- _'H S -
First Biennial Report
To State Board of Conservation
DECEMBER 31, 1934
HERMAN GUNTER, Assistant Supervisor
GEORGE W. DAVIS
State Supervisor of Conservation
STATE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Field of Work
Mineral Wealth and Statistics on Production
Organization Previous to Creation of Conservation Department
Appropriations and Expenditures
Projects in Progress
Geological Survey as a Division of Conservation Department
FIELD OF WORK
The functions of a geological survey are of a very broad char-
acter as signified by the word geology itself which means a history
or study of the earth. This being true it follows that an intelligent
understanding of the occurrence of mineral deposits, and related
natural products is based on a knowledge of the geology of the
region being considered. The procuring of this basic data necessi-
tates the studying of rock outcrops and other exposures, natural
and artificial, in order to become familiar with their fossil con-
tent, character, thickness, areal extent, whether these character-
istics are variable or constant, whether minerals, either metallic
or non-metallic, are present and if so their associations and occur-
rence in particular formations and other details. It is through
such studies and examinations that the age and relationships be-
tween formations are determined and the geology made known
and mapped. With such information available the task of work-
ing out the origin of commercial deposits of minerals is much
facilitated-and it is tbe easier to direct or to suggest where further
prospecting for such might prove most advantageous. For in-
stance in working out the geological occurrence of our phosphates,
fullers earth and white-burning clays it has been determined that
each of these are of a certain geologic age and that they bear
definite relationships to other formations and their places in the
geologic column have been made known. Furthermore the sur-
face formations of Florida have been mapped in a general way
so that their areal distribution is quite well known. With such
data at hand it is then possible to state with some definiteness that
such and such will or will not occur within a certain region. This
is true also of many other deposits but from the application given
it is seen that a knowledge of the geology should precede the
study of individual mineral deposits or the two worked out simul-
taneous. This is the practical application of geology and is but
another way of stating the axiom that: "The pure science of
today becomes the applied science of tomorrow".
The functions of a geological survey or its field of work might
be briefly outlined as follows:
1. To study the geology and map the structure and stratigraphy of
the various formations of the State.
2. To study the different individual mineral resources or deposits.
3. Through the knowledge thus gained to guide industrial and com-
mercial development of the mineral resources.
4. To assist various construction and engineering enterprises in
procuring reliable data on the nature of the formations present where
such construction is contemplated.
5. To study the water resources of the State in detail, both surface
6. To encourage and assist in every possible way the topographical
mapping of the State.
7. To encourage and assist the agricultural development and land
utilization through adequate soil surveys of Florida.
S. The collection of mineral statistics.
Through all the years of its establishment the Florida Geologi-
cal Survey has endeavored to cover the above outline in so far as
has been possible. As shown by the list of publications accom-
panying this report many investigations have been made and re-
ports issued. While there remains yet much to be done the sub-
jects treated in the reports that have been released indicate the
Survey has contributed in no small way to a more complete under-
standing of the geology of Florida and its mineral resources.
INVESTIGATIONS PRIMARILY ECONOMIC
That the work of the Survey has been directly helpful in dis-
seminating data and the establishing of industries can perhaps
best be shown by briefly mentioning an instance or two. Real
tangible assistance was rendered at the time investigations were
being made for materials used in ,the manufacture of Portland
cement. A plant was established at Tampa which procures its raw
materials, limestone and clay, from Hernando and Citrus coun-
ties. Although investigations were made of the available raw
materials in an area in central peninsular Florida for the manu-
facture of cement a plant was not established but it was deter-
mined that the materials were available. A fullers earth plant
was established in Marion County as the results of leads given by
the Survey. A small, modern plant has been operating there for
several years and producing a high grade product. Information
was recently likewise given to parties interested in pottery clays.
Tampa limestone in pit of the Camp Concrete Rock Company, 5 miles
east of Brooksville.
Investigations of these later developed into actual location of a
plant in Escambia County. More recently data and suggestions
from the Survey caused investigations to be made of deposits of
phosphate in an undeveloped region. Prospecting these deposits
in detail has resulted in favorable report and it is anticipated that
development will follow within a reasonable time. Other instances
could be enumerated, as for example the services given those
who are interested in development of adequate water supplies,
sands, gravel, or other materials, but these need not be elaborated
upon. Mention, however, should be made of the work on the
white-burning clays of the State. This type of clay has been
known and worked for years in peninsular Florida but investiga-
tions by the Survey has extended the probable workable area not
only in that part of the State but also over into western Florida.
Deposits have been located in western Florida that are of high
quality and give promise of possible commercial importance.
