STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
David B. Struhs, Secretary
DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE AND TECHNICAL SERVICES
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief
Open File Report No. 74
MINERAL RESOURCES OF JACKSON
Steven M. Spencer, P.G. #319 and Jacqueline M. Lloyd
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introd uctio n .............................................................................................1
Geomorphology ................................................... ............................. 1
Geology ........................................................................... ................3
Mineral Resources ................................................................ ............ 8
Introduction ................................................. ........................... 8
Clay .......................................................... ........................... 10
Dolomitic Limestone.................................................................. .. 10
Limestone ...................................................... ...................... 10
Sand ........................................................................................... 11
Undifferentiated Resources ............................................ ............ 13
References ........................................................................... ............... 14
1. Geomorphology of Jackson County, Florida............................. ........... 2
2. Terraces and shorelines of Jackson County, Florida................................ 3
3. Geologic Cross Section Location Map..................................... ........... 4
4. Geologic Cross Section A-A' ........................................................ 5
5. Geologic Cross Section B-B' ..................................................... .... 6
6. Geologic Cross Section C-C'......................................... .................. 7
7. Mineral Resources of Jackson County, Florida ...................................... 9
8. Florida Basic Rock Company Quarry, Jackson County, Florida, 1929...... 11
1. Metric conversion factors..................................................... .............. 1
2. Physical properties of the Correctional School Clay Deposit................... 12
3. Fire tests, Correctional School Clay Deposit ...................................... 12
4. Physical properties of selected Jackson County Clay Sites.................. 12
5. Peat Analysis ..................................................................... ......... 13
MINERAL RESOURCES OF JACKSON COUNTY, FLORIDA
Steven M. Spencer, P.G. #319 and Jacqueline M. Lloyd
In recent years, considerable attention has focused on Florida's rapid development, the
accompanying population increase, and their effect on the state's important mineral resources.
Frequently, this development occurred in areas underlain by mineral deposits, precluding their
extraction. The economics associated with these mineral resources represent substantial employment
and income to the private sector as well as taxes to county and state governments. Furthermore,
knowledge of mineral resource locations can aid land-use zoning decisions and assist in community
environmental resource conservation.
In order to assist county officials, the Florida Geological Survey (FGS) initiated an investigation
of Jackson County's mineral resources. The FGS communicated with the county's community
development personnel to identify their information needs associated with mineral resources and to
present the results of our research in an appropriate format. This mineral resource assessment is
general and is intended as a land-use planning tool. Concerns about, or interest in, any specific sites
would require detailed geological research beyond the scope of this investigation.
A knowledge of Jackson County's mineral resources is basic and integral to the process of
initiating, developing, and implementing effective land use decisions. The information presented here
will be useful to planners and officials in their analyses of urban and rural development in such areas
as zoning, permitting, road construction, and the establishment of waste disposal sites.
Resource evaluation for this report is based on a number of sources including Florida
Geological Survey reports and unpublished data, core and well cutting descriptions, geological logs,
field reconnaissance, state and federal statistical data, company reports, questionnaires, and
discussions with mining company personnel and state and federal officials. Although detailed
information on company statistics is confidential, information of a more general nature is readily
available or can be reasonably extrapolated from existing data.
Table 1. Metric Conversion Factors
For readers who prefer metric units to the U. S. units used in this report, the following
conversion factors are provided.
MULTIPLY BY TO OBTAIN
pounds 0.4536 kilograms
square inches 6.452 square centimeters
feet 0.3048 meters
miles 1.609 kilometers
acres 0.4046 hectares
tons 907.18 kilograms
Jackson County is located in the central portion of the Florida panhandle. It falls within
White's (1970) Northern (Proximal) Zone. This zone is characterized by broad uplands (referred to as
the Northern Highlands) that traverse most of northern Florida. More specifically, the Northern
Highlands extend from Florida's east coast, westward to the Western Highlands of the panhandle.
However, within the tri-county region of Holmes, Washington, and Jackson Counties, there is an area
of lower elevations bisecting these broad uplands. White (1970) named this area the Marianna
Lowlands. This same area falls within Scott's (in preparation) Dougherty Karst Plain District. The
eastern portion of the Marianna Lowlands, which lies within Jackson County, has been renamed the
Marianna Karst Plain by Scott (in preparation).
