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Title Page 1
Title Page 2
Table of Contents
Part I: Introduction and summary
Part II: Annotated bibliography
Part III: Coastal atlas
Part IV: Geological cross sections
STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
Virginia B. Wetherell, Secretary
DIVISION OF ADMINISTRATIVE and TECHNICAL SERVICES
Mimi Drew, Director of Technical Services
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief
Open File Report No. 69
A Geological Investigation of the Offshore Area
Along Florida's Central East Coast
Henry Freedenberg, PG 617, Ron Hoenstine, PG 57,
Zi-Qiang Chen and Holly Williams
Florida Geological Survey
lJNlVWLRSnY fLC4;;:7 1 U" ,S
The work supporting this document was accomplished under Cooperative Agreement
No. 14-35-0001-30757 with the U.S. Department of Interior Minerals Management
Service (MMS). A previous, identically titled, version of this document (meeting
contract deliverable obligation) was delivered to the MMS in July of 1995. This open
file report includes corrections made to the previous document along with additional
bibliographic material. It is anticipated that this report will be the first in a series of
annual reports documenting the search for sand along central Florida's east coast.
Henry Freedenberg, PG 617
The authors are indebted to the following for aid in preparing the original material and
for assistance in reviewing this document: Jim Ladner, FGS Geologist, Jacqueline M.
Lloyd, FGS Assistant State Geologist and Administrator, Ed Lane, FGS Geologist and
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief, Florida Geological Survey; Mark Crosley,
Beach Management Coordinator, Brevard County Department of Natural Resources
Management; Donald Donaldson, Coastal Engineer, Indian River County Public Works
Department; Richard Bouchard, Civil Engineer, Division of Engineering, St. Lucie
County; Lee Weberman, Civil Engineer, Department of Engineering, Martin County;
Gary Zarillo, Assistant Professor of Geology, Florida Institute of Technology and Helen
Twedell, Librarian, University of Florida Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part I INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY 1
Part II ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 8
A. Historical Background and Regional Survey Papers 8
B. Sediment and Wave Mechanics 18
C. Breakwater and Groin Design 32
D. Beach and Inlet Studies 34
E. Field Procedures and Techniques 54
Part III COASTAL ATLAS 58
MMS Cooperative Agreement Study Area-Description 60
Map 1 MMS Cooperative Agreement Study Area 61
Map 2 Detailed Map of Study Area 62
Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Description 63
Map 3A Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Southern Brevard County 64
Map 3B Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Indian River County 65
Map 3C Areas of Shoreline Erosion-St. Lucie County 66
Map 3D Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Martin County 67
Sediment Sample Locations-Description 68
Map 4A Sediment Sample Locations-Southern Brevard County 69
Map 4B Sediment Sample Locations-Indian River County 70
Map 4C Sediment Sample Locations-St. Lucie County 71
Map 4D Sediment Sample Locations-Martin County 72
Geophysical Data-Description 73
Map 5A Geophysical Data-Southern Brevard County 74
Map 5B Geophysical Data-Indian River County 75
Map 5C Geophysical Data-St. Lucie County 76
Map 5D Geophysical Data-Martin County 77
Hardbottom Locations-Description 78
Map 6A Hardbottom Locations-Southern Brevard County 79
Map 6B Hardbottom Locations-Indian River County 80
Map 6C Hardbottom Locations-St. Lucie County 81
Map 6D Hardbottom Locations-Martin County 82
Carbonate Distribution in Surface Sediment
(% Carbonate)-Description 83
Map 7 Carbonate Distribution in Surface Sediment
(% Carbonate) 84
Median Surface Sediment Grain Size-Description 85
Map 8 Median Surface Sediment Grain Size 86
Median Carbonate Surface Grain Size-Description 87
Map 9 Median Carbonate Surface Grain Size 88
Suggested Future Seismic Program-Description 89
Map 10 Suggested Future Seismic Program 90
Part IV GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTIONS 91
Geological Cross Sections Description 92
Geological Cross Section A A', Brevard County 93
Geological Cross Section B B', Indian River County 94
Geological Cross Section C C', St. Lucie County 95
Geological Cross Section D D', Martin County 96
Geological Cross Section E E', Central East Coast, Florida 97
CONVERSION FACTORS AND ABBREVIATIONS
This table of the most commonly used conversion factors is provided for readers
who may prefer to use metric units instead of the English units given in this report.
inch (in) 25.4 millimeter (mm)
inch (in) 2.54 centimeter (cm)
inch (in) 0.0254 meter (m)
foot (ft) 0.3048 meter (m)
mile (mi) 1.609 kilometer
sq. feet 0.0929 sq. meter
sq. mile 2.59 sq. kilometer
acre (ac) 0.4047 hectare (ha)
acre (ac) 4047 sq. meter
cubic foot 0.02832 cubic meter
cubic yard 0.7646 cubic meter
gallon (gal) 3.785 liter (L)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.06308 liter per second (Us)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.0022 cubic feet/second (cfs)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.00006309 cubic meters/second
cubic feet per second (cfs) 449 gallons per minute (gpm)
cubic feet per second (cfs) 0.02832 cubic meters/second
pound (Ib) 0.4536 kilogram (kg)
ton, short (2,000 Ibs) 0.9072 megagram (Mg)
ton, long (2,240 Ibs) 1.016 megagram (Mg)
Fahrenheit (F) 5/9 (F-32) Centigrade
In this report, "sea level" refers to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum
of 1929 (NGVD of 1929) a geodetic datum derived from a general adjustment of
the first-order level nets of both the United States and Canada, formerly called
Sea Level Datum of 1929" or "mean sea level (MSL)." Although the datum was
derived from the average sea level over a period of many years at 26 tide stations
along the Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific coasts, it does not necessarily
represent local mean sea level at any particular place.
Part I Introduction and Summary
This report documents a literature review, data search and findings of the Year 1
cooperative agreement between the United States Minerals Management Service
(MMS) and the Florida Geological Survey (FGS). The purpose of this agreement is to
identify and characterize offshore sands suitable for potential beach restoration along
the central east coast of Florida. Southern Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie and Martin
counties are included in this study. Year 1 tasks include contacting local organizations
to provide a history of previous work done in the study are
literature search to document past work done in the area of investigation, collecting
representative onshore push cores and vibracores to characterize existing beach
sediment, and determining existing zones of maximum erosion/accretion based on the
literature search and local interviews.
This report, which serves as a Year 1 annual report for this MMS cooperative
agreement, consists of an introduction and summary, annotated bibliography, coastal
atlas and granulometric core characterization data. Selected photographs of field
activities are also included. The granulometric data and core characterization data are
enclosed under a separate cover. A map indicating proposed seismic coverage for
future phases of this study was prepared as part of the coastal atlas. Grain size
distribution summaries are included in the lithologic log and granulometrics section.
In the course of preparing this report, more than 160 reprints and professional
publications were examined to document work previously done in the study area. Of
these publications, 40 were considered Historical Background and Regional Summary
papers, 42 documents concerned Sediment and Wave Mechanics, six papers were
concerned with Breakwater and Groin Design, 71 papers were case history oriented
Beach and Inlet Studies and nine papers discussed Field Procedures and Techniques.
Fifteen PVC push cores and two aluminum vibracores were also collected as a part of
this investigation. Fourteen of these cores were collected at arbitrarily chosen locations
throughout the study area. The fifteenth core was collected at a control location on
Cape Canaveral in northern Brevard county. Two hundred and nineteen samples were
extracted from these cores for granulometric analysis. A subgroup of forty-nine
granulometric samples was chosen for digestion in hydrochloric acid. These samples
were also analyzed to determine size distribution of the carbonate grains. Median grain
size for the entire sample population was found to be 0.433mm (1.2k4). Median size of
the carbonate grains was determined to be 0.602mm (0.73<4) and median silica grain
size was 0.366mm (1.454). The carbonate grains were locally formed and primarily
biogenic in origin (shell fragments and coral debris) while the silica grains showed
evidence of longshore transport. Overall sample grain size and silica grain size
distributions were found to approximate log-normality while the carbonate grain size
distribution was, in many cases, bimodal. Bimodality of the carbonate grains can be
attributed to distinctive populations of coarse shell fragments and finer grained abrasion
products. Carbonate abundance in the digested sample was highly variable ranging
between 18.80 and 83.52 %. In general, carbonate abundance in beach sand
increases as one moves southward along Florida's east coast. An Appendix showing
the results of grain size distribution analyses has been included in this report.
A coastal atlas was prepared for the study area (Part III of this report). This atlas
includes information on bathymetry, information on previous geophysical surveys,
location of previously collected grab samples, push cores and vibracores. Areas of
eroding shoreline are also shown along with information on known hardbottom areas
(where available). Areal photography was used in developing these data (photo
inventories are maintained at the Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems of the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection and at the Florida Department of
Transportation). A preliminary coverage grid has been developed for future offshore
acoustic profiling work.
Findings of this investigation indicate that the largest concentrations of offshore sand
suitable for beach nourishment are found on shoals paralleling the coastline. While
past generic assessments of these resources have been made, detailed studies are
needed in order to characterize these sands. In view of the ever-increasing need for
renourishment sand, it is important that these resources be delineated as soon as
Tourism provides the primary portion of the State of Florida's revenue. Recreational
beach and coastal resources provide one of Florida's best attractions. Florida's
beaches are disappearing along many portions of both the Atlantic and Gulf coasts.
This report provides a summary of the history of beach preservation along Florida's
east coast with particular emphasis on southern Brevard, Indian River, St. Lucie and
Martin counties. The evolution of beach renourishment as a discipline is examined and
various nourishment schemes are discussed.
Florida's coast consists of more than 800 miles of ocean-fronting shoreline. Of this
total, 140 miles are critically eroding while 304 miles are eroding in a near critical state
(Clark, 1993). The restoration and maintenance of critically eroding beaches are a top
priority for state environmental planners and tourist officials.
Restoration of eroding beaches was initiated in the New York-New Jersey metropolitan
area around the turn of the century. Anecdotal evidence suggests that northern New
Jersey beaches were renourished as early as the 1890's while a major sand
replenishment project was completed along New York's Coney Island in 1923
(Domhelm, 1995). It was not until then that economic development along the shore
had progressed enough to make beach nourishment feasible. Shoreline improvement
projects have been universally driven by economic considerations. Typically, these
include water front structures being threatened or a resort area facing a shortfall in
tourist revenues due to beach disappearance. During the early years (throughout the
early 1900's) beach armoring was the preferred remedy in many protection projects
(i.e., the construction of the Galveston, Texas, seawall completed in 1911). The
eventual fate of beach sands was considered unimportant during these early armoring
Beach armoring, especially the installation of seawalls and groins, continued to be
widespread through the 1960's. Beginning in the early 1950's, the scientific community
began to realize that, in many cases, beach armoring was creating more problems than
it was solving. While upland structures were protected, sands on armored beaches
were disappearing at a rapid rate and the beach at the toe of the armoring structure
was subject to intensified erosional pressure. There was a profound realization that
armoring would only serve to reflect impinging wave energy in contrast to the energy
dispersal found on a sand beach. The reflected wave energy would carry the sand
remaining in front of the structure seaward leaving nothing in its place. Beaches in
front of armoring structures were often found to disappear entirely. The undermining of
armoring structures became common as longshore currents outflanked their edge walls
As the short comings of beach armoring was recognized, the search was undertaken
for an effective replacement. Beach restoration (sand replenishment) gradually gained
primacy as the most desirable form of erosion protection. While renourishment projects
have been carried out since the turn of the century, it was not until the mid-1950's that
the discipline was quantified and systematic studies began to be performed. The
period from the mid-1950's through the mid-1970's saw rapid development of guiding
criteria for beach nourishment efforts. Per Bruun at the University of Florida is widely
recognized as leading American efforts in coastal engineering. Following Bruun came
Robert G. Dean, William R. James and W. C. Krumbein with work continuing at the
U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Center in Vicksburg, Mississippi. Each of the
previously mentioned parties developed their own criteria for selecting sand-sized
sediment suitable for beach renourishment.
Borrow material for early nourishment efforts came from the upland and nearshore
sources immediately adjacent to the area being nourished. Sand was dredged or
scraped from the bottom and placed on an adjacent beach. As nearby sands became
scarce, the search for borrow sand moved to more distant source areas. For the first
time, borrow material was gathered from locales that did not share a common sediment
budget with the area being renourished. Upland sources also became a factor in
supplying borrow material for many of the more modest beach nourishment projects.
Offshore, the quest for borrow sand was limited only by water depth and transportation
cost. For the more ambitious nourishment projects, it was found to be far more
economical to bring sands in from offshore than to transport sand by the truckload from
Many studies have been undertaken in an effort to determine exactly what qualifies a
sand as suitable borrow material for beach nourishment. In some of the early projects,
borrow sand was indiscriminately chosen with little regard to the grain size distribution
of sand on the eroding beach. In many early efforts an overfill ratio was calculated
simply by excluding all material finer than sand size. This sometimes worked
satisfactorily; but, more often, it was found that if the fine fraction of the borrow sand
was finer than the native material, the borrow sand fines would wash away prematurely
and the beach would be in a perpetual state of malnourishment. Borrow material
coarser than the native material would remain on the beach but would be subject to
depositional banding rendering the beach cosmetically unattractive and difficult to use
for recreational purposes.
It is now widely recognized that, in order to compensate for erosional losses of newly
placed material, the volume of borrow material must exceed the volume of the material
being replaced. Several schemes have been developed for calculating the amount of
overfill material required. All of these methods depend on matching the grain size
distribution characteristics of the borrow material to the grain size distribution
characteristics of the native material. Variability in composite grain size distribution
between the native and borrow materials are used to calculate a factor (variously called
the SPM fill factor, the Dean fill factor, the Renourishment factor or the Adjusted SPM
fill factor, depending on the method of calculation) which determines the volume of
borrow material needed in excess of the original sediment volume.
Krumbein (1957) briefly discusses methods for comparing the grain size distribution of
native and borrow materials. The first detailed method for computing overfill ratios was
developed by Krumbein and James (1965). The Krumbein and James method is
predicated upon trying to predict the minimum amount of material that must be
removed from each size fraction of the borrow material in order for the borrow material
and native material grain size distributions to match.
The Shore Protection Manual (SPM) method, promulgated by the Corps of Engineers
(1973) is basically a modification of the Krumbein and James method. Both methods
assume log-normality of the borrow material and native material grain size distributions
and neither technique can be applied where the native material is more poorly sorted
than the borrow material. Also, the values obtained using both methods are unrealistic
when the borrow material is better sorted than the native material.
Dean (1974) developed an overfill ratio calculation which depended only on the mean
grain size of the distribution curve. The shape of the grain size distribution curve was
not considered important Dean's method assumes that selective removal will only
occur in the fine fraction of the borrow material grain size distribution. All materials
coarser than an arbitrary cutoff size are implicitly assumed to be stable (non-mobile).
There is some controversy as to the validity of these assumptions. Dean's method
yields lower overfill values than any of the other techniques discussed.
Closely allied to the calculation of overfill ratios is the work of James (1975) who
refined the work of the above mentioned investigators. James derives a procedure for
calculating the periodic renourishment needs of eroding beaches.
All of the above characterization schemes specifically address the behavior of quartz
sand grains in the beach-shore system. Many of the beaches in the MMS/FGS
cooperative agreement study area have substantial amounts of carbonate sand. The
carbonate sediment content increases from north to south. The carbonate grains are
mainly composed of coral and shell fragments. Carbonate is much softer and much
easier to degrade than silica. While various authors have made reference in passing to
the silica-carbonate system, there has never been a detailed study done of grain
behavior in a mixed system.
Classically, sieve analysis has been used to perform granulometric analyses. Within
the past 20-30 years newer technologies have begun to displace sieve analysis in grain
size measurement work. These technologies include the Rapid Sediment Analyzer
(RSA) and the laser counter. Various studies have been performed comparing the
validity of results obtained with different analytical methods. Sieve work is generally
accepted to be repeatable and provide a universally accepted measurement tool;
however, it is also time consuming and inferences about the behavior of submerged
particles can't be made from sieve work. Both the RSA and the laser counter offer a
rapid method for sediment analysis. Both methods measure the settling time for the
sediment sample to pass through a given volume of water. Hydrodynamic equivalence,
rather than true grain size, is measured with the RSA and the laser counter. While
results are repeatable using the same individual instrument, results from differing
instruments cannot be compared. Studies, however controversial, have also shown
that settling methods tend to underestimate the presence of the finest and coarsest
fractions of the sediment (Bergman, 1982).
The term mature technology carries a connotation of industry-wide adherence to a
uniform set of practices. In view of the various overfill ratio calculation methods (no two
of which yield identical results) and the competing techniques advocated for obtaining
granulometric data, it is apparent that beach preservation technology is far from
Eroding beaches are in a state of structural failure. The existing beach sand is not able
to withstand the impinging wave action. Why then would one want to cure erosion
problems by adding sediment of identical composition to a beach in the process of
being washed away? One sometimes obtains the impression that renourishing
beaches with sand of a grain size distribution known to erode is akin to throwing fodder
into the breach.
Within the past few years, at least one investigator (Bruun, 1989) has developed the
notion of nourishing the entire beach profile as opposed to limiting sand placement to
the shoreface. This philosophy espouses the distribution of sand across the entire
beach profile. With full profile renourishment, there will be less erosional pressure on
the shoreface. Full profile renourishment is also attractive because sands of differing
quality can be used in the nourishment activities. Finer grained sands that would be
unsuitable for shoreface placement would be appropriate for utilization at the toe end of
the beach profile. This type of nourishment still attempts to duplicate the conditions
that exist in a system that is in a state of structural failure (the original beach). In view
of this, it is easy to predict that full profile restoration will face the same obstacles as
shoreface centered efforts.
