Front Cover
 Front Matter

Title: Caribbean maritime
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099408/00011
 Material Information
Title: Caribbean maritime
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Publisher: Land & Marine Publications Ltd.
Place of Publication: Colchester Essex, England
Publication Date: October-December 2010
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099408
Volume ID: VID00011
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Front Matter 2
        Front Matter 3
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Full Text





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2 Editorial
Documenting maritime history in the Caribbean,
Gulf of Mexico
3 Message from the CSA President
The CSA: Celebrating 40 years of service
48 Grapevine
50 Information Technology
Information technology raises bar in
the Port of Kingston
54 The Human Factor
Business transformation and the need for change:
a way of life and not an option
55 A Matter of Law
In case you missed it: Cruise shipping and land-based
tourism in the Caribbean tied the knot some time ago



4 The Caribbean Shipping Association
Tremendous strides, achievement in 40 years
9 Florida
Still the world's cruise capital
15 Guyana
Initiatives for growth showing positive results
18 Barbados
Barbados optimistic about cruise business next year
21 Port of San Juan
Despite decline, Port of San Juan sees positive signs
25 InDepth
Oil: Chronology of a disaster
22 Port Antonio's Errol Flynn Marina
A perfect haven for luxury yachts
23 Cruise & Yachting
Maximising returns from cruise and yachting
23 Falmouth
Royal Caribbean's 'marquee destination'
41 Yachts
Recession or not large yachts are still a major source
of revenue for destination ports
44 Panama Canal expansion
World's largest civil engineering project expected
to meet all completion deadlines
46 CSA Album
Caribbean Shipping Executives Conference,
Willemstad, Curacao, May 17-19, 2010
Electronic freight exchange for cabotage and shortsea shipping
52 Supply chain
Supply chain management: the challenges are clear

Except for that appearing in the Editorial column, the views and opinions expressed
by writers featured in this publication are presented purely for information and
discussion and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the Caribbean
Shipping Association The Editor





The official journal of the
Caribbean Shipping Association

-E caribbean shipping association

"To promote and foster the
highest quality service to the
maritime industry through training
development; working with
all agencies, groups and other
associations for the benefit and
development of its members and
the peoples of the Caribbean

President: Carlos Urriola-Tam
Vice President: Grantley Stephenson
Immediate Past President: Fernando Rivera
Group A Chairman: Michael Bernard
Group A Representative: Rhett Chee Ping
Group A Representative: Roger Hinds
Group A Representative: Glyne St Hill
Group B Chairman: David Jean-Marie
Group B Representative: Linda Profijt-del Prado
Group C Chairman: Cyril Seyjagat
Group C Representative: David Ross
General Manager: Clive Forbes

Director Information and Public Relations:
Michael S.L. Jarrett
Caribbean Shipping Association
4 Fourth Avenue, Newport West,
PO Box 1050, Kingston C.S.O, Jamaica
Tel: +876 923-3491
Fax: +876 757-1592
Email: csa@cwjamaica.com
Mike Jarrett
Email: csa-pr@mikejarrett.net

Land & Marine Publications Ltd
1 Kings Court, Newcomen Way
Severalls Business Park, Colchester
Essex, CO4 9RA, UK
Tel: +44 (0)1206 752902
Fax: +44 (0)1206 842958
Email: publishing@landmarine.com




The publication of this edition of Caribbean Maritime coincides with the 40th
Anniversary of the Caribbean Shipping Association (CSA) and documents, in
a short history, the path this Association has travelled from its infancy to the
The developmental role that this Association has played in the modernisation of
the shipping industry across the region cannot be denied. And although the CSA
is not endowed with vast material resources, it has organised an impressive region-
wide network of human resources. This network of corporate leadership, from
both the public and private sectors, represents the interests of the some 40 million
persons and more that populate the countries of the English, French, Spanish and
Dutch Caribbean, northern South America, Central America and the southern United
States of America.
Caribbean Maritime is only one of the tools that the CSA has used to create this
network. This tool was established so as to document the history of the maritime
industry of the Region but also to empower those who comprise or are associated
with the CSA network of business leaders. This network covers the Caribbean and
Latin American region and spreads across the Atlantic Ocean.

This issue of Caribbean Maritime, in its role of documenting history, unveils a new
editorial feature. Under the banner 'InDepth', this pull-out feature will give readers
comprehensive reports about recent developments as well as corporate issues and
trends. It will not necessarily become a standard feature in each publication but rather,
will be published as the need arises. Such a need arose in April 2010 when, arguably,
the worst environmental disaster occurred within the CSA's geographical sphere of
influence. The explosion and subsequent sinking of the oil rig Deepwater Horizon was
a tragedy of immense proportions, both in terms of human life and ecology. That this
tragedy was affecting, among other areas, the coastline of Louisiana (the Port of New
Orleans is one of the older members of the CSA network) made it the business of
Caribbean Maritime and an apt topic for the first edition of 'InDepth'.
The theme of this 11th edition of Caribbean Maritime is Cruise and Luxury
Yachts and again attention is focused on the Region's maritime tourism. There are
special features on Florida, the cruise capital of the world and whose ports are rep-
resented in the membership of the CSA, and there are special features on cruise and
yachting in other CSA member territories including Barbados, Jamaica, Puerto Rico
and Guyana. There are also standard features published here with the sole inten-
tion of stimulating and empowering managers and corporate decision-makers. And
we continue the documentation of progress of the largest single civil engineering
project on the planet, the Panama Canal expansion.
At 56 pages this is the largest ever issue of Caribbean Maritime. Welcome!