There has recently been reported (see The Florida Conservator,
March, 1935) the finding of another valuable mineral deposit
in Florida which was done through a knowledge of the relation-
ship of such a deposit to a certain geological formation in a near-
by state. Bentonite, a clay-like mineral which is used in the re-
fining or filtering of crude oils, has been located in Jackson County
by the U. S. Geological Survey through an allottment from the
Public Works Administration for the purpose of investigating the
bleaching clay resources of the State. Bentonite is a type of clay
that is not naturally active as a bleaching material as is fullers
earth, but by treatment with dilute acids does become so, some-
times even becoming a better medium than the fullers earths.
The result of this investigation, among others, was the discovery
of these deposits in the Jackson County region, and they are of
reported high grade and favorably located with regard to
transportation. Thus geological research has again proven of
tangible, commercial value.
STRATIGRAPHIC AND STRUCTURAL INVESTIGATIONS
Geological formations are not confined to or limited by state
or other artificial boundary lines. It is therefore expedient to be
familiar with the extension of formations from other states as well
as to have a knowledge of their occurrence in regions more remote.
This the Survey has attempted to do and correlations of forma-
tions of Florida have been made with those of other states and
countries. This line of research is particularly important in rela-
tion to the possible occurrence of oil or gas in the State. There
are, of course, other factors too that must be given consideration
besides the extension of formations, such as for instance the struc-
ture found, character and thickness. It is this fundamental,
basic data that should always be procured in advance of actual
development or prospecting for mineral resources.
Florida's mineral wealth is composed almost entirely of the
non-metallics. Deposits of limonite, a spongy variety of hydrated
iron oxide commonly termed bog iron ore, occur in various parts
of Florida but these are usually thin and of rather local extent,
and have not proven of commercial importance; and it is also
true that iron-titanium-bearing minerals have been produced from
the beach sands along the Atlantic Coast south of Jacksonville
Beach, but while such occurrences of metallic minerals are of
real interest and have contributed in a small way to the mineral
output of Florida, still they are only incidental to the vastly
important non-metallic deposits of the State.
The mining of phosphate is the leading mineral industry of
Florida. Phosphate was first produced in 1888 from deposits on
Peace River near Arcadia. Then came the discovery of the hard
rock phosphate near Dunnellon. Marion County, where operations
were begun in 1889. A little later, in 1890, development of the
land pebble deposits in Polk County began and have continued
almost at an unabated pace since. Soft phosphate occurs in both
the hard rock and land pebble fields and has been utilized princi-
pally for direct application to soils or as one of the ingredients
in fertilizer mixtures. The principal commercial varieties are,
however, the Land Pebble and the Hard Rock.
Second only in importance to the phosphate are the fullers earth
deposits of the State. Fullers earth is a clay used in the filtering
and clarifying of crude oils, mineral, animal and vegetable. The
deposits in Florida have been worked since 1895 and for many
years Florida was the leading state in the Union in the production
of this clay. It is still a very important industry and the Florida
clay is considered the standard filtering clay of the United States.
Gadsden County in western Florida is the principal producing
area, although there are developed deposits in Marion County and
formerly Manatee County was likewise a producer.
Kaolin, a white-burning, highly refractory clay used in the
manufacture of porcelains, semi-porcelains and white wares of
various kinds, is produced from deposits in Putnam and Lake
Counties and has been a long established mineral industry.
Dipper on dredge boat dropping crude clay into bin from which it is
pumped up to washing plant. Edgar Plastic Kaolin Company.
The various limestone formations of Florida have formed the
basis for large industrial developments in different sections. The
product of these mines have been used largely in the construction
of roads throughout the State but large quantities have gone into
agricultural uses and also industrial, such as the building and
Other minerals produced in Florida are Cement, Sand, Gravel,
Common Brick, Pottery, Peat and Mineral Waters. These items
have been reported upon in more or less detail in different reports
of the Survey and suffice it to say here that they have all con-
tributed to the mineral development of the State.
The Geological Department cooperates with the U. S. Geological
Survey in the collection of mineral statistics, both as to the output
building blocks from Marianna limestone
in pit of
R. D. Daffin,
and value. According to these statistics there was a decided
decrease in the value of output of minerals for 1932, it being the
lowest since 1917. This was, however, not peculiar to Florida,
nor to the mineral industry alone. It was a general condition. It
is, however, a satisfaction to record partial recovery in 1933 for
by the returns for that year an upturn is decidedly indicated.
The year 1933 is the latest for which complete data arc available
but from some returns for 1934 it is seen that this 1933 upturn is
continued, through 1934.
