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 Discussion
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 Appendix 1: Abbreviations...
 References
 Back Matter


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Annotated bibliography of mercury studies related to the environment and geologic setting of Florida
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Title: Annotated bibliography of mercury studies related to the environment and geologic setting of Florida
Physical Description: i, 56 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bond, Paulette
Florida Geological Survey
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey, Division of Administrative and Technical Services, Dept. of Environmental Protection, State of Florida
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla
Publication Date: 1998
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Subjects / Keywords: Geology, Economic -- Bibliography -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Environmental aspects -- Bibliography -- Mercury -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: Bibliography   ( lcsh )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Paulette Bond.
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 50-56).
General Note: Florida Geological Survey open file report 76
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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The author dedicated the work to the public domain by waiving all of his or her rights to the work worldwide under copyright law and all related or neighboring legal rights he or she had in the work, to the extent allowable by law.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 41956796
System ID: UF00099445:00001

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
       
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page i
        Page ii
    Introduction and summary
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    Discussion
        Page 43
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    List of authors
        Page 46
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    Appendix 1: Abbreviations and conversions
        Page 48
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    References
        Page 50
        Page 51
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    Back Matter
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
Full Text




STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Kirby B. Green, Secretary





DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE and TECHNICAL SERVICES





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief





Open File Report 76


Annotated Bibliography of Mercury Studies Related to the
Environment and Geologic Setting of Florida


By

Paulette Bond


Florida Geological Survey
Tallahassee, Florida
1998


ISSN 1058-1391


















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Introduction and Summary .................................................................. 1

The Geologic and Tectonic Setting of Florida .............................. 3

The Geology of Naturally Occurring Mercury Deposits .................. 8

Natural Levels of Mercury in the Geologic Environment ............... 12

Mercury and Organic Matter .....................................................17

Mercury in Fresh Water Settings.............................................26

Mercury in Estuarine and Nearshore Marine Environments .............34

Discussion ....................................................................................43

List of Authors ..............................................................................46

Appendix 1. Abbreviations and Conversions..........................................48

References ........................................................................................50






ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MERCURY STUDIES RELATED TO THE
ENVIRONMENT AND GEOLOGIC SETTING OF FLORIDA

By
Paulette Bond, P.G. #182


Introduction and Summary


This bibliography contains annotated references which were chosen to elucidate
geological aspects of the occurrence of mercury in Florida. Evidence suggests that
some mercury was incorporated into Florida's geologic materials when they were
formed. Additional evidence suggests that anthropogenic activities have released
mercury which has subsequently become concentrated in certain naturally occurring
geologic materials. In order to relate the occurrences of mercury to Florida's geology,
the references included in this document have been arranged in six sections, each of
which is introduced by a brief commentary. Many of the papers included here
contain analytical results which are reported in various concentration units. Appendix
1 is a table of units used in this bibliography and their abbreviations.


The first group of papers was chosen to provide an overview of the geologic and
tectonic setting of Florida. Tectonic setting is probably the most significant factor in
the assessment of an area's potential for naturally occurring, elevated levels of
mercury. Geologic factors, such as the types of rocks and minerals which
characterize an area, and their relations to each other provide information pertinent to
the potential occurrence of mercury.


A second group of papers illustrates the tectonic and geologic settings that are
classically associated with mercury deposits. Mercury deposits generally coincide
with areas of tectonic activity which are often characterized by thermal activity. The
deposits themselves are described as having a fairly simple and characteristic
mineralogy. These two (very different) groups of papers provide an indirect
perspective on the potential for naturally elevated levels of mercury in Florida.


The third group of papers presents natural background values for mercury in various
rocks, soils and surficial materials. Papers containing data from areas remote to
Florida are included along with a number of recent studies which consider mercury
occurrences specific to Florida. These recent studies emphasize shallow sediments.
Although much of Florida is underlain by limestone, few (if any) analyses are available
for limestone units specific to Florida. Mercury analyses for limestones from
1






geologically comparable areas are included to suggest possible values for those rocks
when direct analytical results are unavailable.


The fourth group of papers included here examines the relationship between mercury
and organic sediments. The Everglades area of Florida is characterized by extensive
organic deposits and is also an area of intense concern with respect to mercury. In
addition, numerous smaller organic deposits are scattered across the state. Studies
concerning organic deposits and mercury were selected for inclusion here,
independent of their geographic setting, to document the importance of organic
material in the concentration of mercury in the environment.


The fifth group of papers examines mercury in various fresh water settings including
lakes, rivers and ground water. Because the concentration of mercury in fish tissue
may be the first indication of mercury contamination, a number of studies focus on
the waters and sediments of rivers and lakes in areas of suspected point-source
contamination. Concentration values for pristine waters may be important in
determining whether or not contamination has occurred. Several studies are directed
at the determination of mercury concentration values for natural, uncontaminated
waters. Mercury values for Florida's surficial, intermediate and Floridan aquifer
systems are presented along with a short note detailing problems associated with the
analyses.


The sixth group of papers examines mercury in estuarine and nearshore marine
environments. Population growth and development in Florida has occurred
preferentially in coastal settings. Industrial activity in coastal areas may also be
associated with mercury contamination. A number of studies both within and
outside of Florida focus on these situations.


Analytical results reported prior to about 1980 may be artificially high when
compared to more recent results, due to inadvertent contamination during sample
collection and handling. Improved methods for sampling and handling are described
in papers by Fitzgerald and Watras (1989) and Gill and Bruland (1990). Older
analyses, thus, suggest samples for further investigation, but are not necessarily
accurate.






The Geologic and Tectonic Setting of Florida


Tectonic setting is probably the most critical factor in determining the geographic
distribution of significant mercury deposits. Peninsular Florida is situated on the U.S.
Atlantic Continental Margin, a typical Atlantic-type or passive continental margin
(Grow and Sheridan, 1988), and is characterized by a series of platforms and basins.
Although faults have been mapped or inferred in some areas of Florida, there is no
evidence that recent seismicity is associated with them (Lane, 1991).


Florida's Mesozoic tectonic history was characterized by rifting, in contrast with its
current passive-margin tectonic setting. Smith (1982) provides a concise summary
of the lithologies of the Florida basement (0.9-5.5 km below the present-day
surface). Chowns and Williams (1983) examined pre-Cretaceous rocks from Florida
and commented on regional implications. Arthur (1988) provided a brief overview of
the geology of the basement rocks of Florida. Klitgord and others (1984) use
magnetic, gravity, seismic and deep drill-hole data integrated with plate-tectonic
reconstructions to examine Florida's Jurassic tectonic history of rifting, which they
interpret as being related to a transform plate boundary.


Rocks of Cretaceous age which unconformably overlie basement lithologies are
discussed briefly in an expanded summary by Miller (1986). Scott (1992)
summarizes the stratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of the overlying Cenozoic rocks,
as well as additional aspects of Florida's geology including geologic history, structure,
and geomorphology. Miller (1986) provides an extensive examination of the
hydrogeologic framework of the rocks of the Floridan aquifer system with emphasis
on Paleocene, Eocene and Oligocene rocks. Campbell (1986) describes the industrial
minerals extracted in Florida and places them in their appropriate geological context.
That study (Campbell, 1986) is included here to emphasize that geological materials,
while mined commercially in Florida for a number of end uses, are not extracted for
the production of mercury. Among the most recent of Florida's geologic deposits are
its peats. Peat forms from partially decayed plant remains which accumulate in
waterlogged environments or wetlands. Organic deposits are of particular
significance with respect to the fate of mercury because they have long been known
to concentrate heavy metals in the environment (Bond and others, 1986).






Arthur, J.D., 1988, Petrogenesis of early Mesozoic tholeiite in the Florida basement
and an overview of Florida basement geology: Florida Geological Survey Report of
Investigation No. 97, 39 p.


This document presents a brief summary of the literature related to the rocks
of the Florida basement. Various studies focused on geophysical, radiometric,
paleontologic and tectonic evidence have been used to compile a summary
picture of the rocks of the Florida basement.


Bond, P.A., Campbell, K.M., and Scott T.M., 1986, An overview of peat in Florida
and related issues: Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 27, 151 p.


Peat is a deposit of partially decayed plant remains which accumulates in a
waterlogged environment. It is mined in Florida for a variety of mainly
agricultural and horticultural uses. Peat is strongly associated with wetlands,
since the presence of water serves to inhibit the activity of decomposing
organisms which would normally metabolize plant matter, preventing its
accumulation. Peat is considered a nonrenewable resource based on its
accumulation rate. This document examines the Everglades Agricultural Area
(a cultivated peatland), the permitting process as applied to peat and potential
environmental impacts of large scale peat mining, and many additional aspects
of the occurrences and uses of peat in Florida.


Campbell K.M., 1986, The industrial minerals of Florida: Florida Geological Survey
Information Circular No. 102, 94 p.


A number of geological materials are mined in Florida. Raw materials mined
for cement production include limestone, quartz sand and clay. Clays,
including fuller's earth, kaolin and common clay occur in Florida and have been
mined commercially. Heavy minerals mined include rutile, ilmenite and
leucoxene which are used mainly for titanium dioxide pigment. Staurolite is
primarily a source of iron and alumina and is also used as an abrasive. Zircon,
kyanite, sillimanite, tourmaline, spinel, topaz, corundum, monazite, garnet and
epidote are extracted for a variety of uses from two placer deposits in
northeast Florida. Sea water has been used as a source of magnesium
compounds in Florida. Oil and gas are produced from a group of fields in
northwestern Florida (Escambia and Santa Rosa Counties) as well as from a
group in south Florida (Collier, Dade, Hendry and Lee Counties). Peat is
produced from surficial deposits scattered across the state. Phosphate occurs
4






in six districts in northern and central peninsular Florida. Sand, gravel,
limestones and dolostones are also mined throughout much of Florida. This
publication describes the geology associated with each commodity, and
individual deposits where that is appropriate. Mining and beneficiation,
products and uses, transportation and economic trends, reserves and
environmental concerns are discussed for each product.


Chowns, T.M., and Williams, C.T., 1983, Pre-Cretaceous rocks beneath the Georgia
coastal plain-regional implications, in Gohn, G.S., ed., Studies related to the
Charleston, South Carolina, earthquake of 1886-tectonics and seismicity: United
States Geological Survey Professional Paper 1313, p. L1-L42.


Although this study focuses mainly on rocks beneath the Georgia Coastal
Plain, the authors have examined pre-Cretaceous rocks in Florida. North
Florida is characterized by felsic volcanic and Paleozoic sedimentary terrains.
Pre-Cretaceous rocks of central Florida are described as metamorphic rocks
and granites with overlying felsic volcanic rocks, associated plutons and
sedimentary rocks. These lithologies are then related to comparable west
African rocks. It is noted that a south Florida terrain of felsic-mafic volcanic
rocks may or may not be related to similar rocks in northern Florida since they
are separated by a major crustal anomaly. Ages of the south Florida rocks are
uncertain.


Grow, J.A., and Sheridan, R.E., 1988, U.S. Atlantic continental margin; a typical
Atlantic-type or passive continental margin, in Sheridan, R.E., and Grow, J.A., eds.,
The Atlantic continental margin: U.S.: Boulder, Colorado, Geological Society of
America, The Geology of North America v. 1-2., p. 1-7.


