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Group Title: Open file report ;
Title: Editorial preparation of Florida Geological Survey publications
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099431/00001
 Material Information
Title: Editorial preparation of Florida Geological Survey publications
Physical Description: 29 leaves : ill., maps ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lane, Ed ( Edward ), 1935-
Publisher: Florida Geological Survey
Place of Publication: Tallahassee, Fla.
Publication Date: 1992
 Subjects
Subject: Geology -- Authorship -- Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
Genre: Handbooks, manuals, etc   ( lcsh )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Ed Lane.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Open file report - Florida Geological Survey ; 52
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099431
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 32902918
issn - 1058-1391

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Figures
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Appendices
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
Full Text











STATE OF FLORIDA

DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Virginia B. Wetherell, Executive Director




DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Jeremy A. Craft. Director




FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Water Schmidt. State Geologist and Chief





Open File Report No. 52


EDITORIAL PREPARATION
OF
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PUBUCATIONS


by

Ed Lane, PG 141







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Taahassee, Florida
1992


ISSN 1058-1391










CONTENTS


Page


Introduction ............ ..... ..............
Preparing a manuscript mock-up ...................
Binding ................................
Standard pages for Florida Geological Survey publications
Covers .................................


Inside standard pages ............
ISSN numbers ..................
T ad ................................
Illustrations and tables ..................
Assembling the mock-up ...............
Bid specifications preparation .............
Discussions of bid specifications ..........
Books without color ..............
Books with coor ...............
Maps US Geological Survey .......
Maps Florida Geological Survey ....


...... .. .. .................... 1


.............. ... .....1
....................... 2
S...................... 2
....................... 2
........ .......... .... .3

....................... 3
.. ..................... 4
....................... 4
....................... 4
.......................4


.......... ........... 6
...................... 6
. . . . . . . . . . . . 7


FIGURES


Figure


Cover 1 (outside front cover) ....................
Cover 2 (inside front cover) conversion factors .......
Cover 3 (inside back cover) FGS personnel list.......
Inside tle page ..............................
Cabinet listing page ...........................
Letter of transmittal ...........................
"Printed for page ......................... .
First page of Contents ........................
Acknowledgements ...........................
First page of text .............................
Full-page straight Illustration ................... .
Sideways orientation of gure ....................
Half-page figure showing placement of text ........
Two sideways figures combined on one page .......


...B
. .. 9
.. 10
. 11
.. 12
. 18
,. 13
.. 14
. 15
.. 16
..17


.. 19
.. 20
.. 21


APPENDICES


Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D


Books without color ..........
Books with color ..............
Maps US Geological Survey .....
Maps Florida Geological Survey ..


.......... 22
.......... 24
. .. . .. 26


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EDITORIAL PREPARATION
OF
FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PUBUCATIONS

by
ED LANE, PG 141

INTRODUCTION

After a manuscript has been through final in-house review and has received approval to be
printed, there remain two main procedures in getting the text to a porter. The manuscript must be
prepared for the printer, and finally, bid specifications must be written. These guidelines have been written
In light of current Florida Geological Survey (FGS), departmental, and state bidding and contractual
policies. These policies change from time to time, so anyone using these guidelines should satisfy
themselves that they are following current policy.

Most printing companies now have the capability to typeset from computer disks, so a disk of the
complete manuscript (all covers' copy and all interior pages) should be prepared to send out with the
manuscript This disk can be formatted with the standard 1" margin all around, double spaced. The
printer will set it according to their own system.

PREPARING A MANUSCRIPT MOCK-UP

From a mechanical standpoint, the goal of preparing a manuscript to send to a printer is to get
it Into a format that will show the printer exactly what you expect the printed book to look like. The closer
you approach this goal, the fewer chances for misunderstandings on the part of the printer. The best way
to achieve this goal is to prepare a mock-up of the proposed publication, also called 'a dummy book.'

A dummy Is just what its name Implies; it is a 'rough' edition of what you envision the Iinished.
printed book to look like. The dummy can be finished to whatever degree of polish you wish, but it should
be legible and complete. Good, clear xeroxes of text and figures are usually sufficient; color figures can
be xeroxed, also. *Complete" means having every detail exactly placed: all pages numbered, figures with
captions exactly as planned, hierarchy of headings indicated, text laid out on the pages as wanted, and
the like.

The discussion that follows can be best visualized by having on hand a copy ofa recently printed
FGS publication, such as a Bulletin or Report of Investigation. In addition, reference is made to the
standards set forth in Open File Report No. 53, 'Guidelines to Authors."

BINDING

Most technical publications of the FGS are perfet bound" that is, they are printed in multiple-
paged "signatures," which are then folded, collated, and a wrap-around cover is glued on, then the books
are trimmed. This produces a "square back" publication.

Another format is "saddle stitched.' where the pages are folded down the center and staples ar
placed in the center gutter.' This format is sometimes used when the publication's page-count does not
produce enough thickness to allow the printer to typeset a tite on the spine. This situation can occur
when the book's total page-count is about 60 pages or less. Saddle-stitched books are less expensive
to print










Note that publications may be perfect bound that have less than about 60 pages, but a title can't
be printed on the sine.

STANDARD PAGES FOR FGS PUBUCATIONS

All bound FGS publications contain standard pages, also called boilerplate.' because their format.
content, and wording are prescribed and relatively inflexible. Examples of these pages are shown in
Figures 1 to 7.

COVERS

Covers, in printing parlance, are referred to as "covers 1, 2, 3, and 4," which are, respectively, the
front cover, inside front cover, inside back cover, and the outside back cover. Hereinafter, they will be
referred to as "cover 1, 2, 3, or 4."

Cover 1 (Figure 1) has a 20 percent black-screened FGS logo which is centered on the title-area.
The FGS supplies a negative of this logo to the printer; the printer will screen it as needed.

