroleum possibilities: Florida Geological Survey Seventeenth Annual Report, p. 169-
275.

Rogers, W.W., Ellis, M.L., and Morris, J., 1988, Favored Land, Tallahassee, A History of
Tallahassee and Leon County: The Donning Co., Norfolk, VA, 247 p.

Rupert, F., 1990, Geology of Gadsden County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin 62, 61 p.

Sellards, E.H., 1908, First Annual Report: Florida Geological Survey, 114 p.

1913, Fifth Annual Report: Florida Geological Survey, 306 p.

and Gunter, H., 1922, On the petroleum possibilities of Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Fourteenth Annual Report, p. 33-135.

Vernon, R.O., 1959, Thirteenth Biennial Report: Florida Geological Survey, 84 p.













FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


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FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700



ADMINISTRATIVE SECTION

Walter Schmidt, Chief and State Geologist
Cindy Collier, Administrative Secretary Jessie Hawkins, Custodian
Deborah Mekeel, Librarian Sandie Ray, Admin. Asst.

GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION

Thomas M. Scott, Assistant State Geologist
Jon Arthur, Petrologist Ted Kiper, Cartographer
Jim Balsillie, Coastal Geologist. Harley Means, Research Assistant
Clint Barineau, Research Assistant Tom Miller, Research Assistant
Craig Berninger, Research Assistant LaMarr Mitchell, Secretary Specialist
Paulette Bond, Geochemist Spencer Mitchell, Research Assistant
Jackie Bone, Research Assistant Frank Rupert, Paleontologist
Ken Campbell, Sedimentologist Frank Rush, Lab Technician
Joel Duncan, Sedimentary Petrologist Jennifer Stalvey, Research Assistant
Rick Green, Research Associate Jim Trindell, Driller
Diedre Hamil, Research Assistant Rodger VanLandingham, Asst. Driller
Lance Johnson, Research Assistant Bill Waite, Research Assistant
Jim Jones, Cartographer Chris Werner, Research Assistant
Holly Williams, Research Assistant


MINERAL RESOURCES
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

Jacqueline M. Lloyd, Assistant State Geologist
Zi-Qiang Chen, Research Assistant Ron Hoenstine, Coastal Geologist
Adel Dabous, Research Associate Jim Ladner, Coastal Geologist
Rodney DeHan, Sr. Research Scientist Ed Lane, Environmental Geologist
Henry Freedenberg, Env. Geologist Steve Spencer, Economic Geologist
Debra Harrington, Research Assistant Nikki Strong, Research Assistant
Cliff Hendrickson, Research Assistant Candy Trimble, Research Assistant



OIL AND GAS SECTION

L. David Curry, Environmental Program Administrator
Paul Attwood, Asst. Dist. Coordinator Don Hargrove, Engineer
Robert Caughey, District Coordinator Evelyn Jordan, Sec. Specialist
Ed Gambrell, District Coordinator Jim LeBar, Professional Engineer
Ed Garrett, Geologist Victoria MacFarlan, Sec. Specialist
Carolyn Stringer, Secretary Specialist





























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Colton's
FLORIDA
1855


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