This paper introduces a volume of studies on multiple aspects of the geology
of the Atlantic Continental Margin. It describes in a summary fashion,
pertinent tectonic features of the passive continental margin where Florida is
situated. The major basins and structural elements of the U.S. Atlantic Margin
are described. The papers which were compiled to form the volume are
reviewed briefly so that a reader may quickly understand the scope of the
volume. A map showing major Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins as well as other
major tectonic elements of the eastern United States is presented. Major
structural features of an Atlantic-type or passive continental margin are shown
in a cross-section.






Klitgord, K.D., Popenoe, P., and Schouten, H., 1984, Florida: A Jurassic transform
plate boundary: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 89, p. 7753-7772.


Peninsular Florida overlies a major geologic crustal discontinuity. The authors
interpret the discontinuity to represent a transform plate boundary which was
active during the Jurassic. The Florida-Bahamas region has been divided into a
group of superimposed sedimentary basins which have Paleozoic, Late
Triassic-Early Jurassic and Jurassic-Cretaceous ages. The basins have been
delineated using samples from drill holes in conjunction with magnetic, gravity,
and seismic data and plate tectonic reconstructions. These tectonic units are
bounded by fracture zones and basement hinge zones. The tectonic
significance of these basins and their bounding elements is explored in detail.
The relationship of these tectonic elements to early Jurassic rifting and
seafloor spreading is explored.


Lane, B.E., 1991, Earthquakes and seismic history of Florida: Florida Geological
Survey Open File Report No. 40, 11 p.


This paper describes the geologic factors which result in earthquakes and
explains the vocabulary associated with them. Faults have been mapped in
some areas of Florida's subsurface and inferred in other areas. The author
notes that no evidence exists which links these faults to earthquakes. A
seismic risk for Florida is presented which divides the state into two zones.
"Zone 0" designates areas which have no reasonable expectancy of
earthquake damage. "Zone 1" includes areas which may experience minor
damage from the largest expected distant earthquakes. A table lists known
earthquakes and "tremors" felt in Florida from 1727 through January 1991
with their approximated epicenters and intensities.


Miller, J.A., 1986, Hydrogeologic framework of the Floridan aquifer system in Florida
and in parts of Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina: U.S. Geological Survey
Professional Paper 1403-B, 91 p.


This document describes the geology and stratigraphy of the rocks which
comprise the Floridan aquifer system. The aquifers and their confining units
are then discussed in relation to the regional geology and stratigraphy. Late
Cretaceous rocks are discussed since they make up part of the lower confining
unit. The Floridan aquifer system itself is described as a thick sequence of
carbonate rocks which are mainly Paleocene to early Miocene in age. These
6






units are hydraulically connected to varying degrees. Rocks of the upper
confining unit (described here as mainly the middle Miocene Hawthorn
Formation (this usage follows Miller, 1986)) lie above the carbonate Floridan
aquifer system and consist of a thick sequence of siliciclastic and low-
permeability carbonate rocks. The overlying surficial aquifer system is
described briefly.


Scott, T.M., 1992, A geological overview of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open
File Report No. 50, 78 p.


This publication summarizes various aspects of Florida geology. A brief
geologic history provides the framework for a more extensive summary of the
lithostratigraphy and hydrostratigraphy of Florida. Structural features and
geomorphology are discussed separately. Lithologic summaries are presented
beginning with the rocks of the Paleocene Series. This publication and one by
Miller (1986) overlap extensively in discussions of the Paleocene, Eocene and
Oligocene rocks. Miocene and younger rocks in Florida are emphasized by
Scott (1992) so that the discussions complement each other and allow the
development of a summary view of Florida's lithostratigraphy.
Hydrostratigraphy is considered by geographic areas which are coincident with
Florida's water management districts. The surficial and intermediate aquifer
systems, as well as the intermediate confining unit are summarized in some
detail so that the near-surface hydrogeologic environment may be
conceptualized.


Smith, D.L., 1982, Review of the tectonic history of the Florida basement:
Tectonophysics, v. 88, p. 1-22.


This study reviews the evidence for an African origin for Florida's basement
rocks during the early Paleozoic. Basement sedimentary lithologies and their
fossil faunas are reviewed and interpreted as indicating late Paleozoic
continental closure which placed the Florida basement into juxtaposition with
North America. Igneous rock units of Mesozoic age are described briefly and
interpreted as indicative of a Triassic hot spot which initiated rifting and the
opening of the North Atlantic.






The Geology of Naturally Occurring Mercury Deposits


Mercury may be naturally released from the rocks of a given area via processes of
chemical and physical weathering. The following papers are included to illustrate the
types of geologic and tectonic conditions commonly associated with significant
mercury-bearing deposits. Mercury deposits are not distributed randomly around the
world, but, occur in "belts" which represent "zones of instability or dislocation of the
earth and are often marked by the presence of hot springs and other volcanic or
thermal activity" (Jonasson and Boyle, 1972). The few deposits that fall outside
these belts are noted to be associated with zones of deep faulting and shearing
(Jonasson and Boyle, 1972).


A group of probable requirements for the formation of large commercial mercury
deposits include, among others, "source regions of fluids and mercury at
temperatures above 200 OC; mercury-rich sedimentary rocks and organic matter,
perhaps above subduction zones on continental margins" (White, 1981). It is noted
that most larger economic deposits are associated with sedimentary rocks (especially
limestone and sandstone) of Paleozoic to Recent age (Jonasson and Boyle, 1972).
The relatively simple mineralogy of mercury deposits is described and their
association with tectonically active areas is reiterated (Moiseyev, 1971). The
association of mercury with geologic processes that occur at elevated temperatures
is emphasized in a study which utilizes mercury anomalies in soils as a means of
locating potential geothermal areas (Varekamp and Buseck, 1983).







- Jonasson, I.R., and Boyle, R.W., 1972, Geochemistry of mercury and origins of
natural contamination of the environment: The Canadian Mining and Metallurgical
Bulletin, v. 65, p. 32-39.


This paper reviews the potential for mercury contamination of the environment
from natural sources. It also provides a review of the geochemical cycling of
mercury. The most important mercury minerals are cinnabar and metacinnabar
(HgS). Other sulfide minerals may contain various amounts of mercury ranging
from parts per billion (ppb) to as much as 2 percent. These minerals occur in
deposits which may act as natural sources of mercury which in turn migrates
or is transported in the general environment.







The authors examine the world-wide distribution of significant mercury
deposits and describe them as belts. The belts are related to areas of tectonic
activity with associated hot springs, volcanic and thermal activity. All mercury
occurrences outside of these belts are associated with zones of deep faulting
and shearing. Large economic mercury deposits preferentially occur in
sedimentary rocks (especially limestone and sandstone) of Paleozoic to Recent
age. The authors note that these deposits are "invariably veins, stockworks,
impregnations or replacement lodes". The binding of mercury ions to organic
compounds generated by the decay of plant and animal material as well as the
maturation of humus is noted. The association of fossil fuels with mercury is
thought to reflect the tendency of organic matter to accumulate mercury as
well as other heavy metals.


Moiseyev, A.N., 1971, A non-magmatic source for mercury ore deposits: Economic
Geology, v. 66, p. 591-601.


General data on the occurrence of major mercury deposits has been compiled
resulting in an alternative hypothesis for the source of mercury ore deposits.
The author suggests that mercury is derived from sediments (as opposed to
magmas) and is mobilized by volcanic heat. Cinnabar is frequently the only
mineral of economic importance and native mercury is usually described as a
secondary mineral. Cinnabar is most often associated with pyrite or marcasite.
Antimony and arsenic sulfides may be present. Associated gangue (not
economically desirable) minerals include calcite, dolomite, magnesite, opal,
chalcedony, and quartz.


The author observes that mercury is associated mainly with tectonically active
belts of the earth and cites the Pacific rim and the Alpine trend as examples. It
is noted that 65 percent of all deposits are associated with volcanism. Data
gathered by the author suggest that the deposits are not related to any
particular volcanic rock type. Of the mercury deposits surveyed by the author
60 percent of those dated yield ages ranging from Late Cretaceous to present.


Varekamp, J.C., and Buseck, P.R., 1983, Hg anomalies in soils: A Geochemical
Exploration Method for Geothermal Areas: Geothermics, v. 12, p. 29-47.






Mercury in soils was measured in an attempt to define its usefulness as a
geochemical exploration method. The study was undertaken in geothermal
areas of the western U.S., where mercury levels are known to be elevated. It
was observed that mercury values fell into three groups. Peak values (up to
several hundred parts per million (ppm)) were observed associated with
fumaroles, hot springs, and overlying hot-water aquifers which are steeply
dipping. Aureole (intermediate) values for mercury range up to several hundred
ppb and are characteristic of zones which surround peak areas. Background
values for mercury range from 7 to 40 ppb (geometric mean). Research of
these authors on geothermal steam and hot spring gases suggest that most
mercury in these areas comes from shallow geothermal water.


Varekamp, J.C., and Buseck, P.R., 1984, The speciation of mercury in hydrothermal
systems, with applications to ore deposition: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v.
48, p. 177-185.


Mercury ores are noted from field studies to have formed at shallow depths
with temperatures ranging from 100 to 2000C. In addition, mercury deposition
is often associated with active geothermal systems. Two geothermal systems
in California, the Sulphur Bank system and the Lassen system are considered
in detail in this paper. Mercury enrichments are described as occurring in halos
which surround hot springs. They also are associated with sulfide ore bodies.
Mercury concentrations in geothermal halos are described as reaching levels
equal to one hundred times background where background levels are 5 to 30
ppb mercury. The authors note that generally deposition of mercury ore from
a hydrothermal system requires a mercury-rich source rock, high solubility of
mercury over a broad temperature range and range of fluid compositions, and
lastly low mercury solubility for a restricted range of conditions. This paper
presents the results of calculations which clarify the speciation of mercury in
hydrothermal systems. The results are applied to ore deposition problems.


White, D.E., 1981, Active geothermal systems and hydrothermal ore deposits:
Economic Geology, 75th Anniversary Volume, p. 392-423.


This review paper treats hydrothermal ore deposits of various metals including
mercury. The author considers a group of geothermal systems which actively
deposit mercury and draws on that information in order to compile a list of
probable major requirements for the formation of large commercial deposits of
mercury. These include: a deep source area of both fluids and mercury at
temperatures which are greater than 2000C; environments characterized by
10






metamorphic conditions (conditions of elevated temperature and pressure)
which lie above subduction zones on continental margins; a vapor phase which
passes through a significant volume of rock (as opposed to one which
originates locally) and is enriched in carbon dioxide or other gases and moves
along with liquid water; the tendency of mercury sulfide (HgS) to decompose
to uncharged mercury and sulfur at high temperatures, with a mobile vapor
necessary for any major transport of mercury at temperatures less than 2000C;
a liquid phase which can exist in the presence of the vapor phase so that
nonvolatile constituents may be transported.






Natural Levels of Mercury in the Geologic Environment


Most earth materials contain small amounts of mercury. Studies in this section were
chosen to provide analytical values for mercury in geologic materials comparable to
those found in Florida. In some cases analyses from Florida were reported. United
*States Geological Survey Professional Paper 713 was published in 1970. It is a
collection of (then) state-of-the-art papers on mercury's behavior in air, water and
earth materials. The paper was a response to early environmental concerns, at a time
when information was scant. In a subsequent paper, mercury data are collected from
various surficial materials in the conterminous United States (Shacklette and others,
1971). In 1975 this study was expanded and background data was collected for 49
elements including mercury, in rocks, soils, plants and vegetables (Connor and
Shacklette, 1975). This type of study was applied to soils and other surficial
materials again in 1984 (Shacklette and Boerngen, 1984). Unfortunately, sampled
sites were not reoccupied in this series of studies, so that analytical results may not
be compared as a function of time. A recently published study (Gough and others,
1996) examined mercury, in addition to a number of other trace elements, in
vegetation, water, and organic-rich sediments of south Florida.