The following table summarizes the mineral production in Flor-
ida for the years 1932 and 1933:
Mineral Product 1932 1933
Phosphate .................... ...................... $4,779,612 $6,417,110
Limestone, Lime, Flint ............... ............................ 837,114 682,961
Sand and Gravel ................................... ................. 178,654 202,679
Kaolin, Fullers Earth .................................................. 804,237 774,808
Common Brick and Clay Products............................ 21,943 56,445
Cement, Peat, Mineral W aters .................................. 624,519 937,619
Total .......................... .................................... $7,246,079 $9,071,622
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY PREVIOUS TO CREATION OF
Briefly Historical.-With the passing of June 3, 1933, the State
Geological Survey had functioned as a separate Department of
State work uninterruptedly for twenty-six years, having been au-
thorized by the Legislative Assembly of 1907, the Act creating
it being approved by Governor N. B. Broward June 3, 1907. Dr.
E. H. Sellards served as State Geologist from June 19, 1907, to
April 18, 1919, resigning in order to accept a more lucrative posi-
tion offered by the State of Texas, and Herman Gunter, who had
been connected with the Survey since August 15, 1907, was ap-
pointed his successor and was serving as State Geologist when
the Survey, together with the Shell Fish and the Fresh Water Fish
and Game Departments, was merged into the Conservation De-
partment by the Legislature of 1933, the Act becoming effective
July 1, 1933. Since that time Mr. Gunter has remained the active
head of the Geological Survey under the title of Assistant Super-
visor, State Board of Conservation.
Appropriations and Expenditures.-The last report issued
by the Geological Survey, previous to being made a division of
the Conservation Department, was the Twenty-third, Twenty-
fourth Annual Report published May 8, 1933. The administra-
tive section of this report contained a detailed statement as to
the available appropriation and the expenditures to the close of
the fiscal year ending June 30, 1932. For the fiscal year July 1,
1932, to June 30, 1933, only a condensed or summary financial
statement will be issued. All bills and itemized expense accounts
are, however, on file in the Comptroller's office and duplicates are
retained in the office of the State Geologist where they are readily
available for reference. With the exception of regular salaries
all accounts for the year under consideration were approved by
the Governor and were paid, as was always customary, by war-
rant drawn upon the State Treasurer by the Comptroller. No
monies were handled by the State Geologist. The condensed
financial statement follows:
FISCAL YEAR JULY 1, 1932-JUNE 30, 1933
Unexpended balance carried forward from 1931-1932................ $ 1,417.31
Appropriation available for 1932-1933-...........-............---..............---------------...... 20,160.00
Total available..---------.....--...............-----------------------....................................... $ 21,577.31
Total expenditures during year 1932-1933...............................----. $ 21,224.20
Unexpended balance .........................................--........................... $ 353.11
Publications.-The publications by which the results of the
investigations of the Geological Survey have been made available
in permanent form comprise, twenty-four annual reports, twelve
bulletins and thirteen press bulletins which total about 6,000
printed pages of facts and conclusions about the varied mineral
and other natural resources of Florida. In order to make the re-
sults of certain investigations more promptly available to the
public generally than would be the case if printed in annual re-
port form, the issuing of bulletins has been resumed. The annual
reports are issued not only as a whole volume but also in the form
of separates, that is, each paper composing the whole volume may
be had as a separate. This has proven an economical practice, for
frequently one may be interested only in a single paper appear-
ing in the whole report and when such is the case the additional
expense of sending the larger report is avoided. All reports of
the Survey, whether bulletin or annual report, are free to the
citizens of Florida, and to certain exchange libraries of the United
States and foreign countries. By placing the publications in
libraries the Survey reports serve permanently as reference books
and thus become available to many who otherwise would not have
access to them, for the editions of each are limited, thus soon be-
coming exhausted for general distribution. Requests for publica-
tions from residents of States other than Florida should be accom-
panied by postage.
Following is a complete list of the publications so far issued,
the subjects treated are indicated by the titles of the separate
papers listed under each annual report which make up the whole
volume and the explanatory matter under the several bulletins.
Those annual reports followed by an asterisk (*) are no longer
available as a single whole volume, owing to the exhaustion of
Gray phosphatic sand above workable bed in the Penbroke mine of the
Coronet Phosphate Company.
supply. It may, however, be that even though the report in whole
volume form is out of print some of .the separate papers from it
may be obtained. When this is the case, such separates making
up the respective annual reports as are still available are indicated
by the dagger sign (t).
First Annual Report, 1.908, 114 pp., 6 pls.*
This report contains: (1) a sketch of the geology of Florida; (2) a chap-
ter on mineral industries, including phosphate, kaolin or ball clay, brick-
making clays, fuller's earth, peat, lime, cement and road-making ma-
terials; (3) a bibliography of publications on Florida geology, with a
review of the more important papers published previous to the organiza-
tion of the present Geological Survey.