The CSA:

Celebrating 40 years of service

October 2010 marks a
significant milestone
for the Caribbean Ship-
ping Association. Forty
years of service in any
sphere of life is a signifi-
cant achievement and, for
the CSA, it is an anniver-
sary worthy of celebra-
tion. And so, when the
senior decision-makers in
regional shipping con-
verge on Montego Bay for
the 40th Annual General
Meeting, it will be a
celebration of service and
The CSA was established
as a service organisation. Our
founding fathers saw this
Association providing and
performing 'helpful activi-
ties' in support of shipping.
And that textbook defini-
tion of service defines the
role the CSA has played for
40 years. I am not sure they
would have dreamed that the
Association would have had
so many achievements in just
four decades. However, to
their everlasting credit, they

The services the CSA
has provided are many and
varied. The list is impressive,
not for its length but for its
quality: support for national
associations; delivery of
training at all levels of the
shipping industry; creation of
forums in which the leader-
ship of the industry can net-
work and access new ideas
and learn from experts; crea-
tion of a business exposition
to support the marketing of
technologies and software;
and, very importantly, creat-
ing a single regional ship-
ping community comprising
representatives of separate
and diverse languages and
cultures from both the public
and the private sectors. The
latter is an achievement not
to be underestimated. Not
many private organizations
anywhere have been able to
achieve that.

This record of achievement
was not accomplished easily.
The gains we have made

CSA has been a pillar of

strength in the development of

the Region's shipping industry

laid the foundations for what
we have so far accomplished
and set the tone and direc-
tion that have taken us to
this point in history.

could not have become real-
ity if the CSA was a weak
organisation. Quite the oppo-
site; the CSA has been a pillar
of strength in the develop-

ment of the Region's ship-
ping industry. We have been
and will continue to be like
the bamboo- flexible, but
strong. We welcome innova-
tion and embrace change
while celebrating our history
and traditions.

Not mentioned in this list of
services is the publication
of a business magazine for
the shipping industry of the
region. Caribbean Maritime
is published and delivered
to the shipping industry
of the Caribbean and the
world free of charge. There
is no paid subscription for
receiving this publication
and it is freely available to
the world through the CSA's

website. This magazine is
the CSA's service to the
Region's history, document-
ing, as it does, the progress
we have made and the path
we have travelled. Already it
has documented, in text and
photographs, three years of
Caribbean shipping history,
including the progress of the
world's largest civil engi-
neering project, the Panama
Canal Expansion.
It is with great pleasure
that the CSA, in celebrating
40 years of service, presents
this, the 11th issue of Carib-
bean Maritime

Carlos Urriola
President, Caribbean
Shipping Association



The Caribbean I
Shipping Association



The challenges that an ever
changing world puts in the path
of business are best overcome by
study and deliberation. Through this
process the power of the human
mind is unleashed, to address, ana-
lyse and solve the problems of the
day; to set new paths for progress
and development.
Through study and exposing hun-
dreds of corporate decision-makers to
the objective realities of the time, the
Caribbean Shipping Association, over 40
years, has been able to enlighten and
empower those to whom the rudder of
development is entrusted. Through its
conferences and training programmes,
through study and deliberation, the
CSA continues to make a unique and
historically significant contribution to the
development of the Caribbean.
The need to establish an effective,
broad-based Association to monitor
trends and to create fora for discussing
and sharing methodologies and strate-
gies for the development of shipping
in the Caribbean was recognized in the
1960s. It was a time when a number of

Caribbean territories had recently moved
from the shadows of European colonial-
ism into the light of nationhood; when
maritime interests came to accept that
there was much to learn and emulate
from the bold initiatives and strategies
being employed by their peers else-
where in neighboring Caribbean ter-
ritories to solve development problems
similar to theirs.

Specifically, the revolutionary achieve-
ments by the Shipping Association of
Jamaica (SAJ) in successfully negotiat-
ing with hostile labour unions for the
mechanisation of the Port of Kingston
started a process which led to port
interests across the Caribbean ultimately
coming together to exchange ideas and
discuss experiences. Trinidad, Barbados
and Bermuda were experiencing similar
problems with labour unions which
perceived any form of mechanisation as
a threat. Delegations from the ship-
ping communities of these countries
visited Jamaica within a short time of
each other to discuss and learn from the


By Mike Jarrett

achievements of the SAJ. These visits
exposed the successful Jamaican model
and stimulated new ideas and solutions
which quickly spread across the Region.
The initial encounters and ensuing
discussions helped to forge relationships
between maritime interests across the
National shipping associations were
soon established and, in 1969, repre-
sentatives from five such associations
met in Port of Spain for an informal
meeting to discuss labour contracts,
employment practices and other prob-
lems affecting the shipping industry.
This meeting was so useful, the group
decided to meet again in six months.
In 1970, at the fourth of these informal
meetings, in Barbados, it was decided to
form a Caribbean shipping association. A
steering committee was selected to draft
plans. SAJ Vice President Peter Evelyn,
who was Jamaica's representative to that
meeting, was elected to chair the steer-
ing committee. The SAJ's then General
Manager, Noel Hylton, served as Secretary
to the steering committee.
The initial objective of the CSA, as
discussed, was to bring together all par-
ties interested in the shipping industry
of the Caribbean and to establish the
closest integration of these interests, so
as to create an on-going dialogue which



would facilitate an exchange of experi-
ences, advice and information. The task
of Peter Evelyn's steering committee was
to develop a structure for achieving this
By 1971, a constitution and articles of
association were drafted and the CSA
established under Jamaican law. The
countries listed as the founding mem-
bers are: Barbados, Bermuda, Dominica,
Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St Kitts,
St Lucia, and Trinidad and Tobago. At
the first Annual General Meeting, in
Nassau, Bahamas, on October 19, 1971,
the representatives from these countries,
along with those from Antigua, the
Bahamas and St Vincent were admitted
to membership.

Early years
In its early years, the CSA concen-
trated on exchanging views on areas of
common interest and producing reports
on industry practices and port develop-
ment in the region. Comprehensive
technical papers were presented on
subjects such as shipping agency opera-
tions, documentation within ports, con-
tainerisation, movement and handling of
refrigerated cargo, port management,
port development and cargo liability.
By 1973 the Association had
expanded the scope of its activities. The
agenda for annual general meetings was
expanded to include technical presenta-
tions by competent individuals.
In 1976, the CSA saw the need
to review its constitution in order to
identify and rationalise its future role in
shipping in the Caribbean. As a result,
a new constitution came into force at
the seventh annual general meeting in
Puerto Rico in October 1977. This new
constitution opened membership to ship
owners and operators.
The Association subsequently identi-
fied management training as an urgent
necessity and made this a priority. The
CSA designed and delivered training
courses of high calibre. These were
attended by shipping management
personnel from across the Caribbean
region. Through its training activities,
the CSA was able to make a signifi-

cant and tangible contribution to the
development of the Region's shipping
By the turn of the decade of the
1980s, in just 10 years, the CSA had
started to take on the characteristics of a
multinational association, with represent-
atives and observers from outside the
Anglophone Caribbean joining the origi-
nal group of English-speaking members.