Two studies, which emphasize soils and sedimentary rocks, are included in this
section of the bibliography. In Pennsylvania, samples of sandstone, shale and
limestone were analyzed for mercury. Soils were also analyzed, so that mercury
levels in rocks and soils could be compared. The comparison was used to estimate
the anthropogenic contribution to mercury levels in surficial materials (McNeal and
Rose, 1974). This research is included because the lithologies are, at least,
somewhat comparable to those of Florida. A Canadian investigation examined levels
of mercury (and other minor elements) in uncontaminated soils remote to ore deposits
(McKeague and Wolynetz, 1980). The authors attempted to avoid known sources of
natural contamination in order to determine background levels of mercury.


The final two papers in this section contain mercury analyses from the Land-Pebble
Phosphate District of Florida. One study (Altschuler, 1980) represents an average of
eight composites, four pebble and four pellet concentrates, taken from one week's
production at each of four mining locations. The second study (Cathcart and
Botinelly, 1991) presents data from a single core. It is not possible to compare
analyses from these two studies. Locations from one are poorly documented
(Altschuler, 1980). In addition, samples from a single core cannot be validly
compared with large composite samples.






Altschuler, Z.S., 1980, The geochemistry of trace elements in marine phosphorites
part i. characteristic abundances and enrichment: SEPM Special Publication No. 29,
p. 19-30.


This paper compiled trace element analyses from an international group of
significant marine phosphorite deposits. Phosphorites from the Bone Valley
Formation (Bone Valley Member of Scott, 1992), of Florida were included in
this study. Analyses for a suite of trace elements including mercury are
included for an average of eight composite samples. The material analyzed is
characterized as pebbly and pelletal phosphorite from sandy and clayey
phosphorites, reworked from phosphatic limestones and dolomites of the
Hawthorn Group. Florida phosphorite was reported to contain 25 ppb
mercury, the lowest value for deposits for which mercury analyses were
available. It was noted that mercury is depleted in phosphorite when
compared to the mercury value of 400 ppb for an average shale (where shale
is taken to represent the general category of marine rocks). Although the
author develops geochemical rationale for the depletion of certain of the trace
elements, it is noted that the depletion of mercury is not understood.


Cathcart, J.B., and Botinelly, T., 1991, Mineralogy and chemistry of samples from a
drill hole in the southern extension of the land-pebble phosphate district, Florida:
U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1978, 25 p.


This publication details mineralogy and chemistry of a core taken from the
southern extension of the land-pebble phosphate district of Florida (Hardee
County). Francolite (the highly substituted apatite mineral of the Bone Valley
Member and Peace River Formations, Hawthorn Group) samples from this core
were analyzed for a suite of trace elements that included mercury. Samples of
phosphate concentrate analyzed for this report include leached Bone Valley
Member (0.32 and 0.40 ppm mercury) and Peace River Formation (0.04 to
0.12 ppm mercury). The authors note that these values are consistent with
unpublished U.S. Geological Survey data for mercury values from the land-
pebble phosphate district. The authors interpret their data as indicating that
the amount of mercury in phosphate rock is "too low to be of concern".


Connor, J.J., and Shacklette, H.T., 1975, Background geochemistry of some rocks,
soils, plants, and vegetables in the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological
Survey Professional Paper 574-F, 168 p.






This document is mainly a compilation of data tables for 49 chemical elements
including mercury. Mercury concentration values are reported for various rock
types including granite, rhyolite, sandstone, chert, shale, limestone and
dolostone. Mercury analyses are also listed for unconsolidated geologic
deposits (terra rossa and loess), various cultivated and uncultivated soils, as
well as a variety of plants. Analyses are not reported for rock units, soils or
plants from Florida.


Gough, L.P., Kotra, R.K., Holmes, C.W., Brigges, P.H., Crock, J.G., Fey, D.L.,
Hageman, P.L., and Meier, A.L., 1996, Chemical analysis results for mercury and
trace elements in vegetation, water, and organic-rich sediments, south Florida: U.S.
Geological Survey Open-File Report 96-091, 29 p.


This reference is a brief report of the partial results of a two-year (1994-1995)
study undertaken by the United States Geological Survey in south Florida.
Mercury, in addition to other trace metals, was analyzed in vegetation, water,
and organic sediments. The study is in response to the discovery of elevated
mercury levels in biota, including high trophic level fish, alligators, and the
endangered Florida panther. The project aims to clarify the sources,
distribution, and processes associated with biogeochemical cycling of trace
elements and metals, including mercury, in the organic rich sediments of the
Everglades. Analyses from the 1994 studies and partial analyses from 1995
are presented in this document.


McKeague, J.A., and Wolynetz, M.S., 1980, Background levels of minor elements in
some Canadian soils: Geoderma, v. 24, p. 299-307.


Uncontaminated soils, remote from orebodies, were analyzed for minor
elements in order to obtain background values. Mercury was reported to have
a mean value of 0.06 ppm, ranging from 0.005 to 0.1 ppm. Values are similar
to those reported for soils from the United States. Correlations of mercury
levels with levels of other elements or with soil properties such as clay were
not statistically significant.


McNeal, J.M., and Rose, A.W., 1974, The geochemistry of mercury in sedimentary
rocks and soils in Pennsylvania: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, v. 38, p. 1759-
1784.






Sandstone, shale, and limestone samples from Pennsylvania were analyzed for
mercury. Average values obtained for these three rock types were 7, 23, and
9 ppb mercury respectively. These values were noted to be comparatively low.
It was noted that mercury values vary considerably in sedimentary rocks
depending on a number of factors including "effects of volcanism, organic
material and sulfur in reducing environments, iron and manganese oxides in
oxidizing environments, diagenesis, hydrothermal processes, and the thermal
history of the rock". Soils in Pennsylvania were shown to have much higher
concentrations of mercury than their parent rock and the authors suggest that
mercury is added to these soils from an external source or sources. Rain was
discovered to be the major pathway of mercury to the soil. Since some soil
mercury then returns to the atmosphere, a cycle linking the soil, rain and the
atmosphere is set up. The authors' evaluation suggested that the
anthropogenic input of mercury to the environment was nearly equal to
mercury input from natural sources. Based on this work, industrial mercury
sources were found to be responsible for nearly 70 percent of the total
anthropogenic input. Input related to fossil fuel consumption was considered
to be relatively minor. It was suggested that elevated mercury levels
associated with industrial sources might be localized. It was noted that further
data is needed to define the mercury content of rain, volcanic exhalation, and
petroleum.


Shacklette, H.T., and Boerngen, J.G., 1984, Element concentrations in soils and
other surficial materials of the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological Survey
Professional Paper 1270, 105 p.

This report presents analytical data for 50 elements including mercury. The
data are presented in the form of symbols (representative of concentration
ranges) on a small scale map. Thus exact concentrations and sample locations
can not be recovered from this report. Mercury data from Florida are spread
across the range of concentrations reported (hundredths of ppm to <6 ppm).
The extremely brief text which accompanies this data notes that there is a
pattern of high mercury concentrations from the Gulf Coast of Texas to (and
including) northwest Florida. There is no elaboration on this observation.


Shacklette, H.T., Boerngen, J.G., and Turner, R.L., 1971, Mercury in the
environment-surficial materials of the conterminous United States: U.S. Geological
Survey Circular 644, 5 p.


This report presents results of mercury analyses from surficial materials for the
contiguous United States. Results from Florida, as well as the remaining
15





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1177






Mercury was examined from experimental plots in a marsh which received
applications of a commercial fertilizer containing sewage sludge, as a means of
understanding the cycling of mercury in this complex environment (Breteler, 1980).
The relationships between dissolved organic carbon and total dissolved mercury in
interstitial water were compared between two marshes, one of which contained
significant dredged material (Katsaounis, 1977). Mercury transfers in a Georgia salt
marsh ecosystem were examined in terms of the role of macrobenthic organisms
(Kendall, 1978). The diversity of these studies serves to emphasize the complex
nature of the numerous relationships that influence the behavior of mercury in the
modern marsh environment. A short paper is included which examines plans for
restoration of the Everglades and notes that the behavior of metals including
phosphorous and mercury must be included in those plans (Culotta, 1995).







Breteler, R.J., 1980, The cycling of mercury in spartina marshes and its availability to
selected biota [Ph.D. dissert]: Montreal, Quebec, McGill University, 95 p.


Experimental plots in Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Massachusetts)
received applications of a commercial fertilizer containing sewage sludge.
Since sewage sludge may contain considerable amounts of mercury, the fate
of mercury was examined in these marsh sediments. The treatment resulted
in elevated mercury levels in the upper 5 cm of the soil. Although mercury
losses were observed from low intertidal marsh regions, calculations indicate
that mercury was quantitatively retained by soils at higher marsh elevations.
The losses were attributed to physical and mechanical processes such as
sediment transport and erosion as opposed to various geochemical processes.
Marsh grasses and organisms from experimental plots did not concentrate
mercury from the enriched sediments of the plot. The authors found that
bioavailability of mercury in the salt marsh system is inversely related to the
amount of organic matter in the soil.


Casagrande, D.J., and Erchull, LD., 1976, Metals in Okefenokee peat-forming
environments: relation to constituents found in coal: Geochimica et Cosmochimica
Acta, v. 40, p. 387-393.


Mercury, among other metals, was studied in two peat cores representing two
major vegetational areas of the Okefenokee Swamp. One core was taken from
is






Chesser Prairie, a marsh site characterized by mainly aquatic plants while the
other core was taken from Minnie's Lake, a swamp site characterized by trees.
Mercury values ranged from 0.05 to 1.04 ppm in this study and the authors
noted the values were "remarkably similar to values found in coals." Data
from this study suggests that vegetation does not play a critical role in
determining trace metal distribution.


Culotta, E., 1995, Bringing back the Everglades: Science, v. 268, p. 1688-1690.


This paper is a brief description of the current effort to restore the Everglades.
The history of water management in the area is described and the system as
it existed before human intervention is treated briefly. Hydrologic and ecologic
unknowns related to the restoration effort are explored using short interviews
with scientists and managers involved in the effort. Water quality issues
related to both phosphorous and mercury are examined. It is reported that the
source of mercury to the Everglades area remains unknown.


Evans, D.W., DiGiulio, R.T., and Ryan, E.A., 1984, Mercury in peat and its drainage
waters in eastern North Carolina: Water Resources Institute of the University of
North Carolina Report Number 218, 66 p.


This study was undertaken in response to proposed mining of peat in the
western Pamlico-Albemarle Peninsula of eastern North Carolina. Mercury
pollution from peatland drainage was raised as a concern in response to
reported mercury concentrations of as much as 2.1 micrograms/liter (ug/L)
from waters in canals draining the peatlands proposed for mining. North
Carolina's existing water quality standard for Mercury is 50 nanograms/liter
(ng/L).


Concentrations of total mercury from three depths (surface, 20 cm and 1 m) in
peat cores ranged from 40 to 193 nanograms/gram (ng/g) (dry weight basis).
Comparisons of these values with mercury concentrations from peats in other
areas suggest that the values are close to the lower end of the distribution of
mercury concentrations observed in peat, but the values are not considered
unusually low. Concentrations of methylmercury above the detection limit (25
ng/g) were not found in any peat sample. Concentrations of total mercury in
several extractable fractions were measured and suggest that mercury in these
peat cores is not very mobile (or bioavailable) even in the surface layer.