Exceptions to this may occur in the cases of Special Publications or Biennial Reports. The author
or editor has several options concerning the format of the covers of these books; they may opt for
illustrations (line drawings or photograph, color or black-white), combined with titles.

Cover 1 also has associated with it the title of the publication to be printed on the spine, which
Includes, reading from top to bottom, in caps (capital letters): FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
SERIES NAME (Bulletin, SP, etc.) TITLE YEAR. Some publications may not have enough pages
to produce a book thick enough to allow the printer to typeset a title on the spine, In which case this
requirement does not apply (refer to "Binding,* above).

Cover 2 (Figure 2) has a list of metric conversion factors, which is required of any publication that
refers within its body to any unit of measurement All units of measurement mentioned in the publication
must be included in the conversion table.

Cover 3 (Figure 3) Is reserved for the list of personnel of the FGS. A current status copy should
be obtained for each publication.

Cover 4 has been reserved In the past for the cost statement, but this is not required as of this
writing. As a blank page, it could be used for an illustration that would be pertinent to the publication,
along with a caption,

INSIDE STANDARD PAGES

Page I (Figure 4) is referred to as "the inside title page." and is identical to cover 1, except the
screened logo is not used.

Page ii (Figure 5) is the cabinet listing page.' Because these members change occasionally, the
author will need to make sure of a current listing. The DNR logo is placed between the department's
name and the cabinet listing; it is one and one-half-inches (1-112") in diameter.

Page III (Figure 6) Is the letter of transmittal.' This should be proposed in draft form by the
author. The FGS logo is placed below the title; it is one and one-half-Inches (1-1/2') in diameter.








ISSN NUMBERS


Page iv (Figure 7) Is the "printed for page.' Each series of FGS publications has a unique ISSN
number:
Special Publications ISSN 0085-0640
Buletins ISSN 0271-7832
Information Circular ISSN 0085-0616
Report of Investigations ISSN 0160-0931
Map Series ISSN 0085-0624
Leaflets ISSN 0889-6399
Biennial Reports ISSN 1052-6586
Open File Reports ISSN 1058-1391

Page v (Figure 8) begins the table of contents, which carries the Roman numeral pages as far as
needed.

The last page with Roman numerals Is the acknowledgements (Figure 9). This page is prepared
by the author, and is included in the text that circulates for In-house review.

TEXT

Page 1 of the body of the publication (Figure 10) shows several standard features. Page 1 always
starts on a right-hand page. It always has a header of the publication series, in capital letters, for
example: SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 31. All subsequent odd-numbered pages carry this header. Below
the header, centered, In bold all-capital letters, Is the title of the publication. Below this, centered, is the
author's name, followed by their P.G. number (professional geologist's license number). All section
headings are centered, and set off by double spaces, before and after. The page number is centered at
the bottom of the page.

Page 2 (Figure 11) Is similar to page 1, except the header is, in capital letters: FLORIDA
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. All subsequent even-numbered pages carry this header.

ILLUSTRATIONS AND TABLES

From the standpoints of a printer and FGS editorial policy, illustrations are of two basic types:
straight or sideways. A straight figure Is oriented "straight up,' in the position that one would normally hold
and read a book. Sideways orientation requires the reader to turn the book to property read the figure.

As much as possible, figures should be planned, from the earliest stages of manuscript
preparation, to be straight types. Long and narrow figures will sometimes require a sideways orientation,
but even this can often be overcome by proper reduction. If a figure must be placed sideways, it is
oriented so that the reader must rotate the book 90-degrees clockwise, and the caption is placed on the
right side of the page (Figure 12).

Straight figures can be either full page (Figure 11) or half-page (Figure 13). Half-page illustrations
look better if they are placed at the top of the page, with blocks of text under to complete the page layout
Sideways figures are always full page. although two or more separate drawings may be combined to
produce a full page Illustration (Figure 14).

Captions are set in bold fonts (Figure 11). They are centered under their respective figures,
whether straight or sideways (Figures 12, 13, and 14).









Table are treated the same as illustrations, except the captions are placed and centered at the
top of the table. Tables also may run across two facing pages.

ASSEMBUNG THE MOCK-UP

When all of the above elements of the manuscript are ready In their final format, they can be
assembled Into a mock-up. The text should be printed in the standard two-column width, single spaced.
Figures should be photostatted or xeroxed to the size they are to appear in the final publication.

Assembling a mock-up is a simple cut-and-tape exercise. Everything that is to go on every page
is cut out or trimmed to fit, positioned where it is needed, and taped down All pages are numbered In
either Roman numerals or English, as appropriate. After al pages are mocked-up and collated, a clear
xerox copy of the entire book is made; this copy will be checked by the FGS editor before being sent to
the printer to be used as a guide.

BID SPECIFICATIONS PREPARATION

With a mock-up of the publication in hand, the task of preparing bid specifications is relatively
straight forward. Specifications for publications are slightly different from those for maps or posters.
Paper size and weight should be consistent with recent examples from the same publication series.
Generic forms for both types are given in Appendices A, B, C, and D. and discussions of their contents
are given below. Appendix A covers the typical FGS book done without color; B is for color work; C and
O are for maps.

When the 'blanks are killed in' on these generic forms, they become the basis for official bid
proposals that will be promulgated by the department's purchasing section. DNR's purchasing section
appends to them the necessary 'legal boilerplate" before soliciting bids from printers. Purchasing's
*boilerplate" does not concern us at this point, so no more will be said about t.

DISCUSSIONS OF BID SPECIFICATIONS

BOOKS WITHOUT COLOR (see APPENDIX A)

Appendix A is an example of the specifications for a typical FGS book. In the following
discussions, remember that any of the specifications (specs) can be changed as circumstances warrant
... is FGS's publication .. and we may want something different from time-to-time, but this format will
cover most spec needs.