The entire coastal dynamics sediment budget must be understood before attempting to
modify the beach-shore system. Perhaps a better solution to the problem of beach
nourishment would be to go into the project with a clear idea of how the final beach
profile should appear. Back (hindcast) calculations could then be performed to
determine the grain size distribution necessary for achieving a stable profile in the field
environment. If the back calculations yield unrealistic fill requirements, the desired end
profile should be adjusted to a form that is more readily obtainable.
In general, eroding beaches experience continual natural sediment resupply. If this
were not the case, the grain size of the sands on any eroding beach would become
continually finer over time until they were finally reduced to silt/clay size particles. Net
beach erosion and/or accretion is determined by comparing the rate of sediment
resupply to the rate of sediment removal by wave action and longshore transport of
sediment (drift). If the removal rate exceeds the resupply rate, the beach will erode. If
the rate of resupply predominates, the beach will accrete.
In general, beaches undergo cyclical periods of erosion and accretion. This cyclicity
may occur on a daily or monthly basis (tidal variation), annual basis (seasonal
variation- many beaches erode during the winter and accrete during the summer) or it
may be displayed on a multiyear "mega-cyclic" basis (storm cycle frequencies-perhaps
related to el nino). The classification of a beach as to whether it is eroding or accreting
depends as much on the time period chosen for measurement as it does on the local
In the study area for this FGS/MMS cooperative agreement, two major factors, one
natural and the other cultural, determine beach sediment budgets and, therefore, the
rate of erosion/accretion. Severe storms are acute events capable of significantly
altering the beach sediment budget over a short period of time. The Thanksgiving Day
storm of 1984 and the unnamed storm of March 1993 provide outstanding examples of
this. The installation of man-made inlet protection jetties also have a profound effect
on beach sediment transport.
There are no non-maintained navigable inlets along the coast of the study area. The
maintenance of a natural inlet through the barrier bar depends upon there being
enough tidal current passing through the inlet mouth to flush out whatever sand is
being moved across the inlet mouth by longshore drift. While natural inlets have
sporadically formed after major storms, there is generally not enough tidal exchange
between the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian River Lagoon via these inlets to overcome
longshore drift. As a result, the mouths of these natural inlets will inevitably silt up due
to the excess sediment supply provided by coastwise transport.
Proximity of the beach to one of the four jetty-protected inlets in the study area is the
second major predictor of erosion/accretion for a given beach. Longshore flow in the
study area is predominantly towards the south. Jetties designed to protect inlet mouths
do an outstanding job of interrupting longshore sediment flow. Sediment accumulates
updrift of the north jetty at each of the inlets and chronic sediment deficits occur
downdrift of the south jetty. Various bypassing schemes have been tried to facilitate the
transport of sand around the inlet mouth jetty system but, to date, none of these
designs have been successful.
The extent of sediment deprivation generally extends from three to ten miles downdrift
of the inlet mouth. Extremely localized areas of sediment deposition have been
identified south of some inlet mouths while small erosional areas have been described
to the north of other inlet openings. These anomalies may be artifacts of measurement
timing or, in the case of Sailfish Point (north of St. Lucie Inlet), due to the presence of
nearshore hardbottoms diverting sediment flow away from the shoreline. One of the
few absolute truths in describing coastal sediment budgets states that shorelines
downdrift of coastal jetties erode while shorelines updrift of coastal jetties will accrete.
As long as inlet jetties continue to interrupt longshore sediment transport, as long as
acute storm events alter the coastline and as long as sea levels continue to rise, beach
erosion will continue to be a major concern in the state of Florida.
This document summarizes the work during Year 1 of a multi-year project. It is
anticipated that annual updates will be available. An "Annotated Bibliography of Florida
Coastal Geologic Studies" open file report is currently being prepared by the Florida
Geological Survey. This document will combine the bibliographic information presented
in this report with references pertaining to other areas of Florida's shoreline, OFR
will be a "living document" and subject to updating as additional references are
Part II Annotated Bibliography
More than 140 documents have been examined to establish an inventory of previous
coastal research studies related to the scope of this cooperative investigation. After
summarization, each document was assigned to one of the six following categories:
A. Historical Background and Regional Survey Papers
B. Sediment and Wave Mechanics
C. Breakwater and Groin Design
D. Beach and Inlet Studies
E. Field Procedures and Techniques.
A brief citation, arranged by category, for each document follows along with a short
summary of the document contents. It should be emphasized that there is considerable
overlap between categories and assignment of certain papers to a given category is
arbitrary. A diligent effort was made to find all relevant publications and, while this
annotated bibliography is complete to the extent possible, it should not be viewed as all
A. Historical Background and Regional Survey Papers
Acor, G. V., 1989, Analysis of the Institutional and Political Process in the
Implementation of Selected Beach Nourishment Projects (M.S. Thesis): Melbourne,
Florida, Florida Institute of Technology, 118 pages and appendix.
Florida's coastline counts more than 800 miles of shoreline. Of this total, 304
miles are in near critical state of erosion and 140 miles are critically eroding.
Acor's thesis examines the interrelationship of central planning ("the central
process") and local community driven initiatives ("the parallel process") in
addressing critically eroding coastline. Common elements shared by six
politically successful beach nourishment projects are identified. Among these
are a long term history of institutional involvement in erosion control, specific
individuals providing momentum, common implementation factors and
mitigation of controversial issues. Acor finds that the politics of erosion control
is similar to many policy debates in that the implementation of a project is not
always based on technical rationality. Acor lucidly makes the point that the time
to eliminate the need for costly beach protection projects is before construction
begins. The Indialantic-Melboume Beach truck haul replenishment effort is one
of the projects examined in this work.
Amato, R. V. (compiler), 1994, Sand and Gravel Map of the Atlantic Continental Shelf
with Explanatory Text: United States Department of Interior Minerals Management
Service Monograph 93-0037, 35 pages and maps.
Amato's contribution consists of a general description of sand resources along
the east coast of the United States. The mapping is quite generalized and is on
too large a scale to be useful for this research project.
Bacchus, T.S., 1990, Holocene Evolution of the Inner Continental Shelf, Cape
Canaveral, Florida (M.S. Thesis): Melbourne, Florida, Florida Institute of Technology,
Bacchus examines stratigraphic records from the Cape Canaveral inner shelf
and finds that the Pre-Holocene surface has significant relief. The relief is
attributed to karstification of the Pre-Holocene carbonate surface. The positions
of shoreface connected shoals and isolated linear shoals were found to
correspond to areas of positive relief in the Pleistocene surface indicating that
antecedent topography has an important effect on Holocene geomorphology in
the Cape Canaveral area.
Bacchus, T.S. and Zarillo, G.A., 1991, Controls on Sand Resources: Cape Canaveral
Area, Florida; in: Coastal Sediments '91, Proceedings of a Specialty Conference on
Quantitative Approaches to Control Sediment Processes, ASCE, Vol. II, p.2145-2159.
Three basic factors are found to control the quality of sand resources off the
coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida. These include 1) the antecedent topography
which is a primary control over the total thickness of the Holocene section; 2)
the preservation of back-barrier muddy sediments on the inner shelf which
reduces the sand source potential in the nearshore region; and 3) the storm
reworking of transgressive lag deposits which removes fine grained constituents
and provides sediment units with the best sand source potential.
Balsillie, J. H., 1984, Wave length and wave celerity during shore-breaking: Florida
Department of Natural Resources, Beaches and Shores Technical and Design
Memorandum No. 84-1, 17 p.
Based on laboratory and field data a family of useful predicting relationships is
provided for determining wave length and wave speed in the surf zone.
Bodge, K. R., 1992, Inopportune Timing of Oceanfront Structures; in: New Directions in
Beach Management, Proceedings of the 5th Annual National Conference on Beach
Preservation Technology, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, p. 55-96.
Bodge suggests that "shoreline erosion is not a problem until the moving
shoreline encounters a fixed structure or landmark." An example of this can be
found at Cocoa Beach where development began in the 1940's. At the time of
initial development, the beach was accretional. The period of initial
development coincided with a period of reduced storm activity accompanied by
unusual shoreline advance and stability. As storm activity reverted to the
statistical mean, shoreline erosion increased and, by 1972, the beach had
receded 100 feet.
Bodge, K. R. and Rosen, D. S., 1988, Offshore Sand Sources for Beach Nourishment
in Florida, Part I: Atlantic Coast; in: Beach Preservation Technology '88, Problems and
Advancements in Beach Nourishment, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation
Association, p. 1-29.
Bodge and Rosen review available data on offshore sand sources for beach
renourishment along the Atlantic coast of Florida. Volumetric estimates are
developed using Inner Continental Shelf Sediment and Structure (ICONS) data.
This investigation is preliminary in nature and each conclusion relied on
fieldwork done in the late 1960's. Further work needs to be done in order to
develop definitive estimates of offshore sand resources.
Camfield, F. E., 1991, "When is Erosion not Erosion?"; in: Preserving and Enhancing
our Beach Environment, Proceedings of the Fourth Annual National Beach
Preservation Technology Conference, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association,
Camfield cautions against confusing migrating coastal features with permanent
recession of the shoreline. Many coastal features display cyclical changes in
character. These changes may be monthly, seasonal or yearly in nature. They
may also extend to a period of years or decades. Normal trends in cyclical
migration should not be confused with coastal recession.
Campbell, T. J. and Spadoni, R. H., 1982, Beach Restoration-An effective Way to
Combat Erosion on the Southeast Coast of Florida: Shore and Beach, v. 50, no. 1, p.
Campbell, et al. defend beach restoration as an effective means of combating
beach erosion on the southeast Florida coast. In weighing the alternatives,
Campbell finds that beach armoring merely transfers problems from one part of
the coast to another. He tentatively locates five million cubic yards of
replacement sands off of Delray Beach. Placement of sand on the beach is
critical as Florida Statute (FS) 161 permanently fixes the state-private ownership
boundary at the mean high water mark. Campbell also discusses the critical
situation at Jupiter Island during the winter of 1974-75. The beach was
successfully renourished using local sand.
Clark, R. R, 1993, Beach Conditions in Florida: A Statewide Inventory and
Identification of the Beach Erosion Problem Areas in Florida... Beaches and Shores
Technical and Design Memorandum 89-1, Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of Beaches & Shores, 202 p.
Clark summarizes DNR beach erosion monument positions and describes the
locations of critically eroding state beaches. An excellent bibliography is also
included in this paper. This bibliography provides an excellent starting point for
those wishing to read further about beach erosion in Florida.
Dally, W. R., 1989, Quantifying Beach Surfability; in: Beach Preservation Technology
'89, Strategies and Alternatives in Erosion Control, Florida Shore and Beach
Preservation Association, p. 47-58.
Dally writes an excellent paper describing what makes a beach surfable and
quantifying what goes on while "shooting the curl." Particularly valuable insight
is offered as to how beach profile affects wave surfability. A wave becomes
surfable when the size and shape of the wave forefront are sufficient to propel
the surfer at a speed faster than the speed at which the incipient breakpoint
moves along the crest of the wave. To ride a wave, the face of the wave at the
incipient breakpoint must be steep. The breakpoint speed (peel rate) is
dependent upon the breaker height, Hb, and the peel angle, ap. The speed of
a plunging breaker is greater than the speed of a spilling breaker making
plunging breakers easier to catch. The speed of the surfer along the wave face
must be maximized to stay ahead of white water. Near an inlet, if no sediment
is bypassed, the nearshore bottom slope will increase updrift of the inlet thereby
increasing the likelihood of plunging breakers. There is significant economic
value attached to attracting surfers and therefore it is worthwhile to try and
preserve good surf breaks.
Davison, T., Nicholls, R. J., and Leatherman, S. P., 1992, Beach nourishment as a
coastal management tool: an annotated bibliography on developments associated with
the artificial nourishment of beaches: Journal of Coastal Research, v. 8, no. 4, p. 984-
An annotated bibliography which addresses beach restoration for the nation's
coasts, much of which applies to Florida.
Department of Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering, University of Florida, 1987,
Data Compilation of Historical Shorelines and Offshore Bathymetry for the Southeast
Coast of Florida, an Atlas: report submitted to the Florida Department of Natural
Resources Division of Beaches and Shores, September 1987.
This publication is an inventory of historical shoreline and bathymetry data along
the east coast of Florida from Brevard County (Cape Canaveral) southward to
Duane, D. B., 1968, Sand Inventory Program in Florida: Shore and Beach, v. 36, no. 1,
Duane delineates offshore resources found at Thomas Shoal, Capron Shoal
and Indian River Shoal in the study area. This characterization is almost 30
years old and was made using early technology. For an accurate estimate of
sand resources, these shoals should be reassessed using modem technology.
Duane, D.B. and Meisburger, E. P., 1969, Geomorphology and Sediments of the
Nearshore Continental Shelf, Miami to Palm Beach, Florida: United States Army Corps
of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Technical Manual 29, 47 pages
and tables, figures and appendices.
Duane and Meisburger prepared this report as part of the original ICONS study
designed to locate and evaluate sand deposits with the potential of being used
for shoreline protection and restoration. Survey data covered that portion of the
Continental Shelf between 15 and 100 feet in depth. Data collected included
acoustic subsurface profiles and sediment cores of the seafloor and shallow
bottom strata. South of Boca Raton to Miami, most of the shelf is rocky with a
thin sediment veneer. Thicker sediment deposits have accumulated locally in
low lying areas. From north of Boca Raton to Palm Beach, most of the shelf is
overlain by a thick blanket deposit of a homogeneous fine to medium grained
gray sand. The sand grains are evenly divided between siliciclastic particles
and carbonate shell debris.
Duane, D. B., Field, M. E., Meisburger, E. P., Swift, D., and Williams, S. J., 1972,
Linear Shoals on the Atlantic Inner Continental Shelf, Florida to Long Island; in: Shelf
Sediment Transport: Process and Pattern edited by D.J.P. Swift, D.B. Duane and 0.
Pilkey, p. 447-498.
In this report, Duane describes the Atlantic Coast of the United States as being
characterized by fields of linear northeast trending shoals. These shoals display
both linear and arcuate morphology and their placement is not necessarily
related to underlying topography as underlying basement strata is occasionally
seen between the shoal ridges. Generally, shoreface shoals form in response
to the action of wind and wave currents. Duane, et al. analyzed more than 200
shoals for this paper. Results of granulometry show that shoreface sands are
similar in character to beach sands. Arcuate shoals are cape associated and
have a hammerhead plan view. Analyses run on samples collected from
the vicinities of Cape Canaveral, Ohio, Hetzel, Southeast and Bull shoals were
studied. All shoals appear to be less than 7000 years old and are clearly
affected by wave regime. The coarse trough sand sometimes found between
sands is interpreted to be wave lag.
Field, M. E., and Meisburger, E. P., 1973, Erosional Origin of Inner Shelf Sediments-
Evidence from North Florida: Abstract, American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Bulletin v. 57, no. 4, p. 778.
Field and Meisburger authored this paper as an adjunct to the ICONS study.
Data collected from 194 vibracores indicate that almost all sediments derive
from erosion and reworking of shelf strata. Direct fluvial contributions are
negligible. Most siliciclastics ultimately derive from the Piedmont or from
drainage in Georgia. The last sea level rise was also a period of extensive
erosion on the Atlantic shelf. The eroded material is being continually reworked
into beach sediment.
Field, M.E., and Meisburger, E. P., 1976, Shallow Structural Trends of the Atlantic Inner
Shelf Off Florida: Abstracts with Programs, Northeastern Section, Geological Society
of America, February 1976, p. 170.
Five regional reflectors were discovered on seismic data down to a depth of
150 m. Interpretation is supported by 1000 km of high resolution data and 200
vibracores. Two of the prominent reflectors may indicate regional
unconformities. Abstract also includes a brief description of what was found in
the ICONS survey.
Florida Department of Natural Resources, 1984, Beach Restoration: An Historical
Overview: Office of Beach Erosion Control, Division of Beaches and Shores, Florida
Department of Natural Resources, 19 p.
This paper provides a historical summary of beach restoration/nourishment
projects conducted in Florida. Data tabulated include name of project, total
cost of project, state share of total cost, project length and volume of fill placed.
Garde, S.V., 1991, Historical Evolution and Migration of Shoreface Connected and
Isolated Shoals off the Atlantic Coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida (M.S. Thesis):
Melbourne, Florida, Florida Institute of Technology, 78 p.
Garde examines the morphology of Florida's inner continental shelf at Cape
Canaveral. The results of three different hydrographic surveys, collected from
the mid-nineteenth century and 1956, were compared to determine if nearshore
shoals are actively moving. Volumetric calculations were also done to
estimate the amount of sand contained in each shoal. Shoreface connected
shoals appear to be moving to the southeast and have grown in volume during
the study period while offshore shoals appear to be moving to the west.
Gorsline, D. S., 1963, Bottom sediments of the Atlantic shelf and slope off the southern
United States: Journal of Geology, v. 71, p. 422-440.
Submarine geology of the south Atlantic continental slope and shelf has been
described using data from bottom sediment samples collected from the research
vessel T. N. Gill in 1953 and 1954.
Jenny, C. P., 1933, The Florida East Coast (MS Thesis): New York City, New York,
Columbia University, 88 p.
Jenny's thesis primarily focuses on geomorphology and coastal processes.
This is an early paper that contains good background information.
Paleoshoreline maps are also developed and shown.
Laplace, N. W., 1993, Holocene Stratigraphy of a Transitional Siliciclastic-Carbonate
Reef (M.S. Thesis): Melbourne, Florida, Florida Institute of Technology, 143 p.
Twenty vibracores and 400 km of seismic records from the inner continental
shelf off of Saint Augustine, Florida, reveal a gently seaward sloping pre-
Holocene carbonate surface overlain by 3.5 meters of unconsolidated Holocene
sediments. The unconsolidated sediments were probably part of a
transgressive wedge. Back-barrier sediments are preserved below the shelf
edge and seaward of the modem barrier system. This suggests the retreat of
an earlier barrier island complex over its own back-barrier sediments.