In order to examine the effect of ditching and land drainage on mercury
mobilization from peatlands, samples were taken along a transect which
originated at the exposed ditch face. It was concluded from this work that
mobilization of mercury from peat to drainage waters during mining would
probably be minor. Mercury was actually enriched at the exposed canal face
with a mercury-depleted zone just beneath. The authors suggest that this
pattern results from mobilization of mercury from peat to pore water
accompanied by at least partial refixation of mercury in the oxidized surface
layer of the peat.


Mercury concentrations were measured in sediments from the study area.
Mean concentrations of mercury ranged between 8 and 16 ng/g (dry weight)
in canal sediments and between <2 and 20 ng/g in Pungo River sediments. It
is noted that these concentrations are low and are considered background
levels by the authors of at least one review paper. No values of
methylmercury above the detection limit (25 ng/g dry weight) were found in
any sediment sample. The distribution of mercury between various fractions
was examined and found to be very similar to peats. The data suggest that
mercury in surface sediments is neither particularly mobile or bioavailable.


Glooschenko, W.A. and Capoblanco, J.A., 1982, Trace element content of northern
Ontario peat: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 16, p.187-188.


This study was undertaken to determine the trace metal content of peats from
various peatland ecosystems including bogs, swamps, and fens. Bogs are
ombrotrophic (receive all nutrients from atmospheric precipitation). Swamps
and fens are minerotrophic (receive nutrients from ground water) and differ
mainly in that swamps are wooded, while fens are dominated by sedges with
limited grasses, reeds, shrubs and trees. Only twelve samples were analyzed
for mercury in this study. Concentrations for mercury ranged from tenths to
hundredths of parts per million. Concentrations of mercury did not
significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth. The authors note that
metal concentrations are comparable to those found in United States coals and
suggest that combustion usage may result in increased metal input to the
atmosphere.


Joensuu, O.1., 1971, Fossil fuels as a source of mercury pollution: Science, v. 172,
p. 1027-1028.







This study suggested that mercury accumulation in bismass narii tt bte mrrilat
to mercury deposited in the environment as a result off i1the Ibumniti off famill
fuels (especially coal). Mercury concent1ratoioin values frmn a mus t ff cR ol
were presented and used to calculate an estinmtw off nmemwry uarl ased flf~
atmosphere per year as a consequence of bumniing oail.. T1ft am~iuit off
mercury released to the environment as a result off naturall uweaIltaiin
processes were also estimated for comparison. Based n r thsms CalatatWi,,
the author suggested that the amount of mercaw rdlasgead t~o i~t e~nirimenat
by the burning of coal was much greater tham itfhe a~numtt lrrtamed t
weathering.


Katsaounis, A., 1977, Sediment interstitial dlissolwed mrInnwy anml astboam
relationships in an artificial and natural marsh, Jamnes Rivr,, WiV Msii~ n IaIr"s
Thesis]: Norfolk, Virginia, Old Dominion University, 76 p..


The relationships between dissolved organic ca i~am amnd tiT dti~eI edl5
mercury in the interstitial water of two mashI s was e as imed ii iii sttuly..
The marshes were located near Wind*nmill F~s, Jaimnne s fiwer,, applrtinnl 11
km downstream of Hopewell, Virginia. The Windmrilll IfPt1tt imntarin
development site (a dredged material dissll ii~sltad)) was 0mpat Waiifn a
reference marsh which contained no dredge metmiiiL.


No significant differences were found ibetweem mlcalmtiatlaws (of diafsistd
organic carbon and total dissolved mercury f ftr ttfr itan r mrwnatws Tn~rnrte wtie
not found in the concentration of diissol~wed1 nm wyi arni diakxed aM Oiriic
carbon with depth. In the winter, mercauy c(wr eittnatas &wfeRiod SB pnEwiatt
lower than in the summer while dissolWed aruatrii ateamtn uwa 41~ PesnBet
lower in the winter. Average values for murawy mrm~ tiramnoi ut a 4S.B u~gL
in August, 1976 and 0.70 ug/L in January,, 1197/7.. Wallet fftr diaasdl
organic carbon averaged 33 milligrams/Aliltr ((imarAL)U) iin Aujiat ardW 1TI rnuL iin
January.


Statistical analysis showed no coarelWlin baate talxl imedl rrnaWmml arti
dissolved organic carbon. When the m unwitr off vwadiisitls ua m imnn rmrltfie limarr
regression analysis was increased, tlhe cairnmivam iinrn it, suvBWggisttittt
additional parameters possiblyy including sIulfitd, thilltTitit, a~oi mnr=jp atltis))
should be examined,







Kendall, D.R., 1978, The role of macrobenthic organisms in mercury, cadmium,
copper, and zinc transfers in Georgia salt marsh ecosystems [Ph.D. dissert.]: Atlanta,
Georgia, Emory University, 241 p.


This study was designed to examine the role of macrobenthic organisms in the
cycling of mercury, cadmium, copper and zinc in two salt marsh ecosystems in
Georgia. The work includes a detailed summary of the geochemistry of
mercury in the control (contamination free) and contaminated marsh
ecosystems, even though its primary emphasis concerns the biologic
implications of metal contamination in the ecosystems. The study area
includes two estuarine salt marsh ecosystems. St. Simons estuary, near
Brunswick, Georgia is heavily industrialized on its north shore and has received
anthropogenic inputs of mercury. Little Ogeechee estuary, located south of
Savannah near Ossabaw Island is relatively free of industry and has no
anthropogenic input of the heavy metals considered in this study.


It was noted that the distribution of mercury in St. Simons estuary appeared to
be governed by conservative mixing (concentration decreasing in a seaward
direction) in the winter, while in the fall, mixing appeared to be
nonconservative (irregular variation of concentration in the seaward direction).
This difference is thought to reflect subtle differences in the total suspended
organic particulate load between seasons. The association of mercury with
suspended particulate matter may significantly affect the distribution of
mercury in estuarine waters, especially during periods when there are high
levels of suspended particulate matter.


Conversely, mercury is associated with low molecular weight fractions of
dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and it is suggested that mercury distribution in
water should exhibit "ideal dilution" when levels of suspended particulates are
low. It is suggested that seasonal changes in suspended particulate matter in
estuaries may affect the mixing behavior of metals such as mercury, especially
in highly eutrophic environments. The author notes that a number of authors
have established the potential importance of organic matter (both particulate
and dissolved) in completing metals. In both estuaries considered in this study,
leachable metals, including mercury, were highly correlated with sediment
organic matter and clay content.






The author examines a number of factors which influence bioaccumulation of
metals. These factors include uptake of dissolved metals, assimilation of
mercury from food (sediments), effects of organic matter (sediments), loss
(depuration) of metals, environmental effects, effects of dissolved organic
matter, body size and intraspecific relationships, intraspecific differences in
metals and seasonal changes in macrobenthos. This study looks at the effects
of mercury contamination in St. Simons estuary on invertebrates, fish,
terrestrial marsh vertebrates and food chain metal bioamplification. The
effects of chronic metal pollution were examined including disruptive effects of
mercury (as well as cadmium, copper and zinc), synergistic effects and toxicity
and adaptation. Metal fluxes through estuarine and marsh biota were
calculated and a benthic mercury flux model was prepared.


Lodenius, M., Seppanen, A., and Uusi-Rauva, A., 1983, Sorption and mobilization of
mercury in peat soil: Chemosphere, v. 12, p. 1575-1581.


The work presented in this paper is an experimental study of the sorption,
leaching and evaporation of mercury in peat. Peat was added to 16
polyethylene lysimeter columns and mercury was in turn added to the peat.
Most of the added mercury was strongly adsorbed in the uppermost 3.5 cm of
the peat columns. The addition of chloride was associated with increased
leaching of mercury, while the addition of fertilizer decreased leaching.
Artificial acid rain added to the columns increased the adsorption of mercury to
the peat soil. The addition of distilled water used to simulate irrigation resulted
in increased leaching. Mercury evaporated from all the columns to which it
was added.


Madsen, P.P., 1981, Peat bog records of atmospheric mercury deposition: Nature,
v.293, p.127-130.


Ombrotrophic bogs depend on atmospheric input for their nutrient supply. In
turn, bog plants have evolved so that these inputs, including atmospheric fall-
out of heavy metals are retained. Two ombrotrophic bogs, one in northern and
one in southern Jutland (Denmark) were cored and sampled for lead-210 and
mercury analyses. Lead-210 samples allowed age-determinations to be
calculated and these dates were then related to mercury concentrations for the
appropriate time interval. Both cores showed a long-term increase in the rate
of atmospheric mercury deposition since 1800-1850. The authors concluded
that this increase is probably anthropogenic. Periodically elevated rates were






tentatively attributed to volcanic activity in Iceland or associated climatic
events.


Pollman, C., Gill, G., Landing, W., Guentzel, J., Bare, D., Porcella, D., Zillioux, E. and
Atkeson, T., 1995, Overview of the Florida atmospheric mercury study (FAMS):
water, air, and soil pollution, v. 80, p. 285-290.


This paper presents a summary of the Florida Atmospheric Mercury Study, an
effort aimed at characterizing mercury in rainfall, atmospheric aerosols, and
total gaseous mercury. The work was in part a response to the discovery of
high mercury levels in largemouth bass in Florida waterways. Results reported
in this paper suggest that atmospheric mercury deposition in south Florida
reflects large-scale regional processes rather than more localized influences.


Rood, B.E., Gottgens, J.F., Delfino, J.J., Earle, C.D., and Crisman, T.L., 1995,
Mercury accumulation trends in Florida Everglades and Savannas Marsh flooded soils:
water, air, and soil pollution, v.80, p. 981-990.


Radiometric age-dates using Pb-210 and Cs-137 were obtained from eighteen
sediment cores, allowing rates of mercury deposition to be calculated. The
work was undertaken in response to elevated levels of mercury in sportfish
taken from these areas. It is noted that the average accumulation rate of Hg
has increased 4.9 times over the average rate at around the turn of the
century. The accumulation apparently results more from global or regional
atmospheric deposition than transport by surface water.


Simola, H., and Lodenius, M., 1982, Recent Increase in mercury sedimentation in a
forest lake attributable to peatland drainage: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination
Toxicology, v.29, p.298-305.


Peat cores from two lakes in Finland were compared in order to examine the
effects of widespread peatland drainage on mercury levels. The lakes contain
varves which allow precise dating of the system under consideration, but differ
in terms of land use in their respective drainage areas. The annually laminated
sediments of Lake Polvijarvi record a history of rapid eutrophication during the
1970's which is attributed to extensive peatland drainage and fertilization in its
drainage area. Lake Paajarvi is considered typical of the whole of southern
Finland and is considered to be near its natural oligotrophic state. No clear
24






increase in mercury influx was observed for Lake Paajarvi, while elevated
concentrations of mercury in Lake Polvijarvi were closely related to drainage
activities. On this basis .atmospheric deposition was considered negligible for
the two lakes.


Stephenson, F., 1997, Florida's mercury menace: Florida State University Research in
Review, v.8, p. 10-21.