ITEM is the official name of the book, e.g., Special Publication No. 3, Environmental Geology and
Hydrogeology of the Gainesvlle Area. Florida.

QUANTITY is the number of books wanted. This is usually a minimum of 750, but this can vary,
For example, some books are done in cooperation with other agencies and they may want extra copies

SIZE gives the dimensions of the typical FGS book. The "printed page size" refers to the field on
the page that contains the text. .e.. within the margins.

PAPER, cove, Each FGS series of publication has a standard color assigned for use on the
cover, but specs may change due to some special needs. Since there are so many paper types and
brands available, the best way to determine options is to contact some local printers' representatives and
discuss the project's needs.








Standard colors that have been adopted in the past for paper stock for covers are, in very light
pastel shades: Bulletins (gray), Reports of Investigations (gray). Information Circulars (green). Special
Publications (usually tan, but may be other if desired), Leaflets (optional).

Text paper. This is the standard, coated paper used for all FGS books.

INK will be 'black' unless there is a need for color.

BINDING is typical. In some cases, a book may have too few pages to warrant perfect binding.
The printer will usually call to notify the FGS contact-person of this situation to work out an alternative.

TYPESTYLE AND FORMAT. Univers or Helvetica refers to the style of font. For all practical
purposes, especially In the sizes of 12 or smaller, the two fonts are Indistinguishable by most laymen.
Most printers seem to bid with Helvetca The FGS format for text is two columns, full justified, i.e., straight
margins on left and right.

FRONT COVER: LOGO tells the printer that they will need to strip-in a piece of artwork. This is
extra work on their part, so they need to know this. The screening process is also extra work.

INSPECTION OF MATERIALS is self-explanatory boilerplate.

PROOFS sets out FGS's needs. The delivery times, and the types and quantities of proofs can
vary as desired.

PACKAGING is sef-explanatory boilerplate.

DELIVERY SCHEDULE sets forth the schedule that FGS would like to have; as such, it can be
changed.

RECEIPT OF MATERIALS is self-explanatory boilerplate.

ILLUSTRATIONS spells out the quantity and types of Blustrations. "B & W means black-and-white
illustrations. "Une drawings' are ordinary drawings done with black ink on white paper. "Halftone photos"
are photographs that have been screened, usually by FGS draftsmen, to produce a "screened negative"
that is supplied to the printer. Printers charge for these two types of illustrations at the same rate as for
straight black-and-white text pages, if we supply them with the negatives. If they are asked to do the
screening or other processing, then they will charge by some hourly rate (usually high).

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF PAGES specifies the types and quantities of typesetting and layout
needs. FGS publications use 10 points as the standard text font: this text is 10 point. This provides a
four-fold type-hierarchy composed of: BOLD, ALL CAPITALS (abbreviated BAC); Bold, Upper and Lower
Case (Bulc); medium. ALL CAPITALS (mac): and medium, Upper and Lower Case (mulc). Medium refers
to regular font style.

Tabular matter can be specified in any size font, but 10 point Is easiest to read; point isa s ba smalr
andpa wae ns~cw..ra.Mu in....mol If FGS supplies negatives of tables, It Is not necessary to specify this,
except for informational purposes.

Page covers are always 4. but this needs to be specified because printers charge more per-page
for covers.








Blank pages are always 4. maximum. This Item refers to the possibility that the printer may need
to inset some blank pages to make the book's page-count come out to an even number, due to the
mechanics of the printing process. The number may be 1, 2, 3 or 4. but never more than 4.



BOOKS WITH COLOR (see APPENDIX B)

All tems through 'black-and.whte illustrations" have been explained above for Appendix A.

COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS must specify the types and quantities of color work the printer will do.
The manner in which this information is specified can vary, depending on the book's layout, format, or
other factors. This example shows one job wherein the printer was required to produce some color
separations, using base drawings supplied by FGS. An alternative method of specifying color work is
shown in Appendix C.

"Four color process refers to the standard printing method for color; any other method would be
charged for at a higher rate. This process produces all colors by using some combination of four colors:
black, red, blue, and yellow, and possibly with different screen values of these colors.

The other items have been covered above for Appendix A.



MAPS U.S. Geological Survey
(see APPENDIX C)

ITEM is the name of the map.

QUANTITY Is usually 750, with 650 folded and 100 flat. This can vary as needed.

SIZE gives the dimensions of the map after it is trimmed. This example is for a map prepared by
the USGS and it Is their standard size map. Under a cooperative agreement the FGS publishes selected
USGS Water Resources maps. The dimensions should include a border of about 1/2-Inch all around.

PAPER Is the standard specs for maps.

PROCESS refers to the offset printing process, the most common and usually the least expensive
process. Printing can be either one or two sides. The USGS supplies the color separation negatives to
the printer.

FOLD specifies that the main title block should be legible after folding. This is the USGS standard
size spec.

COLOR specifies the types and quantities of color separations to be supplied.

PROOFS specifies the type of proof the USGS wants. In this example the USGS wants "press
proofs," which means that they need to be notified of the date the maps are to be printed, so they can
send a representative to actually observe the printing and check the maps as they come off the press.

PACKAGING is standard, but can vary.










DELIVERY SCHEDULE can vary, but 30 days is a reasonable time to expect a map to be printed.

RECEIPT OF MATERIALS Is standard boilerplate.

INSPECTION OF MATERIALS is standard boilerplate, but can vary asto who or where the original
materials may be inspected. The USGS brings their color separations and other material to the FGS for
bid preparation, according to the specs they provide.








MAPS Florida Geological Survey
(see APPENDIX D)

ITEM is the name of the map.

QUANTITY is standard, but can vary, Maps done in cooperation with other agencies may require
additional copies.