Macintyre, I. G., and Milliman, J. D., 1970, Physiographic features on the outer shelf
and upper slope, Atlantic continental margin, southeastern United States: Geological
Society of America Bulletin, v. 81, p. 2577-2598.
The physiography of the Atlantic continental shelf of the southeastern United
States, including Florida is discussed.
Martens, J. H. C., 1931, Beaches of Florida: Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Annual
Reports, 1929-1930, Florida Geological Survey, p. 67-119.
This work is the earliest comprehensive survey of Florida's beaches which
includes geology, physiography, sedimentology, etc. It is one of the earliest
accounts noting calcium carbonate content of east coast beach sediments. It is
of importance because it describes Florida's beaches prior to being subjected to
cultural influences (e.g., inlet sand bypassing, inlet improvements, beach
restoration, beach armoring structures, etc.).
Meisburger, E. P. and Duane, D. B., 1969, Shallow Structural Characteristics of the
Florida Atlantic Shelf as Revealed by Seismic Reflection Profiles; in: Transactions, Gulf
Coast Association of Geological Societies, v. XIX., p.207-215.
2600 miles of sparker data were collected along the Florida Atlantic Shelf.
Depth penetration ranged up to 500 feet. Seismic profiles range from
nearshore (15 feet water depth) to 15 miles offshore. Six areas of interest were
surveyed with a gridded track pattern. A 50 joule source gave 150 feet of
penetration while a 100 joule source gave penetration to 500 feet. The
subsurface had a predominantly eastward regional dip with local reversals.
Facies analysis was based on differences in bedding character structure and
general dip. Erosional surfaces are present and the top of the Floridan Platform
is locally visible. Vertical fault is identified (sic) off Cape Canaveral with 15-70
feet of throw. Several strong regional reflectors are identified.
Meisburger, E. P. and Duane, D. B., 1971, Geomorphology and Sediments of the Inner
Continental Shelf, Palm Beach to Cape Kennedy, Florida: United States Army Corps of
Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Technical Manual 34, 114 pages
and tables, figures and appendices.
This work was done as part of the ICONS study. It includes extensive seismic
profiling, delineates shoal development, and outlines potential sand source
areas. Additionally, a description of coastal morphology is included. Even
though the technology used is 25-30 years old, this is an outstanding reference
that should be read by all investigators.
Meisburger, E. P., and Field M., 1972, Neogene Sediments of the North Florida
Atlantic Inner Continental Shelf; Abstracts with Programs, Geological Society of
America, v. 4, no. 7, p. 593.
This report describes a seismic program from Cape Kennedy to the Georgia
border ranging from water depths of 15-40 feet seaward. Regional markers are
identified including a prominent late Tertiary marker traceable from the Georgia
border to Flagler Beach.
Meisburger, E. P. and Field, M. E., 1975, Geomorphology, Shallow Structure and
Sediments of the Florida Inner Continental Shelf, Cape Canaveral to Georgia: US Army
Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Technical Manual 54,
This publication covers the area from False Cape north to the Georgia border.
Only the southernmost portion of this study includes the area being investigated
under the current cooperative agreement This study also includes a brief
discussion relating carbonate content to mean grain size and sorting. Potential
borrow areas for beach nourishment are delineated.
Moe, M. A., Jr., 1963, A survey of offshore fishing in Florida: Florida State Board of
Conservation Marine Laboratory, Professional Paper Series No. 4, Contribution No. 72,
This report identifies offshore fishing areas that often coincide with bedrock
outcroppings of some significant relief.
Nelson, W. G., 1989, Beach Nourishment and Hard Bottom Habitats: The Case for
Caution; in: Beach Preservation Technology '89, Strategies and Alternatives in Erosion
Control, Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association, p. 109-116.
Nelson, working on behalf of the Sebastian Inlet Commission, presents the
case for quantifying hardbottom habitats. Knowledge of basic species
composition and the ecology of most hard bottom habitats in south Florida is
very limited. In an effort to expand this knowledge, a qualitative biological
inventory of the nearshore rock outcrops close to Sebastian inlet is carried out.
65 algal and 263 animal species were recorded in this study. Hardbottom will
inevitably be damaged by dredging activity. Long-term biotic effects of beach
nourishment are unknown; therefore, we should proceed with caution.
Nocita, B., Papetti, L., Grosz, A., and Campbell, K., 1991, Sand, Gravel and Heavy
Mineral Resource Potential of Holocene Sediments Offshore of Florida- Cape
Canaveral to the Georgia Border Phase 1: Florida Geological Survey, Open File
Report no. 39, 107 p.
This report summarizes a study designed to assess heavy mineral resources
off the east coast of Florida. Sand and gravel resources were also briefly
addressed. Vibracore samples were analyzed for heavy mineral content. Heavy
minerals included are epidote, ilmenite, aluminosilicate, pyroboles and zircon. A
RSA (Rapid Sediment Analyzer) was used for textural analysis of the
Osmond, J. K., May, J. P., and Tanner, W. F., 1970, Age of Cape Kennedy Barrier and
Lagoon Complex Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 75, no. 2, p. 469-79.
Osmond, et. al. collected mollusk shells in an attempt to determine the age of
the Anastasia Formation along the coast. The methods used generally work
best with corals. Evidence of groundwater leaching is a sign of unreliability.
Shallow water deposition is indicated by a large number of Donax shells. It is
presumed that the originally sharp shell fragments were abraded to where they
are generally rounded and polished. Interbedded shell hash and quartz sand
exhibit beach type low angle bedding.
Pilkey, 0. H., 1963, Heavy minerals of the U. S. south Atlantic continental shelf and
slope: Geological Society of America Bulletin, v. 74, p. 641-648.
Discusses the results of heavy mineral studies along the U. S. Atlantic
continental shelf and slope.
Schlee, J., 1977, Stratigraphy and Tertiary Development of the Continental Margin East
of Florida: US Geological Survey, Professional Paper 581 F, 25 p.
Schlee describes results of Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth
Sampling (JOIDES) drilling off Florida. His investigation is mostly concerned
with Tertiary sedimentation. There is very little discussion of sediments of
Quaternary age. This paper serves to document the drilling results from 6
Sheridan, R. E., Drake, C. L., Nafe, J. E., and Hennion, J., 1966, Seismic-refraction
study of continental margin east of Florida: Bulletin of the American Association of
Petroleum Geologists: v. 50, no. 9, p. 1972-1991.
Interpretive results from 31 seismic-refraction profiles for the continental margin
east of Florida are presented and discussed.
Tanner, W. F., 1960, Florida coastal classification: Transactions of the Gulf Coast
Association of Geologic Societies, v. 10, p. 259-266.
This work on the classification of Florida's coasts includes data on wave
climates and general physiography.
Walton, T. L., Jr., 1977, Beach nourishment in Florida and on the lower Atlantic and
Gulf Coasts: Florida Sea Grant Technical Paper No. 2, 64 p.
This paper provides technical information concerning restoration projects in
Florida, three of which are in the study area.
Wang, W. and Wang, H., 1987, Data compilation of the Historical Shorelines and
Offshore Bathymetry for the Southeast Coast of Florida: Report submitted to the Florida
Department of Natural Resources, Division of Beaches and Shores, 24 p.
Wang, et. al. summarizes sources for mapping historical shoreline changes from
the south end of Cape Canaveral to Key Biscayne. DNR monument locations
are tabulated and bathymetry is digitized at six foot intervals. The bathymetric
data were tied into shore monuments. Also included are historical shoreline
change maps and depth contour maps. Coastal construction control line photos
from the division of Beaches and Shores are used extensively. This paper
defines the upper boundary of the wetted area on beach as the Mean Highwater
Line visible in photos. A useful listing of historical maps is included in this
Zarillo, G. A., Maul, T., La Place, N., and Civil, M. A., 1992, Sand, Gravel and Heavy
Minerals Resources of Holocene Sediments of the Inner Continental Shelf, Fort Pierce
to Miami Florida: Florida Geological Survey, prepared for the U.S. Minerals
Management Service, 44 p.
This work was performed under an FGS cooperative agreement. The east
coast from Fort Pierce to Miami is described. The authors analyze seismic
faces and heavy mineral content. Total heavy mineral content numbers may
be conservative due to elutriation losses. The role of antecedent topography in
determining present ocean bottom morphology is also discussed.
B. Sediment and Wave Mechanics
Balsillie, J. H., 1982, Offshore Profile Description Using the Power Curve Fit, Part I:
Explanation and Discussion: Florida Department of Environmental Regulation, Division
of Beaches and Shores, Technical Design Memorandum No. 82-1-1, 23 p.
Balsillie provides the basic bathymetric data necessary to support two
dimensional nearshore hydraulic transformation models. These models are
used by the Division of Beaches and Shores to identify the portion of the beach
that will be impacted by severe storms.
Balsillie, J. H., 1984, A multiple shore-breaking wave transformation computer model:
Florida Department of Natural Resources, Beaches and Shores Technical and Design
Memorandum No. 84-5, 81 p.
Balsillie describes a computer model for multiple longshore bar formation and
multiple shore-breaking accompanying extreme event (storm and/or
hurricane) impact. The model predicts beach and coast erosion.
Balsillie, J. H., 1986, Beach and Coast Erosion Due to Extreme Event Impact: Shore &
Beach, Journal of the American Shore and Beach Preservation Association, v. 5, no. 4,
This paper reviews methodologies for quantifying beach and coast erosion due
to storm and hurricane damage. Methods of geometric profile assessment are
Balsillie, J. H., Carlen, J. G., and Watters, T. M., 1987, Transformation of historical
shorelines to current NGVD position for the Florida east coast: Florida Department of
Natural Resources, Beaches and Shores Technical and Design Memorandum No. 87-
1, 177 p.
In addition to providing information for proper vertical and horizontal
transformation of coastal survey data, this work provides tidal datum
information. Tidal datums are compiled at 1000-foot intervals along coastal
Florida to include mean higher high water (MHHW), mean high water (MHW),
mean sea level (MSL), mean low water (MLW), and mean lower low water
(MLLW). This information is of value for identifying vertical positions for coastal
and nearshore sediment sampling and surveys.
Bein, A. and Sass, E.,1978, Analysis of Log Probability Plots of Recent Atlantic
Sediments and Its Analogy with Simulated Mixtures: Sedimentology, v. 25, p. 575-581
Bein and Sass discuss the probability mapping of grain size distributions. All
natural grain size distributions (gsd) will approach log-normality after sufficient
transport but the shape of any given gsd plot is related to its depositional
environment. All gsd curves have at least two connected parts-a coarse
grained steep segment and a fine grained flat segment. These plots are similar
in form to widely used probability plots but the graph is smoothed rather than
joined in straight line fashion. Due to the smooth nature of the cumulative
plots, more significant meaning is attributed to the critical points on the curves
(inflection points and points of maximum curvature) than to the intersection
points of linearized line sections as suggested by Visher (1969, 1972). Smooth
changes in slope of the curve are demonstrated to be the result of overlapping
populations. Critical points of the curve represent properties of individual
normal populations (mean and sorting) and their relative proportions while the
intersection points represent hydrodynamic limits.
Bodge, K., 1993, Gross Transport Effects and Sand Management Strategy at Inlets:
Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue no.18, p. 111-124.
Bodge discusses the determination of sand management strategy at inlets.
Three main aspects of inlet management involve a) quantification of sediment
budget, b) determination of how, when and where sand is moving and c)
development and implementation strategies to reduce littoral impacts. Inlet
impact is described in terms of the magnitude of the interruption of the annual
net transport rate. Bodge differentiates net and gross transport rates. Gross
transport refers to the entire amount of sand being moved-both updrift and
downdrift while the net transport rate refers to the net amount of sand being
displaced when compared to the pre-inlet sand flow. Inlet maintenance records
generally only include the sand fraction of the dredged material-no silt or clay is
accounted for. This may present an inaccurate indication of sediment
transport. Generally, when a sediment transport barrier is constructed, a wave
shadow will develop that is one to five times the length of the barrier. This is
apparent at Cape Canaveral where shoaling is evident on the downdrift side of
the inlet. Bodge also briefly discusses "stochastic" (probabilistic) approaches to
inlet management. Most effective inlet bypassing is achieved by placing pumps
closest to shoreline and swash zone. Generally, there is a need to intercept
littoral drift in the subtidal area and insure that jetties are sandtight in the
intertidal area. Geotextile tubes may be used for sand tightening. Oversizing a
single point bypass will not necessarily increase productivity. Navigation
projects should be philosophically separated from beach erosion control
projects. At inlets these two types of projects come together so separation is
Bruun, P. 1978, Stability of Tidal Inlets, Theory and Engineering: Amsterdam, Elsevier
Scientific Publishing Company, 510 p.
Bruun exhaustively discusses sediment mechanics in tidal inlets. This is a
reference work and textbook. It provides the basis for many later developed
Bruun, P., 1989, Beach Nourishment- Improved Economy through Better Profiling,
Large Traps and Non-Conventional Equipment; in: Beach Preservation Technology '89,
Strategies and Alternatives in Erosion Control, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation
Association, p. 117-126.
Per Bruun advocates matching borrow materials to the entire beach profile
rather than just the shoreface zone. Losses commonly occurring in borrow
materials are due to an excess of fines, lack of consideration to profile geometry
and lack of consideration to horizontal geometries of fill. Restoring the beach
profile, rather than just matching beachface sand distributions, will give a more
stable beach than just matching beachface grain size distributions. The rapid
introductory losses associated with beach nourishment can sometimes be
avoided with proper profile consideration. Inlet ebb shoals are usually capable
of providing suitable nourishment material. Beach nourishment should be
replaced by profile nourishment. In many instances, profile nourishment is
cheaper than beach nourishment because cheaper material (more fines) may
be installed as part of the project. Most fill materials smaller than 0.15mm wash
out quickly. The use of split hull dredges make early consideration of desired
beach profile important.
Campbell, T., Dean, R. G. Mehta, A. J., and Wang, H., 1988, Short Course on
Principles and Applications of Beach Nourishment: Florida Shore and Beach
Preservation Association and The Department of Coastal and Oceanographic
Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, various pagings.
The notes from this short course concentrate on engineering design principles
affecting beach nourishment projects. Among the topics covered are sea
conditions, cross shore response, planform evolution of beach nourishment
projects and sediment storage at tidal inlets. These notes should be read along
with the Shore Protection Manual in order to gain an in-depth understanding of
Daultrey, S., 1979, Principle Components Analysis: Concepts and Techniques in
Modem Geography No. 8, Geo Abstracts, University of East Anglia, Norwich, 51 p.
Daultry provides a quantitative discussion of factor analysis with a direct
application to principal component analysis.
Davis, R. A., Terry ,J. B., and Ryder, L., 1993, Design of Beach Monitoring Programs
with Florida Example; in: The State of the Art of Beach Nourishment, Proceedings of
the 6th National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, p. 272-278.
Davis, et al. maintain that detailed beach renourishment monitoring should
address five areas. These include 1) the borrow site, 2) induced shoreline
changes, 3) sediment distribution throughout the program area, 4) coastal
processes and 5) coastal impacts. When planning a monitoring program,
financial considerations tend to override all other considerations. Data bases
should be developed using a time series approach and offshore profiles should
be surveyed at six month intervals using aerial photography for shoreline
Dean, R. G., 1988, Sediment Budget, Principles and Applications; in: Dynamics of
Sand Beaches; Short course given at the 20th International Conference on Coastal
Engineering, Taipei, Republic of China, v.13, no. 3, p. 3-50.
Dean provides a mathematical framework for calculating sediment budgets.
He accounts for the various components of sediment flux and changes of
volume that occur within the region. A discussion of the governing equations
and various ways of determining flux components is also presented.
Dean, R. G. and Abramian, J., 1991, Rational Techniques for Evaluating Potential
Sands for Beach Nourishment: University of Florida, Coastal Engineering Lab
Publication 91/016, 102 p. and appendix.
Dean and Abramian point out that previous methods of comparing native and
borrow materials could not predict equilibrium "dry beach" width. The authors
attempt to remedy this by presenting a new method for predicting cross beach
profiles. The authors use Jupiter Island as an example while discussing
renourishment profiles and the history of the island. Parameters to be monitored
after renourishment include 3D evolution of the beach over time, "forcing"
functions (waves, currents etc.) along with initial and evolving grain size
distributions on the beach. The authors discuss the need to refine methods for
predicting cross shore sediment distributions.
Douglas, B. D., 1989, Prediction of Shoreline Changes Near Tidal lnlets(MS Thesis):
Gainesville, Florida, University of Florida, 130 p.
Douglas documents the rates of shoreline change at several tidal inlets along
the east and west coasts of Florida. The rate of shoreline erosion near inlets is
up to twice the rate of erosion away from the inlet. Competing forces act at the
inlet mouth. Longshore sediment transport works to close inlets while tidal
currents work to keep the inlets open. The maintenance of navigation channels
generally creates sand deficits within the inlet. Douglas discusses the "One
Line Theory" of beach profiling where the beach profile is assumed to maintain
equilibrium after renourishment-the whole beach profile is assumed to be
displaced horizontally. The amount of wave refraction is related to wave speed
while the amount of wave diffraction controls energy transfer. Ebb tidal flows
push sediment offshore while wave attack drives sediment back towards shore.