This paper presents a nontechnical summary of the results of the Florida
Atmospheric Mercury Study. Atmospheric mercury sampling stations were
erected at nine locations, eight of which were located in south Florida, in
response to elevated mercury concentrations in Everglades wildlife. This
research showed that five to eight times as much total mercury fell during
wet-weather months as in winter months. Results of this research suggest
that mercury from various sources in the northern hemisphere (both in the U.S.
and abroad) are eventually transported west across the Atlantic by the
tradewinds to Florida. The huge convective thunderstorms which characterize
Florida's weather pattern from June to September are thought to scavenge out
the mercury from the layer of air seven to ten miles over Florida.






Mercury in Fresh Water Settings


A number of studies focus on mercury in fresh water environments (mainly rivers and
lakes). This section contains two papers which summarize aspects of the behavior of
mercury in aqueous systems. An early study (D'ltri, 1972) reviews natural and
domestic sources of mercury, while focusing on its biological methylation in aqueous
systems. A more recent survey chapter (Moore and Ramamoorthy, 1984) provides a
review of numerous aspects of the chemistry of mercury in natural waters.
Anthropogenic and natural discharges of mercury to the environment are also
reviewed and toxicity of mercurial compounds in the aquatic environment is
considered briefly. Taken together, these two papers provide an interesting
commentary on the development of scientific understanding of the mercury problem.


Since mercury in the aquatic environment was first identified as a potential problem,
the need has existed for reliable data on its concentration in pristine waters. The
most general and broad study included in this bibliography was undertaken in order to
provide baseline data for streams supplying water for municipal and industrial uses
(Durum and others, 1971). A more recent study examined surface waters in lakes of
rural Wisconsin. Concentrations obtained in this study were 20 to 100 times lower
than values previously estimated for lakes in the area, prompting the authors to note
that uncompromised clean procedures are essential in sample collection and analysis
(Fitzgerald and Watras, 1989). Fitzgerald and Watras (1989) provide a description of
their collection and analytical procedures. An additional study of mercury speciation
in surface fresh water systems examined a range of environments, from a pristine
alpine lake to a system characterized by mercury-contaminated sediments (Gill and
Bruland, 1990). The authors again report concentrations which are low when
compared to comparable historical results, emphasizing the need for clean sampling
and analytical techniques.


Mercury contamination in fresh water systems is a subject of continuing concern due
to the toxicity of mercurial compounds. Five studies are presented here in which
aspects of mercury contamination in various fresh water systems were examined. A
recent study of fish, water, and sediment of the Everglades Canal System of south
Florida is presented (Stober and others, 1995). A unique study attempts to infer
natural background concentrations for mercury in an aquifer system, using values for
pristine surface waters, the mineralogy of the rocks comprising the aquifer system,
and the chemical behavior of mercury in natural waters (Dooley, 1992). Data for
mercury concentrations in the surficial, intermediate and Floridan aquifer systems of
Florida are presented (Upchurch, 1992). Difficulties with the analyses (Upchurch,






1992) are detailed in a short note (Silvanima, 1995). The Great Lakes were examined
for new sources of mercury contamination (Glass and others, 1990), and such
sources were located, even though major improvements in water quality have been
achieved since 1978. Sediment samples from four Alabama rivers were analyzed for
mercury after high concentrations in fish flesh prompted closure of commercial
fishing and official discouragement of sport fishing (Lloyd and others, 1972).
Sediments of the highly industrialized Elizabeth River (Virginia) were analyzed for
mercury and contamination was found to be related to heavy industrial, commercial,
and domestic inputs (Johnson and Villa, 1976). These studies illustrate the
vulnerability of differing surficial fresh water systems to various sources of mercury
contamination.







D'ltri, F.M., 1972, Mercury in the aquatic ecosystem: Institute of Water Research,
Michigan State University, Technical Report No. 23, 87 p.


This document discusses in detail the biological methylation of mercury which
changes the mercuric (2 +) ion to methylmercury, the species which is
biologically accumulated by aquatic organisms. Sources of mercury are also
reviewed. Natural sources of mercury to the aqueous environment are
reviewed. Anthropogenic sources of mercury are also reviewed. At the time
this document was prepared those sources included discharge from urban and
industrial sanitary sewer systems, burning or other utilization of fossil fuels and
smelting of copper, lead and zinc ores. Mercury concentration ranges are
included for peat, coal, bitumens, asphalts, fuel oil, gasoline, crude oil and
associated products and natural gas.


Dooley, J.H., 1992, Natural sources of mercury in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer
system of the New Jersey coastal plain: New Jersey Geological Survey, Geological
Survey Report 27, 18 p.


This study arose from the discovery that mercury in excess of the 2 ug/L
maximum contaminant level (MCL) (state and federal potable water standards)
was present in domestic wells throughout southern and southeastern New
Jersey. The aqueous mercury was found to be geographically widespread and
well-defined point sources were present. It was thus suggested that elevated
mercury levels were possibly due to a lithogenic (natural) contaminant source.
27






This report examines geochemical and lithologic factors affecting aqueous
mercury concentrations in the surficial Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system.


The geologic occurrences of mercury are reviewed including sulfide minerals
and ores. It is noted that the geologic setting of mercury deposits is unlike
that of the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The occurrence of mercury in
minerals and common sedimentary rocks is examined and mercury
concentration values are compiled from various sources and presented in
tables. The mineralogy and lithology of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer
system are reviewed in detail although specific analytical data are not
available. Data are presented for soils and surficial waters. It is suggested,
based on this information, that lithologic sources contribute insignificant
amounts of mercury to the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system. Ground-water
data are reviewed for the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, as well as other
areas, and it is concluded that locally elevated mercury concentrations are
probably due to multiple, past and current, anthropogenic inputs of mercury.


Durum, W.H., Hem, J.D., and Heidel, S.G., 1971, Reconnaissance of selected minor
elements in surface waters of the United States, October 1970: U.S. Geological
Survey Circular 643, 49 p.


This report summarizes the results of a nationwide reconnaissance of selected
minor elements (including mercury) from surface waters. The study was
initiated in response to an increased need for data on minor elements in water
(including toxic metals). It was designed to provide baseline data mainly for
dry-weather flow conditions of streams which provide water for municipal and
industrial uses. Dissolved and total mercury were reported. The difference
between dissolved and total mercury reflects the fact that a portion of the
mercury in a surface water body will adhere to particulate matter. Data was
gathered for 17 sites in Florida. Dissolved mercury was not reported at any
site. Mercury was detected at 9 of the 17 sites sampled and total mercury
ranged from 0.6 to 65.1 ppb.


Fitzgerald, W.F., and Watras, C.J., 1989, Mercury in surficial waters of rural
Wisconsin lakes: The Science of the Total Environment, v. 87/88, p. 223-232.


Samples of unfiltered surface waters from eight lakes in rural north central
Wisconsin were collected for mercury analysis. The lakes were selected as
representing a broad range of clear-water lake types, from small, dilute
28






seepage kettles which receive mainly precipitation input, to large drainage
lakes. Sampling and analytical work for this study utilized ultra-clean, trace-
metal-free techniques originally developed to accurately measure low levels of
mercury found in pristine, oceanic environments. When data from this study
were compared with available historical data for one lake in the study area, it
was found that mercury concentrations apparently decreased dramatically over
time (concurrently with the development of "cleaner" techniques for the
collection and handling of samples). Mercury levels in the lakes were found to
be very similar to open ocean values (total mercury ranging between 1 and 11
pico-molar (pM). A preliminary mass balance for mercury in the area suggests
that the estimated amount of mercury deposited from the atmosphere could be
responsible for the total mass of mercury in fish-flesh, water, and sediment. It
was also noted from this preliminary mass balance, that the amount of
mercury which has accumulated in the sediment is sufficiently large, that if
even a small amount were remobilized, it could account for the methylmercury
held in fish-flesh.


Gill, G.A. and Bruland, K.W., 1990, Mercury speciation in surface freshwater
systems in California and other areas: Environmental Science and Technology, v. 24,
p. 1392-1400.


This paper reports mercury concentrations and speciation information which
was determined from surface waters of selected lakes and rivers in California,
as well as other areas. Sampling sites were selected to include a broad range
of values for pH, alkalinity, and dissolved organic matter. The availability of
historical data for mercury content of fish flesh was also considered in
choosing sites for study. The authors found that the organo-mercury
component can comprise the majority of dissolved mercury in many of the
water bodies which were sampled and consider it their most significant result.
It was conjectured that methylmercury species were the dominant organo-
mercury component, although that was not determined analytically. Mercury
concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 520 pM, reflecting the wide variety of
environmental conditions sampled. The particulate fraction was always a
significant (10 to 92 percent) part of the total mercury for a given sample.
The authors note that the interaction between solution complexes of mercury
(II) and organo-mercury forms are presumably, biologically mediated. They
suggest that an understanding of the influence of different environments and
water chemistry on the partitioning of mercury between solution complexes of
mercury (II) and organo-mercury species will be necessary for an understanding
of the processes that control bioaccumulation.






Glass, G.E., Sorensen, J.A., Schmidt, K.W., and Rapp, G.R., Jr., 1990, New source
identification of mercury contamination in the Great Lakes: Environmental Science
and Technology, v. 24, p. 1059-1069.

This study examined two Great Lakes estuaries for sources of mercury
contamination and revealed high concentrations (previously unmeasured) of
mercury in water, sediments, and precipitation. The study areas chosen for
this investigation included the St. Louis River estuary of Minnesota (primary
area) and the Fox River/Green Bay of Wisconsin (secondary area). The authors
sought to identify sources and causes for continuing contamination in various
water bodies associated with the Great Lakes. Analytical methods were
improved, allowing identification of point and area sources of mercury
contamination. The authors' data showed that 66 percent of the total mercury
in the St. Louis River estuary may be attributed to discharge of the Western
Lake Superior Sanitary District plant. Adjacent to the discharge from this
plant, concentrations of mercury in water (364 ng/L) and sediments (1-5
micrograms per gram (ug/g)) were high. Precipitation values were also high
(22 ng/L). In the case of this plant, it is noted that the incineration operation
significantly increases the amount of mercury which enters the waste
treatment process because stack gas scrubber water is added to wastewater
inputs. The authors suggest that the potential exists for many undocumented
point and area sources of mercury contamination in North America. Concern
is expressed for municipal waste facilities which use incineration.


Moore, J.W., and Ramamoorthy, S., 1984, Heavy metals in natural waters: New
York, Springer-Verlag Inc., 268 p.


Chapter 7 (p.125-160), entitled "Mercury", presents a review of many aspects
of the element's chemistry beginning with its production and uses. Discharges
of mercury into the environment from natural and anthropogenic sources are
summarized. The speciation of mercury in natural waters is discussed in terms
of binding to inorganic and organic ligands, as well as particulates. Sorption
and desorption of mercury by sediments is considered. The methylation of
mercury by biological and biological processes is discussed since, in
contaminated waters, it is noted that almost all mercury in fish is
methylmercury. Mercury concentrations are presented and discussed for
water, precipitation and sediment, in addition to aquatic plants, marine and
freshwater invertebrates, and fish. Reservoirs (artificial water impoundments)
and geological sources of mercury are discussed specifically in relation to
elevated levels of mercury in fish. Toxicity is discussed for aquatic plants and
invertebrates, fish and humans.







Johnson, P.G., and Villa, O., Jr., 1976, Distribution of metals in Elizabeth River
sediments: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Technical Report No. 61, EPA
903/9-76-023, various pagings.