SIZE can vary as needed, and should include a margin of about 1/2-inch all around,

PAPER is standard specs.

PROCESS is explained above for USGS maps. Maps may be printed on one or two sides.

FOLD size can vary.

COLOR specifies the types and quantities of color separations to be supplied to the printer.

PROOFS specifies the type of proof the FGS wants, usually one set of color proofs, of the "color
key" type. Blue line proofs are not good enough for color work.

PACKAGING is standard, but can vary.

DELIVERY SCHEDULE can vary, but 30 days is a reasonable time to expect a map to be printed.

RECEIPT OF MATERIALS Is standard boilerplate.

INSPECTION OF MATERIALS Is standard boilerplate.







STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Tom Gardner, Executive Director



DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Jeremy A. Craft, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidt, State Geologist and Chief


Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee
1991


Figure 1. Cover I (outside front cover), with title on spine. [Note that these examples of Figure.
1-14 were taken from Special Publication 31, 1991. Personnel names wlI need to be changed, as
required.]





TABLE 1


CONVERSION FACTORS AND ABBREVIATIONS

This table of the most commonly used conversion factors is provided for readers who may prefer to
use metric units instead of the English units given in this report.


MULTIPLY


TO OBTAIN


inch (in) 25.4 millimeter (mm)
inch (in) 2.540 centimeter (cm)
inch (in) 0.0254 meter (m)
foot (ft) 0.3048 meter (m)
mile (mi) 1.609 kilometer (km)
sq. feet (ft) 0.09290 sq. meter (mn)
sq. mile (mi) 2.590 sq. kilometer (km2)
acre (ac) 0.4047 hectare (ha)
acre (ac) 4047.0 sq. meter (mn)
cubic foot (ft) 0.02832 cubic meter (mi)
cubic yard (yd) 0.7646 cubic mater (m3)
gallon (gal) 3.785 Iter (L)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.06308 liter per second (Us)
gallons per minute (gpm) 0.0022 cubic feet/second (cfs)
gallons per minute (gpm] 0.00006309 cubic meters/second (m3/s)
cubic feet per second (cfs) 449 gallons per minute (gpm)
cubic feet per second (cfs) 0.02832 cubic meters/second (m'/s)
pound (Ib) 0.4536 kilogram (kg)
ton, short (2,000 Ibs) 0.9072 megagram (Mg)
ton, long (2,240 Ibs) 1.016 megagram (Mg)
Fahrenheit (F) 5/9 (F-32) Centigrade

Sea Level In this report, sea level" refers to the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 (NGVD of
1929) a geodetic datum derived from a general adjustment of the first-order level nets of both the
United States and Canada, formerly called "Sea Level Datum of 1929" or "mean sea level (MSL)."
Although the datum was derived from the average sea level over a period of many years at 26 tide
stations along the Atlantic. Gulf of Mexico, and Pacific coasts, it does not necessarily represent local
mean sea level at any particular place.



Figure 2. Cover 2 (insde front cover), conversion factors.







FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
903 W. TENNESSEE STREET
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA 32304-7700


Walter Schmidt Chief


Peter M Dobbins. Admin Assi
Jessie Hawkins, Custodian


Vanessa Allred. Library Asst.


Alice Jordan Librarian
Sandie Ray, Admin, Secretary


GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS SECTION


Thomas M. Scott. Senior Geologist/Adminislrator
Jon Arthur. Petrologist Ted Kiper. Cartographer
Paulette Bond, Geochemist Nancy LaPlace, Research Asst
Dianne Brien, Research Asst. Milena Macesich. Research Assi
Ken Campbell. Sedimentologisl Mel Martinez. Research Asst.
Cindy Collier, Secretary Ted Maul. Research Asst-
Mitch Covingion, Biosiratigrapher Robert Mince. Research Assm.
Joel Duncan, Sed. Petrologist John Morrill, Driller
Bob Fisher, Research Asst. Larry Papettl. Research AssLt
Rick Green, Research Asst. Albert PnUllps, Asst. Driller
Mark Groszos, Research Assl. Frank Rupert, Paleontologist
Kent Hartong, Research Asst. Frank Rush, Lab Tech.
Jim Jones, Cartographer Tom Seal, Research AssL
Clay Kelly, Research Asst.


MINERAL RESOURCE INVESTIGATIONS
AND
ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY SECTION

Jacqueline M. Uoyd, Senior Geologist/Administrator
Ed Lane. Env. Geologist Ron Hoenstine, Env. Geologist
Steve Spencer. Economic Geologist



OIL AND GAS SECTION

L David Curry, Administrator
Brenda Brackin, Secretary Scott Hoskins, Dist. Coordinator
Robert Caughey, Dist. Coordinator Barbara McKamey. Secretary
Joan Gruber. Secretary Marycarol Reily. Geologist
Don Hargrove, Engineer Koren Taylor, Research Asst
Charles H. Tootle, Pet Engineer


Figure 3. Cover 3 (Inslde back cover), FGS permonneo list








STATE OF FLORIDA
DEPARTMENT OF NATURAL RESOURCES
Torn Gardner, Execurive Director



DIVISION OF RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
Jeremy A. Craft, Director


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Walter Schmidi, State Geologist and Chief










SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 31

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY
OF THE
OCALA AREA, FLORIDA
By
Ed Lane and Ronald W. Hoenstine











Published for the

FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY

Tallahassee
1991





Figure 4. Inside tille page.







DEPARTMENT
OF
NATURAL RESOURCES


LAWTON CHILES
Governor


JIM SMITH
Secretary of State


BOB BUTTERWORTH
Attorney General


TOM GALLAGHER
State Treasurer


GERALD LEWIS
State Comptroller


BETTY CASTOR
Commissioner of Education


BOB CRAWFORD
Commissioner of Agriculture


TOM GARDNER
Executive Director




Figure 5. Cabinet listing page.






LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL


FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Tallahassee

June 1991




Governor Lawton Chiles. Chairman
Florida Department of Natural Resources
Tallahassee. Florida 32301




Dear Governor Chiles:


The Florida Geological Survey, Division of Resource Management. Department of Natural
Resources, is publishing as Special Publication No. 31. Environmental Geology and Hydrogeology
of the Ocala Area, Florida, prepared by staff geologists Ed Lane and Ronald W. Hoenstine. This report
presents data on the geology and hydrology of the Ocala area, which is one of the fastest growing
urban areas In Florida. This report is timely because of the growth rate, and the information will be
of significant use to local, county, and state planners, as well as to the private sector. The data will
assist these groups to develop and implement long range plans to effectively manage this growth.




Respectfully,




Walter Schmidt, Ph.D.
State Geologist and Chief
Florida Geological Survey



Figure Lttr of transom
Ftig Letter of transmittal.










































Printed for the

Florida Geological Survey

Tallahassee
1991



ISSN 0085-0640
Iv


Figure 7. Printed for" page.

14






CONTENTS
Page

Acknowledgements ............................................................... vil
Introduction and purpose ............. ......... ........... ....................... 1
Location and transportation .................... ..................................... 1
Climate ................................. ...................... .............. .. .
Map Coverage ................... ... ................................. 1
W ell and locality numbering system ............... ............ .. ....... ......... 4
Previous investigations ....................................... ...... ............. 4
G eology ......................................................................... 4
Geomorphology ............. ................................................ 4
Geologic history ............................................................... 11
Water Resources ............................................, .............. 16
The Hydrologrc cycle ........................................................... 16
Surface water ................. ......... ............................. .......... 18
Aquifers ....................................................... ............ 23
Floridian aquifer system ................. ...... .................. ............ 23
Intermediale aquifer system .......................................... ......... 26
Surticial aquifer system ..... _........................ ,... ........... ... .. 26
Evolution of karst terrain ................................. ...................... 26
Chemical weathering of carbonate rocks ..................... ..................... 26
Karst in the Ocala area ....................................................... 29
Water quality ........................... ..................... .. .............. 29
Potentiometric surface .................... ................ ..... ............... 37
W after usage .....................,......... .... ........................... ....... 37
Mineral resources ........... ..................................................... 46
Lim stone ...................... ......... ..................................... 46
Sand .................................................................. ...... 49
Undifferentiated resources ................................. ................... 49
Land Use ............ ...... ....... ..................... ......... ....... 49
Environmental hazards associated with karst........................,............. 60
Solid waste disposal .......... .................................... ............. 65
Summary ...................... ............................ ............. ........ 69
References.......................................... .......... .................. 70

FIGURES

Figure 1 Locatton map .............................................. ............ 2
Figure 2 Transportation map for Marion County ..................................... 3
Figure 3 Average monthly air temperature at Ocala .............................. .. 5
Figure 4 Monthly rainfall distribution for Ocala ............. .......... ...... ...... 6
Figure 5 Annual rainfall for Ocala ...... ..... .................. .............. 7
Figure 6 Topographic map coverage of Marion County ............................. 8
Figure 7 Locality and well numbering system ........................................ 9
Figure 8 Geomorphology of Ocala and Marion County .............................. 10
Figure 9 Terraces and shorelines of Ocala and Marion County ....................... 12
Figure 10 Stratigraphic column....................... ............. ......... 13
Figure 11 Cross section location map........... .............. ..... ............. 14
Figure 12 Cross sections A-A' and 8B' ........................................ . 15
Figure 13 Hydrologic cycle ................ ...... ................................. 17

v


Figure B. First page of Contents.





ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


The authors wish to thank the following people and organizations who gave freely of their time
and information. Their assistance provided a firm foundation for this study. Gary Maddox, Depart-
ment of Environmental Regulation, who provided land use data and water quality data; Earl
Biankenship. Solid Waste Administrator, Marion County Board of Commissioners, for information
on the Marion County landfill; Philip Cosson, Planner, City of Ocala, for statistical data for Ocala;
Dennis G. Thompson, Planning Director. Division of Planning, Marion County Board of Commissioners,
for statistical data on Marion County; the Economic Development Council of Ocala for business and
economic information; and G. C. Phelps, U.S. Geological Survey, for information on the aquifer systems
in the Ocala area. In addition, the authors appreciate the efforts of Ken Campbell. Richard Johnson,
Jim Jones, Ted Kiper, Jackie Lloyd. Frank Rupert, Walter Schmidt. Tom Scott. Steven Spencer, and
Bill Yon in reviewing this report.

































vii



Figure 9. Acknowledgement.






SPECIAL PUBLICATION NO. 31


ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY
OF THE
OCALA AREA, FLORIDA

By
Ed Lane, P.G. #141 and Ronald W. Hoenstine, P.G. n57


INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE

Florida Is experiencing phenomenal population
growth. A significant part of this growth is occur-
ring in the Ocala area, which is one of the fastest
growing urban areas in the nation. Ocala, which
had a 1987 population of 44,980. is projected to
have an annual growth rate of 4.64 percent
through 1995 (Thompson, 1988). Rapid urban
growth places unusual stresses on the environ-
ment due to the demands of energy, construc-
tion, transportation, water supplies, and waste
disposal. This report is designed to help local
governments mitigate the impacts of society's
pressures on the environment.
The principal objectives of this report are to
interpret and summarize available cultural infor-
mation and scientific data. By integrating
cultural, climatological, geological, and hydro-
logical data the report will illustrate the impor-
tance that geology plays in land-use planning for
the Ocala urban area. Graphics are emphasized
as a means of presenting data in a format that
can be readily used by the public, scientists,
planners, water managers, and public policy
makers.