Embracing change
The CSA implemented a number of new
ideas and made significant progress
during the decade of the 1990s. That
period saw many Caribbean countries
deregulating their national economies
and entering a new epoch of open
competition and free trade. It was a time
when protective trade barriers were
challenged from within and without.
Through this relatively difficult period

for the Caribbean ex-colonies, the CSA
maintained a sharp focus on the needs of
those who must ensure that the Region's
sea ports and marine cargo management
systems are efficiently operated.
The Association added depth and
broadened its horizons. It explored,
negotiated and established the neces-
sary linkages with global and regional
agencies, national and multilateral bodies
and private institutions in the service of
its membership. CSA membership grew
steadily. The CSA's growth in size and stat-
ure soon attracted regional recognition
from governments and quasi-government
agencies and institutions across the four
language groups of the Caribbean. The
Association was soon able to make, with-
out fear of being challenged, the claim
of being the true and only 'voice of the
Caribbean shipping industry'.
There have been very few years since
1991 in which the CSA has not initiated

new ideas or implemented new services
or programmes.
The CSA's Silver Club was established
in 1995 (the 25th anniversary of the
Association), to harness the wisdom of
its most experienced members. Mem-
bers of the CSA become eligible for
membership in the Silver Club after com-
pleting 25 years of service in the shipping
industry. The CSA, through its General
Council, is able to tap the wisdom
harnessed by its Silver Club in problem
solving; assessing industry situations; and
in planning development programmes.
The Silver Club sets its own Agenda and
meets in private, in time set aside for
collateral meetings just prior to each CSA
In the final year of the 20th century,
the CSA launched its annual business
exposition, the Shipping Insight series;
initiated moves to establish a website;

and appointed a new Training Director
in a move to upgrade and expand its
delivery of training modules.
In 2001, when most companies did
not yet have a presence on the inter-
net or otherwise had one or two 'web
pages'; when compact disks for storing
digital data was state-of-the-art and
floppy disks were just disappearing;
when fax machines still carried the
weight of inter-business communica-
tions, the CSA launched its website.
Developed as an information resource
for the Caribbean shipping industry,
the CSA website started with well over
100 web pages and a members' section
under password control. The CSA's mas-
sive website was unique to membership
associations anywhere in the world at
the time and started a trend which has
been emulated ever since.
Also, in 2001, the CSA formally
established a working relationship with


By 1976, the CSA saw the need to

review its constitution in order to

identify and rationalise its future

role in shipping in the Caribbean


the largest Caribbean multilateral body,
the Association of Caribbean States.
Having previously established a formal
relationship with the Caribbean Com-
munity (Caricom), the Association signed
protocols in San Juan in October 2001
which made the CSA a social partner
with the ACS.
The CSA celebrated the launch of
the Caribbean Maritime Institute, also in
2001. The Association had been giving

the Jamaica Maritime Institute support
and assistance over the years and had
partnered with the Institute in developing
textbooks and manuals and in deliver-
ing a variety of training courses. The
CSA encouraged the formation of the
Caribbean Maritime Institute and worked
with the Caribbean Development Bank,
the University of the West Indies and the
Jamaica Maritime Institute to launch a
diploma course delivered by satellite the
Caribbean Diploma In Shipping Logistics.
The course was delivered to a number of
countries and the first batch of students
completed the programme in 2001. One
of the outstanding graduates delivered
her thesis as a technical presentation at
the CSA conference held in Georgetown,
Guyana, May 20 and 21, 2002.

Training has been one of the pillars of
the CSA's work. The Association has
been delivering training courses for
many years. Recently, the CSA imple-
mented an upgraded annual training
programme, subsidizing and delivering
high quality management and supervi-
sory training courses and workshops to
all levels of shipping industry personnel
and stakeholders across the Caribbean.
The CSA's Training Trust manages and
protects the Training Fund, the proceeds
from which help to subsidise the CSA's
training programme.
The CSA brought training to the centre.

* By making training development the
core of its mission, the CSA inspired the
shipping industry across the English,
Spanish, French and Dutch Caribbean
to place training at the top of maritime
development priorities.

* By establishing a Training Trust Fund,
the CSA put in place financial resources
to assist training development in the
Caribbean. The CSA's Training Trust

Fund supported, directly and indirectly,
shipping industry personnel across the

* By encouraging and facilitating devel-
opment and expansion of the Jamaica
Maritime Institute, that organisation
evolved into a regional entity, the Carib-
bean Maritime Institute.

* By collaborating with the Caribbean
Maritime Institute, offering skills and
financial resources, the CSA helped to
establish the Caribbean Diploma in Ship-
ping Logistics, delivered by satellite to
Caribbean nationals in several territories.

* By delivering professional training
workshops each year in different Carib-
bean territories with topics such as
port and ship agency management; port
security; and hazardous materials the
CSA assisted professional development
of middle and senior managers across
the Region.

* By entering into a Memorandum
of Understanding with the Pontifical
Catholic University of Puerto Rico in
2007, the CSA continued the process of
developing opportunities for higher edu-
cation and training of maritime person-
nel in the Caribbean.

* By establishing an annual conference
for shipping industry executives, with
presentations from leading experts, the

CSA empowered the senior decision-
makers in the Region's shipping industry.

* By pioneering, encouraging and
initiating maritime training over the past
30 years and more, the CSA assisted
and facilitated national development in
more than 20 countries, across the four
language groups in the Caribbean.