Second Annual Report, 1909, 299 pp., 19 pls., 5 text figures, one
This report contains: (1) a preliminary report on the geology of Florida,
with special reference to stratigraphy, including a topographic and geo-
logic map of Florida. prepared in co-operation with the United States
Geological Survey; (2) mineral industries; (3) the fuller's earth deposits
of Gadsden county, with notes on similar deposits found elsewhere in the
Third Annual Report, 1910, 397 pp., 28 pls., 30 text figures.*
This report contains: (1) a preliminary paper on the Florida phosphate
deposits; (2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) the artesian water
supply of eastern Florida; (4) a preliminary report on the Florida peat
Fourth Annual Report, 1912, 175 pp., 16 pls., 15 text figures, one
This report contains: (1) the soils and other surface residual materials
of Florida, their origin, character and the formation from which derived;
(2) the water supply of west-central and west Florida; (3) the production
of phosphate rock in Florida during 1910 and 1911.
Fifth Annual Report, 1913, 306 pp., 14 pls., 17 text figures, two
This report contains: (1) origin of the hard rock phosphates of Florida;
(2) list of elevations in Florida; (3) artesian water supply of eastern and
southern Florida; (4) production of phosphate in Florida during 1912;
(5) statistics on public roads in Florida.
Sixth Annual Report. 1914, 451 pp., 90 figures, one map.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries and resources of Florida;
(2) some Florida lakes and lake basins; (3) relation between the Dun-
nellon and Alachua formations; (4) geography and vegetation of northern
Seventh Annual Report, 1915, 342 pp., 80 figures, four maps.*
This report contains: (1) pebble phosphates of Florida; (2) natural
resources of an area in Central Florida; (3) soil surveys of Bradford
County; (4) soil survey of Pinellas county.
Eighth Annual Report, 1916, 168 pp., 31 pls., 14 text figures.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) vertebrate fossils,
including fossil human remains.
Ninth Annual Report 1917, 151 pp., 8 pls., 13 figures, two maps.*
This report contains: (1) mineral industries; (2) additional studies
in the Pleistocene at Vero, Floridat; (3) geology between the Ocklocknee
and Aucilla rivers in Florida.
Tenth and Eleventh Annual Reports, 1918, 130 pp., 4 pls., 9
figures, two maps.*
This report contains: (1) geology between the Apalachicola and Ock-
locknee rivers; (2) the. skull of a Pleistocene tapir with description of a
new species and a note on the associated fauna and flora; (3) geology
between the Choctawhatchee and Apalachicola rivers; (4) mineral sta-
tistics; (5) molluscan fauna from the marls near DeLand.
Twelfth Annual Report, 1919, 153 pp., four maps.*
This report contains: (1) literature relating to human remains 'and
artifacts at Vero, Florida; (2) fossil beetles from Vero; (3) elevations in
Florida; (4) geologic section across the Everglades of Florida; (5) the
age of the underlying rocks of Florida as shown by the foraminifera of
well borings; (6) review of the geology of Florida with special reference
to structural conditions.
Thirteenth Annual Report, 1921, 307 pp., 3 pls., 43 figs.*
This report contains: (1) Oil prospecting in Florida; (2) statistics of
mineral production, 1918; (3) foraminifera from deep wells; (4) geog-
raphy of central Florida.
Fourteenth Annual Report, 1922, 135 pp., 10 figs., one map.*
This report contains: (1) statistics on mineral production, 1919 and
1920; (2) on the petroleum possibilities of Florida, including a geologic
Fifteenth Annual Report, 1924, 266 pp., 2 pls., 55 figs.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1921 and 1922; (2) a contribution to the late Tertiary
and Quaternary paleontology of northeastern Florida; (3) a preliminary
report on the clays of Florida.
Sixteenth Annual Report, 1925, 203 pp., 52 figs., two maps.*
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1923; (2) a preliminary report on the limestones and
marls of Floridat.
Seventeenth Annual Report, 1926, 275 pp., 5 figs., two maps.*
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1924; (2) History of Soil Investigation in Florida and
Description of New Soil Mapt; (3) Generalized Soil Map of Florida (in
colors)t; (4) Elevations in Floridat; (5) Review of the Structure and
Stratigraphy of Floridat.
Eighteenth Annual Report, 1927, 206 pp., 58 figs.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1925; (2) Natural resources of southern Florida.
Nineteenth Annual Report, 1928, 183 pp., 5 pls., 36 figs., 9 tables.
This report contains. (1) Administrative report and statistics on min-
eral production, 1926; (2) Sand and gravel industry of Florida; (3)
Beach deposits of ilmenite, zircoo, and rutile in Florida; (4) New species
of Operculina and Discocyclina from the Ocala limestone; (5) New species
of Coskinolina and Dictyoconus from Florida.