This study was undertaken in order to develop a metals contamination
inventory for the Elizabeth River. The Elizabeth River, a tributary of the James
River, located in Virginia is largely estuarine in nature and was, at the time of
this report, heavily utilized in terms of waste assimilation. The three branches
of the river received domestic waste from primary sewage treatment plants,
toxic wastes from a variety of industrial concerns, and were plagued by
frequent oil spills and waste discharges from extensive shipyard and docking
facilities.


Concentrations of metals were reported for each branch of the Elizabeth River
in units of milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg). The Main Branch had a low value of <
0.01 mg/kg, an average value of 0.10 mg/kg and a high value of 0.65 mg/kg.
The Eastern Branch had a low of < 0.01 mg/kg, an average of 0.37 mg/kg,
and a high of 2.73 mg/kg. The Western Branch had a reported low of 0.10
mg/kg, an average of 0.24 mg/kg and a high of 0.47mg/kg. Lastly, the
Southern Branch had a low of < 0.01 mg/kg, an average of 0.38 mg/kg and a
high value of 1.49 mg/kg.


Lloyd, N.A., Chaffin, H.S., Jr., and McLendon, J.T., 1972, Mercury concentrations in
sediment samples from the Tennessee, Mobile, Warrior and Tombigbee Rivers,
Alabama, June 1971: Geological Survey of Alabama Circular 79, 12 p.


Elevated concentrations of mercury in fish flesh (>0.5 ppm) taken from three
Alabama rivers provided the impetus for this study. Sediment samples were
taken from four rivers and mercury was analyzed using atomic absorption
spectrophotometry. Analytical data from the Mobile and Tombigbee Rivers
were inconclusive. Sediment samples from the Warrior River were reported to
contain an average mercury concentration of 0.4 ppm. Mercury was
apparently uniformly distributed in these samples, which was interesting since
sampling sites were immediately downstream from known sources of industrial
mercury effluents. In the area of the Warrior River sampled, sandstone, shale
and siltstone bedrock were veneered with sand, silt and clay. Sediment
samples from the Tennessee River contained mercury concentrations ranging
from 0 to 550 ppm. Maximum mercury concentrations were found 2,000 feet
31






downstream of an industrial effluent outlet. This was apparently controlled by
river bottom geology in that the river bottom was characterized by extremely
smooth rock near the outlet while an area of broken rock existed approximately
2,000 feet downstream. This area of broken rock in the river bottom seems to
have trapped fine material from upstream.


Silvanima, J., 1995, Mercury data analysis:Florida Ground Water Quality Monitoring
Network Newsletter, v. 3, p. 7-8.


This short note is included since it notes that all mercury data collected by the
Florida Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program (1984-1994) are likely to be
spurious. The mercury data presented by Upchurch, S.B. (1992) were
collected as part of this program. It is suggested that samples were
contaminated inadvertently during collection and analysis.


Stober, J., Jones, R.D., and Scheidt, D.J., 1995, Ultra trace level mercury in the
Everglades ecosystem: Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, v. 80, p. 991-1001.


A pilot study, initiated as part of a comprehensive risk assessment of mercury
contamination, examined fish, water, and sediments in the Everglades Canal
System to determine the magnitude of total and methylmercury. The
existence and spatial gradients in the system were determined. This study
determined that north to south (high to low) gradients were apparent for total
mercury and methylmercury in water. It was found that the gradients were
reversed (south to north) for total mercury in sediments and fish.


Upchurch, S.B., 1992, Quality of water in Florida's aquifer system, in Maddox, G.L.,
Lloyd, J.M., Scott, T.M., Upchurch, S.B., and Copeland, R., eds., Florida's Ground
Water Quality Monitoring Program Background Hydrogeochemistry: Florida
Geological Survey Special Publication No. 34, p. 12-51.


This study represents a compilation of water quality data from the Background
Network of the Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program for the state of
Florida. The Background Network was designed to monitor general ground-
water quality on a regional basis. Data reported in this study were collected
from 1984-1988 for the purpose of establishing baseline values for the
parameters which were measured. The maximum allowed concentration of
mercury is 0.002 mg/L according to Florida Primary Drinking Water Standards
32






(Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, 1989). Mercury values
which exceeded the standard were most common in samples from the surficial
aquifer system. Three percent of the samples from the intermediate aquifer
system exceeded the standard, which was considered surprising in light of the
combination of reducing conditions, and clay and organic content characteristic
of that aquifer system. Few samples from the Floridan aquifer system
exceeded the mercury standard as was expected.






Mercury in Estuarine and Nearshore Marine Environments


Estuarine and nearshore marine environments are the subject of a number of studies
concerned with mercury. Increasingly, coastal areas are considered desirable for
human settlement. Development associated with this population influx generates
increased waste disposal. In addition, major estuaries are frequently associated with
industrialization and ship traffic, and may inadvertently produce mercury
contamination. Two early studies (Andren, 1973; Andren and Harriss, 1975)
included in this bibliography are mainly concerned with the geochemical behavior of
mercury in estuaries associated with the Gulf of Mexico. An additional study
(Huerta-Diaz, 1989) examines the mercury content of pyrite, an authigenic phase
occurring naturally in anoxic marine sediments.


Several other studies focus on pollution in the estuarine environment. A short paper
(Brinkman and others, 1975) examined mercury in water, plankton and sediment
samples from various sites in Chesapeake Bay. The authors noted that mercury was
apparently concentrated in petroleum fractions isolated from highly polluted
sediments. A study directed toward elevated mercury levels in Matagorda Bay,
Texas (Holmes, 1977) suggested the distribution of mercury-bearing sediments
resulted from the sedimentological regime of the bay system which was produced by
tidal currents in a dredged channel. An additional study (Daughdrill, 1974) examined
the distribution of mercury associated with the Pearl River (Louisiana-Mississippi
boundary) and its associated marsh, delta and flanking estuaries, noting that mercury
was concentrated in sediments from the brackish area of the coastal region. A study
of estuarine sediments in Florida proposed a method for separating contamination
from natural variation for some metals (Schropp and others, 1990).


Two studies are included here which examined mercury contamination associated
with industrial activities. Elevated mercury levels in fish flesh from Princess Royal
Harbour, Australia prompted a study of biota and sediments (Talbot, 1990) as a basis
for further management decisions. This study is interesting with respect to Florida,
since the mercury discharge to the harbour area originated from a fertilizer
(superphosphate) plant. Concentrations of mercury in the Louisiana "oil patch" and
Timbalier Bay were examined to determine if toxic metals in the marine environment
might be related to petroleum drilling and/or production activities (Montalvo and
Brady, 1979).


Three studies specific to Florida round out this section of the bibliography. Fine-
grained, organic-rich sediments, thought to result from regional development, have
34






become trapped in Manatee Pocket (part of the St. Lucie Estuary) where there are
elevated levels of mercury (Trefry and others, 1992). The distribution and
concentration of mercury, as well as other heavy metals, in suspended particulates
and bottom sediments was examined in the area of the Upper Florida Keys, Florida
Bay and Biscayne Bay in an early study which considered potential sources for the
metals (Manker, 1975). Selected pesticides and trace metals, including mercury,
were examined offshore of the Florida Keys (Strom and others, 1992).







Andren, A.W., 1973, The geochemistry of mercury in three estuaries from the Gulf
of Mexico [Ph.D. dissert.]: Tallahassee, Florida, Florida State University, 140 p.


This study examined the distribution of mercury in three Gulf of Mexico
estuaries with varying physical characteristics. The Mississippi River was
sampled from Baton Rouge to the mouth of South Pass. The Mobile River and
Mobile Bay estuary were sampled. Lastly, the Barron River Canal from
Immokalee to, and including, Chokoloskee Bay estuary were (apparently)
sampled and are referred to in this document as the "Everglades" although the
study area actually consists of a portion of the Big Cypress Swamp
("apparently" is inserted here because sampling stations were omitted from the
location map in the original document.) The first section of the study presents
and compares geochemical budgets for the Mississippi River and Mobile Bay.
The second section of the study examines the physical and geochemical
factors that control the behavior of mercury in its suspended and dissolved
forms. The third section treats in further detail the geochemistry of mercury in
sediments.


The Mississippi River was chosen because it represents the principal sediment
source for the Gulf of Mexico. This river has been the recipient for significant
amounts of mercury-bearing industrial waste and is characterized by
predominantly inorganic sediments. At Head of Passes the Mississippi
branches into three major distributaries which include Pass a Loutre, South
Pass, and Southwest Pass. In the Mississippi about 100 kg of mercury settles
in these three distributaries annually, while 1.24 x 105 kg reaches the Gulf. Of
the mercury reaching the Gulf, 78 percent is in suspended form and 22
percent is in dissolved form. In Mobile Bay, 4.5 x 103 kg of mercury is
deposited in the estuary while 4.8 x 103 kg of mercury enters the Gulf.
Mercury which enters the Gulf will exist both dissolved in the water column
35






(42 percent) and on suspended sediment (58 percent). The author did not
calculate a mercury budget for the Everglades but utilized data from the area to
illustrate that high levels of mercury can exist without apparent sources of
mercury discharge in the area. The average dissolved mercury concentration
for the Everglades was reported as 0.10 micrograms per liter while the average
value reported for particulate mercury was 1,270 micrograms per kilogram.


The author examined various aspects of the geochemistry of mercury.
Dissolved organic matter from the Mississippi and the Everglades was
fractionated into different weight ranges and mercury was analyzed for each
fraction. Evidence from this study suggests that mercury is strongly
associated with the dissolved organic matter in the < 500 molecular weight
fraction and that dissolved methylmercury is present at concentrations of < 1
ng/L if the species exists at all. Between 60 percent and 80 percent of the
mercury in water was found to be associated with the particulate phase, the
highest association occurred in the Mississippi River while the lowest occurred
in the Everglades. The organic matter-mercury associations were observed to
be of the humic and fulvic type. Measurements of mercury from interstitial
waters, which were presumed to be anoxic, indicated that mercury did not
become immobilized by the formation of insoluble sulfides.


Andren, A.W., and Harriss, R.C., 1975, Observations on the association between
mercury and organic matter dissolved in natural waters: Geochimica et
Cosmochimica Acta, v. 39, p. 1253-1257.


Dissolved mercury from estuarine waters of the Florida Everglades was found
to be associated with dissolved organic matter having the properties of fulvic
acids associated with soils. Water samples were analyzed by ultrafiltration and
it was shown that mercury and dissolved organic carbon were selectively
concentrated in the < 500 molecular size fraction. In the Everglades it was
shown that dissolved organic matter of high molecular weight decreased with
increasing salinity in the Everglades. It is suggested that some dissolved
mercury coprecipitates with these large organic molecules providing a partial
control on dissolved mercury in the Everglades.


Brinckman, F.E., Jewett, K.L., Blair, W.R., Iverson, W.P., and Huey, C., Mercury
distribution in the Chesapeake Bay, 1975, in Krenkel, P.A., ed., Heavy Metals in the
Aquatic Environment: Oxford, England, Pergamon Press, Ltd., p. 251-252.






The National Bureau of Standards examined the distribution of mercury in
Chesapeake Bay as part of its program on heavy metals pollution. Water,
sediment and plankton were sampled at a number of sites in the bay. The
results of a preliminary survey of the sediments from the upper Bay are
presented here. Concentrations were reported to vary from 0.80 ppm at
Colgate Creek near Baltimore (noted at that time to be a heavily polluted area)
to 0.02 ppm in the middle of the ship channel below Annapolis. Total
mercury concentrations from zoo- and phytoplankton averaged 0.92 ppm for
15 stations. Total mercury concentration for unfiltered water from 17 stations
was reported to average 0.24 ppb. In this preliminary paper, plankton was
considered to act as an intermediate "sink" for mercury. In addition, it was
noted that mercury was concentrated in petroleum residues isolated from
sediment. These petroleum residues also contained elevated levels of
elemental sulfur, although its effect (or lack of effect) on the sequestering of
mercury had not been determined at the time of publication of this paper.