Jetties tend to direct sediment offshore while a jetty combined with longshore
drift will tend to cause shoaling offshore and downdrift of the jetties. Shoal size
generally decreases as downdrift distance from jetty increases. The most
severe erosion problems in the state are found along the Hutchinson Island
shoreline south of Sebastian Inlet. It is difficult to generalize as the expression
of erosion will differ at each tidal inlet depending upon the processes affecting
Ferland, M. A. and Weishar, L. L., 1984, Interpretive Analysis of Surficial Sediments as
an Aid in Transport Studies of Dredged Materials, Cape Canaveral, Florida: U.S. Army
Corps of Engineers Coastal Engineering Research Center, Miscellaneous Paper 84-3,
Dredge spoils transported to a site 4.5 miles east of Cocoa Beach are described
in this paper. The sediment was disposed of in 40-55 ft of water. A definitive
predisposal bathymetry of the site has never been determined. Post-disposal
bathymetric calculations indicate that material has been dispersed from the
site; however, since the original bathymetry is unknown, it is impossible to
determine the degree of dispersion. Some volume reduction may also be due
to sediment consolidation. In the disposal area, dredge spoils are similar to the
native sediment. It is therefore difficult to determine exactly what is native and
what has been introduced. Significant current activity exists at the site as
evidenced by sand waves in the dredged material.
Field, M. E., 1974, Buried Strandline Deposits on the Central Florida Inner Continental
Shelf: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 85, no. 1, p. 57-60.
Donax clams typically only occur within restricted depth ranges. Accumulations
of Donax clams may therefore provide a definitive marker for a relict beach
development. Depths to recovered deposits of Donax clams correlate well with
an acoustic reflector that underlies the central Florida shelf. Shoals and ridges
are also sometimes interpreted as relict features. Off Cape Kennedy, the
present day morphology is the product of dynamic processes and unrelated to
relict features. Evidence of this can be found in the large scale truncation and
planing by the last transgression which has all but removed traces of previous
Gee, H. C., 1965, Beach Nourishment From Offshore Sources: Journal of Waterways
and Harbors Division, Proceedings of ASCE, v. 91, no. 3, p. 1-5.
Gee describes the history of St. Lucie Inlet. This natural inlet was
originally relocated 1200 feet north without protection during the period 1913-
1922. The present protective jetties were constructed in 1922. With jetty
construction, a sand deficit developed on beaches downdrift of the inlet mouth.
A search was conducted for a borrow area that might provide sands suitable for
beach renourishment. Offshore sand sources were originally delineated by
divers using probe rods who were looking for a minimum 10 feet thickness for
borrow sand. A suitable sand source was located 900 feet offshore and a
dragline was installed to haul it ashore. The sand was spread upon the beach
and the renourished beach was found to have a flatter shape than the original
beach. In 1965, a storm breached the barrier bar and cut a new inlet at Peck's
Lake, 2.5 miles south of the present inlet. This inlet was eventually closed off
and all sediment exchange was once again conducted through the Saint Lucie
Hall, J. V., 1952, Artificially Nourished Constructed Beaches: Beach Erosion Board,
United States Army Corps of Engineers, Technical Memorandum No. 29, 25 p.
Hall outlines the criteria used in the design of artificially nourished beaches and
presents a brief history of artificial beach nourishment. Among the placement
methods discussed are the offshore dumping method, the stockpiling method,
the continuous supply method and the direct placement method. A tabular
record of a great number of artificially nourished and constructed beaches is
Hansen, M. E., 1982, Evaluation of Beach Fill Models and the Effect of Carbonate
Material on Beach Fill (MS Thesis): Melboume, Florida, Florida Institute of Technology,
Hansen discusses the development of beach fill models and how volumes of
necessary fill material are calculated. Beach material consists of sediment from
the intertidal zone. Borrow materials and native materials do not necessarily
exhibit normal grain size distribution (gsd). The term "post nourishment fill
estimate" is used to describe the volume of fill stabilized after one year.
All suggested methods of calculating fill volume have shortcomings. The Corps
of Engineers Shore Protection Manual (SPM) produces fill estimates by
assuming coarse fractions are unstable-this is contrary to hydrodynamics.
Dean's method of calculating fill volume does not allow for the loss of fine
material. When the native and borrow grain size distributions are similar this
may be acceptable. Hansen recommends the "Adjusted Shore Protection
Manual Method" which also. assumes normal grain size distribution. The d
variable describing mean difference of grain size distribution should be
recalculated for each project Fill models also do not account for the presence
of carbonate shells. Coarse carbonate shells are being abraded and fractured
into finer sizes reducing beach fill grain size (and, presumably, stability)
throughout project life. The SPM along with Krumbein and James (1965)
advocate the calculation of a renourishment factor using a critical phi ( ) ratio
defined as the maximum ratio of native to borrow material by weight.
Calculation of the critical f ratio assumes normal gsd for both the native and
borrow material populations. Dean's fill factor Rd is also used in calculating
beach nourishment needs. Calculation of Dean's fill factor assumes that only
the coarse fraction of any given distribution is stable. The adjusted SPM fill
factor, Ra, is similar in concept to Dean's fill factor, Rd, but differs in the picking
a grain stability cutoff. No sediment loss is assumed for fractions larger than or
equal to the critical grain size. This yields a numerical result between Rd and
critical (adjusted SPM values). Hobson (1981) defines a safety factor (G) to
account for the dispersion of mud size particles in the borrow material. G is
defined as being equal to (100% / % sand) X Ra. The adjusted SPM methods
also assume normal grain size distribution.
Hobson, R. D., 1981, Beach Nourishment Techniques...Typical U.S. Beach
Nourishment Projects Using Offshore Sand Deposits: Geotechnical Engineering
Branch, United States Army Coastal Engineering Research Center, Fort Belvoir,
Virginia, 117 p.
Hobson provides a compendium of beach nourishment characteristics for 20
projects. Data are provided as a basis for future planning. Indian River County
is included as one of the sites examined. Authors use Krumbein and James
(SPM) for calculation of overfill ratios. Hobson differentiates the Ra "fill factor"
(overfill ratio) from R, "renourishment factor" (How stable is fill compared to
James, W. R., 1970, Development of Mathematical Models for Littoral Transport:
EOS abstract v. 51, no. 4, p. 334.
James addresses development of mathematical models for littoral transport in
conjunction with radioactive sand survey. The seaward limit of the zone of
active sediment movement is the wave breaking point. Variation of drift in a
shore normal survey is related to the portion of time that the sediment spends in
the active zone.
James, W. R., 1975, Techniques in Evaluating the Suitability of Borrow Material for
Beach Nourishment, United States Army Corps of Engineers Technical Manual 60,
James presents an outstanding paper discussing sediment mechanics as it
relates to beach nourishment. It should be read by everyone interested in
understanding the rationale for ranking borrow areas. Natural sorting processes
redistribute fine material offshore while coarse grained residual sediments stay
on the beach in the surf zone. The calculation of "overfill ratios" is discussed.
The relative merits of the Krumbein and James, Dean and SPM methods for
calculating overfill are shown. The SPM critical ratio R is related to the relative
retreat rate, rb, of Krumbein and James along with the mean grain size, Omean,
and sorting, fsorting, of the sediment. d is defined as the 0 mean difference of
the grain size distriBution which is numerically equal to d= (mb-mn)/sn where mn
= sorting of the native material, mb =sorting of the borrow material and sn = the
phi mean difference of the sediment distribution. s is defined as Osorting and s
= Sb/Sn where sb = sorting ratio of the borrow material and sn = the sorting
ratio of the native material. On a stable beach the condition of the dynamic
mass transfer system has reached a steady state. Native material grain size
distribution should be the product of a steady state process. The SPM and
Dean calculations differ in determining the stable fraction of the borrow material.
SPM calculations use the entire native material grain size distribution while
Dean uses the Omean of the native material. Dean implicitly requires that fines
be removed from the borrow materials to bring it into balance and he assumes
that only fine material will be removed by sorting action. The major shortcoming
of the SPM method is that it can't be used where the borrow material is better
sorted than the native material. This is really an outstanding sediment
Komar, P. D., 1977, Selective Longshore Transport Rates of Different Grain-Size
Fractions Within a Beach: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 47, no. 4, p. 1444-53.
Komar examines longshore transport rates for varying grain sizes.
Longshore transport rates are generally higher in the surf zone than in the
swash zone (energy is higher in the surf zone). Differing grain size fractions are
selectively transported. When transport mechanism is primarily bedload
(sediment grains travel within two grain diameters of the bed) rather than
suspended load (sediment grains travel more than two grain diameters from the
bed), the coarsest grain size fraction will move long shore more rapidly than
finer grain sizes. As grain size decreases, suspension transport becomes more
important. Finer grain sizes therefore have higher transport velocities in
suspension load. Results of empirical study will vary with wave and current
conditions. Waves breaking at an angle transport sediment in the surf zone
rather than the swash zone. This study did not collect data from beaches with
a wide surf zone. Generally, grains will naturally distribute along beach with the
coarsest grains in the breaker zone and progressively finer grains closer to
shore in the swash zone.
Krumbein, W. C. and James, W. R., 1965, A Lognormal Size Distribution Model for
Estimating the Stability of Beach Fill Material: United States Army Coastal Engineering
Research Center, Technical Memorandum No. 16, 17 p.
Krumbein and James address the "extra" amount of beach fill to be used
when the borrow material is finer than the native material. The authors assume
that the native sand is in equilibrium with local shore processes and that the
portion of available fill material which corresponds with the native material in
size distribution will remain on the beach. The only relevant factors are the
native sand and borrow material grain size distributions. The assumptions are
made that both native and borrow materials have lognormal grain size
distribution. The authors also assume that, over time, fill material will approach
native material in grain size distribution via selective sorting. Too much coarse
gravel in replenishment material gives rise to stringers and zones of coarse
material on beach. Too much coarse borrow material also steepens foreshore
slope (good for surfing?).
Lin, P. C. P., Hansen, I., and Sasso, H., 1994, Regional Sand Movement and
Performance of Successive Beach Nourishment Projects; in: Alternative Technologies
in Beach Preservation, Florida Shore and Beach Preservation Association, p. 216-219.
Lin, et al. examine the performance of beach nourishment projects in south
Florida. Examples are chosen from Port Everglades and Baker's Haulover.
Sediment budgets are developed for an optimum beach/inlet management
plan. It was found that, on average, 1.2 yards3 per foot per year are lost
from beaches eroding in the study area. Generally, downdrift beaches benefit
from updrift nourishment projects. After renourishment, sedimentary accretion
often occurs in the area between -6ft NGVD and project closure depth (the
maximum depth influenced by the borrow material). End losses of up to 75% of
emplaced material is found on some projects.
Marino, J. M., 1986, Inlet Ebb Shoal Volumes Related to Coastal Physical Parameters,
(M.S. Thesis): University of Florida, Gainesville, 114 p.
This is an outstanding thesis. Marino describes the evolution of ebb tidal shoals
near inlets. Estimates of ebb shoal volume are given for various Florida east
coast inlets. In general a trend of decreasing ebb shoal volume occurs from
north to south. 83% of ebb shoal sands along the east coast of Florida are
contained in shoals related to the four northernmost tidal inlets. The exact ebb
shoal volume will depend on the tidal prism, the inlet width-to-depth ratio, inlet
cross sectional area, and tidal amplitude. Ebb shoals can serve as an efficient
mechanism for transporting sediments from the updrift to the downdrift side of
the inlet. Generally, ebb shoals are a key player in preserving downdip
beaches. Techniques for calculating ebb shoal parameters are also discussed.
Marino also coauthored, with A. J. Mehta, a paper titled "Sediment Volumes
around Florida's East Coast Tidal Inlets." This paper was distributed by the
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory at the University of Florida
as UFL/COEL-86-009. This paper covers many of the issues examined in the
Middleton, G. V., 1975, Hydraulic Interpretation of Sand Size Distributions: Journal of
Geology, v. 84, p. 405-426.
Middleton examines sediment grain size distribution and finds that different
segments of the probability curve can be attributed to bed and suspension load
fractions (the entire sediment population is a collection of truncated normal
distributions). Sometimes overlapping distributions yield two line segments on a
probability curve. Size breaks on the grain size distribution curve are due to the
source of sediment, mechanical breakage and hydraulic sorting. The amount of
fine material in a river depends upon supply-not upon local hydraulics. The bed
layer is defined as having a thickness of two grain layers thick. Most of the
discharged sediment moves in suspension. If settling velocity is less than shear
velocity, particles will be in suspension. The presence of dunes and ripples will
alter the suspension criteria. Middleton discusses the boundaries of traction
and suspension flow regimes and land flow velocities necessary for sediment
O'Brien, M. P. and Dean R. G., 1971, Critical Cross Sectional Area; in: Proceedings,
12th Coastal Engineering Conference, ASCE, p. 21761-80.
The authors discuss various components of sediment transport and the concept
of net sediment transport. They point out that most shore maintenance records
only document the sand sized sediment fraction-no silt or clay is accounted
for. A sediment budget for the Cape Canaveral Inlet is calculated and it is found
that erosion impact decreases exponentially with distance from the inlet.
Olsen, E. J., Bodge, K., and Creed, C., 1994, Shore Protection Design Alternatives
Downdrift of an Inlet; in: Alternative Technologies in Beach Preservation,
Florida Shore & Beach Association, p. 474-487.
Shorelines downdrift of an inlet are often subject to high erosion stress due to
inlet effects. Using Lake Worth Inlet as an example, the authors show that
design alternatives can be modified by altering the balance of the nourishment
project (changing the number of beach preservation structures involved and
their configuration). Sensitive nearshore hardbottoms are often located along
sections of shoreline requiring nourishment. At Lake Worth, 10.5 acres of
hardbottom are exposed. Beach preservation structures include nearshore
breakwaters, multiple T-head groins, combined nearshore breakwaters and T-
head groins. General wave impact can usually be minimized by using
nearshore breakwaters with T-heads.
Parson, L. E., 1982, Immediate Response of Beach Profile Readjustment of the
Indialantic/Melboume Beach Nourishment Project (M.S. Thesis): Melbourne, Florida,
Florida Institute of Technology, 106 p.
Parson monitored beach profile readjustment after the 1981
Indialantic/Melbourne Beach renourishment project. Profiles were collected
immediately after installation of the beach fill. After 14 months only 46% of the
emplaced materials remained. Placement of fill material results in non-
equilibrium beaches (of course, if the beach were in equilibrium, you would not
need to do a renourishment project in the first place). Massive amounts of
material are lost as the beach attempts to regain equilibrium. Most erosion of fill
material occurs immediately after the borrow material is emplaced. Generally
renourishment projects do not afford increased hurricane protection though
significant minor storm protection is provided.
Phlegar, W. S. and Dean, R. G., 1989, Beach Nourishment Performance Predictability;
in: Beach Preservation Technology '89, Strategies and Alternatives in Erosion Control,
Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, p. 75-86.
Phlegar and Dean address the need for improving capabilities of predicting
beach fill performance. Phlegar develops a continuity (conservation of
sediment)-linear dynamic (littoral transport) model. Jupiter Island in Martin
County is modeled using a finite difference technique. Realistic parameters are
developed for each specific location and as many parameters as possible are
included in the numerical application. Performance of the beach fill is measured
by the time-history of volumetric retention. All models work better in some
circumstances than in others...the universal model has not yet been invented. A
lack of standardization in monitoring and modeling techniques severely limits
improvement in prediction capabilities.
Phlegar, W. S., 1989, Performance Prediction of Beach Nourishment Projects:
University of Florida Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, Publication
89/008, 93 p.
This thesis develops models for predicting fill performance and compares
predicted results to results observed in actual renourishment projects. Wave
height histories are emphasized as being important to predicting erosion rates.
'"Wave forces are the key to shoreline change." The goal of this study was to
analyze and assess ability to predict fill performance based on existing
technology and emphasize the need for a comprehensive post-nourishment
Silberman, L. V., 1979, Sedimentological Study of the Gulf Beaches of Sanibel and
Captiva Islands, Florida (M.S. Thesis): Tallahassee, Florida, Florida State University,
Silberman's thesis involved statistical analysis of grain size distribution (gsd)
moment measures on Gulf Coast Beaches (Sanibel and Captiva Islands). The
borrow material used for replenishment on Captiva Island was finer than the
native material and it has eroded. Much of the material eroded from Captiva
Island has been deposited on Sanibel Island. Shells and shell fragments make
up a significant portion of the beach sediments on both islands. Increases in
abundance of shell material coincides with increases in the mean grain size of
nearshore sediment though Silberman has not yet determined the transport
mechanism. Silberman addresses the relative presence of shell material in
granulometric analyses. An effort was made to minimize the effect of carbonate
content though "geometric characteristics" make carbonate the most stable
fraction. No overall trend in carbonate distribution with downdrift distance
was observed; therefore, the carbonate is supplied by a separate system than
the quartz. Quartz is littoral while carbonate is locally derived offshore. The
amount of carbonate found on the beaches is determined by grain size and
wave energy. The carbonate grain distribution was found to be bimodal while
the quartz grain size distribution was more mature. The geometric
characteristics inherent in quartz sediment size distribution makes it more
valuable for evaluating deposition trends. Erratic sediment distribution in the
study area is influenced by partitioning of littoral drift, erosion and intervention
by man in natural coastal processes. Locally generated sea waves rather than
long distance swells may be primarily responsible for beach erosion.
Stauble, D. K., Hansen, M., Hushla, R., and Parson, L., 1983, Beach Nourishment
Monitoring, Florida East Coast: Physical Engineering Aspects and Management
Implications; in: Coastal Zone '83-Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Coastal and
Engineering Management, ASCE, p. 2512-2526.
According to the National Shoreline Study (1971), 210 of Florida's 782 miles of
shoreline are critically eroding (these numbers are on the same order of
magnitude as those advanced by Acor, 1989). Stauble, et al. use selected
beach nourishment projects along the east coast of Florida to assess profile
readjustment and resorting of borrow material through time. The Indialantic-
Melbourne Beach project is one of the projects selected. Profile and sediment
grain size characteristics were collected from each beach prior to, immediately
following, and 1.5 years after nourishment. The fill material adjusted rapidly as
evidenced by the formation of an erosional scarp along the beach. Profile
stabilization took two months. Shoreline changes can be measured using aerial
photographs; however, no standard methods exist for sediment sampling,
sediment analysis and photographic monitoring. Therefore, there is little
information available to help evaluate the efficacy of past beach nourishment
projects and provide guidance for future projects. Some generalizations,
however, can be made. The volume of fill material is greatest immediately after
emplacement. Beach profiling quantifies changes in profile section and
changes in beach volume. Losses of up to 56% of the borrow material
emplaced in some projects has been documented during the first two months
after renourishment with an additional 14% of the borrow material disappearing
during the next 13 months. Most losses in the study project were due to severe
storm activity but longshore drift is still the dominant force in carrying sediment.