In Jackson County the Marianna Karst Plain is bounded on the east by the Chattahoochee
River. This karst plain extends westward to Holmes Creek, which forms the boundary between
Jackson and Holmes Counties. Forming the southern boundary of the Marianna Karst Plain in Jackson
County are Compass Lake Karst Hills and Sneads Hills (Scott, in preparation). These two areas
correspond to White's (1970) New Hope Ridge and Grand Ridge, respectively, and are relics of the
Northern Highlands. These two ridges are, in turn, bisected by the Chipola River and its valley (White,
1970), the remaining geomorphic subdivision present in the county (Figure 1). The Chipola River
trends north to south following joint patterns in the limestone bedrock. Occasionally, it flows
underground forming natural bridges such as those found at the Florida Caverns State Park.
MARIANNA KARST PLAIN
COMPASS LAKE f
Figure 1. Geomorphology of Jackson County, Florida (after Scott, in preparation; and White, 1970).
Land surface elevations within the karst plain range from approximately 70 feet above mean
sea level (MSL) along the Chipola River to approximately 130 feet (MSL). East-west topographic
profiles in Jackson County show that elevations within the karst plain are approximately 10 to 15 feet
higher west of the Chipola River than to the east. The toe of the north facing slope of the Compass
Lake Karst Hills feature (New Hope Ridge) is approximately 140 feet above MSL. Elevations along the
highest portions of this ridge are approximately 300 feet. In comparison, elevations along the top of
Sneads Hills (Grand Ridge), which lie to the east of the Compass Lake Karst Hills, are generally lower.
Here, an elevation of 280 feet above MSL is seldom exceeded except near Sneads, Florida, where the
crest of one hill exceeds 300 feet in elevation. The toe of the Sneads Hills feature (Grand Ridge) is
approximately 100 feet above MSL.
The tri-county region of Holmes, Washington and Jackson Counties, and extending north into
Alabama, has experienced a significant amount of erosion throughout its past. The weathering and
erosional processes of numerous streams and rivers, coupled with dissolution of the underlying
limestone, have reduced land surface elevations to the point where, today, Eocene rocks crop out.
Younger sediments, which once covered the area are absent in many places. Underground drainage
developed in some areas of Jackson County results in a distinctive karst landform. The karst is
punctuated by numerous swales, small lakes, ponds, and streams. Additionally, there are a large
number of dry and wet caves present throughout the Jackson County area, particularly in the vicinity
Healy (1975) recognized five marine terraces in Jackson County based strictly on elevation
(Figure 2). These terrace plains, which are generally considered depositional features, formed during
higher stands of sea level. The terraces, from highest to lowest, include the Hazlehurst Terrace (215
to 302 feet above MSL), the Coharie Terrace (170 to 215 feet above MSL), the Sunderland /
Okefenokee Terrace (from 100 to 170 feet above MSL; Cooke, 1939/ MacNeil, 1950), the Wicomico
Terrace (from 70 to 100 feet above MSL), and the Penholoway Terrace (from 42 to 70 feet above
[ ] 100-170' SUNDERLAND/
7 70-100 WICOMICO
ED 42-70' PENHOLOWAY
(FT. ABOVE MSL)
Figure 2. Terraces and Shorelines of Jackson County, Florida (modified from Healy, 1975).
In Jackson County, these terraces trend from south to north, with the higher elevations to the
south and lower elevations to the north. The higher Hazlehurst Terrace coincides with the highest
elevations in the county. Figure 2 shows the approximate location and areal extent of these terraces.
The rocks and sediments underlying Jackson County range in age from Paleozoic to Recent.
To date, the deepest penetration of subsurface sediments in the county occurred at a depth of 9,117
feet below mean sea level (MSL) in an oil test well (W-1886, Section 8, Township 5 North, Range 11
West). These deep sediments were identified as Triassic (?) basalt sills intruding Paleozoic red and
gray sandstones and shales (Applin, 1951; Lloyd, 1985; Arthur, 1988). These basement rocks are
overlain by thousands of feet of Mesozoic and lower to middle Cenozoic Era siliciclastic and carbonate
(limestones and dolostones) sediments. These sediments are overlain in the near-surface by late
Cenozoic carbonate and siliciclastic deposits. Figures 3, 4, 5, and 6 show the location map and
shallow geologic cross sections through these near-surface deposits.