Twentieth Annual Report, 1929, 294 pp., 40 pls., 4 figs., 1 map.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1927-1928; (2) Geology of Florida, with geologic map;
(3) Extinct land mammals of Florida.*
Twenty-First and Twenty-Second Annual Report, 1931, 129 pp.,
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1929-1930; (2) Need for conservation and protection
of our water supply; (3) The Possibility of petroleum in Florida; (4)
Beaches of Florida; (5) Fossil palm nut.
Twenty-Third and Twenty-Fourth Annual Report, 1933, 227 pp.,
11 pls., 23 figs., 3 tables.
This report contains: (1) Administrative report and statistics on
mineral production, 1930-1931; (2) Northern disjuncts in northern Florida
and cypress domes; (3) Notes on the geology and the occurrence of some
diatomaceous earth deposits of Florida and diatoms of the Florida peat
deposits; (4) Ground-water resources of Sarasota County and exploration
of artesian wells in Sarasota County.
Bulletin No. I. The underground water supply of central
Florida, 1908, 103 pp., 6 p]s., 6 text figures.*
This bulletin contains: fl) underground water, general discussion; (2)
the underground water of central Florida, deep and shallow wells, spring
and artesian prospects; (3) effects of underground solution, cavities,
sinkholes, disappearing streams and solution basins; (4) drainage of
lakes, ponds and swamp lands and disposal of sewage by bored wells;
(5) water analyses and tables giving general water resources, public water
supplies, spring and well records.
Bulletin No. 2. Roads and road materials of Florida, 1911, 31
pp., 4 pls.'
This bulletin contains: (1) an account of the road building materials
of Florida; (2) a statistical table showing the amount of improved roads
built by the counties of the state to the close of 1910.
Bulletin No. 3. Miocene gastropods and scaphopods of the
Choetawhatchee formation of Florida, 1930, 189 pp., 21 pls.*
Bulletin No. 4. The foraminifera of the Choctawhatchee for-
mation of Florida, 19.30, 92 pp., 12 pls.*
Bulletin No. 5. (I) A fossil teleost fish of the snapper family
(Lutianidae) from the Lower Oligocene of Florida; (2) The fo-
raminifera of the Marianna limestone of Florida, 1930, 67 pp.,
11 pls., 2 figs.
Bulletin No. 6. The Pliocene and Pleistocene foraminifera of
Florida, 1931, 79 pp., 7 p1s., 3 figs., 2 tables.
Bulletin No. 7. The Pensacola terrace and associated beaches
and bars of Florida, 1931, 44 pp., 8 figs., 1 map.
Bulletin No. 8. Miocene pelecypods of the Choctawhatchee for-
mation of Florida, 1932, 240 pp., 34 pls., 3 figs.
Bulletin No. 9. The foraminifera of the Upper, Middle, and
part of the Lower Miocene of Florida, 1932, 147 pp., 17 pls., 2
tables, 1 map.
Bulletin No. 10. (1) Miocene land mammals from Florida; (2)
New heteromyid rodents from the Miocene of Florida; (3) Aphe-
lops from the Hawthorn formation of Florida, 1932, 58 pp., 30
Bulletin No. 11. Ground Water Investigations in Florida, 1933,
Bulletin No. 12. New Miocene Gastropods and Scaphopods
from Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida, 1935, 50 pp., 5 pls.
In addition to the regular reports of the Survey as listed above,
press bulletins have been issued as follows:
No. 1. The Extinct Land Animals of Florida, February 6, 1913.*
No. 2. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1912, March
No. 3. Summary of Papers Presented by the State Geologist at the
Atlanta Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of
Science, December 31, 1913.
No. 4. The Utility of Well Records, January 15, 1914.
No. 5. Production of Phosphate Rock in Florida during 1913, May
No. 6. The Value to Science of the Fossil Animal Remains Found Em-
bedded in the Earth, January, 1915.
No. 7. Report on Clay Tests for Paving Brick, April, 1915.
No. 8. Phosphate Production for 1917, May 2, 1918.
No. 9. Survey of Mineral Resources, May 10, 1918.*
No. 10. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1918, June 5, 1919.
No. 11. Statistics on Mineral Production in Florida during 1918, October
No. 12. Phosphate Industry of Florida during 1920, May 9, 1921.
No. 13. Ground-Water Resources of Florida, April 4, 1931.*
Report of Investigations No. 1. Mimeographed report on
Ground Water in Seminole County, Florida, 1934, 14 pp.
There has also been received through the U. S. Bureau of Soils
and Chemistry a limited number of the following soils surveys of
Florida which are for distribution:
Soil Survey of Polk County.
Soil Survey of Lake County.
MEMBERS OF SURVEY
Personnel.-The members of the Survey, in addition to the State
Geologist, have been Mr. G. M. Ponton and Mr. Frank Westen-
dick, Assistant Geologist, Mr. J. Clarence Simpson, Museum and
Laboratory Assistant and Mrs. Mary H. Carswell, Secretary.