Meanwhile, the Association continued
with its annual regional award to the
best Caribbean sea ports and marine
terminals. The Caribbean Port Of The
Year awards, established in 1987, identi-
fied Caribbean port facilities that have
been models of growth and develop-
ment, efficiency and dependability in
the previous year. By making the Carib-
bean port awards an annual priority,
the CSA made a clear statement about
the critical importance of effective and
reliable marine terminal operations to
the economic well-being of Caribbean
In May 2007 the Association boldly
launched its official business magazine,
Caribbean Maritime. This publica-
tion, circulated within and without the
Caribbean and available on the internet,
documents the progress and achieve-
ments of companies and national ship-
ping associations across the Region. Like
the CSA's website, it quickly became a
trendsetter for membership organisa-
There are many new thoughts and
ideas which will ultimately influence
what the CSA does in the next 10 years
as it completes half a century of service.
However, its contribution to the devel-
opment of the Caribbean over the last
40 years is clearly evident in the mod-
ernisation strategies employed in ports
and harbours of more than 20 countries,
from the US Gulf coast and Florida in
the North, to the countries of northern
South America in the South.m

Mike Jarrett, Editor of Caribbean
Maritime and CSA's Director of Infor-
mation and Public Relations, has been
an adviser to the Caribbean Shipping
Association since 1981


In 2001, the CSA formally established

a working relationship with the

Association of Caribbean States

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The success of your business depends on the efficiency of your relationships.
Kingston Wharves is your gateway to over 15 major Caribbean and
Latin American ports.

*votd FM carbbew% L6adLng MuWI4%rpom Twminal
* Cutting Edge Taminal Mtnagemrnt


Kingport Building, Third Steet,
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Telephone: (876) 923-9211
Fax: (876) 923-5361




...sustained by its geographic proximity to the Caribbean

W ith two rival seaports and two
major airports in the south,
the State of Florida is now and will
likely remain the cruise capital of
the world.
At least, that is the consensus among
industry leaders, who point to a range
of factors and a pile of irrefutable statis-
tics that put Florida well in the lead for
cruise company corporate head offices
and cruise ship home-port assignments.

Among the factors:
* Florida is a 450-mile-long pier of a
peninsula stretching from Alabama to
less than 100 miles from Cuba and the
Bahamas with 14 competing deepwater
* Florida has a larger population of
cruisers than any other state or nation.

By Rick Eyerdam
* Florida's tourist economy, with resorts
everywhere the water meets the shore,
sustains a sophisticated, dedicated cadre
of service and sales professionals.
* The state has a robust logistics chain
with a year-round system for moving
high value, high quality perishables,
liquor and other provisions to cruise


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Guyana: Initiatives for growth

showing positive results

G uyana's efforts to expand its
cruise business have been bear-
ing fruit.
The South American country saw
an upsurge in arrivals during 2010 with
cruise ship visits increasing from two per
year to four per year. This might seem
like nothing compared with the bigger
destinations; but, statistically, it repre-
sents a growth of 100 per cent. And
discussions are under way for additional
visits in 2011 and 2012.

Facilities are being improved and
upgraded to ensure comfort for pas-
sengers and speedy docking for ships. In
preparing for this increase, the man-
agement of Guyana National Shipping
Corporation (GNSC) has been studying
the feasibility of constructing a special
passenger terminal facility. The Shipping
Association of Guyana is in discussions
with the government and is expecting
that dredging will be carried out soon to
make the harbour better able to handle
larger vessels.
In March, the Vistamar docked at the
GNSC wharf with 241 European visitors.

The visit was made possible by Dagron
Tours, which has recently secured some
major cruise lines from around the world
to dock in Guyana.
The Clelia II, on its maiden voyage,
visited Guyana in April, bringing 142
persons (65 crew and 77 passengers).
This was the result of a collaborative
effort involving the Ministry of Tourism,
Industry and Commerce, the Guyana

Tourism Authority (GTA), Evergreen
Adventure and the Guyana National
Shipping Corporation. The visitors went
sightseeing in and around Georgetown
and visited the famous Kaieteur Falls and
Canopy Walkway.
Dagron Tours, in recent times, has
been able to attract major cruise lines
from around the world to put Guyana on
their itineraries.
Tourism, Industry and Commerce
Minister Manniram Prashad is happy
that, over the past three years, Guyana's
cruise business has been increasing,
with visitors expressing delight in the
country's unique tourism product. He
attributed this to Guyana's emphasis on
attracting yachts and cruise ships to its
shores. Legislation making Bartica a port
of entry is in place. This has made it pos-
sible to install facilities for easy clearance
of passengers through Customs, Immi-
gration and Guyana Police security.

Luxury yachts
Initiatives are being taken to develop
facilities for luxury yachts. Guyana sees
this subsector as having great economic
potential. While the Demerara Harbour is

still to be prepared for larger vessels, the
smaller yachts can definitely be accom-
Guyana's natural resources and
unspoilt beauty provide limitless possibili-
ties for ecotourism. The country's main
visitor attraction is the Kaieteur Falls.
Its breathtaking 741 ft drop, five times
the height of Niagara Falls, produces an
incredible mist with hanging rainbows

and an unbelievable roar. Guyana has
four mountain ranges, 275 waterfalls, 18
lakes and vast areas of tropical rainfor-
est, much of it still in a pristine state. The
forest is home to a rich and rare assort-
ment of flora and fauna that makes the
country a must-visit destination for con-
tact with nature. Guyana is home to over
700 species of birds including the harpy
eagle (the world's largest eagle), the toco
toucan (famous for its enormous beak,
almost as large as its entire body), the
scarlet macaw (one of the world's most
colourful birds) and the red-billed toucan
(with a loud call that local people recog-
nise as a sign of imminent rain).
Guyana is not for 'sun and sand'
tourism, as offered by nearly all its Carib-
bean neighbours. Instead, Guyana offers
vast open spaces, rolling savannahs,
virgin rainforests, majestic mountains,
huge rivers and giant waterfalls. With
this unique product, the country can
compete with its neighbours for a share
of the multi-million-dollar tourism busi-
ness for which the Caribbean is world-
famous. u


Facilities are being improved

and upgraded to ensure comfort for

passengers and speedy docking for ships


'urln rdri 'uj IOjll

EWkwt Nodam

(ruise Jetly Olraanda, (uraw(a

[hOL In.uJ


Ballast Nedam knows what is

important when it comes to water

Balas r Nedam par icblar contribution to a project draws dire fly an the challenges we have
fated as a business with its roots in the Netherlands. Our homeland's unique topography has
forced us to find innovative solutions in creating its infrastructure. So you will find the res ruling
skills nowhere else. Mony of these are in the realm where land and water meet.