Components of textural variability vary with depth and time of year. To establish
a beach profile, grab samples were collected at hightide, midtide and lowtide
zones along with bottom samples from one, two and three meters in depth. A
foreshore composite was then developed using the high, mid and lowtide
samples. The coarse material found on the beach is mainly fractured shell
fragments. Within three months all fines were lost from the study area. Coastal
processes actively sort and redistribute grain size distributions to approximate
native sediment. After 1.5 years, less than 25% of the total fill remains. Errors
in modelling originate because modellers assume a Gaussian grain size
distribution while borrow materials are usually collected from offshore shoals or
estuarine environments which have lower energy and poorer sorting. It is useful
to draw a backshore reference line on a basemap. Aerial photos at Port
Canaveral demonstrate that each tripled in size immediately after nourishment
and that after six years less than 40% of the original renourishment material
remains. At Indialantic/Melboume Beach, the beach area increased by 1/3 after
beach nourishment. 50% of renourished material remains one year later.
Evidence supports using aerial photos to support ground observations when
monitoring beach nourishment.
Stauble, D. K. and Hoel, J., 1986, Guidelines for Beach Restoration Projects, Part II,
Physical Engineering Guidelines: Report No. 77, Florida Seagrant College, 92 p.
Stauble and Hoel designed this study to provide new insight for the design and
permitting of future beach renourishment projects. The authors recommend a
standardized project monitoring protocol that measures effects on the borrow
area and the fill placement area. The merits of various overfill ratio models are
Strock, A. V. and Associates, 1974, Town of Jupiter Island Beach Restoration Project,
Follow Up Report #1, consulting report, 25 p.
This report was prepared as a follow up study after initial beach renourishment.
Beach profiles were measured at 400 foot intervals and changes in sediment
budget were calculated. Areas updrift of project area exhibited heavier losses
than downdrift of project. To date, 116,000 cubic yards of material has accreted
over the project area but net longterm erosion is expected. The consulting firm
recommends laying a pipeline from St. Lucie Inlet for sand replenishment.
Strock, A. V. and Associates, 1981, Town of Jupiter Island Follow Up Study,
Consulting Report prepared for the Town of Jupiter Island, 10 pages and figures.
Strock and Associates surveyed 24 profile lines from back beach to a point
1500 feet offshore. Approximately 70% of renourishment fill was found to
remain after eight years. Jupiter Island was found to be receding at an average
rate of 13.6 ft/yr with locally observed recession rates as high as 40.7 ft/yr. It is
predicted that by 1982, all of the fill added in 1977-78 will have been eroded.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1984, Shore Protection Manual: Department of
the Army, Waterways Experimental Station, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering
Research Center, 2 v. set, various pagings.
The Shore Protection Manual serves as a standard operating procedures
document for most beach protection projects. The manual examines beach
erosion and renourishment needs along with providing an exhaustive treatise on
sediment mechanics. It is the single most comprehensive document available
addressing beach nourishment.
Venanzi, P. F., 1992, Surficial Sediment Grain-Size Distribution Patterns: A measure of
Inlet Influence: (M.S. Thesis): Melbourne, Florida, Florida Institute of Technology,
Venanzi examines the role of ebbtide currents in jetting fines offshore so that
the sediment distribution in an ebbtidal delta is artificially coarse. The area of
inlet influence at Sebastian is within about 3000 feet of the inlet mouth.
Localized carbonate source areas reflect coral reef productivity. A brief
literature review is also included in this thesis.
Visher, G. S. and Howard, J. D., 1974, Dynamic Relationship between Hydraulics and
Sedimentation in the Altamaha Estuary: Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, v. 44, no. 2,
Visher and Howard address the independent behavior of density driven inlet
water masses. Water masses in an inlet are density driven and they behave
independently. The development of sedimentary structures within the inlet are
controlled by water depth, bed shear, waves, and biologic activity. Grain size
distributions at any given point will change depending on whether the sample is
collected at ebb or at flood flow. Grain size distribution charts for various
environments are shown. During flood tide, sand waves are found in the upper
flow regime with a continuous dense moving grain layer of sediment and
forward facing cross-beds. These beds are truncated and scoured during ebb
tide. During ebb tide traction transport of sediment occurs and is expressed as
ripples and dunes on the sea floor. Avalanche deposition resulting from flow
separation helps provide for the removal of coarse detritus. Tidal estuaries
serve as a trap for coarse sediments and provide a mechanism for removal of
fine grained sediments.
Walther, M. P., Sasso, R. H., and Lin, P., 1989, Economics of Sand Transfer; in: Beach
Preservation Technology '89, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, p.199-
Walther, et al. offer a method for economic calculation of alternatives to inlet
sand transfer. For calculation purposes, a 50 year project life is assumed and
historical maintenance of inlets is considered with regard to sand transfer and
downdip beaches. Port Everglades Inlet and Sebastian Inlet are modeled for
sand balance. The model calculates the sand budget for each inlet and finds
that 50-80% of longshore drift can be transferred by bypassing. Shoaling rates
increase in frequency and volume as sand is removed from ebb and flood tidal
shoals. Dredging of the ebb shoal will, however, reduce natural bypassing.
Erosion of feeder beach will increase with decreased grain size of borrow
material, reduction of length of feeder beach and overall volume of material
Zarillo, G. A., Liu, J., and Tsin, H., 1985, A New Method for Effective Beach-Fill
Design; in: Coastal Zone '85, Proceedings of the Fourth Symposium on Coastal and
Ocean Management, ASCE, v. 1, p. 985-1001.
Zarillo, et al. discuss the calculation of renourishment parameters (Dean vs.
SPM) on a dynamic beach. When the natural supply of sediment is terminated,
the beach will retreat rapidly at first and then slowly as the rate of removal of
fine grained material slows. The conventional approach to modelling this
problem is to perform a statistical analysis of grain size distribution. The model
needs to consider differential transport paths of individual grains across the
beach and the shoreface. Coarser grained sediments will move onshore while
finer grained sediments move offshore. In the Long Island, NY, study area,
coarse grain sizes are relatively rare except near inlets and glacial bluffs. Three
distinct groupings (species) were classified according to grain size. In the
Beach species, coarse grains form a stable intertidal beach and, to a lesser
degree, nearshore bar. In the Beach-bar transfer species, intermediate size
sand grains are most stable between the beach and the bar. The Offshore
species is made up predominantly of fine grained sands. Coarse material is
preferentially transported onshore and stored on intertidal beaches while fine
sands are most stable in shoreface zone seaward of the surf zone. The beach
interval will adjust to equilibrium by having portions of its mass dispersed among
available transport paths as determined by grain size. Fill factors for each size
class should be calculated independently. Short term behavior of the beach fill
material should be reasonably predictable.
C. Breakwater and Groin Design
Balsillie, J. H. and Bruno, R.O., 1972, Groins: An annotated Bibliography: United States
Army Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center, Miscellaneous Paper
No. 1-72, 249 p.
Balsillie and Bruno present an annotated bibliography of literature concerning
groin design. The bibliography is current through 1972.
Balsillie, J. H., 1984, Wave length and wave celerity during shore-breaking: Florida
Department of Natural Resources, Beaches and Shores Technical and Design
Memorandum No. 84-1, 17 p.
Based on laboratory and field data, Balsillie develops a family of useful
relationships for determining wave length and wave speed in the surf zone.
Crater, R. E., Garaffa, T., and Schmidt, C., 1994, Enhancement of Beach Fill
Performance by Combination With an Artificial Submerged Reef System; in: Alternative
Technologies in Beach Preservation, Florida Shore & Beach Protection Association, p.
This paper was designed to provide background support for the Beachsaver
Reef System. The system consists of an interlocking concrete reservoir capable
of perching or retaining sand fill thereby reducing the volume of borrow material
required and cutting the frequency of beach nourishment.
Dalrymple, R. A., 1970, An Offshore Beach Nourishment Scheme; in: Twelfth Annual
Coastal Engineering Conference, V. II, ASCE, p. 955-959.
Early beach replenishment on Jupiter Island required the scraping of borrow
sands from a nearshore site. This paper discusses the delineation of the
scraper borrow site off Jupiter Island. Severe beach erosion has occurred due,
in part, to the presence of a large inlet to the north. The scraper area was
delineated by buoys 850 feet offshore and 500 feet apart. In this area, the
shoreline is straight, the beach narrow and the offshore profile is shallow.
Scraping has resulted in the development of "shoulder bars". Beach sand
moved offshore by steep waves refills the borrow pit and is lost to the beach
(under normal wave conditions, only fine grained materials return to the borrow
Mitchell, B. L., 1994, An Overview of PEP (Prefabricated Erosion Prevention) Reef
Development; in: in Alternative Technologies in Beach Preservation, Proceedings of the
7th National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, Florida Shore & Beach
Preservation Association, p. 90-96.
This background paper was presented in support of PEP reefs. The reefs will
reduce wave energy before hitting the shoreline. Benefits include storm
protection and beach perching. The reefs are purported to be easy to fabricate,
environmentally compatible, stable, and cost effective. Reefs are currently in
use off of Palm Beach (175 feet from shore). There are conflicting reports
about reef effectiveness and ponding has been reported behind the PEP reefs.
An additional set of PEP reefs will be installed off of Vero Beach in the near
Zarillo, G.A. and Surak, C.S., 1995, Evaluation of Submerged Reef Performance at
Vero Beach, Florida, Using a Numerical Modeling Scheme: Report 40, Indian River
County, 56 p.
Zarillo and Surak develop a combined wave, circulation and sediment transport
modeling scheme to show that the presence of artificial reef segments will have
a significant effect on the hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics of the upper
shoreface of Vero Beach. This model shows that the artificial reef is likely to
have a measurable and significant impact upon the distribution of wave energy,
circulation and sedimentation patterns on the upper shoreface and that cross-
shore and long-shore sediment transport both play a role in determining the
shape of the shoreface profile.
D. Beach and Inlet Studies
Almasi, M., 1983, Holocene Sediments and Evolution of the Indian River Lagoon
(Atlantic Coast of Florida)(Doctoral Dissertation): Miami, Florida, University of Miami,
Almasi examined sediment characteristics of the Indian River Lagoon. His
dissertation provides a good background on sediment schemes in south Florida
away from the shoreface. Several transects were made near tidal inlets. The
sediment scheme was completely characterized at these locations. Almasi also
discusses tidal effects and surface velocities at the inlets along with biota in
brackish water environments.
Alpine Ocean Seismic Survey, Inc., 1994, Vibracore Sampling Collection and
Geotechnical Testing in the Atlantic Ocean off the Coast of South Florida, Final Report
Volumes 1 and 2: performed for Applied Technology and Management Inc. as part of
the Martin County Shore Protection Project Borrow Area Geotechnical Investigation,
This paper is a summary of raw data only-no data reduction is included. It was
compiled under contract for Martin county. Vibracore locations and descriptions
are also provided (v. 1, v. 2).
Aubrey, D. G. and De Kimpe, N.M., 1988, Performance of Beach Nourishment at
Jupiter Island, Florida; in: Beach Preservation Technology '88, Problems and
Advancements in Beach Nourishment, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation
Association, p. 409-420.
Aubrey and De Kimpe evaluate nourishment efforts along a five mile stretch of
Jupiter Island currently experiencing critical erosion. Factors contributing to
erosion off of Jupiter Island include narrowness of offshore shelf, lack of ocean
wave sheltering by Bahamas Bank and interruption of longshore transport by
the St. Lucie Inlet channel jetty. During a one year period, eight million cubic
yards of sediment was placed on the beach at a cost of $11.5 million. The
renourishment area has five miles of seawalls and three miles of groins. Since
1972, borrow material has come from an area 3500 feet offshore. Higher
quality material suitable for borrowing exists off St. Lucie Inlet (probably in the
ebb shoal) but the transport cost is too high (four to six times the cost of using
local material). Poorer quality local borrow materials mean higher turbididty,
greater fill losses and a reduced duration of fill life. A scientific and engineering
characterization of beachfill material should be undertaken.
Balsillie, J. H., 1985, Post-Storm Report: The Florida East Coast Thanksgiving Holiday
Storm of 21-24 November, 1984: Florida Department of Environmental Regulation,
Division of Beaches and Shores, Post-Storm Report 85-1, 63 p. and appendix.
This work describes the effect of a storm which struck the Florida east coast
during November 1984. The role of each individual force element (wind, storm
tide, waves) is examined and post-storm damage is assessed.
Bodge, K., 1992, Port Canaveral Inlet Management Plan (Draft): Olsen Associates Inc.
Report prepared for Canaveral Port Authority, 266 p. and appendices.
Bodge provides a comprehensive summary of the Port Canaveral Sediment
budget. Extensive discussions of projected fill life, erosion rates and sediment
volume changes near the inlet mouth are included. The phenomenon of drift
reversal south of inlet due to a "sink" effect is also covered. Also examined are
the possibilities of sand by-passing and the delineation of potential borrow
areas. Shoaling around inlet entrance should be curable with the installation of
Longaard (geotextile) tubes.
Bodge, K. R., 1994, Performance of 1992 Nearshore Berm Disposal at Port Canaveral
Florida: Olsen Associates, 71 p.
Bodge reviews the performance of material dredged from the Port Canaveral
channel in 1992 and placed on the nearshore berm offshore of Cocoa Beach.
After one year, 1/2 to 2/3 of original fill material was still in place. The "missing"
material probably migrated nearshore or landward (i.e., it has been diffused
shoreward). After six to nine months, the nearshore berm created by the fill
becomes difficult to detect.
Brooks, H. K., 1976a, Borrow for Beach Restoration Maps, prepared for Brevard
County Erosion Control District: Coastal Oceanographic and Engineering Laboratory,
University of Florida, 4 maps.
This document consists of a collection of maps prepared in anticipation of
possible beach renourishment in Brevard County. Maps include bathymetry,
core, locations, depth to bedrock by seismic refraction (typically 20-30 ft) and
areas of clayey bottom. Potential borrow areas have silty mud overburden.
Many bottoms are also composed of fine sand overlying stiff clay.
Brooks, H. K., 1976b, Borrow for Beach Restoration, Indialantic-Melboume Beach,
Brevard County Florida, Final Report: Coastal Oceanographic and Engineering
Laboratory, University of Florida, Gainesville, 9 p.
Brooks finds that no borrow material is available for beach restoration in the
Indialantic-Melboume Beach area. It is suggested that borrow material might be
taken from the Indian River lagoon. Brooks (1976a) also produced a set of
maps to support this study. Holocene surface sand in the renourishment area
was found to require a 20:1 overfill ratio. Nine feet of fine grained overburden
covers Pleistocene shell sand offshore which is suitable for renourishment. This
report has been superseded by later work. As part of this study, a seismic
refraction survey was performed. Maximum refraction penetration was 40-50
feet. Brooks divided native sand into three classes. Type A sediment consists
of well sorted, very fine, silty quartz sand. Type B, is a very fine, silty, quartz
sand with mud. This material is poorly sorted and contains 10-25% shell
material. Type C sediments consist of shell material in a sandy matrix. Shell
content is typically 25% or greater. Type A sediments are typically found in
shallow inshore locations while Type B and C sediments are usually found
further offshore. Beach cores were also collected as a part of this study.
Bruun, P. M., Battjes, J.A., Chiu, T.Y., and Purpura, J.A., 1966, Coastal Engineering
Studies of Three Florida Coastal Inlets: University of Florida, College of Engineering, v.
XX, no. 6, Bull. no. 122, 68 p.
Bruun, et al. describes how inlet shoaling, sediment budgets and littoral drift
affect the Sebastian, Hillsboro and Lake Worth Inlets. Most coastal inlets
subject to littoral drift will migrate in the direction of prevailing littoral drift (though
some, such as the Indian River, Delaware, migrate in a direction opposite to
drift). This paper discusses inlet shoaling, sediment budgets and influence of
the inlet on littoral drift. Sebastian, Hillsboro and Lake Worth inlets are
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Archives, University of Florida, 1965, Survey
Review Report on St. Lucie Inlet, Florida,14 p. and figures.
Collection of various correspondence and reports on St. Lucie Inlet, proposal for
federal maintenance of inlet, cost projections and inlet proposal review.
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1958,
Coastal Engineering Study of Fort Pierce Beach: Technical Progress Report No. 7,
Coastal Engineering Library Staff, Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station,
University of Florida, Gainesville, 40 p. and figures.
This report was designed to serve as a baseline study for the Fort Pierce Inlet.
It makes recommendations for the technical measures necessary to prevent
inlet breakthrough. The paper documents rock reef hard bottoms found at
depths of 10-14 feet off the Fort Pierce Inlet mouth and examines the
possibility of installing a sand bypass plant as a long-term solution for inlet
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1960,
Coastal Engineering Investigation at Jupiter Island: prepared for Alton A. Register and
Associates, Engineers, Fort Pierce, 6 p.
This brief report documents early erosion over a five mile stretch of Jupiter
Island beginning six miles south of St. Lucie Inlet. The authors recommend
construction of a seawall to slow beach erosion
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, 1960, Coastal Engineering Study
at Fort Pierce, Florida-Investigations into Causes of Erosion of Sandy Beach: The
Dock and Harbour Authority, March 1960, p. 342-345.
Sediment budgets are developed through material balance. Barrier bar
overwash and subsequent flooding is also accounted for as is leakage through
"moles". This paper serves as a good baseline study for the Fort Pierce inlet.