LOCATIONS L-...-._._._. J 0
Figure 3. Geologic Cross Section Location Map
The Upper Eocene Ocala Limestone is the oldest unit that crops out in Jackson County
(Hendry and Yon, 1958; Puri and Vernon, 1964; Schmidt and Coe, 1978; Scott, 1993). Anticipating
the loss of outcrops due to the construction of Jim Woodruff dam, Hendry and Yon (1958) studied
the area along and between the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers in Jackson and Gadsden Counties,
Florida and Seminole and Decatur Counties, Georgia. They identified outcrops of Ocala Limestone
along both rivers, north of the dam, which were covered when the dam was completed. Exposures of
Ocala Limestone are now found in the central portion of the northern half of Jackson County (Scott,
1993) and limited data suggest its thickness ranges from 100 to 200 feet (Figures 4 and 5). The
Ocala is composed of a light yellow to cream to white colored, granular, permeable, and highly
fossiliferous, pure limestone. Localized weathered surfaces are frequently hardened by recrystallization
or silicification. Fossils include foraminifera, echinoids, mollusks, and bryozoans (Schmidt and Coe,
1978). The Ocala Limestone is unconformably underlain by the Middle Eocene Lisbon Formation in
this area. The Lisbon Formation generally consists of fossiliferous limestones interbedded with
argillaceous limestones and calcareous shales (Schmidt and Coe, 1978, Chen, 1965).
Two Oligocene formations, the Marianna Limestone and the Suwannee Limestone, overlie the
Ocala Limestone in Jackson County. The Marianna lies directly on top of the Ocala. Schmidt and Coe
(1978) found the Marianna Limestone to crop out along a narrow band through central Jackson
County, south of the Ocala exposures and the Suwannee Limestone to crop out in another narrow
band paralleling the Marianna outcrop belt to the north. Scott (1993) maps essentially the same area
as undifferentiated Suwannee and Marianna Limestone. Scott (1993) also depicts these
undifferentiated formations as cropping out along the Chipola River in the southern half of the county.
The Marianna consists of a light gray to cream to white massive limestone which is less
permeable than the Suwannee and can be glauconitic (Moore, 1955). It has an abundant fauna of
large foraminifera with locally common pectens and bryozoa (Schmidt and Coe, 1978) and ranges in
thickness from approximately 25 to 85 feet (Figures 4 and 6). The overlying Suwannee Limestone
consists of tan to buff colored, porous, fossiliferous limestones, dolomitic limestones, and dolomite
(Schmidt and Coe, 1978) and ranges in thickness from approximately 25 to 110 feet (Figures 4 and
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Schmidt and Coe (1978) use Puri's (1953) nomenclature for the Miocene Series in the Florida
panhandle, which recognized three stages: the Tampa Stage, the oldest; the Alum Bluff Stage; and
the Choctawhatchee Stage, the youngest. Puri and Vernon (1964) named the panhandle equivalent of
the Tampa, the Chattahoochee Formation; this is the nomenclature used by the FGS. In Jackson
County, the Chattahoochee Formation overlies the Suwannee Limestone and the Marianna Limestone,
where the Suwannee is absent. Schmidt and Coe (1978) state that in Jackson County, this unit is
characterized by fine quartz sand within an argillaceous limestone; Scott (1993) defines the
Chattahoochee as fossiliferous, often moldic dolostones with subordinate limestones, clays and silts.
Scott (1993) maps the surficial occurrence of the Chattahoochee Formation in the southeastern
corner of Jackson County and in localized areas near the town of Marianna, in the center of the
county. Limited data suggest that the thickness of the Chattahoochee Formation ranges from
approximately 40 to 130 feet in Jackson County (Figures 4 and 6).