LOCATION AND TRANSPORTATION

The City of Ocala is located in north-central
peninsular Florida, approximately in the center
of Marion County (Figure 1). The air-mile circles
on Figure 1 show that Ocata also lies about
equidistant from both extremes of the state's
extent, from Pensacola in the western panhandle
to Miami near the southern tip of the peninsula.
This central location makes Ocala a natural
hub of Marion County's transportation system
(Figure 2). Several of the state's major roads
pass near or through Ocala: Interstate 75, US 27,
US 41, US 441, US 301, and State Highways 40
and 475. A beltway encircling Ocala utilizing
existing and new roads is currently being


considered. CSX Transportation (formerly the
Seaboard Coast Line Railroad) has several
routes that branch out of Ocala. eventually
connecting to Gainesville. Jacksonville and
points north, and south to Tampa. Orlando, and
Miami. Several airlines have scheduled service
to Ocala Municipal Airport.

CLIMATE

Ocala's location in north-central peninsular
Florida is reflected in Its humid. subtropical
climate. Its annual average temperature is
71.10F, varying from low averages of approx-
imately 58F In December and January to high
averages of about 82OF during July and August
(Figure 3).
Rainfall distribution for Ocala is shown in
Figures 4 and 5. Summer is the "wet" season,
caused by an increase in thunderstorm activity
(Figure 4), Figure 5 shows substantial fluctua-
tions above and below annual average rainfall,
with the widest extremes for the period occurring
within two years of each other, in 1982 and 1984.
The high rainfall of 1982 was due mainly to a
series of April thunderstorms that struck north
central Florida from Marion County southward
to Brevard County. Hail the size of golf balls
covered the ground in many areas. On April 8,
thunderstorms dropped up to 12 inches of rain
over Marion County, and additional rains of
April 9 produced storm totals up to 20 inches,
causing flooding and 150 sinkholes, with
heaviest damage in the Ocala area (NOAA, 1982),
This incident is discussed in more detail in the
Environmental Hazards section.

MAP COVERAGE

A total of 32 U.S. Geological Survey topo-
graphic maps are required to completely cover
Marion County (Figure 6). These maps, which
were used as base maps to plot field data, are
7Vi2 minute quadrangles drawn at a scale of


Figure 10. First pag of t*xt
17





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


PENSACOLA


TALLAHASSEE


JACKSONVILLE


1 0




o 25 50 MLES
SCALE 80 KLOMETERS


200 MI


300 \
Figre oca~o ma t, Mrtn Cunt ad te ityofOcaa.Redcirle Inicte lrm~l dstace


Figure 1. Location map for Marion County and the City of Ocala. Red circles Indicate air-mile distances
from Ocala.


Figure 11. Full-page straight Illustraton.


FGS260291

















a,
I

i0


Figure 2. Transportation map lor Marion County.





FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


; -:"; v



__ :. .-*.:.- ._* ., -- ,r-- -
i l ,,' "- --.
-. *
(ijh^^-^-"'; '*^ 2%t -'


Figure 18. City drainage well In bottom of a sinkhole connecting to the upper Floridan
aquifer system. This type of well is used to control flooding by diverting urban rmnof
Into the cavernous limestone aquifer. Florida Geological Survey photograph.


north and south of the Florida Base Line, an
east-west line that passes through Tallahassee,
as Township north or south. This basic rectangle
Is also consecutively measured both east and
west of the Principal Meridian, a north-south line
that passes through Tallahassee. as Range East
or West. In recording the township and range
numbers, the T is left off the township numbers
and the R is left off the range numbers (e.g.,
17S, 23E), Each township is divided equally into
36 one-mile-square blocks called sections, and
are numbered 1 through 36, as shown on
Figure 7.
The sections are divided Into quarters with the
quarters labeled "a" through "d." In turn, each
of these one-quarter sections is divided into
quarters with these quarter/quarter squares
labeled "a" through "d" in the same manner. The
"a" through "d" designation may be carried to
any extent needed.


polltan Planning Organization (1988) prepared a
City of Ocala Statistical Profile, including data
on census, utilities, traffic, and other cultural
parameters.

GEOLOGY
GEOMORPHOLOGY

Marion County lies near the north edge of the
central (mid-peninsular) physiographic zone of
White (1970). This zone is characterized by a
series of ridges and valleys trending approx-
imately parallel to the Atlantic Coast. Within this
area, these distinct ridges and valleys comprise
geomorphic subdivisions which are generally
named for nearby towns or geographic areas
(Figure 8).


Figum 13. Half-page figure showing placement of tex.








WUr-4 S-20E-35bb
W-937


AVO W PARK o 17tr
rFO ATION


VERTICAL EAGGERATION IS APPROXIATELY 211 TUIES


AVON PARK TO ma
FORMATION


0 4 MILES
SI i1I I I
I---- L-'-r
0 6 KILOUMHRS
SCALE


Figure 12. Cross sections A-A' and B-B'.


FIET/MIETERS
2001 -g0



p-40
100 -.


0+0


FEET/METERS
200- -60



0 40
100--


0+0


-100-1- -20


-I00J--20






APPENDIX A BOOKS WITHOUT COLOR


REQUEST FOR PRICE QUOTATION

SPECIFICATIONS

ITEM: [publication name].

QUANTITY: 750 copies.

SIZE: Trimmed size of the book will be 8-1/2 X 11 Inches.
Printed page size wil be 6-1/2 X 9 inches.

PAPER: Covers 65 pound Scott vellum bristol cover, [insert color: tan, grey, green, other], or
Department approved equivalent.

Text 70 pound Warren Lustro dull (white) or Department approved equivalent.

INK: Black.

BINDING: Perfect binding.