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1960 Report
on Erosion Situation at Jupiter Island, 1962, Report on Erosion Situation at Jupiter
Island, 14 p. and figures.
This paper documents erosion problems on Jupiter Island. It describes the
construction of private seawalls too close to the shore and recommends
remedial action. This report advocates removing some private seawalls and
adequately protecting others.
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1962-1975,
Various loose Sebastian Inlet maps including soundings, current measurements,
and flow patterns; also, sand trap design and beach nourishment maps from
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1966-67,
Cape Kennedy at False Cape Depth Contour Maps prepared in support of a
tracer sand grain study.
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1970,
Tracing of Coastal Sediment Movement at Cape Canaveral: work sponsored by the
United States Atomic Energy Commission, University of Florida Coastal and
Oceanographic Engineering Report UF/COEL 70/12, 60 p.
This study was designed to predict the distribution of "fusion products" from
rocket launches. This study assigns longshore movement predominantly to the
surf zone. In this zone, fine sediments are moved offshore while coarse
sediments are moved onshore. The seaward limit of net onshore sediment
movement is arbitrarily cut off at 20-30 ft water depth. Beach profile alternates
between a) gentle slope, fine hard packed sands, and low dunes and b) steep
slope, narrow beach, soft sand with broken shell. Individual sediment grains
persist for long periods. Particles from water depths of less than 20 feet move
onshore rapidly at times of greatest wave energy.
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1973,
Kennedy Space Center Ocean Beach Erosion: University of Florida Coastal and
Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory Report 73/016, 58 p.
Concerns about dune erosion and breakthrough due to storm and wave activity
at Mosquito Lagoon are addressed in this report. No inlet has existed at the site
since at least A.D. 500. There is little likelihood of a breakthrough inlet
remaining permanently open because the lagoon does not have enough water
to permanently maintain an inlet opening by tidal flushing. Only minimal
measures (closing manmade paths across dunes) need to be implemented to
insure continuation of the natural beach maintaining process. Shell content in
grab samples taken in support of this project measures up to 50%. Mosquito
Lagoon is in the final stages of silting up.
Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, 1976,
Report on Monitoring of a Beach Fill South of Canaveral Jetties, Brevard County,
Florida: UF/COEL 76/010, 59 p. and figures.
The monitoring of fill placed on a 2.1 mile stretch of beach south of Port
Canaveral Jetties in Brevard County is documented in this report. Large
portions of data were supplied by the Jacksonville office of the Army Corps of
Engineers. Historical erosion trends at Port Canaveral are documented. The fill
is moving southward and offshore to nourish beaches south of the intended fill
area. From April 1975 through April 1976, all bathymetric contours moved
landward. If the beaches are not renourished, a 10 year fill life is predicted.
There has been no significant storm activity to affect fill. Continued monitoring
of the fill area is needed.
Coastal Planning and Engineering Inc., 1989, City of Vero Beach-Beach Restoration
Project Assessment Report: prepared for the City of Vero Beach, Florida, various
Hardbottoms paralleling the Vero Beach coastline in Indian River County are
discussed in this report. Data collected from aerial photographs was combined
with 46 sediment samples collected from 21 older vibracores. Fill factors are
computed using the SPM method. Potential sand sources are identified at
Indian River Shoal, three miles from the study area, and at Bethel Shoal, 11
miles from the study area. Vibracores were collected during 1973, 1974, and
1984-1985. Native beach materials (grab samples) were also collected and
magnetometer surveys were conducted. Orange tint (oxidation) observed in
many sands is taken to be indicative of an upland source (not native beach
sand). Borrow sand will diffuse to adjacent beaches after emplacement. The
need for sand to replace diffused sediment diminishes with subsequent
renourishment. Often beach renourishment using a dredge will stockpile sand
on the dry beach portion of the profile. Selective dredging of the borrow area
can improve sediment characteristics. Removal of coarse (>2") shell debris may
not always be necessary as the larger carbonate fraction will self adjust to
match the native size interval. When planning a nourishment project, volume
should be adjusted to account for borrow source grain size and nourishment
plans should be cognizant of end losses (greater losses at the physical limits of
Coastal Planning and Engineering Inc., 1993, Fort Pierce Inlet Management Plan,
prepared for Saint Lucie County, Florida: 86 p. and appendices.
This management plan analyzes Fort Pierce Inlet to determine whether
improved inlet is significant cause of downdrift beach erosion. The plan
recommends sediment bypassing, modifications to channel dredging, jetty
design, disposal of spoil material, beach restoration and nourishment and
innovative techniques. The beach immediately south of the inlet was restored in
1971 (36,100 cubic yds from inlet) and 1983 (346,000 cubic yds from offshore
source). Jetty and channel dredging was found to be the cause of 60% of
downdrift erosion (within 1.3 miles of inlet mouth).
Coastal Technology, Inc., 1985, Shoreline stabilization and beach management for the
City of Vero Beach: 57 p. and figures.
The impact of armoring is discussed in this report. If armoring is installed, the
beaches will disappear within 20 years. Armoring will, however, protect upland
structures at the expense of the beach. The beaches south of Riomar Point in
Indian River County have historically accreted while the beaches north of
Riomar have historically eroded. The North Sebastian Inlet Jetty contributes to
Vero Beach erosion by inhibiting southward longshore drift. Historically, the
State of Florida has allowed rigid beach armoring only to protect existing
structures while structures designed to interrupt sand flow are generally not
permitted (i.e., artificial seaweed, offshore breakwaters, groins). Revetments are
typically not allowed for dune protection but are allowed for structure protection.
Seawalls are permitted for major residential structures but they must be within
25 feet of the eastern portion of the building. Dune reconstruction and
revegetation is the DNR preferred method for structural protection. Even
though vegetation may help stabilize a dune against eolian forces, it does not
protect a dune against wave attack. This is a well thought out document and
very worthwhile reading.
Coastal Technology Corporation, 1988, Sebastian Inlet District Comprehensive
management plan: Prepared for Sebastian Inlet District Commission, Vero Beach,
Florida, 537 p.
The inlet master plan includes discussion of beach nourishment needs and
potential borrow sand source areas. Overfill ratios for borrow materials are
discussed. The inlet ebb tidal shoal is recommended as a source area.
Coastal Technology Corporation, 1992, Brevard County Coastal Engineering Analysis-
Phase II: various pagings.
This document is a feasibility study for beach renourishment. It includes cost-
benefit calculations but does not include any hard data.
Coastal Technology Corporation, 1993, Vero Beach restoration hardbottom mapping:
Characterization and coastal engineering analysis for Indian River County, by Coastal
Technology Corporation and Matrix Technical Services, Inc., Vero Beach, Florida:
Indian River County conducted side scan hard bottom investigations in 1987.
Coastal Technology expanded upon this hardbottom mapping. All hardbottoms
within 2000 feet of shore were mapped. Video transects were made across the
hardbottoms. Based on the analysis of side scan data, much of the hardbottom
present in 1988 was covered by sediment in 1993. Two borrow areas were
identified as suitable for renourishment. The first borrow area contained more
than 50% carbonate. Upland borrow areas have also been examined. The
break-even point for offshorelupland borrow is 220,000 cubic yds at Vero
Beach. A dewatering system, which has helped to stabilize the beach, was
installed at Sailfish Point in Martin County in 1993. A dewatering system is also
recommended for Indian River County. PEP reef and reef alternatives are also
Coastal Technology Corporation, 1994, Mapping & Biological Characterization of
Nearshore Hardbottom Habitats: prepared by Seabyte Inc., Tequesta, Florida, for
Coastal Technology, Vero Beach, Florida, 27 p. and figures and appendices.
During the summer of 1994, nearshore hardbottoms south of the Fort Pierce
Inlet were surveyed. All of the hardbottoms in this area are assigned to the
Anastasia Formation. The hardbottoms are made up of a mixture of sand, clay
and skeletal carbonates (predominantly Pleistocene bivalves), Sabellariid worm
reefs are also present.
Continental Shelf Associates, 1985, Ecological Assessment of Nearshore Rock
Outcrops Off Jupiter Island: prepared for Gehagen and Bryant, consulting engineers,
This report provides an ecological assessment of nearshore rock outcrops
located off of Jupiter Island. It reviews historical outcrop data and discusses
impacts of beach nourishment on biota. Hardgrounds are also mapped.
Continental Shelf Associates, 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment for Beach
Restoration, Brevard County, Florida: prepared for Olsen Associates, 69 p.
This paper delineates hardground areas in Brevard County. It emphasizes the
environmental impact of beach nourishment. Emphasis is given to effects on
nesting turtles. Negative impacts are found at hardbottom outcrops near Patrick
AFB and at other sea turtle nesting beaches.
Dean, R. G., and O'Brien, M. P., 1987, Florida's East Coast Inlets, Shoreline Effects
and Recommended Action, Coastal Oceanographic and Engineering Department,
University of Florida, prepared for Division of Beaches and Shores, Florida Department
of Natural Resources, 65 p.
Dean and O'Brien catalog 19 inlets along the east coast of Florida. These inlets
extend from St. Mary's Entrance at the Georgia border to Government Cut at
the south end of Miami Beach. Of these 19 inlets, six were constructed inlets,
cut for navigational and/or water quality purposes. All but two of the 19 have
been modified for navigational purposes. Each inlet is described and the
sediment budget for each inlet is tabulated. Aerial photographs of each inlet are
included in this report. Specific maintenance action is suggested for each inlet.
The authors observe that a major reason for the failure of past replenishment
efforts is the emplacement of good quality beach sand in water depths too great
for the sand to reenter the longshore system under natural forces. Placement
depths of 12 feet or less are suggested.
Domhelm, R. B., 1995, The Coney Island Public Beach and Boardwalk Improvement of
1923: Shore & Beach, v. 63, no. 1, p. 7-24.
Domhelm describes one of the first fully documented beach renourishment
projects in the country. He provides historical perspective along with an
explanation of the considerations driving the sand renourishment project.
Erickson, K. M., Modzeleski, E. H. and Harris, L., 1987, Saint Lucie County,
Comprehensive Beach Management Plan: Applied Technology and Management
Incorporated, 75 p.
This plan included a sediment investigation sampling program designed to
characterize the Ft. Pierce Inlet. Most of the sediment sampled was from the
flood shoal and the channel. Of 31 total samples collected, only five were
collected from Ebb Shoal.
Field, M. E. and Meisburger, E. P. 1971, Late Pleistocene-Holocene History of Cape
Kennedy Inner Continental Shelf: American Association of Petroleum Geologists
Abstract, v. 52, no. 2, p. 337.
Field and Meisburger summarize results of lithologic analyses of 91 cores
averaging ten feet in length and 360 miles of continuous high resolution seismic
data. Two prominent regional reflectors were identified and prograding beds
were found between the upper and lower reflectors.
Fields, M. L., Marino, J. N., and Weisher, L., 1988, Effects of Florida Tidal Inlets on
Adjacent Shorelines; in: Beach Preservation Technology '88, Florida Shore & Beach
Preservation Association, p. 383-393.
This paper provides a comparison of tidal effects on shorelines of St. Augustine,
Port Canaveral, and St. Lucie Inlets. Each inlet responds to stabilization in a
distinctly different fashion. South of Port Canaveral, the shoreline retreated.
The shoreline adjacent to Saint Augustine Inlet showed accretion and the
shoreline adjacent to St. Lucie Inlet showed a reduced rate of shoreline retreat.
Discusses "r" factor developed by Bruun and Gerritsen (1959) which is equal
to the ratio of the net longshore transport m max to the maximum inlet flow,
Qmax. If an inlet has a high "f', sand will be naturally bypassed around the inlet.
When the "r" of an inlet is low, tidal sand transport will predominate. Five
shoreline parameters were collected from the old shoreline data-the zero
crossing parameter (distance from inlet to change in accretion/erosion scheme)
and the shoreline parameter which is the average net change from inlet to zero
particle point. These two measurements are made updrift and downdrift for a
total of four parameters. The fifth parameter to be measured is the effective
length of the north jetty.
Fields, et al. conclude that no single inlet classification is available which
describes both sediment transport and physical processes and that the
dominant bypassing mechanism affects the downdrift tidal response. Updrift
response to inlet and jetty construction is localized and not tied to bypassing
mechanism. Tidal bypass inlets have more downdrift effect than bar bypass
inlets. Combination inlets have relatively constant effects downdrift. Deepening
of the channel through the bar can alter dominant bypass mechanism.
Gehagen and Bryant Associates, 1976, Jupiter Island Beach Renourishment Program:
47 pages and appendix.
Gehagen and Bryant show that Jupiter Island beaches have been eroding since
the excavation of the St. Lucie Inlet in 1892. The erosion rate has increased
since 1946 with much of the eroded material being moved offshore. 3.7 million
cubic yards of material was placed on Jupiter Island beaches during 1973-74.
By the time of this report (1976) 1.8 million yards had already been eroded. The
borrow material was finer grained than the native material. Fill material eroded
from the beach was found to flatten the nearshore slope. 300-600 thousand
yards of borrow material are needed to maintain a constant beach width every
third year. St. Lucie Inlet, Pecks Lake and the Intracoastal Waterway were
searched as a potential source of borrow sands. St. Lucie Inlet borrow material
was found to be of better quality and more expensive than offshore borrow
Harris, L. E., 1983, Physical and Hydraulic Analysis of the St. Lucie Improvement
Project Prior to and During Construction: Florida Academy Symposium, Florida
Scientist, v. 46, nos. 3/4, p. 234-238.
Harris reports the status of the St. Lucie Inlet as of 1981. He discusses the
concept of the "weir-jetty" (impoundment basin). The south inlet jetty prevents
sand from entering the inlet during flood flow and southeast wind periods. This
jetty also interferes with the natural tidal current flow to the inlet. The shoreline
was straight before first the jetty was installed in 1892.
Humiston, K. K., 1975, Project Performance Studies, Beach Erosion Control Project,
Fort Pierce, Florida: Department of the Army, Jacksonville District, U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers, 7 pages and figures.
Humiston evaluates the 1.2 mile beach renourishment project performed south
of the Fort Pierce Inlet entrance. During 1971, 700,000 cubic yards of sand
were placed on the beach. Beach profile surveys were performed before and
after sand emplacement. Erosion/accretion maps were assembled for the
renourishment area. Through 1975, the project was outperforming its design
parameters and losses were estimated at approximately 50,000 cubic yards per
Hunt, S. D., 1980, Port Canaveral Inlet Report #9: Florida Sea Grant Report #39, 50 p.
Good historical background for Port Canaveral, widely used as background for
other Port Canaveral papers. Report contains a summary of dredging records
and refers to continuous record of aerial photos.
Hushla, F. L., 1982, Evaluating the Performance of Beach Nourishment in Brevard
County, Florida through the Use of Aerial Photography (M.S. Thesis): Melbourne
Florida, Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Florida, 80 p.
Hushla measures beach width and area changes from aerial photographs. The
Indialantic/Melboume beach renourishment area was found to be eroding at an
accelerated rate (50% of fill gone within one year). Much of the sand added
during the Indialantic/Melboume Beach renourishment project wound up being
impounded by the north jetty at Sebastian Inlet. Aerial photography was found
to be a cost effective way of gathering information and is especially useful when
other information is sparse. It provides a repeatable means of assessing the
amount of sediment trapped in longshore flow. Aerial photos are found to be as
accurate as ground surveys for beach width measurements but not
sufficiently accurate for showing changes over short time periods.
Johnson, L. D., 1976, Recent History of the Sebastian Inlet, Florida Area (M.S. Thesis):
Gainesville, Florida, University of Florida, 48 p.
Johnson documents the search for a lost paleo-inlet based on sediments
recovered during an archeological dig. Sediment grab samples were collected
along profile lines. Refraction seismic data was also collected with the aim of
determining the depth to the Anastasia Formation. Local areas of narrow barrier
island width were found not to be coincident with paleochannels but are
coincident with perched beach deposits over a hardrock bottom. The study area
extended from one mile north to two miles south of the inlet. The ocean tide
range is 3.8 feet while the bay tide range is 0.23 feet. Peak flow rates in the
inlet are 4.9 mph during flood tide and 6.2 mph at ebb tide. Under natural
conditions, tidal inlets will self form into a long narrow "nozzle" shape. Shoaling
is due to the prolongation of the inlet channel. Carbonates were abundant in
the thesis area. Most of the carbonates were found to be reworked Anastasia
Formation shell fragments.
Jones, Edmunds and Associates, 1978, Report of Investigation: Magnetometer Survey
of Borrow Areas for Fort Pierce Beach Erosion Control Project: Florida Report #78-091-
001, Prepared for Jacksonville District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 22 p.
The consultant performed a magnetometer survey supporting an archeological
assessment of the borrow area. Several magnetic anomalies have been
located. These may or may not be old wrecks. The borrow area for a proposed
Fort Pierce beach renourishment project is mapped as a part of this study.
Lin, P. C. P., Sasso, R. H., and Higgins, S., 1992, Prediction and Enhancement of
Beach Fill Performance; in: New Directions in Beach Management, Proceedings of the
5th Annual Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, Florida Shore & Beach
Preservation Association, p. 166-179.
Lin, et al. examine a renourishment project in Broward County at John U. Lloyd
Park. Three hydrographic surveys were performed at 8 month intervals. Twenty
six percent of the fill material had been eroded from the renourished beach
within two years.
Mehta, A. J., Adams, W. D., and James, C. P., 1976, Sebastian Inlet-Glossary of Inlets
Report #3: Sea Grant Report #14, Coastal and Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory,
University of Florida, 52 p.
Report summarizes background information on inlet. A three hour delay in tides
was found between Atlantic and Indian River sides of the inlet. A sand trap was
added in 1962.