Although the Alum Bluff Stage (current FGS nomenclature uses Alum Bluff Group) was not
differentiated by Schmidt and Coe (1978) in Jackson County, Scott (1993) mapped an extensive area
of Alum Bluff Group in western Jackson County. Scott (1993) describes the Alum Bluff Group as
clays, silts and sands, often greenish to gray in color, sometimes containing shells. Schmidt and Coe
(1978) point out that the Alum Bluff and overlying Choctawhatchee are very similar in lithology and,
upon weathering, are almost impossible to separate. In fact, the Choctawhatchee Stage (current FGS
nomenclature uses Choctawhatchee Formation) was not differentiated by either Schmidt and Coe
(1978) or Scott (1993) in Jackson County and there are insufficient data to estimate the thickness of
either of these two units in Jackson County. These units are included in the "undifferentiated sand
and clay" in the cross sections in this report.
The Upper Pliocene to Pleistocene Citronelle Formation overlies the Alum Bluff Group and was
recognized by Scott (1993) to crop out in southwestern Jackson County and in a very limited area in
southeastern Jackson County. The Citronelle contains fine to coarse grained sands with gravel, silt
and clay and is often oxidized to reddish hues in exposures (Scott, 1993). Very limited FGS data
indicate that the Citronelle may range from approximately 10 to 40 feet thick in this area. The
Citronelle is generally not differentiated in the FGS well data base and is therefore included in the
"undifferentiated sand and clay" in the cross sections in this report.
Overlying these units, throughout the county, is a blanket of undifferentiated Pleistocene to
Holocene sand, clay, gravel, sandy clay, and clayey sand (Figures 4, 5, and 6). The thickness of these
undifferentiated sediments ranges from approximately 20 to 140 feet. In addition, most of the river
and stream valleys have an accumulation of clean Holocene sand due to recent erosion and reworking
(Schmidt and Coe, 1978).
The purpose of the following discussion is to provide information on the occurrence of
potential economic mineral commodities in Jackson County. The information presented here is not
intended to be an exhaustive investigation leading to industrial development. However, where the
information is favorable, it may show that certain areas warrant further investigation. The mineral
resources map (Figure 7) is designed to present a geographic overview of the major economic mineral
commodities identified in Jackson County. Factors such as thickness of overburden, quality and
volume of the deposit affect the mining of the mineral commodity at any specific site. Geologic cross
sections were extrapolated from cores, well cuttings, and geophysical logs to show the distribution
and thickness of Eocene and younger stratigraphic units (cross sections A-A' through C-C', Figures 4
to 6). As a result, occasional variations between the geologic cross sections and the mineral resources
map may occur. The principal industrial mineral commodities discussed here include clay, dolomitic
limestone, limestone, and sand.
- -I--- -- -
-\ \ - ---
U) L -
Sa n j
z o w z
7w E w
Fo O )
Small alluvial clay deposits can be found scattered in the flood-plains of the Apalachicola and
Chipola rivers. Residual clays from the surficial formations are also present throughout the county, but
few were ever found to be commercially significant. Past production locations and clay test sites
include the old Round Lake RR Station south of Alford, an unnamed clay pit near Compass Lake,
Barbour's clay pit near Kynesville, the Correctional School for Boys at Marianna, and the Blackman
clay pit near Campbellton. Bell (1924) and Calver (1949) researched numerous clay deposits and
presented their analyses in their respective publications.
Bell (1924) reported a clay deposit located at the Correctional School for Boys at Marianna.
The clay was used to make common brick that was used locally. The red to gray colored clay deposit
measured up to 12 feet thick with up to two feet of sandy clay overburden. Selected portions of Bell's
(1924) and Calver's (1949) Jackson County clay research are shown in Tables 2 through 4.
George Aase and Associates (1964) contracted with the US Department of Commerce to
study the feasibility of establishing a structural clay products industry in west Florida. The study
encompassed seven nearby counties but ultimately found that only two, Liberty and Calhoun, had
sufficient raw materials to sustain the industry. The report concluded that an industry of this type
would be profitable. A copy of the report is on file at the FGS library.
Dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2, is defined in Dana's Manual of Mineralogy (Hurlbut, 1959) as
containing equal proportions of calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate. Expressed in terms of
weight percentages, he said it consists of 45.6 percent MgCo3 and 54.4 percent CaCO3. He further
stated that as a rock term it has been applied to carbonate rocks containing as little as 15 to 20
percent by weight MgCO3 while others in the industry use 35 to 40 percent by weight MgCO3 as the
dividing line. Dolomitic limestone from Jackson County analyzes from a trace to 40.6 percent
magnesium carbonate (Reeves, 1961). The mineral resources map (Figure 7) shows dolomitic
limestone mines are centered around the Chipola River in south-central Jackson County. There are
two mines, Dixie Lime Products, and Dolime, Inc., operating in this region of Jackson County. Both of
these companies are located west of State Road 71 and south of Interstate 10. The rock, which is
from the Oligocene Suwannee Limestone, is tan to brown in color, unconsolidated to moderately
indurated, and moldic. The Florida Department Of Transportation (FDOT) approved the dolomitic rock
from local producers for use in road construction and as a base course material. It is also used locally
as an aggregate material and as an animal feed supplement.
Rock quarries in Jackson County date back to at least the early 1800's. In those early years
the Marianna Limestone was quarried and used as a building stone (Figure 8). Later, building stone
diminished as a commodity due to the increased use of concrete block and the rise in labor costs.
Today, one can still visit a few of the old stone quarry sites and see cut limestone from that once
thriving industry. Several of the older homes in the area were built using the locally obtained Marianna
Limestone. Reeves (1961) published a thorough discussion of the industry in the tri-county region,
which includes Jackson County. Schmidt et al. (1979) reported on the economic uses and locations
of the limestone, dolomite, and coquina resources of Florida.
In the early 1960's, George Aase and Associates (1962a and b) completed feasibility studies
for the U.S. Department of Commerce on the potential for a lime and a portland cement industry in
west Florida. Their study area included but was not limited to Jackson County. Both reports
concluded that the industries could have been successful endeavors. Aase and Associates based their
findings on the fact that there were favorable market projections, substantial raw materials and
reserves, and adequate transportation facilities. The 137 page lime report and the 169 page cement
report were compiled for the US Department of Commerce; copies of the reports are located in the
Figure 8. Florida Basic Rock Company Quarry, Jackson County, Florida, 1929 (FGS Photo Archives)
Today, limestone continues to be mined in Jackson County and is used by the Florida
Department of Transportation (DOT) as a base course material for local roadways. The currently
approved DOT quarries in Jackson County include White Construction Incorporated which operates a
mine (Jones Pit) approximately eight miles north of Cottondale on County Road 162. Anderson
Columbia Company's Imperial Mine is located near the White Construction pit but on the north side of
County Road 162. Dolomite Incorporated operates a mine 10 miles south of Marianna along the west
side of State Road 71. Most of the limestone from Jackson County mines is used in DOT approved
projects for asphalt aggregate or roadway base course material.
Other operating mines or plants that are not included in the DOT's Jackson County list include
Dixie Lime Inc., located 11.5 miles south of Marianna along State Road 71, and White Construction's
Cottondale plant located two miles south of Cottondale. Gulf Asphalt has two sites in Jackson
County. Their Deerhaven Mine is located two miles south of Cottondale near White Construction's
plant, and the other mine is north of the intersection of State Road 231 and County Road 162.
Marianna Lime Products, Inc. operates a limestone pit north west of Marianna along State Road 73.
Sand is found throughout many areas of the county. However, those deposits found in the
higher elevations, namely those in the highlands of southwest Jackson County, tend to be coarser.
Some washing is required to clean the sand. Other sand deposits scattered throughout the county
tend to have a smaller grain size and need more cleaning. All of the sand that is excavated in the
county is used locally as fill material.