TYPESTYLE AND FORMAT; Univers or Helvetica. Text to be typeset in two (2) equal, vertical columns,
full justified. The text for this publication is recorded In WordPerfect 5.1, IBM compatible. A duplicate disk
will be provided for typesetting purposes.

FRONT COVER: LOGO line drawing provided, to be 20% black screened. [Or specify other artwork as
needed.]

TITLE to be printed on spine.

INSPECTION OF MATERIALS: Manuscript and materials for the publication may be seen in Room 117
of the Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Natural Resources, 903 West Tennessee St.,
Tallahassee, FL 32304-7700 (comer of West Tennessee and Woodward Sts., on Florida State University
campus).

If there are any questions concerning the specifications, please contact Ed Lane, at the above address.
Telephone No. (904) 488-9380. It shall be the responsibility of each bidder to raise any questions
concerning the specifications and conditions as written before quotations are submitted and/or the
interpretation of the appropriate representative of the Department of Natural Resources shall prevail.

PROOFS: Galley proofs for this publication shall be delivered within twenty-one (21) working days from
receipt of purchase order and copy to Ed Lane, Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Natural
Resources, 903 West Tennessee St., Tallahassee, FL 32304-7700, Telephone No. (904) 48&-9380. One
galley proof, one page proof, and one blue line proof are requested. Written approval of the final blue
line proof must be given to the printer before printing of the final publication may proceed.

PACKAGING: Each carton to be clearly marked and labeled with contents and total quantity.







DELIVERY SCHEDULE: Inside delivery F.O.B. Tallahassee, Florida, shall be within twenty-one (21)
working days after written approval is given to print the publication. Delivery to be made to Florida
Geological Survey, Florida Department of Natural Resources. 903 West Tennessee St., Tallahassee, FL
32304-7700, Attention: Ed Lane.

Time the Department holds the proofs is not counted in the delivery schedule.

RECEIPT OF MATERIALS: All negatives and original materials supplied by the Florida Geological Survey
to the printer will remain the property of the Survey and shall be retumed when printing is completed.

Invoice for printing will not be paid until said material is received by the Florida Geological Survey.

Printing must be of acceptable quality in every particular or it will be returned and shall be replaced at the
expense of the bidder.

ILLUSTRATIONS: All negatives supplied ready for stripping.

Sblack-white line drawings, page size or less.
halftone photos, page size or less.
2 seals.

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF PAGES:

pages 10 point straight matter text.
line drawings and halftone photos, page size or less.
pages 10 point tabular matter
Pages point tabular matter. (specify font size, usually 8 or 6)
4 pages covers, with printing. (specify number of covers with printing)
4 blank pages, maximum.

TOTAL ESTIMATED PAGES

[Or specify other material as needed.]





APPENDIX B BOOKS WITH COLOR


REQUEST FOR PRICE QUOTATION

SPECIFICATIONS

ITEM: [publication name].

QUANTITY: 750 copies.

SIZE* Trimmed size of the book will be 8-1/2 X 11 inches.
Printed page size will be 6-1/2 X 9 inches.

PAPER: Covers 65 pound Scott vellum bristol cover, insert color: tan, grey, green, other], or
Department approved equivalent.

Text 70 pound Warren Lustro dull (white) or Department approved equivalent.

INK: Text black. Color as specified below.

BINDING: Perfect binding.

TYPESTYLE AND FORMAT: Univers or Helvetica. Text to be typeset in two (2) equal, vertical columns,
full justified. The text for this publication is recorded In WordPerfect 5.1. IBM compatible. A duplicate disk
will be provided for typesetting purposes.

FRONT COVER: LOGO line drawing provided, to be 20% black screened. [Or specify other artwork as
needed.]

TITLE to be printed on spine.

INSPECTION OF MATERIALS: Manuscript and materials for the publication may be seen in Room 117
of the Florida Geological Survey. Florida Department of Natural Resources, 903 West Tennessee St.,
Tallahassee. FL 32304-7700 (comer of West Tennessee and Woodward Sts.. on Florida State University
campus).

If there are any questions concerning the specifications, please contact Ed Lane, at the above address,
Telephone No. (904) 488-9380. It shall be the responsibility of each bidder to raise any questions
concerning the specifications and conditions as written before quotations are submitted and/or the
interpretation of the appropriate representative of the Department of Natural Resources shall prevail.

PROOFS: Galley proofs for this publication shall be delivered within twenty-one (21) working days from
receipt of purchase order and copy to Ed Lane, Florida Geological Survey, Florida Department of Natural
Resources, 903 West Tennessee St., Tallahassee. FL 32304-7700, Telephone No. (904) 488-9380. One
galley proof, one color-key proof of color figures, and one blue line proof are requested. Written approval
of the final blue line proof must be given to the printer before printing of the final publication may proceed.

PACKAGING: Each carton to be clearly marked and labeled with contents and total quantity.







DEUVERY SCHEDULE: Inside delivery F.O.B. Tallahassee, Florida, shall be within twenty-one (21)
working days after written approval is given to print the publication. Delivery to be made to Florida
Geological Survey, Florida Department of Natural Resources. 903 West Tennessee St., Tallahassee, FL
32304-7700. Attention: Ed Lane.

Time the Department holds the proofs is not counted In the delivery schedule.

RECEIPT OF MATERIALS: All negatives and original materials supplied by the Forida Geological Survey
to the printer will remain the property of the Survey and shall be returned when printing is completed.

Invoice for printing will not be paid until said material is received by the Florida Geological Survey.

Printing must be of acceptable quality in every particular or it will be returned and shall be replaced at the
expense of the bidder.

BLACK and WHITE ILLUSTRATIONS: All negatives supplied ready for stripping. (This statement ONLY
jf they are done in-house.)

black-white line drawings, page size or less.
halftone photos, page size or less.
2 seals.


COLOR ILLUSTRATIONS: Process colors to be used. Negatives furnished ready for stripping.