.,Pe p-:iallise in adapting and applying those
solutions to relevant situations elsewhere in
the world. In lhi, priPn-prira.tn we highlight
these activities, in which Ballast 'edri in I
expertlie is unrivalled.

R.illas Nedam is more than just a builder: the
.1rr p.jI is involved in the entire cosllf strut LL
lnon process, from project development and
financing right itirr;u.h to luniq Irinl main-
tenance after project completion.
Experts from Ballast Nedam meet with clients
at an early ..caQ Their creative approach
is key to helping them produce alternative,
more efficient designs. Civil and Marine En-
qir.ciinq and G.-neri Buillinq jre company
hallmarks, Svanen

) Ballast Nedam

Ballast Nedam's core activities consist of
project management and engineering. Fur-
thermore, our specialized activities are what
really set us apart, both in the Netherlands
and worldwide. These include advanced
foundation techniques, port facilities, quay
walls, roads and waterworks.

Specific skills and special equipment are vital
when it comes 1o hiding major structures
such as jetties, breakwaters, sea defences, in-
takes and outfalls A detailed understanding
of the marine environment and respect for its
intricacies are just as Important.

Ballast Nedam has been deiiing innovative
solutions to complex marine and civil engi-
neering problems for more Ihan a century. In
ports and terminals worldwide. Near shore
and -ishoire

. . .

Water is important and water will become
even more Important in the future The
climate is changing, sea levels are rising, the
sea floor is subsiding. Torrential rainfall Is
becoming more common and the volume of
glacial runoff is Increasing.

Safety, sustainability and space for water
figure prominently in key government policy
decisions, Ballast Nedam knows what is
important when it comes to water,

Our knowledge and expertise are unparal-
leled in the areas of water management and
the economics of water usage. We build se-
wage treatment plants and sewage systems,
Wec. ( al ep ,nlngri.:ally .-v.uind river banks. We
provide solutions for surface water retention
and infiltration provisions to address urban
expansion and infrastructural concerns.

Our water-'ri.n igemere ac c:vii ;e are
extensive: from building sewage systems to
excavating large-sca le hydraulic projects. We
provide a wide range of hydraulic enginee-
ring work: for bridges, bed-sealing projects,
pile planking, ecologdcallv river banks, dred-
ging and maintenance of watercourses. Our
proven expertise and know-how allow us to
provide any kind of project-related support
municipalities and water boards might need,

Ballast Nedam
P.O. Box r505
3430BM Nieuwegein
The Netherlands
Phone: +3 (0) 302853727
Fax: +31(0) 302855484
f-maroi info.infrrballast-nedam.n
Internet, .v.r jrt.i r .1.ir- rji

Port ir.r ;rr, tIPm: i iY 't kl.writr

- I~"

uiinjnrri. 'irie



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never miss another issue

I .


www. lan marine. corm/cm

IO JCL -,!U I I q


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Tucked away in northeast Jamaica
is a marina named after a swash-
buckling silver screen icon who
frequented the Jamaican coast.
The Errol Flynn Marina is a perfect
haven for luxury yachts.
Port Antonio is truly enchanting. Its
crystal-clear azure seas break gently
across gorgeous white sand beaches,
overshadowed by the verdant and
majestic Blue Mountains, where the best
coffee in the world is cultivated. Port
Antonio is mesmerising. Port Antonio
is the perfect yachting destination. If
adventure, romance or an opportunity
to leave the real world behind is what
you seek, then Port Antonio is as close
to Utopia as you'll ever get.
iiiiiiii .......... ........ ......... .... ............ ......................ii

Security is everyone's concern and so
it is important to note that the parish
of Portland, of which Port Antonio is
the capital, has one of the lowest crime
rates in the Caribbean.

Errol Flynn Marina's new haul-out, repair
and yacht storage facility stands out as
one of the most technically advanced
facility in the Central Caribbean. The
yard's 100 tonne Marine Travelift easily
handles yachts up to nearly 100 ft and
up to 220,000 Ib (100,000 kg). The lift
slip accommodates yachts with beams to
24 ft and 12 ft draught. It is fully lighted,
with electrical and water connections
throughout. And its modern ground
tackle ensures that yachts are bunked
and stored both safely and securely. The
shipyard is patrolled 24/7 by an alert
security team.
A submersible lift for use in its wide
launching ramp is now being consid-
ered so that the shipyard will be able to
handle wide-beam catamarans up to 36
ft beam. A crane is currently used for
hauling extra-wide-beam vessels.
All standard underwater maintenance
and repair services are offered including
high pressure cleaning, scraping, barrier

Additional topside services can also
be arranged, including mast stepping.
Immediately adjacent to the Travelift slip


coating, gel coating, fibreglass repair
and anti-fouling application. Underwa-
ter services include zinc replacement,
cutless bearing removal and replace-
ment, shaft straightening and propeller
repair. Seacock servicing and folding
propeller servicing are also included.

is a 100 ft state-of-the-art fuelling jetty,
with both high-speed and conventional
dispensing pumps. Both gasoline and
low sulphur diesel are available.
Errol Flynn Marina has a designated
helicopter landing area with parking for
up to four helicopters. m


Maximising returns from cruise and yachting

N o one can dispute the
fact that 2009 was a
horrible year worldwide
for tourism stakeholders in
every sector. Caribbean des-
tinations, because of their
dependence on tourism and
particularly the yachting and
cruise sector, felt it perhaps
more than anywhere else.
The global recession has
impacted heavily on the
spending power of vacation-
ers and many tourist destina-
tions even now are still feeling

the effects. The question is,
how does the Caribbean react
to this situation? Do we cut
down on expensive advertis-
ing and marketing efforts? Or,
otherwise, how do we con-
tinue or boost our marketing
efforts in order to stimulate
business for maritime tourism?

Can we look at other des-
tinations that are successful in
their efforts to keep attracting
visitors and establish what it is
that they are doing right that
can be copied or emulated?