Special temporary services were rendered by Mr. C. R. Asche-
meier and Miss Margurite Lee.
WATER RESOURCES STUDIES
Projects in Progress.--Cooperatively with the United States
Geological Survey investigations of the water resources of Flor-
ida were in progress and bad been for some time actively prose-
cuted. A detailed report has been issued covering Sarasota
County and other bulletins relating to the State in general and
certain areas in particular have appeared. From the information
obtained it is certain that these studies should be continued for the
ground waters of certain sections of Florida present problems
that ultimately may result in their complete ruination if measures
are not instituted to safeguard and protect them. It may now be
too late to reap the benefit from protective measures as would
have been the case if they could have been instituted earlier.
A careful and comprehensive study had been conducted of the
white-burning, high grade clays of Florida and the field and
laboratory data completed at the time the Survey became a part
of the Conservation Department. The manuscript for this report
has been partially assembled. Numbers of physical tests are in-
cluded and some complete chemical analyses have also been made.
It forms the most complete research yet made of these refractory
Florida clays. In the course of these investigations some new
deposits were discovered and these may prove to be of commer-
During the progress of the field work incident to the kaolin in-
vestigations notes were also taken of other clay possibilities.
There are deposits of clays that have promise of making good
pottery and other clay wares. With a view to developing indus-
tries along that line a search should be made for such particular
type of clays. Especially in western Florida clays of this class are
known to occur and one pottery has been established.
Research should also be conducted with a view to assisting the
fullers earth industry of the State. Clays other than fullers earth
suitable for the bleaching and refining of oils have lately been
discovered in the State. The extent of these should be more accu-
rately determined and their possibilities defined.
The Geological Survey is continuously engaged in research and
has revealed many facts important to unraveling the geology of
the State and in making correlations with formations elsewhere,
with the result that such studies have markedly contributed to the
development of the natural resources of Florida and a more
intimate knowledge of their possibilities. As must be evident all
research work may not result in immediate economic value but
it must be borne in mind that the pure science of today becomes
the applied science of tomorrow, and therefore it is an unwise and
unsound policy not to study in as great detail as possible all
phases of the State's geology and structure.
Much of the stratigraphic work has been carried on independ-
ently but at different times the Florida Survey has most advan-
tageously cooperated with the United States Geological Survey
and other organizations in geologic, paleontologic and strati-
graphic studies. There are obvious advantages in such coopera-
tion since in a small institution it is not possible to maintain a staff
of trained specialists but -within the Federal Survey, for instance,
operating as it has for more than half a century, is found a tech-
nically trained personnel and through cooperation with such an
agency superior results are assured for the work will be per-
formed by experienced men. The Florida Survey has' also been
fortunate in its relations with other scientific institutions of the
country, since a number of contributions have come from recog-
nized authorities in such organizations.
It is highly desirable that research be continued for without
it progress will not be made. The Survey has plans for making
investigations of the limestones of Florida especially with a view
to determining their adaptabilities as building stones. There have
already been extensive use made of the limestones of the State
for building purposes and this should be extended. It is with the
view of encouraging the use of native materials in construction
that a report of this kind should be issued.
USES OF PHOSPHATE AND MINING METHODS
It is also timely to prepare a report dealing with the mining of
phosphate. The geologic origin of the Florida phosphates has
been determined and reported upon but it is of intense interest
also to know how these are worked and prepared for market, and
the different uses made of phosphate.
GEOLOGICAL SURVEY AS A DIVISION OF CONSERVATION
During the 1933 Legislative session a general conservation law
was passed creating a State Board of Conservation composed of
the Governor and his Cabinet. In the passage of this Act three
departments formerly operating as separate units were abolished
and merged into the newly created Conservation Department,
namely, the Shell Fish, the Game and Fresh Water Fish and the
Geological. The Act became effective July 1, 1933, since which
time the Geological Survey has been a division under the direction
of the Supervisor of Conservation.
Personnel.-After the Geological Survey was merged into the
Conservation Department the personnel was greatly reduced.
Herman Gunter, State Geologist since April 18, 1919, and con-
nected with the Florida Geological Survey since August 15, 1907,
was continued as head of the Geological Department under the
title of Assistant Supervisor. Mr. G. M. Ponton's services were
terminated October 15, 1933. Mr. Frank Westendick continued
in the service of the new department until November 15, 1934,
when further reduction in the personnel was necessary on account
of reduction in finances. J. Clarence Simpson on account of ill
health was forced to give up work during the early Fall of 1933
but since November 1934 has been rendering part time service.
Irvin Grissett was with the department during the months of
June, July and August 1934. Mrs. Mary H. Carswell has con-
tinued in the capacity of secretary.