Moore (1955) reported a small sand and gravel deposit four miles south of Cottondale off
State Road 75 along the west side of the railroad. The quartzite gravel, which can range up to two
inches in diameter, is highly fractured and therefore not suitable for use in concrete. The small pockets
inches in diameter, is highly fractured and therefore not suitable for use in concrete. The small pockets
Table 2. Physical Properties of the Correctional School Clay Deposit
(from Bell, 1924, map code JK-1, Figure 7)
Plasticity (by feel) excellent
Water of Plasticity 36.65%
Pore water 0.46%
Shrinkage water 36.19%
Linear air shrinkage 14.40%
Modulus of rupture (average) 421.2 Ibs./ sq. inch
Slaking test 5 minutes
Steel hard at cone 010
Overfires at cone 012
Table 3. Firing Tests, Correctional School Clay Deposit
(from Bell, 1924, map code JK-1, Figure 7)
Temperature, uC Linear Shr., %. Absorption, % Porosity, % Color
950 3.1 11.95 26.00 Brick Red
1050 10.6 8.05 20.75 Brick Red
1150 10.6 2.10 8.60 Brick Red
1190 12.6 1.70 7.5 Brick Red
1230 12.6 1.67 5.8 Brick Red
1310 13.6 1.50 6.1 Brick Red
Table 4. Physical Properties of Selected Jackson County Clay Sites
(from Calver, 1949)
Location Cottondale Marianna Marianna Marianna Round Lake Round Lake Round Lake
Sample No. 0-109 0-237 0-121 0-122 0-123 0-241 0-242
Map Code, Figure 7 JK-2 JK-1 JK-1 JK-1 JK-3 JK-3 JK-3
Plasticity good fair good good excel. good fair
Water of Plasticity 40 39 66 50 58 30 26
Linear Air Shrinkage 8.7 10.1 17.5 14.8 9.8 6.1 5.4
Modulus of Rupture 290 270 560 440 110 140 40
Slaking Test fast fast fast med. fast med. med.
Color gray brown red dk. red pink red red
Linear shrinkage (Per Cent.)
Cone 010 (9500C) 2.0 1.0 4.0 2.0 1.5 0.0 0.0
Cone 05 (1050uC) 2.0 2.0 4.0 5.0 2.0 0.0 0.0
Cone 03 (1090'C) 2.0 5.5 10.0 5.0 10.0 2.0 0.5
Cone 1 (11500C) 4.9 5.5 --- --- 11.0 4.5 0.5
Cone 3 (11906C) 9.5 7.0 10.5 7.0 15.0 4.5 1.0
Cone 6 (1250C) 8.5 6.5 --- --- 15.5 5.0 3.0
Cone 010 (9500C) white brick red red red pink pink pink
Cone 05 (10500C) red brick red red pink pink pink pink
Cone 03 (1090UC) white brick red brown brick red pinkpink pink
Cone 1 (1150UC) white dark red --- ---pink gray red pink
Cone 3 (1190C) light cream dark red brown brick red brown gray red gray red
Cone 6 (1250 C) light cream dark red --- --- brown gray red gray red
of sand found at this location were worked years ago by the H.W. Johnson Company. The deposit
that they worked was five to seven feet thick and had approximately three feet of overburden.
Martens (1928) reported that coarse sand and gravel is present in the bed and along the sides
of the Chattahoochee River. Although no gravel has been extracted from the Jackson County side of
the river it has been dredged from the Apalachicola River for years (Scott et. al, 1980).
Much of Jackson County has surface and near-surface sediments made up of clayey sand,
and organic muck. Although the potential for large scale mining is minimal due to the heterogeneous
nature of these sediments, they may be valuable locally as fill material. Davis (1946) tested a shallow
peat prospect located in section 5, Township 5 North, Range 10 West (Figure 7; Table 5). Peat is an
accumulation of partly decomposed organic material (mainly plant matter) which accumulates in
perennially wet areas. Along with the wet conditions that affect the accumulation of organic deposits,
other factors of importance include topography and climate. The location of the peat prospect is
shown on Figure 7.
Table 5. Peat Analyses
(from Davis, 1946, map code JK-4, Figure 7)
Moisture Free Basis, Analysis in Per Cent
Proximate Analyses Ultimate Analyses
Sample Thickness Volatile Fixed Ash H C N O S BTU
Number (inches) Matter Carbon
164 30 36.5 18.5 45.0 3.2 33.1 2.1 16.4 0.2 5610
Aase, G. and Associates, 1962a, Feasibility study of a proposed portland cement industry in
redevelopment area A, West Florida; U.S. Department of Commerce, Area Redevelopment
Administration, Contract No. Cc-5836, Washington D.C., unpublished report, 169 p.