Do we need to engage in
smart marketing and adver-
tising? Do we pool our
advertising resources that are
normally spread over a variety
of media houses, sometimes
spending millions of dollars

unnecessarily? Some destina-
tions, unfortunately, are doing
just that and not getting
maximum benefits.
What are the alternatives
we are pursuing in our ports
to derive maximum benefit
from the business we are
receiving right now? Are there

incentive programmes to
generate new business?
What are we doing to
ensure customer satisfac-
tion? How are we managing
our present infrastructure?
How does crime factor in the
customer's choice as to which
destination to visit? Some
destinations are shooting
themselves in the foot, so to
speak, by allowing crime to
escalate to the point where
it is affecting their tourism
business. Take, for exam-
ple, the recent pull-out of
Norwegian Cruise Lines from
St Lucia, primarily because of
the crime situation. Could this
have been avoided? What are
other Caribbean destinations
doing to ensure that crime
does not rob the national
economy of vitally needed
foreign exchange?

The fact is that both tour-
ism sub-sectors (cruise and

By Nathan Dundas*

yachting) are billion-dollar
industries and the Caribbean
is still number one for both,
although the Region's global
market share is slipping in
the face of competition from
Europe and the Far East.
We have to do everything
in our power to ensure that
we remain competitive while
at the same time ensuring
that we gain maximum ben-
efits from the industry. m

*Nathan Dundas chairs the
Caribbean Shipping Associa-
tion's Cruise Committee




C construction work continues at the port of Falmouth
on Jamaica's north coast. The new cruise ship
destination is now expected to be officially opened
FA LM O U T H in January 2011, according to some sources. Royal
Caribbean, working with the Port Authority of Jamaica
RO YA L CA RIBBEA N is providing a significant amount of the $170 million port
development project and has referred to it as, Historic
AM *11re Falmouth Jamaica, a "marquee destination'. Plans
'PMARQ U E E D ESik M :-- 1 4 4"IT include major work on upgrading the buildings and
facilities in the old seaport town, capital of Trelawny
parish. Designs are for a classic Georgian style. Cruise
passengers are expected to feel like they stepped into
the old world. Development plans include exquisite
shopping and dining facilities. Royal Caribbean's mega
cruise ships, the 5,400- passenger Oasis ofthe Seas and
Allure oftheSeaswere expected to begin calling there
in March 2011, but the port was expected to be taking
ships from as early as November 2010. Two Holland
America ships, the 1,258-passenger Rynclarn and
1,918-passenger Noordom, were scheduled to begin
visiting Falmouth starting in November and December
X 2010, respectively. Holland America's 2,104-passenger
Eurodom and Royal Caribbean's 3,114-passenger
Navigator of the Seas were scheduled tovisit inJanuary.
Thisaerial photograph ofthe port sideclevelopment
was received by Caribbean Maritime in September.
The digital signature suggests that it was taken on
September 4. Word is that the work on the buildings in
Photo courtesy of the Port Authority of Jamaica the town had not yet begun..



Seahrrdi Marine for more than
25 years has provided direct,
fi\cJ- United Strt-. the ('arihh.bbn and
Central and South America.
Convenient schedules combined
with unmatched customer service
and an cxp.inding fleet of ships
commanded by a company ,I
dedicated professionals, have
become our trademark.

*i i

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Oil: Chronology

of a disaster
By Rick Eyerdam
n. Api 20, 200tese.isbmri olrg
Deepat Hoizn explode an ak. iln




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galn of crd flo .n.o the Gul *m for Tha sam day th A) pas 30y asttle b u 700 bares
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the oi spl fil sui agis 7 Aopaie whs fieot (681 sqar mies of Gul wate0 arud oladwte ant x
rep ne to th exloio abar A h De e HoriAzA n on

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eems to Ae wokig -At rir' Auea AfO enE eg a a e e t ecnfial n o neta h 5
July 17: he new BPca- -s-s-w-l-be-un-rtaken-b t-w e-can-ow-state
only ~ ~A An iniena leak -Act h u bro eli fetveyda.Adtoaeuaoyse
clanu wokrA nhl A deiiiey AhtteM cnow l oe ocniun hett h ufo eio









The maritime subsector currently
Experiencing the most rapid
growth, globally and in the Carib-
bean, is cruise tourism.
The birth of the modern cruise indus-
try in the 1960s accounted for a signifi-
cant expansion of maritime transporta-
tion. However, the regional approach to
the development and reform of maritime
transportation has been fragmented
and the countries of the Caribbean have
largely not capitalised on the opportuni-
ties inherent in using maritime transpor-
tation as a development tool.
Maritime transportation infrastruc-
ture throughout the Caribbean region
was designed to facilitate colonial trade.
Today, advancement in technology and
skills has placed the Caribbean in a catch-
up mode. Most of the reforms that have
been made are essentially cosmetic and
generally do not address the real need

to overhaul the entire infrastructure.
There has not been a holistic approach to
making the Caribbean a strong link in the
global logistics and supply chain.

From its inception until the early 1930s,
the cruise industry was an overwhelmingly
North American phenomenon. Its major
impact in the Caribbean before 1943 was
restricted to the more northerly ports of
Nassau, Havana, Hamilton and St George,

Bermuda. Today, many have argued that
the rate of growth for the Caribbean
is not good because the profit margins
are very small while the environmental
costs are high. For example, it has been

By Fritz Pinnock
and Ibrahim Ajagunna

estimated that a cruise ship emits more
carbon per person per kilometre than an
aircraft. According to experts, the Carib-
bean receives approximately 50 per cent
of global cruise market share by passenger
count and ship calls while at the same
time receiving 50 per cent of the pollution
generated by cruise ships. However, the
Caribbean region receives less than five

per cent of the estimated US$38 billion of
global cruise revenue.
The present state of the industry in the
Caribbean region suggests an unsustain-
able practice as the (five per cent of the