Appropriation.-From the organization of the Survey in 1907
to July 1, 1923, a continuing appropriation of $7,500 was annually
available. The Legislature of 1921 passed an Act creating a
Budget Commission for the State of Florida, which became oper-
ative July 1, 1923. Since that date the biennial appropriation bill
has been based on the report of the Budget Commission. The
Geological Survey has had moderate increases in its maintenance
appropriations, which were paid from the General Revenue fund,
but during the Legislative session of 1933 a decided decrease
was not only recommended by the Budget Commission but like-
wise made available through Legislative Act. The amount ap-
propriated totaled $12,500.00 annually during the period July 1,
1933, to June 30, 1935. This although necessitating curtailment
of a number of activities of the Survey would have nevertheless
permitted it to operate on a somewhat satisfactory basis. It was
of course appreciated that times were most abnormal and sacrifices
were made cheerfully and in full accord.
With the creation of the Conservation Department, however,
the appropriation for the Geological Survey from the General
Revenue Fund was not available so the new geological division
had to be supported from funds collected by the Conservation
Department. Thus the Survey financial support was further re-
duced, practically to the limit. The financial statement of the
Department indicates the amount allotted to the Geological Di-
vision for the period covered by this report. (See pages 95, 100).
Activities.-The personnel of the Survey has been so reduced
during the current biennium that it has not been possible to prose-
cute the work that had been planned nor that which was in
progress when the consolidation took effect. The Assistant Su-
pervisor has devoted his attention to the usual office routine,
answering correspondence, giving personal interviews and doing
some field work and collecting. Some assistance has also been
rendered the Department in the matter of exhibits at the south
Florida fairs. Attention has been devoted to the collections and
displays in the museum as well as to records of various kinds in
the Survey offices. With the reduction in assistance it has been
most difficult to attend to many matters that demand attention,
as a consequence of which there is a constant accumulation of cer-
tain materials that should receive attention. We have done the
best we could under prevailing circumstances.
Publications.-During the current biennium one paper has been
issued as Report of Investigations No. 1, entitled, Ground Water
in Seminole County, Florida, by V. T. Stringfield of the U. S.
Geological Survey, which was prepared in cooperation with the
Florida Survey. This came ojnt in mimeographed form since funds
were not available for publishing otherwise. It has been dis-
tributed especially to the citizens of Seminole County whose citi-
zens are particularly concerned, also to others interested. There
is now in press a bulletin (Geological Bulletin No. 12) relating to
invertebrate fossils from one of the well known shell marls of
western Florida. This supplements data obtained and published
about the fauna of this formation in previous reports of the Sur-
vey and will add completeness to the literature about that rich,
shell marl. The author is Dr. W. C. Mansfield, U. S. Geological
Survey and comes as a contribution without cost other than that
of publication. It is entitled, "New Miocene Gastropods and
Scaphopods from the Alaqua Creek Valley, Florida."
In addition to the above a number of contributions have regu-
larly been made to the Conservation Department's official maga-
zine, The Conservator. Among these are the following: Diatomite
is New Product, May, 1.934; Coquina-Historical Limestone,
November, 1934; Florida's Disappearing Lakes, December, 1934;
Ocala Limestone, January, 1935; Mineral Resources of Florida,
February, 1935, and in the March, 1935, issue Geological Surveys
in Florida, State and Federal by G. R. Mansfield of the U. S. Geo-
logical Survey. There have also appeared from time to time
informative articles in the press prepared at the request of the
Florida Survey by various Governmental agencies doing work in
the State. These have been appreciated and the cooperation in
this respect has been gratifying. Among the agencies thus con-
tributing have been: The U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey; U. S.
Geological Survey; War Department, Corps of Engineers; U. S.
Bureau of Mines; U. S. Department of Agriculture, Weather
Bureau and Bureau of Soils and Chemistry; and the U. S. Bureau
of Fisheries. Many of the articles contributed were used by the
press either in whole or in part and have been instrumental in
acquainting the citizens of the State generally somewhat with the
activities of the several agencies mentioned.
Projects Suspended---One of the investigations carried on by
the Survey at the time of consolidation with the Conservation
Department was that of the kaolin or white-burning clays of the
State. These highly refractory clays are used in the manufacture
of various kinds of white wares, porcelains, semi-porcelains,
enameled wares and the like. Some of the highest grades of this
clay occur here in Florida and have formed the basis of a sub-
stantial industry for years. Regardless of this fact, however, but
little research has been carried on so that the actual qualities of
these clays are not so well known. The Survey therefore deter-
mined to learn something of the physical and chemical qualities of
the deposits and thus be in a position to dissemminate dependable
information about them.
Extreme care -was exercised in the collection of the samples in
the field and ample notes taken covering manner of occurrence.