100 black
100 blue
100 yellow
10 red
TOTAL negatives

Note 1: Add other percent screens for each color as needed.
Note 2: Red is such a strong color that high percentages should be used only sparingly; 10% is a light
pink.

ESTIMATED NUMBER OF PAGES:

pages 10 point straight matter text.
line drawings and halftone photos, page size or less.
pages 10 point tabular matter.
pages point tabular matter. (specify font size, usually 8 or 6)
color figures, full page each.
color figures, half-page each.
4 pages covers, with printing. (specify number of covers with printing)
4 blank pages, maximum.

TOTAL ESTIMATED PAGES

[Or specify other material as needed.]







APPENDIX C MAPS US GEOLOGICAL SURVEY


REQUEST FOR PRICE QUOTATION

SPECIFICATIONS

ITEM: Map Series No. insert name of map].

QUANTITY: 750 copies (650 folded. 100 flat).

SIZE Trim size 18 X 22 Inches.

PAPER: Bond, 20 pound, 50% cotton or linen fiber. Strathmore Bay Path Bond. or Department
approved equivalent.

PROCESS: Offset. Printed on one side. Negatives furnished ready for stripping up.

FOLD: Map will be folded so that the main title block appears on the front. Folded size
approximately 7 X 8-1/2 inches. Machine fold.

COLOR: All colors shall be process colors. The following negatives are furnished ready for
stripping:

[List here all black negatives and all color separation negatives, with screen
percentages.]

PRESS PROOFS: Within seven (7) working days from receipt of purchase order and copy, the printer
shall notify Mr. Donald Tucker, U.S. Geological Survey, 227 N. Bronough St., Suite 3015, Tallahassee, FL
32301, Telephone No. (904) 681-7620, who shall arrange to witness the running of press proofs at the
printing plant, prior to printing.

PACKAGING: Maps to be packaged in quantities of 25 each. Cartons to be clearly marked with contents
and quantity.

DELIVERY SCHEDULE: Inside delivery F.O.B. Tallahassee, Florida, shall be within twenty-one (21)
working days after written approval of the color proofs. Delivery to be made to the Florida Geological
Survey, Department of Natural Resources, 903 West Tennessee St., Tallahassee, Flonda 32304-7700,
Attention: Ed Lane. Time the Survey holds the proofs is not counted in the delivery schedule.

RECEIPT OF MATERIALS: All negatives and original material supplied by the Florida Geological Survey
will remain the property of the Survey and shall be returned when printing Is complete.

Invoice for printing will not be paid until said material is received by the Survey.

INSPECTION OF MATERIALS: Material for the map may be seen in Room 117 at the Florida Geological
Survey, Florida Department of Natural Resources. 903 West Tennessee St, 32304-7700 (corner of West
Tennessee and Woodward Sts., on Florida State University campus).







If there are any questions concerning the specifications, please contact Mr. Ed Lane, above address.
Telephone No. (904) 488-9380. It shall be the responsibility of each bidder to raise any questions
concerning the specifications and conditions as written before bid opening and/or the interpretation of the
appropriate representative of the Department of Natural Resources shall prevail.

Printing must be of acceptance quality in every particular or it will be returned and shall be replaced at the
expense of the bidder.





APPENDIX D MAPS FLORIDA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY



REQUEST FOR PRICE QUOTATION

SPECIFICATIONS

ITEM: Map Series No. (Insert name of map.]

QUANTITY: 750 copies (650 folded, 100 flat).

SIZE: Trim size approximately [insert dimensions] inches.

PAPER: Bond. 30 pound, 50% cotton or linen fiber, Strathmore Bay Path Bond, or Department
approved equivalent.

PROCESS: Offset. Printed on [one or two] sides. Negatives furnished ready for stripping up.

FOLD: Maps will be folded so that the main title block appears out. Folded size approximately
7 X 8-1/2 inches. Machine fold.

COLOR: All colors shall be process colors. The following negatives are furnished ready for
stripping.

[List here all black negatives and all color separation negatives, with screen percentages.]

[List front and back specs separately, and label.]

PROOFS: One (1) set of "color key" proofs shall be delivered within twenty-one (21) working days
from receipt of purchase order and copy to Ed Lane, Florida Geological Survey.
Department of Natural Resources. 903 West Tennessee St., Tallahassee, FL 32304-7700.

Time the Survey holds the proofs Is not counted in the specified delivery schedule.

PACKAGING: Maps to be packaged in quantities of 25. Each carton to be clearly labeled with contents
and quantity.

DELIVERY SCHEDULE: Inside delivery F.O.B. Tallahassee, Florida, shall be within twenty-one (21)
working days after written approval of the color proofs. Delivery to be made to Florida
Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources, 903 West Tennessee St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32304-7700, Attention; Ed Lane. Time the Survey holds the proofs
is not counted in the delivery schedule.

RECEIPT OF MATERIALS: All negatives and original materials supplied by the Florida Geological Survey
to the printer will remain the property of the Survey and shall be returned when printing
is completed.

Invoice for printing will not be paid until said material is received by the Flonda Geological
Survey.







INSPECTION OF MATERIALS: Material for the map may be seen In Room 117 at the Florida Geological
Survey, Florida Department of Natural Resources, 903 West Tennessee St.,
Tallahassee, Florida 32304-7700 (comer of West Tennessee and Woodward Sts., on
Florida State University campus).

If there any questions concerning the specifications, please contact Mr. Ed Lane, above
address, Telephone No. (904) 488-9380. It shall be the responsibility of each bidder to
raise any questions concerning the specifications and conditions as written before bid
opening and/or the interpretation of the appropriate representative of the Department of
Natural Resources shall prevail.

Printing must be of acceptable quality In every particular or it will be returned and shall
be replaced at the expense of the bidder.




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