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total)0.evenue receivedBannoB jusify the on the touted economic b f Man
imp*act the industry .o e0 are quickly disappoint
me It0^. s o b n a d t t c e P t i
tourism in the C n hs b e i s p t c s is c
more of an inv n of s s r r te e y of te U f
th^M an itsm inH o ae e clurl derased* sinc th 0id 1990s despite0
exper ie ce According to the ex a0 a t d n in 0
00is pasngr spen the lags po.- sa epcuehlsfrms0aiba
tionof heirtrael m neyon he sip nd cunties
00. ashor onl to visit sie and to buy It ha0.oe eesrt s:i

to the 0opn rvdigtetu. 0000 '0g 50 per cen of 00rl cris cal and inetn in land- and watr-bse
this has bee excrae by 00e '0'h whl reevn onl fiv 00.' cen .00 th torcm aisgfsadsovnrsos

onturs eseily in mor reen destintio00
times, cruis to rim Wha poic prsrito is~ thr fo '0''tis h rus iessrv t aif
Caiba reio 0' enur 0'.0''''lt evr deir 0' th grwngnm eroues
of th "0is inuty As a resul of ''00 aproch bot cru00is0e' 0
Man Caibea government 00e to copne an Ala0a commun0'es0d"0iv
beiv the nee the cruis ship more cosdeal reeu fro a wid rag 0o'' 0f'
thntecusesisne their' 0 fclte.0 .00r fro the ecno i im at th anilr 00.0or and reretina acii
Unfrtnatly this micle of deedec soa cost of cris 0'. is ti0s Ths000ue'lgh-eigfsig
0000fel the inern po lm.' Ineet ar eq al sinfiat paricuarl .00 bidg widlf viwig wildrnes
0'ly 0'm of the hih-rie detnain isan co m nte 0'.t 0' e inrasnl aco m dto and reae spending in0. 0
ino o th0 Caiba 00e plce 00a cruis atrctv to cruise viitr because of fodsls niom na aae et
shp do no vis 0. Inted the are shifting thi rua lif00le 0'd local 0'diios In m rn aneaceadifatutr
to 000 detnain and prvt is0.ds Alsa 0'r exmpe sussec prcies0vlomn With mutpyn 0'sege
It '00. become a0 pratic fo mo0 pot am n inienu Alskn hv ben um rsandjbteAak rieidsr
toviwth0rus ship000' 'cs co s. traee'yevrn etl.n utrl nwe posoe 0000. '0'er or7.
The 0.is inuty it lobit an mim nge et whl 0'ia sytm per cent ofteto00.us eltdwokoc
it varou reioa trad oraiain '0' ovrw ele in co m ntesw ee inteUA
also cov 0ietl '0'ot this 0'ew 00 is th rati of pasngr t0. presidents.
based, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ 0 in pat 00' cosstn clim by 0" fe 1t 1nAakbeas fps
cruise ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ '0 inusr (an by man pots tht snes are0neetadiieais
the ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ aveag cris pasne 0.nsmr ohtecus insadteAakn h ateno riearvl o
numbe of Caibea conre habe
afece by a vait of naua facors
Pehp th motda ai0 wstevr
tua cesto of criesi'rrvl 0 n

netl evcatd Natra diatr have 0 '. 0 .
thn'$00 0. eac po 0t Goen et hav atte pte souin to the soio als severely afece ote conris
and pot exra.lt fro thi an 00.0. ecno i and cutua im ac of 0'.is 0'inca fo exmpe had an errti
exgeae0cam bu th 000 ua 00uis 0.0 00a detnain The aproc patr in th 190 wit te nu beo
ecoomc ipat f cuie oursmonthe ha ben ha te mjo cuis lne shpsan paseges fucuaingwidl
local ecno y On thi basis mayprs em lyapaciecle 'vria ine (fo exmpe low of see cal and

invest~~ ~ ~ tens of miloso olrSnpr rto n'b ucaigbsnse nal hgso 8clsad1,8 riasi

e've beer)J.~.~~~

U n flnuou~i pff iirnr~ o ltablo
shipping serc -s to the
Sregiona l a r,,t;rne community for a sod 12

Our, .-.71 vd iU? 5 buit un the
v-rst rp ieoc& rnd tht proven wiforli oi
our people

Our customers, t!e gloVer jrr ;, I ivL
Oi niV tua trusr u; With the ir disltnbuti nr n r'eth
to M. potos in the (-ribtedrl Mreilo d

Gcenta Amrrrica vd, th"e north'ern co~st ot

South Amr.c Andi so- w Iou.

Ji~C F S fJ';

Ianlilon, Bermuda

Th o r. *r u f .rb .. .... . ..

a *... *.. *.* ...* *. * *.

00 * 0* 0 . 0 *eO *O 00

I- '0 0'0 0 .'0' *0 .' 0 .00'., .0*

*.0l 0000 ^. *0 *00* 0 **^. 00
0*0 .0..............................

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0' 0hes 0 00atth. .0 00 00 0. 00' cnr e 0 .
S pot of call woul no '00eas 00' cutua beeft fo local communities

-IM '0' .0 '0. '0' .'00 00 * .* 0 *. . '''

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the 000re 0000 th nu be of pasngr Unotntl fo the Caiben hard

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unique physical a cl0' 000* i0 0' to dfn T 0' c.0ncer0n

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men ta* '00 o0 c 0 '00 the growh in 00 0' 0 h

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tho gh u the .0iben plus th pein wit00u a 0.0'r unestn in0

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objctve to beom 'cm o' tha is statg for maagn visitors.,g

soial cotmiae by crwd thus ** ** -,

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0 on t co


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Port of Curaqao is a full service port with:
* Curaqau Port Authority: cruise facibLies
* Curagao Port Services: stevedoring services
* Curacao Drydock Company; Rhiprepair
* Miami Diver underwater shiprepair
* Excellent ex-pipe bunkering facilities

Safe, reliable and efficient
Ftr m re late it wwr .curparzm or f-ng: Inlla g rplau mm


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T RADE VOLUMES in Latin America and the Caribbean fell by just under seven
per cent during 2009. Nearly all of the 20 largest container ports experi-
enced a fall in trade figures, according to the Economic Commission for Latin
America and the Caribbean.
The decline is attributed to the global economic recession. The decline in
trade volume was less than the value of trade, which reportedly declined by
11 per cent. Generally, Latin America's large ports had a better year than the
rest of the world, where major ports experienced an average decline in trade
volume of nine per cent. There were some notable exceptions. Trade surged
in the port complex of Cartagena cle Indias, Colombia, and at Caucedo, in the
Dominican Republic. Both are among the top 10 ports in the region, as ranked
by volume. The busiest port remains the complex of Santos, which serves the
highly inclustrialised state of Sdo Paulo. The reduction in activity did not signifi-
cantly alter the ports' relative ranking in 2009.