Daughdrill, W.E., 1974, Distribution and accumulation of mercury pollutants in the
Pearl River, its delta and the flanking estuaries [Ph.D. dissert.]: New Orleans,
Louisiana, Tulane University, 102 p.


This study covered a portion of the Pearl River (the southeastern boundary
between Mississippi and Louisiana), its delta, and the marsh and estuaries
which flank the delta. Mercury (as phenyl mercuric acetate) was introduced
into the Pearl River from a paper manufacturing plant for approximately 25
years and this work sought to examine its fate. Large mercury concentrations
were not found in the fresh water environment of the river. Sediments from
the brackish area of the coastal region were documented to contain 20 times
more mercury than sediments associated with fresh water portions of the Pearl
River. The sediments associated with mercury concentration were described
as poorly consolidated detritus, rich in fine-grained organic material. The
sediments were noted to be rich in hydrogen sulfide and the precipitation of
mercuric sulfide species was considered as a mechanism of mercury
concentration.


Huerta-Diaz, M.A., 1989, Geochemistry of trace metals associated with sedimentary
pyrite from anoxic marine environments [Ph.D dissert]: College Station, Texas A&M
University, 218 p.


Sedimentary pyrite is a major authigenic mineral found in anoxic-sulfidic
sediments. This work demonstrates that pyrite can act as an important sink
37






for a number of trace metals including mercury. Sediment cores were taken
from three contrasting environments of the Gulf of Mexico region: the Fe-poor,
H2S-rich Baffin Bay (coastal Texas) coastal lagoon; the Fe-rich, H2S-poor
Mississippi-Atchafalaya delta system; and the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf
and slope.


In the Baffin Bay sediments, mercury, along with several other trace metals,
became enriched in the pyrite fraction. The author concluded that in anoxic-
sulfidic sediments pyrite is able to act as an important sink for several trace
metals including mercury. It was further suggested that under certain
conditions pyrite might act as a source for those trace metals if it becomes
reoxidized or weathered.


It was noted that mercury was incorporated early in the formation of the pyrite
phase in the Atchafalaya Bay-Mississippi Delta sediments. In sediments where
pyrite formation was low, incorporation of mercury (as well as arsenic and
molybdenum) were also low. It was also suggested that since mercury (along
with arsenic and molybdenum) are enriched in the pyrite fraction, reoxidation
of these sediments by mechanical means such as dredging might release large
amounts of these metals into the water column as pyrite becomes oxidized.


In Gulf of Mexico shelf and slope sediments, pyrite forms slowly with depth in
the sediment column and oxic and anoxic-nonsulfidic zones were found to be
greatly enlarged relative to those zones in Baffin Bay and in Atchafalaya Bay.
Mercury (as well as arsenic and molybdenum) eventually became highly
concentrated in pyrite deep in the sediment (where most pyrite was
encountered).


Holmes, C.W., 1977, Effects of dredged channels on trace-metal migration in an
estuary: Journal of Research of the U.S. Geological Survey, V. 5, p. 243-251.


This study was undertaken in response to a survey of 31 elements (including
mercury) which showed mercury levels in the southern part of the Matagorda
estuarine system to be abnormally elevated. The Matagorda system is located
on the southeastern Texas Coastal Plain and is a drowned valley complex
separated from the Gulf of Mexico by the Matagorda Peninsula, a postglacial
barrier spit and island. High mercury levels had previously been reported in the
estuarine system, but were assumed to be localized in the immediate vicinity
of a chloralkali plant. Eight hundred samples of bottom sediment from Lavaca
38






and Matagorda Bays were analyzed for total mercury content. Values ranged
from near 10 ppm to a background level of less than 0.02 ppm.


It is suggested that the distribution of mercury-rich sediments is a result of the
sedimentological regime of the estuarine system which is influenced strongly
by tidal currents in a dredged (13 m deep) ship channel. The author suggests
a mechanism in which mercury was "precipitated" initially in a small turning
basin (possibly characterized by an oxygen-poor, low-salinity water mass) prior
to ship channel construction. This mercury would, subsequently, be subject to
solubilization due to the influx of oxygen-rich, highly saline waters from the
Gulf of Mexico via tidal currents associated with the ship channel. Assuming
the oxygen-rich water mass contained significant particulate matter, solubilized
mercury would be immediately sorbed onto suspended matter and transported
with it. Low concentrations of dissolved mercury in the water mass support
the contention that most mercury is sorbed onto suspended particles. Mercury
was highly concentrated in the upper 5 to 7 cm of sediment cores, decreasing
to background levels below 7 cm, suggesting that Mercury deposition is recent
and postdates dredging of the channel.


Manker, J.P., 1975, Distribution and concentration of mercury, lead, cobalt, zinc, and
chromium in sediments-upper Florida Keys, Florida Bay, and Biscayne Bay [Ph.D.
dissert.]: Houston, Texas, Rice University, 125 p.


This study examined lead, mercury, zinc, cobalt, and chromium concentrations
in a study area naturally divided by the Florida Keys. Metals were examined at
sites associated with the modern reef tract, offshore of the Keys and also at
sites in the lagoonal areas of Florida Bay, Barnes Sound, Card Sound, and
Biscayne Bay. Metal concentrations were determined in bottom sediments,
the four-micron size fraction of bottom sediments, and in suspended
particulates from the study area. Highest concentrations were found in
suspended sediments and in the four-micron fraction of the bottom sediments.
This pattern was attributed to the greater surface area provided by finer-
grained particles. It was also noted that organic associated with fine
particulates allowed additional uptake of mercury.


Elevated metal concentrations in the study area were generally correlated with
areas of dense population. Densely populated areas are commonly associated
with high boat and automobile traffic, in addition to improperly monitored and
maintained sewage disposal systems. It was noted that pollutants, including
sewage and metals, introduced into the northern, more populated part of the
39






study area could be moved southward via longshore drift and counter-currents
present at the shelf margin.


Montalvo, J.G., Jr., and Brady, D.V., 1979, Concentrations of Hg, Pb, Zn, Cd, and as
in Timbalier bay and the Louisiana oil patch: in The Offshore Ecology Investigation:
Effects of Oil Drilling and Production in a Coastal Environment, Rice University
Studies, v. 65, p. 235-243.


This two year study was designed to examine the effects of petroleum drilling
and production activities in Timbalier Bay and the Louisiana "oil patch".
Specifically the authors were concerned with the addition of toxic metals to
the water column. Samples were analyzed for mercury in addition to lead,
cadmium, zinc, and arsenic. The sampling locations were designed to include
areas near oil platforms. Transects were then laid out to include samples at
various distances and in various directions from oil platforms, as well as
locations remote to platforms. During the sampling period, mercury values
ranged from <0.3 to 6.9 ug/L, with an average value of 0.6 ug/L, in bay
water column samples. For the same time period, mercury in the offshore area
ranged from <0.3 to 7.5 ug/L, with an average value of 0.4 ug/L. The
authors drew no conclusions from their mercury data as to risk of chronic
biological effects related to the presence of that metal in Gulf and Bay waters.


Schropp, S.J., Lewis, F.G., Windom, H.L., Ryan, J.D., Calder, F.D., and Burney, L.C.,
1990, Interpretation of metal concentrations in estuarine sediments of Florida using
aluminum as a reference element: Estuaries, v. 13, p. 227-235.


The authors devised a method for examining metal contamination in estuarine
sediments using aluminum as a reference metal. Natural variability of metals in
sediments was noted to be great. The variability causes problems when
defining contamination. The authors analyzed data for arsenic, cadmium,
chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Mercury was found not to
correlate with aluminum and was not considered further.


Strom, R.N., Braman, R.S., Jaap, W.C., Dolan, P. Donnelly, K.B., and Martin, D.F.,
1992, Analysis of selected trace metals and pesticides offshore of the Florida Keys:
Florida Scientist, v. 55, p. 1-13.






Levels of total mercury and other trace metals, along with selected pesticides,
were examined at stations off the Florida Keys from Biscayne National Park to
the Dry Tortugas. At each station producers, consumers, and bottom
sediment were analyzed. Producer material included plant material, mainly
Thalassia leaves and the upper portion of the algae, Halimeda. Consumers
included a variety of sponges and a zoanthid. Bottom sediments consisted
mainly of well sorted sand-sized fragments of coral, Halimeda plates and shell
material. Mercury values of less than 0.1 ppm were obtained from the
producer fraction. Sediments also yielded values of less than 0.1 ppm total
mercury. Consumer values ranged from 0.02-0.4 ppm total mercury. The
authors considered these levels of mercury to be low and attribute the low
values to the inherently low concentrations of mercury in seawater and also
the absence of local manufacturing activities.


Talbot, V., 1990, Mercury levels in biota and sediments of Princess Royal Harbour,
Albany, Western Australia: interpretation and management implications: Journal of
Coastal Research, v. 6, p. 545-557.


A fertilizer (superphosphate) plant acting as a source of mercury contamination
to Princess Royal Harbour resulted in elevated mercury levels in fish-flesh and
shellfish taken from the harbour. Mercury levels were shown to be generally
low, but patchy, in the harbour and this study examined mercury distribution
as a function of sediment type in an attempt to explain this problem. Cores
were taken to examine the distribution of mercury with depth, as a function of
sediment type. Analysis of core data showed that the highest mercury values
occurred in surface samples regardless of area which was sampled. This was
attributed to mercury binding with organic matter in surficial sediments.
Slightly increased mercury levels with depth were considered a result of low
Eh, due to organic buildup which caused mercury precipitation in sandy mud
flats and detrital beach sediments.


Although the harbour is well flushed, low wave energy and turbulence allow
abundant mercury-rich detritus to remain trapped in the area. Sandy mud flats
exhibit limited mercury accumulation related to their low content of organic
matter. Clean quartz-rich sands in the vicinity of the more recent outfall pipe
could not sustain sea grass growth (which traps polluted organic) and were
characterized by the lowest mercury levels in the area. Mercury levels in
beach sediment are variable, reflecting the intermittent accumulation and
rotting of large amounts of mercury-contaminated seagrass and detritus. Two
seagrass meadows serve as sinks for mercury and the highest levels are found
there, especially associated with finer detritus.
41







Trefry, J.H., Chen, N.C., Trocine, R.P., and Metz, S., 1992, Impingement of organic-
rich, contaminated sediments on Manatee Pocket, Florida: Florida Scientist, v. 55, p.
160-171.


Fine grained organic-rich sediments have been trapped in Manatee Pocket (St.
Lucie County), a part of the St. Lucie Estuary, located near the confluence of
the estuary with the Indian River Lagoon and the Atlantic Ocean. These
materials are characterized as black, fine-grained (> 60 percent silt and clay-
sized particles), organic-rich (>4 percent organic carbon) sediments with a
water content of 75 percent by weight. These sediments (described by the
authors as muck sediments) attain an average thickness of 84 cm. The
authors dated sediments and calculated sediment accumulation rates using Pb-
210 and Cs-137. From this work it is noted that deeper pre-1950's sediment
has natural metal levels with the authors calculating that 70-85 percent of the
total muck is uncontaminated. In the shallower sediments showing elevated
levels of metals, the degree of contamination was found to exceed natural
levels by a factor of 5-10. A single site was characterized by mercury
concentrations as high as 17 ppm (at least 200 times greater than natural
levels). It was suggested that the southwest prong of Manatee Pocket might
represent a potential source area, given the localized nature of this elevated
value.