Mims, J. F., 1975, Location and Evaluation of Borrow Material for the Beach
Nourishment of Melbourne Beach, Florida (M.S. Thesis): Gainesville, Florida, University
of Florida, 84 p.
Using ICONS seismic and boring data, Mims identified borrow area features
2000-8000 feet off Melbourne Beach. Most of these features are covered by a
thin veneer of fine grained sediments. Mims identifies the shelf break as being
35 miles offshore at Melbourne Beach. The renourishment project comprised
an area extending from four miles north of Eau Gallie to seven miles southward.
Seismic refraction data was collected at most stations using an explosive
source. The relative merits of the Krumbein and Dean methods for calculating
overfill are discussed. Most investigators try to match replenishment material
grain size distribution to the existing beach even though existing beaches are
eroding. The SPM takes a more empirical approach. Fifty percent of the
emplaced material from the 100 sieve will be lost within the first year. The
question that should be asked is what materials will be stable on the beach.
Jupiter and Cape Canaveral projects show coarser fragments carbonatess)
remain while finer fractions are washed away. Carbonate shell debris effectively
provides a form of armament Strack (1975) pointed out problems with the
Jupiter fill project. Among these are insufficient sampling to characterize the
borrow area. Dredging losses of 90% above 200 mesh and 5% above 100
mesh occur during the beach building process with coarser material remaining
on top of the beach. At Cape Canaveral, the beach surface is effectively
armored by shell fragments overlying fine grained sand. The borrow material for
the Melbourne Beach replenishment is a relict sediment covered with a veneer
of modem sediment. The borrow site was identified based on ICONS seismic
data. A seismic discontinuity was identified as a paleobeach while a hard
layer was correlated with a dense clay lying on an unconformity surface.
Nocita, B. W., Kophina, P., Papetti, L. W., Olivier, M.M., Grosz, A. E., Snyder, S.,
Campbell, K. M., Green, R. C., and Scott, T. M.,1990, Sand, Gravel and Heavy Mineral
Resources Potential of the Surficial Sediments Offshore of Cape Canaveral, Florida:
Florida Geological Survey, Open File Report No. 35, 55 p.
This survey report examines 79 samples extracted from 44 vibracores. A
paleostrandline is delineated based on Donax occurrence. The cores used
were originally collected for Field and Dwayne (1974). Sediment grab
samples and uniboom seismic data were also collected. Most samples are
predominantly sand and gravel rich. Heavy mineral distribution is similar to the
onshore occurrences at Trail Ridge and Green Cove Springs but the absolute
abundance of minerals is lower.
Olsen Associates, 1989, Economic Analysis of Beach Restoration Along Brevard
County, Florida: 184 pages and appendices.
Olsen provides a cost analysis based feasibility study. No geological data or
data reduction is included.
Olsen Associates, 1989, Historical Shoreline Analysis Along Brevard County, Florida:
Areas of erosion and accretion along the Brevard County shoreline are detailed.
The report examines rates of shoreline change and shoreline change ratios.
Olsen Associates (Buckingham and Olsen), 1989, Sand Source Analysis for Beach
Restoration in Brevard County, Florida: prepared for the Brevard County Florida Board
of County Commissioners, various pagings.
Buckingham and Olsen extensively detail prospective borrow areas for beach
renourishment in Brevard County. Sands are characterized and boring logs are
Parkinson, R.W. and Perez-Bedmar, M., 1993, Physical Attributes of a Natural (Control)
and Renourished (Treatment) Beach, Sebastian Inlet, Florida-Year 2: Oceanography
Program, Division of Marine and Environmental Systems, Florida Institute of
Technology, Melbourne, Florida, 16 p.
The control beach extends 3000 feet north of the inlet entrance while the
treatment beach extends 4000 feet south of the inlet. The beach was
renourished during the winter of 1993. Physical attributes of the beach were
studied by Parkinson and White (1992). Beach tilling has been unsuccessful in
reducing compaction levels. The treatment beach was found to contain
consistently higher amounts of both gravel and mud.
Parkinson, R. W., 1991, Moisture and Grain Size Characteristics of a Renourished and
Control Beach, Sebastian Inlet, Florida: Florida Institute of Technology, report
submitted to Sebastian Inlet Tax District Commission, 12 pages and appendices.
Parkinson's work was designed to characterize sediment grain size distribution
and moisture content. It was performed as part of a turtle monitoring project.
Two hundred and eighty-seven samples were collected from renourished and
control beaches south of Sebastian Inlet. All samples were analyzed for
moisture content. Ninety-four samples were analyzed to determine sediment
grain size distribution. Parkinson was unable to distinguish between the control
and renourished beaches based on the analytical results.
Parkinson, R. W., Venanzi, P. F., and White, J. R., 1993, Shoreface Sediment
Distribution Patterns: A Measure of Inlet Influence?: Florida Institute of Technology,
Department of Oceanography, Ocean Engineering and Environmental Science, report
submitted to Sebastian Inlet Tax District, 50 p.
This study sought to find the length of shoreface affected by Sebastian Inlet.
Inlet influence was determined by examining grab sample grain size
distributions along the shoreline. Significantly altered grain size distributions
were found for a distance of approximately 5000 feet updrift and 6000 feet
downdrift of the inlet mouth.
Parkinson, R. W. and White, J. R., 1993, Characterization of Surficial Sediment,
Sebastian Inlet Sand Trap: Division of Marine and Environmental Systems, Florida
Institute of Technology, prepared for Sebastian Inlet Tax District, 17 pages and
Parkinson and White characterize the sediment being collected in the
Sebastian Inlet sand trap. The sand trap was found to contain mostly sand
sized particles with less than 5% mud content.
Raichle, A. W. and Bodge, K. R., 1994, Sedimentary Characteristics of 1992/1993
Nearshore Disposal Operation, Port Canaveral, Florida: prepared by Olsen Associates
Inc. for the Canaveral Port Authority, 52 p.
Analysis of samples collected after renourishment demonstrates that the
emplaced beach migrated landward. After renourishment, the level of fines
increased from 10.5% of beach material to 18% of beach material. After
renourishment, the seabed is itself comprised of coarser material with the
amount of fines on the seabed being diminished.
St. Lucie County Engineering Department, 1982-1983, Untitled Maps.
This report describes the erosion status of restored South Beach with data
collected at six month intervals starting August 1980.
Sebastian Inlet District, 1975, Beach Renourishment Project Maps.
Collection of plan view maps and cross sections pertinent to beach inlet
maintenance and beach renourishment.
Secretary of the Army, 1948, Jupiter Island Florida Beach Erosion Study: a letter from
the Secretary of the Army, War Department Beach Erosion Report; in: Congressional
Record-80th Congress 2nd Session, Doc. 765 81395-49, 16 p. and illustration.
This report summarizes erosion problems facing the built-up portion of Jupiter
Island (Hobe Sound). Continuous bulkheading is recommended. This
document is interesting in that it provides a perspective on early solutions to
Stauble, D. K., 1982, A Detailed Study of Profile Response and Sediment Textural
Changes of the Indialantic/Melboume Beach Nourishment Project; in: Proceedings of
the 25th Meeting of the Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, p. 197-216.
Stauble studies the response of a beach after nourishment. Borrow material for
the project came from the Canaveral Turning Basin. It was transported by truck
and spread by dozer on the receding beach. Wave action initially reworked
sediments with fine grain sizes being removed. Coarser shell material was
broken down into finer fractions. Nine months passed from the time of initial
renourishment until the beach grain size distribution was stabilized. Before the
fill project, all beaches in the area had the concave profile typical of a winter
beach. Profiles were altered by the fill project. The volume loss rate of fill sand
emplaced above mean sea level was greatest immediately after renourishment
while the central section of the fill area suffered the most rapid erosion. During
spring and summer, the beach stabilized and accreted. The predominant
longshore drift is to the southeast. The beaches immediately downdrift of the
target area received significant amounts of fill from the project. There is a high
degree of variability in measures of mean grain size and sorting. Fine grained
sediment is transported away from the area while the coarser grained fraction
modifies its grain size to match beach distribution. Variations in the initial
amount of fill leads to non-uniform rates of fill erosion.
Stauble, D. K., 1986, Collection and Analysis of Cores for the Proposed Dredging of
the channel in the Vicinity of Markers R"6"- B"5" to R"14"-B"13" of the Navigation
Channel West of Sebastian Inlet, Florida: Coastal Processes Group, Department of
Oceanography and Ocean Engineering, Florida Institute of Technology.
A series of cores were taken to one foot below dredge depth. Uthologic logs
were compiled for the cores. Samples were collected, dry weights were noted
and grain size distributions calculated. Settling rates from the fraction of
sediment finer than silt was determined and the organic content was analyzed.
Two basic sediment types were found. At the top of each core is a fine grained,
poorly graded (SP) sand that has been deposited since the last dredging.
Beneath this distinct boundary is a poorly sorted, dark colored sand with shell
Stauble, D. K., 1993, Impact of Storms on Beach Nourishment Projects; in: The State
of the Art of Beach Nourishment, Proceedings of the 6th Annual National Conference
on Beach Preservation Technology, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association,
The impact of severe storms after fill emplacement is documented in this paper.
Fill provides protection to upland properties and reduces closure depth of the
project. Beach nourishment is the least expensive type of shore protection. A
survey of the Indialantic/Melboume beach project was conducted after the
Thanksgiving Day 1984 storm. It was found that the sand emplaced in the
most recent nourishment project was severely eroded but that the dunes were
protected. Upland property experienced minimal damage. The profile history of
beach recovery after the storm was measured. Profiles were collected out to
wading depth and sediment samples were collected at high, medium and low
tide locations along with wave data and aerial photography. The occurrence of
additional storm events was documented. The original fill material for the
project was trucked in. Readjustment of the fill is controlled by frequency and
intensity of extreme events. Sediment eroded off of subaerial beaches during
storms appears to be deposited on offshore bars-it is not lost to the system.
Composite samples for the project were created by combining high tide, mid tide
and low tide samples. The beach displays a finer mean particle size during
quiet periods. Coarser mean particle size movement occurs during storms.
Coastal processes work to make the grain size distribution of any nourished
beach similar to the grain size distribution in the native sediment. Brief
descriptions are also given for renourishment projects at Myrtle Beach, South
Carolina and Ocean City, Maryland.
Stauble, D. K., DaCosta, S. L., Monroe, K. L., Bhogal, V., and de Vassal, G., 1987,
Sediment Dynamics of a Sand Bypass Inlet, Coastal Sediments; in: ASCE
Proceedings, p. 1624-1639.
In this paper, Stauble addresses the extensive Sebastian Inlet flood delta. It
should be read together with Wang's (1991) paper on the ebb delta.
Volumetrically, the flood delta is dominant and shows extensive growth into
the Indian River Lagoon. Sediment hindcasting (performing back calculations
based on present sediment distribution) was used to predict sediment dynamics.
When inlets are stabilized with structures to maintain channels, flushing and
longshore sediment movement are impaired. A "lagoonal inlet" has a highly
restricted throat section and is backed by a large lagoon. Sorting processes
occur as sediments are transported lagoonward with the coarser sediments
dropping out first. A chart showing mean vs. sorting values of surface samples
are included in the article. Sediments become finer and better sorted as one
moves away from inlet and into the lagoon. The study makes reference to an
extensive flood tidal delta and small or absent ebb tidal deltas. Net transport
over the tidal cycle is in the flood direction due to changes in channel velocities
over time. The author suggests passive sand bypassing for beach nourishment.
Selective sorting occurs as sediment is transported into the delta area during
Stone, K., 1989, "Sand Rights": A Legal System to Protect the Shores of the Sea; in:
Beach Preservation Technology '89, Strategies and Alternatives in Erosion Control,
Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, p. 9-20.
Using California as an example, Stone makes a case for allocating "sand
rights" in a fashion similar to the one in which water rights are allocated. This
paper discusses extension of public trust doctrine to include "sand rights" and it
points out that there are numerous causes of shoreline erosion. Hundreds of
millions of yards of sand are stored behind dams in the Los Angeles area.
Erosion occurs on the downstream side of a dam and accretion on the upstream
side. Before construction, the effects of each project on the supply of sand to
the beach should be examined.
United States Engineers Office, Jacksonville, Florida, Bathymetric Soundings, Fort
Pierce Harbor, Florida: 1939.
Bathymetric chart of Fort Pierce Harbor, Florida.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1962, Evaluation of Oceanographic,
Hydrographic and Hydrologic Effects, Cape Canaveral, Florida, 16 pages and figures.
This document tabulates winds, tides and water levels near the Canaveral Inlet.
It also evaluates waves, currents and the effects of barge traffic.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1967, Beach Erosion Control Study, Brevard
County, Florida: 13 pages and attachments.
The Corps of Engineers provides a historical summary of beach erosion
throughout Brevard county. The report includes bathymetric and historical
shoreline change maps. Previous reports are summarized and areas of beach
erosion/accretion are discussed.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1968, Beach Erosion Control Study, Martin
County, Florida: U.S. Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, Office of District Engineer,
Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville, 32 pages and figures and appendices.
This report recommended renourishment to protect Jupiter Island (Jensen
Beach, Stuart Beach). Groins should minimize losses at Jensen Beach and
Stuart Beach. At the time of this report, it was not economically viable to
improve Jensen and Stuart Beaches. Jensen Island had little publicly owned
land and would not qualify for major Federal participation. It was therefore
recommended that the Corps of Engineers not initiate beach projects in Martin
County at this time.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, Department of Army, 1972, various maps,
Assorted maps delineating Canaveral renourishment project. Plan and cross
section views. Boring logs showing CH (high plasticity) clays from 15 to 30 feet
below the sea floor (approximately 30-50 ft below sea level).
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1978, General and Detail Design
Memorandum, Fort Pierce Beach Erosion Control Project: Jacksonville District, U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers, 60 p. and appendices.
This report addresses periodic renourishment required for the Fort Pierce
Beach renourishment project. Grab samples are collected and characterized
from the proposed borrow area.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1980, Feasibility Report for Beach Erosion
Control, Indian River County Beaches: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville
District, various pagings.
This paper discuses the renourishment history of Indian River County beaches
along with previous federal studies. It includes the past history of the area,
archeology, and shipwrecks. History of federal and non-federal projects is also
included. Longshore currents are also addressed along with determination of
beach renourishment needs.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1982, Section 111 Detailed Project Report,
Fort Pierce, Florida: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District, 68 p. and
figures and appendices.
This report assesses damage to shorelines adjacent to the Fort Pierce Federal
Navigation Project and determines the most acceptable methods for
remediating these damages. The report finds that the neighboring shoreline
has been affected and recommends beach restoration using materials from an
offshore borrow area. Beach is expected to require 305,000 yards of material
every seven years. Benefits outweigh costs of project by four to one.
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1994, Coast of Florida Erosion and Storm
Effects Study, Region III Feasibility Report, Appendix E, Geotechnical Report, 86 p.
This report covers south Florida (Palm Beach, Broward and Dade) counties
only. It is not directly relevant to the study area but it does provide worthwhile
United States Army Corps of Engineers, 1995, Fort Pierce Florida Shore Protection
Project Reevaluation Report: United States Corps of Engineers, Jacksonville District,
55 p. and appendices.
This report evaluates Federal interest in extending federal participation in Fort
Pierce Beach renourishment until 2000 AD.
Walker, T. D., 1966, Beach Erosion in Florida with a Case Study of Fort Pierce, South
Beach: Masters Thesis (Geography), Florida State University, Tallahassee, 82 p.
The objective of this thesis is to determine the impact of beach erosion upon
man living in Florida. Florida has 1300 miles of total shoreline. Of this amount,
800 miles consist of sandy beaches. The effect of vegetation in slowing the
erosion process is examined. The role of seawalls and revetment in
stabilizing Jupiter Island beaches is briefly discussed as are the influence of
state and federal regulations applying to erosion control. A case study is made
of beach erosion at Fort Pierce. Fort Pierce Inlet is manmade. The town of Fort
Pierce was established on a bluff on the mainland in 1837. A natural inlet,
known as the Indian River Inlet, formerly existed in the Fort Pierce area. A
manmade inlet was constructed in 1930 at a cost of $2.5MM. Maximum current
velocity in the inlet is 5 ft/sec (3.5 mph). As a result of inlet activities, there has
been a decline in property values on the south beach and conflicts with property
owners have developed. The thesis examines various sand transfer schemes
and beach renourishment. There has been little serious erosion in the area of
Fort Pierce Inlet. Thesis recommendations for beach management include
educating the public, cleaning up the beach, and initiating dialogue with other
areas having similar problems.
Walther, M. P., Sasso, R. H., and Un, C. P., 1988, Sediment Budget for Sebastian
Inlet; in: Beach Preservation Technology '88, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation
Association, p. 395-400.
The authors perform an analysis of downdrift sand losses caused by the
Sebastian Inlet jetties. Areas studied include the beach extending to 900 feet
north of the inlet jetty, the ebb tide shoal, the sand trap and the flood shoal.
The inlet ebb shoal contains 1.5 MM yards of sand accreting at a rate of 28,500
yards per year while the sand trap and the flood shoal impound sand at the
rate of 47,000-57,000 yds/yr. This report includes a summary of dredging and
nourishment projects related to Sebastian Inlet. The sediment budget at the
inlet consisted of 157,000 yards moved longshore, 57,000 yards moved into the
inlet, 13,600 yards to the ebb shoal and 86,400 yards moved downdrift by
natural bypass mechanisms. The net sediment deficit to downdrift beaches is,
therefore, 48,600 yds/yr.
Wang, H., Lin, L., and Lin, P., 1991, Modeling Sebastian Inlet; in: Proceedings of the
Fourth Annual National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, p. 158-177.