In the laboratory this same painstaking method was followed so
the results of the physical tests would all be comparable since
both the field and laboratory work were performed by the one
investigator. The results of this work were in process of com-
piling and drafting into manuscript form when reduction in per-
sonnel of the Survey became necessary owing to lack of funds.
WATER RESOURCES-INVESTIGATIONS SUSPENDED
Also at the time of the reduction in the Survey staff there was
in progress studies of surface and ground waters of the State.
Such studies were begun in cooperation with the U. S. Geological
Survey in 1930 and one detailed report covering Sarasota County
and two general bulletins have been issued. Also one mimeo-
graphed report dealing with Seminole County has appeared. Re-
gardless of the apparently inexhaustible and limitless supplies
of surface and ground waters in Florida many do not realize
that these resources are one of Florida's greatest assets and that
problems have arisen confronting the ground waters that are
becoming progressively more serious. Certain sections where
flowing wells have been obtained with such comparative ease and
slight expense and used for the irrigation of truck crops are facing
the impairment or ruination of their supplies through the gradual
encroachment and infiltration of salt water. Only through a study
of such local regions as will give definite knowledge of the geology
and the manner of occurrence of ground water, and the quality of
water yielded at different depths, can it be hoped to make recom-
mendations that will possibly offer remedial measures, if such can
For numbers of years the Florida Survey has cooperated with
the U. S. Geological Survey in various matters relating to the
geology, surface and ground waters, paleontology and mineral
resources. Such cooperation was suspended July 1, 1933. Co-
operation has also been carried on between the U. S. Bureau of
Mines and the U. S. Bureau of the Census in the collection of
statistics on mineral production. This is being continued at the
PUBLISHING REPORT ON KAOLINS
I. It is recommended that provision be made for completing the
manuscript and publishing the report of investigations completed
regarding the kaolin deposits of Florida, and now partially in
manuscript form. It should be made available to everyone
LEGISLATION PROTECTING AND CONSERVING WATER
2. Since many sections of the State are now confronted with the
impairment of the quality of water yielded by wells, and since
such conditions may become progressively worse, a conservation
law applicable to the whole State should be in force which would
adequately and effectively conserve, protect and safeguard this
resource. As the sustaining substance of all life is water, the im-
portance of this asset to Florida can not be overestimated. The
investigations that were in progress should not only be continued
but enlarged upon.
3. There has been a constant and growing interest from the
schools of Florida for information regarding minerals and other
natural resources of the State. Data of this kind is available in
printed form but it is usually found in more or less technical lit-
erature. It would be highly desirable and informative to prepare
handbooks or booklets dealing with subjects of this nature in a
popular, non-technical language, yet scientifically accurate. These
could be distributed especially to the schools with the assurance
that much good would result in acquainting the youth of the
State with many facts about which they are now more or less
uninformed. It is recommended that such booklets be prepared
4. As a further step in such an educational program small cases
exhibiting representative specimens of minerals, invertebrate fos-
sils, vertebrate fossils, recent shells, marine, fresh-water and
others, and other related materials, should be prepared and dis-
tributed to the schools. Such traveling exhibits could be wonder-
fully educational and the cost would not be prohibitive.
5. Another recommendation worthy of every consideration is
the matter of soil surveying. All soils are derived from products
of weathering of rocks or the transportation and subsequent de-
position of such products. They therefore have a direct relation-
ship to the geology of the State and their origin and character is
better understood by one versed in geology. Florida is an agricul-
tural, horticultural and truck growing State. The soils of the
State can not be too intimately known. Therefore a continuing
fund of generous proportion should be made annually available
for the prosecution of detailed soil surveying and mapping. Thus
through such information being available the land utilization
problem of Florida would be materially benefitted and advanced.
6. During the past two years the Geological Division has been
seriously hampered in its work through inadequate funds being
made available for its maintenance. The appropriation as passed
by the 1933 Legislature was not available after the combining of
the several departments into a Conservation Department and the
Survey has operated on a very reduced basis. It is urged that
more adequate funds be made available for the operation of the
Survey during the incoming biennium. There are plans for active
and aggressive work to be accomplished if funds are available and
it is of necessity that such request is made.
It is a satisfaction to record the general sentiment expressed in
many quarters that the Geological Survey has accomplished much
work in a most creditable manner and this in spite of the ever
modest appropriations made.
MARSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY
Due Returned Due Returned
UNIUERSITV OF FLORIDA
I I I tI.1Mfl IIUll! II It
3 1262 04424160 1 '
MARSTON SCIENCE LIBRARY
THIS VOLUME HA BEEN
MICROFILMEDB BYW TON SCIENCE LIBRARY
UNiVESITY OF FLORIDA
,* . ., : -