Discussion


Mercury in the environment has both natural and anthropogenic sources. In order to
arrive at a geological perspective for the occurrence of mercury in Florida, the state's
tectonic and geologic settings must be considered. Florida is situated at the
southeastern "corner" of the United States. Thus the state lies on a typical Atlantic-
type or passive continental margin (Grow and Sheridan, 1988). This tectonic setting
has important implications for the natural occurrence of mercury in the state. Most
significant mercury deposits occur in tectonically active belts (Moiseyev, 1971)
associated with hot springs, and volcanic and thermal activity (Jonasson and Boyle,
1972), in marked contrast to the Florida setting. Mercury deposits which lie outside
of these areas are associated with zones of deep faulting and shearing (Jonasson and
Boyle, 1972). While Florida's inferred Jurassic and Triassic tectonic settings (Chowns
and Williams, 1983; Klitgord and others, 1984) are consistent with the potential for
elevated levels of mercury, the rocks are too deeply buried to affect mercury levels in
the shallow and surficial geologic environments.


Geologically, the picture is somewhat less clear cut. Two studies present analyses
for mercury associated with Florida's phosphate deposits (Altschuler, 1980; Cathcart
and Botinelly, 1991). In both cases the authors consider concentration values to be
low. No surficial mercury-bearing ore deposits have been found in Florida (Campbell,
1986). Virtually all rocks and soils, however, contain at least a small amount of
mercury. These data (Shacklette and Boerngen, 1984; Shacklette and others, 1971)
are unavailable for most of Florida's soils and major rock units.


The role of organic matter in the distribution of mercury in Florida is likely to be
especially complex. Peat is associated with wetlands and wetlands occur in. a variety
of hydrogeologic settings in Florida (Bond and others, 1986). It is well known that
organic matter concentrates mercury, as well as other heavy metals. The papers
presented here do not provide "bottom-line" answers with respect to the role of
peatlands in the environmental cycling of mercury. Instead, the studies may be used
to suggest pertinent research issues. A number of studies (not in Florida) document
the concentration of mercury in deposits of peat and its geological progeny, coal
(Joensuu, 1971; Casagrande and Erchull, 1976; Madsen, 1983). Peatland drainage
and proposed peat mining in other areas have prompted studies which are designed
to clarify the potential for mercury release in connection with these activities (Simola
and Lodenius, 1982; Lodenius and others, 1983; Evans and others, 1984). A final
group of studies examined various aspects of mercury systematics in modern marsh
environments (Breteler, 1980; Katsaounis, 1977; Kendall, 1978). The significance of
organic deposits in the cycling of mercury in Florida remains poorly understood as is
43






emphasized in a brief note concerning the proposed restoration of the Everglades
(Culotta, 1995).


Several papers presented here focus on obtaining reliable data for mercury in pristine
waters, an essential step in the understanding of contamination (Durum, and others,
1971; Fitzgerald and Watras, 1989; Gill and Bruland, 1990). Such studies are
complicated by the inherent difficulty in locating potentially pristine waters and also
by the extremely low concentrations of mercury in such waters. A literature study
was used to infer a mercury concentration value indicative of probable contamination
in a subsurface aquifer (Dooley, 1992) since available analytical techniques were
inadequate to measure very small concentrations associated with pristine
groundwater. Upchurch (1992) reports on mercury data collected from the
Background Network of the Ground Water Quality Monitoring Program for Florida,
while Silvanima (1995) reports problems with the data from that study.


The behavior of mercury in fresh water settings is of continuing significance in the
effort to understand the pathway by which that element becomes concentrated in
fish tissue. Certain studies of mercury in fresh water systems are initiated in
response to suspected situations of point-source mercury contamination (Glass and
others, 1990; Johnson and Villa, 1976). These studies, in which potential sources
were identified at the outset, were generally successful in documentation of mercury
contamination. The discovery of high concentrations of mercury in fish tissue
motivated a study of sediment samples from four Alabama rivers (Lloyd and others,
1972). This study recovered only one sediment sample with an elevated level of
mercury, suggesting possibly that additional samples were needed. Alternatively, it
was noted that mercury in fish tissue might not be simply related to mercury
sequestered in sediments.


Mercury concentrations in estuarine and nearshore marine environments have been
examined with various objectives. The geochemical behavior of mercury in estuaries
associated with the Gulf of Mexico was examined in two early studies (Andren,
1973; Andren and Harriss, 1975). A number of studies which were undertaken in
response to potential sources of contamination were reviewed. In an Australian
study, the contamination associated with a fertilizer (superphosphate) plant was
examined within the harbour which had earlier received its discharge (Talbot, 1990).
In a Louisiana study (Montalvo and Brady, 1979) mercury levels were found to be
higher in the Gulf of Mexico than at sites in Timbalier Bay associated with petroleum
drilling and production. It is important to note that industry is not necessarily
associated with mercury contamination.






Three studies specific to Florida provide an interesting basis for further research
(Trefry and others, 1992; Manker, 1975; Strom and others, 1992). Each of these
investigators anticipated potential mercury contamination associated with the
population growth and development that has characterized Florida over the last two
decades. An early study (Manker, 1975) examined the distribution of mercury and
other heavy metals in the upper Florida Keys, Florida Bay and Biscayne Bay and,
predictably, found toxic metal concentrations to be related to areas of dense
population and improperly monitored and maintained sewage disposal systems. A
more recent study (Strom and others, 1992) in that approximate area, noted only
small amounts of mercury in any sample and ascribed that finding to the generally
low concentrations of mercury in seawater and also to the lack of manufacturing in
the area. A study which focused on organic-rich sediments in Manatee Pocket, a
part of St. Lucie Estuary, found concentrations of mercury (and other metals)
associated with the upper organic-rich layers. This indicated that although
sedimentation is a long-standing problem, metal contamination of the sediment is
more recent (the authors estimate contamination became a problem in the 1950s)
(Trefry and others, 1992).


The geological perspective of mercury's occurrence in Florida is incomplete. Mercury
in the environment has both natural and anthropogenic sources. The contributions of
naturally occurring earth materials cannot be adequately defined based on available
data. Geological sources of mercury are probably minor given Florida's passive
margin setting. Mercury analyses are, however, unavailable for most of the state's
lithologic units. Organic deposits have long been known to concentrate various
heavy metals, including mercury, and Florida is host to extensive wetlands, which
provide the necessary (waterlogged) conditions for organic accumulation. A few
fairly localized studies document the occurrence of mercury in freshwater, estuarine
and nearshore marine environments and emphasize the extent to which the geologic
aspects of mercury occurrence remain to be investigated. Eventually the geologic
occurrence of mercury in Florida will be understood in terms of its sources, sinks and
the processes by which it is transported between them.






List of Authors

Altschuler, Z.S.
Andren, A.W.
Arthur, J.D.
Atkeson, T.

Bare, D.
Blair, W.R.
Boerngen, J.G.
Bond, P.A.
Botinelly, T.
Boyle, R.W.
Brady, D.V.
Braman, R.S.
Breteler, R.J.
Briggs, P.H.
Brinckman, F.E.
Bruland, K.W.
Burney, L.C.
Buseck, P.R.

Calder, F.D.
Campbell, K.M.
Capoblanco, J.A.
Casagrande, D.J.
Cathcart, J.B.
Chaffin, H.S.
Chen, N.C.
Chowns, T.M.
Conner, J.J.
Crisman, T.L.
Crock, J.G.
Culotta, E.

Daughdrill, W.E.
Delfino, J.J.
DiGiulio, R.T.
D'ltri, F.M.
Dolan, P.
Donnelly, K.B.
Dooley, J.H.
Durum, W.H.


Earle, C.D.
Erchull, L.D.
Evans, D.W.

Fey, D.L.
Fitzgerald, W.F.
Florida Department of
Environmental Regulation
Gill, G.A.
Glass, G.E.
Glooschenko, W.A.
Gottgens, J.F.
Gough, L.P.
Grow, J.A.
Guentzel, J.

Hageman, P.L.
Harriss, R.C.
Heidel, S.G.
Hem, J.D.
Holmes, C.W.
Huerta-Diaz, M.A.
Huey, C.

Iverson, W.P.

Jaap, W.C.
Jewett, K.L.
Joensuu, O.1.
Johnson, P.G.
Jonasson, I.R.
Jones, R.D.

Katsaounis, A.
Kendall, D.R.
Klitgord, K.D.
Kotra, R.K.

Landing, W.
Lane, B.E.
Lewis, F.G.
Lodenius, M.


Lloyd, N.A.

Madsen, P.P.
Manker, J.P.
Martin, D.F.
McKeague, J.A.
McLendon, J.T.
McNeal, J.M.
Meier, A.L.
Metz, S.
Miller, J.A.
Moiseyev, A.N.
Montalvo, J.G.
Moore, J.W.

Pollman, C.
Popenoe, P.
Porcella, D.

Ramamoorthy, S
Rapp, G.R.
Rood, B.E.
Rose, A.W.
Ryan, E.A.
Ryan, J.D.

Scheidt, D.J.
Schmidt, K.W.
Schouten, H.
Schropp, S.J.
Scott, T.M.
Seppanen, A.
Shacklette, H.T.
Sheridan, R.E.
Silvanima, J.
Simola, H.
Smith, D.L.
Sorensen, J.A.
Stephenson, F.
Stober, Q.J.
Strom, R.N.






Talbot, V.
Trefry, J.H.
Trocine, R.P.
Turner, R.L.

United States
Geological Survey
Upchurch, S.B.
Uusi-Rauva, A.

Villa, O.
Varekamp, J.C.

Watras, C.J.
White, D.E.
Williams, C.T.
Windom, H.L.
Wolynetz, M.S.

Zillioux, E.






Appendix 1


UNITS USED IN THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY

The work of a number of authors is included in this bibliography and they report their

results using various units. In order to facilitate the use of this document, a table of

units with appropriate abbreviations, equivalents, and conversions is provided here.


Weight (wt)

kilogram (kg)

milligram (mg)

microgram (ug)

nanogram (ng)

picogram (pg)


Equivalent

1000 grams (g)

10-3 gram

10.6 gram

10-9 gram

10-12 gram


Units of concentration may be expressed as a weight term divided by a weight

term (wt/wt) or a weight term divided by a volume term, usually the liter (L)

for liquids (wt/L).

Units of concentration wt/wt wt/L


1 part per million (ppm)

1 part per billion (ppb)

1 part per trillion (ppt)


1 ug/g or 1 mg/kg

1 ng/g or 1 ug/kg

1 pg/g or 1 ng/kg


1 mg/L

1 ug/L

1 ng/L






Molarity

Molarity (M) is defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution. In order

to convert concentrations expressed in terms of molarity to concentrations expressed

in terms of wt/v, the following relationship is provided:



(moles per liter) x (grams per mole) = (grams per liter)






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Holmes, C.W., 1977, Effects of dredged channels on trace-metal migration in an
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Joensuu, O.1., 1971, Fossil fuels as a source of mercury pollution: Science, v. 172,
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Manker, J.P., 1975, Distribution and concentration of mercury, lead, cobalt, zinc, and
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