Wang, et al. find that simulation of current patterns yields greater validity than
simulation of current strength. The channel bed at Sebastian has a rocky
bottom of marine origin and the tidal prism is twice the value of the prism
associated with a stable inlet. This results in very strong currents. Erosion
of beaches on the south side of the inlet is caused by sands impounding against
the north jetty. An ebb shoal rapidly develops to the south and encroaches
upon the inlet entrance channel. A working inlet model requires bottom
bathymetrics, boundary geometries, wave conditions at offshore boundary,
currents at the inlet, bottom friction and lateral mixing coefficients. The wave
field at the inlet differs significantly from the ambient wave field due to various
influencing factors. Incoming waves shoal, refract and eventually wrap around
the inlet jetty to create short crested cross waves (wave diffraction). Wave
height enhancement occurs near the jetty where tidal currents meet incoming
waves, amplifying wave height and creating near standing waves. A graph is
provided in the paper showing differing wave regimes. During ebb flow the
current serves to jet fines offshore onto the ebb shoal. Modeling of the mixing
coefficient in the numerical model does not apply at a laboratory scale.
Wang, H., and Lin, L., 1992, Sebastian Inlet Model Studies; in: New Directions in
Beach Management, Proceedings of the 5th Annual National Conference on Beach
Preservation Technology, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, p. 274-293.
Wang and Lin modeled sediment motion around Sebastian Inlet utilizing a
movable bed physical model. Several structural alternatives were explored.
Sand was generally found to bypass the inlet entrance and be deposited on the
nearshore ebbshoal. The extension of the south jetty at Sebastian was found to
increase the rate of sand bypassing. Sediment movement was found to be
most active in the top layer of the ebb shoal. The shoal is relatively stable in all
War Department, 1947, Beach Erosion Report on Cooperative Study of Jupiter Island,
Florida: Report of Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army Beach Erosion Board, 27 p.
This paper provides background on beach erosion problems and historically
documents Jupiter Island through 1948. This report also touches upon the
shortcomings of then popular beach erosion control methods.
E. Field Procedures and Techniques
Bergmann, P. C., 1982, Comparison of Sieving, Settling and Microscopic Determination
of Sand Size (M.S. Thesis): Tallahassee, Florida, Florida State University, 178 p.
Bergmann discusses results obtained from rapid sediment analyzer (RSA)
analyses and how the results compare to sieve and microscopic grain size
analyses. The investigator found that RSA analyses will truncate both ends of
the sediment size distribution curve.
Committee on Beach Nourishment and Protection, Marine Board, Commission on
Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council, 1995, Beach
Nourishment and Protection, National Academy Press, 334 p.
This is an outstanding publication that describes current practices in beach
nourishment and protection. This study addresses beach nourishment project
performance, methods for the design and predicting the performance of beach
nourishment projects, the development of project monitoring methodology, the
potential for improving beach nourishment projects with hard structures,
potential environmental impacts of beach nourishment and various economic
issues associated with beach nourishment (cost of design, construction and
maintenance, accuracy of prediction and an examination of the costs and
benefits of beach nourishment as opposed to other shoreline management
Dally, W. R., 1993, An overview of coastal surveying technology for documenting
beach-inlet interaction: Journal of Coastal Research, Special Issue No. 18, p. 291-300.
Subaqueous surveying technologies are assessed as to performance and
accuracy. Sebastian Inlet was used as a test site.
Dean, R. G., 1974, Compatibility of borrow material for beach fills: Proceedings of the
14th Coastal Engineering Conference, New York: American Society of Civil Engineers,
Dean presents a method for estimating the computability of borrow material for
beach fill purposes. Compatible material is defined as the fraction of borrow
material that has the same or larger mean diameter than the native material on
the beach. Effective application of this method requires log-normal grains size
distribution (gsd) and knowledge of the mean gsd of the native and borrow
materials and of the standard deviation of the gsd in the borrow material.
Down, C., 1983, Use of aerial imagery in determining submerged features in three east-
coast Florida lagoons: Florida Scientist Quarterly, Journal of the Florida Academy of
Sciences Academic Symposium, v. 46, nos. 3/4, p. 355-362.
Color infra-red (IR) transparencies were found to be most effective for
determining extent of submerged features. IR was found to be particularly
suitable for direct detection of oyster bars and rocky areas.
Harris, W. D. and Jones, B. G., 1964, Repeat Mapping for a Record of Shore Erosion:
Shore and Beach, v. 32, no. 2, p. 31.
Harris and Jones explore the use of infra-red photography to trace shore
erosion. This paper discusses the mechanics of infra-red photography.
Photography is tide controlled (pictures must be taken at high tide).
Comparison of photos with earlier surveys confirms shoreline movement.
Krumbein, W. C., 1957, A Method for Specification of Sand for Beach Fills: Technical
Memorandum No. 102, Washington, D.C.: Beach Erosion Board, U.S. Army Corps of
Factors to be considered in determining the suitability of materials for beach
widening of nourishment include the observed characteristics of native beach
materials along with the observed characteristics of the proposed fill material. In
placing the material, attention should be paid to the slope of the fill so that the
fill material will tie in with the slope of the bottom material at some design depth.
Krumbein presents a statistical analysis of general problems associated with
beach fill and attempts to provide a rational system for organizing data pertinent
to beach fill problems.
Lenz, R. G., 1994, Beachface Drainage, A Tool for Coastal Stabilization; in: Alternative
Technologies in Beach Preservation, Proceedings of 7th National Conference on
Beach Preservation Technology, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association, p.
Beach face drainage improves coastal stabilization as demonstrated by a
project carried out in Stuart, Florida. Beach stability can be greatly improved by
predrainage of the beach face. Installed systems monitor periodic beach
profiles so that the effect of the system can be evaluated relative to updrift and
downdrift beaches which are also monitored. At Sailfish Point in Stuart, Florida,
there is a worm reef located 400 yards offshore. Alternate accretionary and
erosional episodes give net erosion along the shoreline. A six-hundred-foot
long beach drainage system was installed in the western part of the eroding
beach. Eighteen-inch collection headers were attached to the drainage system.
Dewatering was begun at a rate of ten gallons per linear foot of collection
system. The collection header was installed in a trench on the beachface while
a gravity pumping station was installed behind the dune line.
Stronge, W. B., 1993, The Economic Analysis of Beach Restorations-The State of the
Art; in: The State of the Art of Beach Nourishment, Proceedings of the 6th Annual
National Conference on Beach Preservation Technology, Florida Shore & Beach
Preservation Association, p. 9-23.
This paper provides an overview of the economic analysis of beach restoration.
It reviews standard methods of economic benefit determination. Frequently,
benefits are deliberately understated to appease opponents of restorations.
The best approach for determining benefits is through follow up studies when
political controversy has died down.
Thompson, M. J., Gilliland, L.E., and Mendlein, J.E., 1979, Bathymetric Mapping of
Three Selected Areas on the Southeastern Florida Continental Shelf, Technical Report
027, Harbor Branch Foundation Inc., 54 p. and maps.
This reports documents the use of a 100 kHz sidescan sonar to perform
detailed mapping of topographic prominences along the continental margin of
southeastern Florida. Precision depth recorder and side scan sonar sonar data
were collected from the Sebastian Pinnacle System, St Lucie Inlet Areas and
Horseshoe Reef area offshore of Indian River and St. Lucie counties.
Particularly useful are numerous illustrations correlating sidescan signatures
with bottom type and illustration showing examples of various artifacts (fish
schools, porpoise squeaks) one is likely to encounter during a sidescan sonar
Ulrich, C. P., King, M. J., Brown, E., and Miselis, P., 1994, A Methodology for
Quantifying "Hot Spot" Erosion Benefits for Shore Protection Projects; in: Alternative
Technologies in Beach Preservation, Florida Shore & Beach Preservation Association,
This paper assigns costs to various scenarios, risked for probability, so that
potential erosion damage can be prioritized. Beachfill projects provide hotspot
protection. This paper also develops "expected costs" for various types of
University of Florida, Engineering and Industrial Experimental Station, 1962, Coastal
Engineering Study of Current Activity, Sebastian Inlet, Florida: Coastal and
Oceanographic Engineering Laboratory, University of Florida, Miscellaneous
Publication 62/011, 15 p.
This study was designed to optimize bridge placement with respect to inlet
currents. It examined maximum current strength in the inlet and suggested the
best place for bridge pier placement.
Zarillo, G.A. and Bacchus, T.S., 1991, Application of Seismic-Profile Methods to Sand
Source Studies for Beach Nourishment; in: Handbook of Geophysical Exploration at
Sea, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, p. 241-258.
The use of seismic data in locating sands suitable for beach renourishment is
discussed. Studies to identify potential sand sources are the most critical part
of any sand nourishment scheme and can be almost as costly as placing sand
on the beach. Large sand volumes available from upland areas and back-
barrier lagoons are becoming increasingly scarce. Offshore mining of sand will
be the primary source of beachfill. These resources can be located
economically through the use of seismic data. A study conducted of Cape
Canaveral is included as a case history.
Part III COASTAL ATLAS
MMS Cooperative Agreement Study Area
Detailed Map of Study Area
Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Southern Brevard Co.
Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Indian River Co.
Areas of Shoreline Erosion-St. Lucie Co.
Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Martin Co.
Sediment Sample Locations-Southern Brevard Co.
Sediment Sample Locations-Indian River Co.
Sediment Sample Locations-St. Lucie Co.
Sediment Sample Locations-Martin Co.
Geophysical Data-Southern Brevard Co.
Geophysical Data-Indian River Co.
Geophysical Data-St. Lucie Co.
Geophysical Data-Martin Co.
Hardbottom Locations-Southern Brevard Co.
Hardbottom Locations-Indian River Co.
Hardbottom Locations-St. Lucie Co.
Hardbottom Locations-Martin Co.
Carbonate Distribution in Surface Sediment
in Study Area (% Carbonate)
Mean Surface Grain Size in Study Area
Mean Carbonate Surface Grain Size in Study Area
Suggested Future Seismic Program
MMS Cooperative Agreement Study Area-Description
This map illustrates the study area covered by this project. The locations of all cores
installed by FGS personnel are shown on the map. Cores were numbered
sequentially in the order of collection. Cores from Brevard county begin with "B", Indian
River cores begin with "IR", "SL" indicates a core collected in St. Lucie county and
cores beginning with the letter "M" were collected in Martin County.
0 2 4 1 MILES
0 3 6 12 KILOMETERS
0 2 4 8 MLES
0 3 6 12 KILOMETERS
DETAILED MAP OF
STUDY AREA SHOWING
EAST COAST OFFSHORE
JUNE 15, 1995
Areas of Shoreline Erosion-Description
The shoreline erosion data included in this section comes from Clark (1994) and
Balsillie's modifications (unpublished) of Clark's work (verbal communication, 1995).
The restoration/nourishment project histories are from the Florida Department of
Natural Resources (1984) and the potential borrow area depictions are derived from
Inlet Management Plans and the work of various consultants. Areas not depicted as
eroding are either in equilibrium or accreting. Clark's paper and the Florida Department
of Natural Resources' report are discussed in the annotated bibliography.
MERRITT ISLAN CANAVERAL BEACH 2.0 MILES
RESTORED: 1971-75. 2.3 MM CU. YDS
COCOA BEACH THROUGH
SATELLITE BEACH 12.3 MILES
7 B4 -k-
00.51 2 3 4 ImIES
l \0 1 2 3 4 S IIOLOMUt
INDIATLANTIC BEACH 2.1 MILES
MAP 3A TORED: 1976-80. .54 .
AREAS OF SHORELINE
SOUTHERN BREVARD COUNTY
NON-CRITICAL EROSION B2
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
x AREA OF DUNE BLOWOUTS IR 1
POTENTIAL BORROW AREAS INLET
JUNE 15, 1995
ST. LUCIE : /7
ST. LUCIE D Ft. Pierce Inlet
HUTCHINSON ISLAND 6.8 MILES
S* RESTORED 1971-75; 718.000 YARDS
S\ RESTORED 1980 1983; 346.000 YARDS
MAP 3C sL3
AREAS OF SHORELINE N
ST. LUCIE COUNTY Port St. Lucle
\ CRITICAL EROSION
0 NONCRITICAL EROSION
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
l l lD-
JUPITER ISLAND 11.3 MILES
RESTORED: 1971-75. 3.376 MM CU. YDS
SOUTH OF BLOWING ROCKS 0.2 MILE
a I a a um
Sediment Sample Locations-Description
Sediment sampling localities are derived from various sources cited on the individual
county maps. Included on these maps are grab sample locations, push core locations
and vibracore locations. Core material from the ICONS study (Meisburger and Duane,
1971) is available for examination though the state of preservation is uncertain. Each
of the references cited appears in the annotated bibliography accompanying this report.
* 0 0
00 .1 2 3 4 MS
0 1 2 3 4 5 KLM.ClO
SEBASTMN I ET
\ A -N-
MAP 4B 0 ,
SEDIMENT SAMPLE VERO BEACH 3 O 0
LOCATIONS o 0
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY o
S* 0 0
0 0 0
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES 0 0 0
1 1 vi IN W W- - 1 1
0 0 0
,-------.-- ------"----l n 0
SLI 0 0
ST. LUCIE ,FtPierce Inlet "b
FORT 0 0
/ 0 0 Z
MAP 4C 0o
27W LOCATIONS 0o "-
Port St. Lucli
ST. LUCIE COUNTY 0
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
0 CORE BORINGS, ICONS STUDY
(MEISBURGER AND DUANE, 1971)
I-I II I
jW ILVApqI I
This tabulation of geophysical data includes acoustic subbottom profile data obtained
during the ICONS study (Meisburger and Duane, 1971) along with other data (seismic
refraction stations, etc.) collected during various local investigations. Emphasis is
placed on locating offshore data (collected beyond the 3 mile limit). Additional
subsurface acoustic profiles have been shot in connection with various inlet studies.
These are inshore profiles and are all located within one mile of the shoreline. Data
records from the ICONS profile are available for study. These data are reported to be
of poor quality and extremely difficult to interpret. All sources referenced appear in the
00.51 2 3 4 W
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 WOMiETum
SOUTHERN BREVARD COUNTY *
/ SEISMIC LINES, ICONS STUDY
(MEISBURGER AND DUANE, 2
SEISMIC REFRACTION AND 86
WASH BORING LOCATIONS
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES INLU
JUNE 15. 1995
wI L I I
27"o' -'f ST L CIE INLET 27*I
MAP 5D /2
ICONS STUDY SEISMIC LINES
(MEISBURGER AND DUANE, 1971)
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
JUNE 15, 1995
7 o I ] i rn
m / 1
In the study area, hardbottom evaluations have primarily been performed as part of
specific local studies. Identified hardbottoms in Brevard County are limited to the area
around Patrick Air Force Base. South of Sebastian Inlet, almost the entire study area is
protected by hardbottoms. Comprehensive studies of hardbottom development along
the east coast of central Florida have never been performed. The maps included in
this report indicate confirmed hardbottoms. Portions of the shoreline which have never
been surveyed are indicated as "no data" areas on the accompanying maps.
S7 B-4 N -
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 SNuiMM.
SOUTHERN BREVARD COUNTY 81
NEARSHORE HARDBOTTOM LOCATIONS B6
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
JUNE 15. 1995 ---
1 MN1 N -
& : NO DATA
IR 2 ScAu
27** IR 3 27"'-
HARDBOTTOM VERO BEACH
S* \NO DATA
INDIAN RIVER COUNTY
S IR 4
% NEAR-SHORE HARDBOTTOM LOCATIONS
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
JUNE 15. 1995
L I lLttL1b
ST. LUCIE Ft. Pierce Inlet
MAP 6C SL3
7., LOCATIONS No DATA
ST. LUCIE COUNTY Port St. Lucie
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
JUNE 15,1995 SCALi
JUNE 15. 1995ti
I(0 r- - i ,-
Carbonate Distribution in Surface Sediment (% Carbonate)-Description
The information displayed on this map is derived from core sampling data. Surface
samples were collected and weighed from each push core and vibracore collected
during this project. Hydrochloric acid was then used to dissolve the carbonate fraction
in each sample. Samples were weighed again after carbonate digestion. The weight
of the sample portion dissolved by the hydrochloric acid is assumed to equal the weight
of the carbonate fraction of the sample.
74 8 MILES
T LUCIE S
IN SURFACE SEDIMENT
EAST COAST OFFSHORE
A 1994-1995 FGS CORES
37.3 CARBONATE BY WEIGHT
JUNE 15. 1995
Median Surface Sediment Grain Size-Description
Grain size distribution was determined for the topmost sample collected from each core
in the study area. Cumulative frequency curves were prepared from the grain size
distribution data. Median grain size was obtained by finding the grain size value
corresponding to the 50% point on the cumulative frequency curve. These data were
then posted. There is insufficient data control to draw conclusive results about grain
size distribution in the study area.
S2 4 18 MILES
536 12 KILOMETERS
Median Carbonate Surface Grain Size-Description
Grain size distribution of the carbonate fraction for the topmost sample collected from
each core in the study area was determined by comparing the original sample weight
with the sample weight obtained after carbonate digestion. Cumulative frequency
curves were prepared for each carbonate fraction. The grain size found at the 50%
point on each cumulative frequency curve corresponds to the median grain size of the
carbonate fraction in that sample.
S 8 MILES
6 3 6 12 KILOMETERS
Suggested Future Seismic Program-Description
In order to fully delineate potential offshore borrow areas, it is recommended that a
complete seismic program be conducted along the central east coast of Florida. East-
west lines should be run at 1 mile intervals along the coast. Each line should extend
from 3-10 miles offshore. Two north-south (approximate) lines should be shot
paralleling the coast 5 miles offshore and 8 miles offshore. These lines will tie the east-
west lines together. An extensive seismic program was conducted in this area during
the late 1960's and early 1970's. Since that time, better quality seismic equipment has
become available offering higher resolution and better data quality. A comprehensive
seismic survey using modem techniques has never been performed.
0 2 4 8 MILES
0 3 6 12 KILOMETERS
Part IV GEOLOGICAL CROSS SECTIONS