1962b, Feasibility study of a proposed lime industry in redevelopment area A,
West Florida; U.S. Department of Commerce, Area Redevelopment Administration, Contract
No. Cc-5836, Washington D.C., unpublished report, 137 p.
1964, Feasibility study of a proposed structural clay products industry in
redevelopment area A, Northwest Florida; U.S. Department of Commerce, Area
Redevelopment Administration, Contract No. Cc-6028, Washington D.C., unpublished report,
Applin, P.L., 1951, Preliminary report on buried pre-Mesozoic rocks in Florida and adjacent states:
U.S. Geological Survey Circular 91, 28 p.
Arthur, J.A., 1988, Petrogenesis of Early Mesozoic tholeiite in the Florida basement and an overview
of Florida basement geology: Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigation No. 97, 39 p.
Bell, O.G., 1924, A Preliminary report on the clays of Florida: Florida Geological Survey Fifteenth
Annual Report, pp. 53-266.
Calver, J.L, 1949, Florida kaolins and clays: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular No. 2, 59p.
Chen, C.S.,1965, The regional lithostratigraphic analysis of Paleocene and Eocene rocks of Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 45, 105 p.
Cooke, C.W., 1939, Scenery in Florida as interpreted by a geologist: Florida Geological Survey
Bulletin No. 17, 120 p.
Davis, J.H., Jr., 1946, The peat deposits of Florida, their occurrence, development, and uses: Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin No. 30, p. 104.
Healy, H.G., 1975, Terraces and shorelines of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Map Series No. 71,
Hendry, C.W., Jr. and Yon, J.W., Jr., 1958, Geology of the area in and around the Jim Woodruff
Reservoir, Florida Geological Survey Report of Investigation No. 16, Part I, 52 p.
Hurlbut, Cornelius, Jr., 1959, Dana's manual of mineralogy: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York,
17th ed., 609 p.
Lloyd, J.M., 1985, Annotated bibliography of Florida basement geology and related regional and
tectonic studies: Florida Geological Survey Information Circular No. 98, 72 p.
MacNeil, F.S., 1950, Pleistocene shorelines in Florida and Georgia: U.S. Geological Survey
Professional Paper 221-F, p. 95-107.
Martens, J.H.C., 1928, Sand and gravel deposits of Florida: Florida Geological Survey 19th Annual
Report, p. 93-94.
Moore, W.E., 1955, Geology of Jackson County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 37,
Puri, H.S., 1953, Contribution to the study of the Miocene of the Florida panhandle: Florida
Geological Survey Bulletin No. 38, 345 p.
and Vernon, R.O., 1964, Summary of the geology of Florida and a guidebook to the
classic exposures (revised): Florida Geological Survey Special Publication No. 5 (revised), 312
Reeves, W.D., 1961, The limestone resources of Washington, Holmes and Jackson Counties, Florida:
Florida Geological Survey Bulletin No. 42, 121 p.
Schmidt, W. and Coe, C., 1978, Regional structure and stratigraphy of the limestone outcrop belt in
the Florida panhandle: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of Investigations No. 86, 25 p.
Hoenstine, R.W., Knapp, M.S., Lane, E., Ogden, G.M. Jr., and Scott, T.M., 1979, The
limestone, dolomite, and coquina resources of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of
Investigation No. 88, 54 p.
Scott, T., 1993, Geologic map of Jackson County, Florida: Florida Geological Survey Open File Map
Series No. 25, Approximate Scale 1:125,000.
in preparation, Geomorphic map of Florida, Florida Geological Survey Map Series.
Hoenstine, R.W., Knapp, M.S., Lane, E., Ogden, G.M. Jr., Deuerling, R., and Neel, H.E.,
1980, The sand and gravel resources of Florida: Florida Bureau of Geology Report of
Investigation No. 90, p. 7.
White, W. A., 1970, The geomorphology of the Florida peninsula: Florida Bureau of Geology Bulletin
No. 51, 164 p.
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
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