Z Si Ited S Serv-
.=im L ine .'s Wq revenue increasediin

monthso t. .o I S93 millloiThis

te,.fl Thswslargelyinlin .] 1w1 it
er.Ti s, .'crcordi ng torprs
inrae5- soeaig rftt
US55 milona5 omaedwt


TrIe Jolur nal Corcrer:e reprrc led that the
I Panrama Canal s vessel raff ic and total lonnaqe
declined in Ihe quIo ler ending .lune 30 It repcrls
lth- Panoama Canal Autll-h:cry as sayinql there was
a sl':Jwd wn in lthe riaritirie industry 5. year :if
re:cc:very. a cc:nclIusi':on bt:E.-a d n :perOal :n'. fr:rn,
April through IJuine 2010 (the third quarter of the
auith:horiy :. 2010 frisal year) as ::'nopared vwih the
,:,:,rresp:nding third quarter : of .al year 2009 :,Ial
canal Iron.ll declined sliqghly (by 2 3 per c:ent) It
3-476 tran.ll:s as ,:rpared with the ,:.:rreispo'nding
qularler la'is year TransiOts o:f super' larger vessel.
that require more Iimre ond greoaer noaviqali:rn skills
Ito trnsit the canal decreased by 31 per cent ircrn-
1 815 to 1 7'3 Iransils Hjowever general :3ra a3rnd
veh:ile carrier IrOnsits increased Transits of dry
bulk containers refrigerated cargo inkers and
passenger vessels decreased

R ,oy(ol Caribbean the
net' incom of US'05i l-~~

lionT for the second square




A P Moller-Moersk s c:on.inei r r division aoaij n som profit s incre-as
sirInif:canrily in the second quarter of 2010 as c*:orrpared wilh lhe
first quar er This .:o'nll.ued a Irend lhai strained at the end ,:i 2009
reports C.'nlinerr alOrn Inrerrnal.rion l (CI) The in-iprcvenienri wE a due
Ilorglly tc. increased frertgh r.les rather lhan ar, g r,.wthl Average
frerghl rales in the se:c'rnd quarter were up by 8 6 per :enl c:rnpared
with the first quarter I 1., -S-1 5I5,6 per leu whereas. cargo scarred
remained cor'stant a 900 000 leu Interestingly Ci repcr ts clher :car-
riers such as Hopa, -LI.yd OCICL APL arind H rilin experienced irnmnlor
freight rate iinc:rea.ses ranging between eight per :ernl and 12 9 per
entl I ul they generally so.w on incre,.as.e of oboul 10D per cenr in ,car.g.
c:rned So the irmipllica 'n i,.s lho Maersk s. wider geographic c:ov.erage
went aga'rinsl II Cl cn::ludes


firs half] of. ~ thsyercmpae withaloss'1 ll in
the orrspodingperod astyear, l rprtd

Neti proit reachedii IU ,4 rmillion-lm5 incon

upilby1 per centtlo US6II 8 mll io, I altho'ugh
lprn iom SiT) SeSiS ed by 54 per cent
t -- - - -5ll ior 5l 5,uae ihat t "e reaso
bySlll 16 per WAI cetya nya o]S20mlin
returni coin' Lsa'le ofi tw"os ;pe"rl cetasreored
These results areonly: formu Evergreen's"Evergreen

nvsn in aprpit wit th laou delym n job maualy Th Col-
teholg can prpe system lective Labou Agreement

thog the. efiinis oer6 erg. One of pesn 0p...................... reportto

bein mad in th ai- fo th Por of0 Kigso on a 0 Reitee stevedore

reio ben a ao o peid whe mor tha 600 they weersen. Thsei
petio on the worl shp wores 0er ben man- th supeetl.aorpo

Caa is expnde and th asoiain wer asige an they actu-
new opportunities flow. Until a y ago, the allywork
00'cess of'00 0.00yin labou
0's larel a manual eff ort

*^^^^'^ii~T 0 0 '0 *T^i~l'^^^~Kaa _j'HH'0''^fL .0 00 0 00 0'
I^^^^BTn~w* Jm ictechnolog ha Th wN^^^PhiSB^arf companies wou Ki^Cld Wih th cangsingoba Swas not guaranteed,, but,^^

difrnl lik '''0 0 of to th ru .00000dbyth

it patnr an clens Th unos por mange en
question wa' se:ho0nwh.R.0asluinta
cn' the process of deploying would provide cost savings to
labou be' im roe '''0 0. 0.l plyr and ri the sys0'tem0
ensurin tha 0.00 needs0 of of ineffiiencie and opportu-
the'' clint -tr ia op r niie for' fru uln activi0ties. 0'
0'in co0.ie and por Th resutin souto wa0s0 .. 0 00
'0rkr 00. met Thr '.0'TU E Labour.00 '' 0' 0
wa also th ratinaliatio
areas, ~~~ on 0. th mos crti Th SJ 0'.uiin Cete ofs00Pieralett

cal~~~~ ~ ~ Oein th maae et tenrfre o als fal wsue sa'eriigTepoeso sinn



61 R




the challenges are clear

Many of the cherished
manifestations of
our modern life owe their
emergence and matura-
tion to the by-products
of the Second World
War. The manufacturing
sector rapidly converted
from war production to
accommodate the insa-
tiable demand for goods
and services by an ever-
growing number of two-
income families.
This was particularly so
in the USA. Elsewhere in
the hemisphere, countries
were shedding the yoke of
colonisation and pursuing
an accelerated adoption of
an industrialisation strategy.
Manufacturing systems with

complex support mecha-
nisms found it a challenge
to create production proc-
esses capable of satisfying
the need to move everything
from flip-flops to flat-screen
televisions, and from bananas

to oil rigs, across thousands
of miles. Of necessity, a
revitalised shipbuilding and
ship service industry was
spawned, resulting in vessels
capable of carrying well over
10,000 cargo containers.
Yet no single entity was
able to aggregate resources
capable of handling the
volume and diversity of
product and geography. As a
consequence, an amalgama-
tion of transport providers,
computer software providers
and capital developed the
practice of logistics.
Hence, McDonald's, KFC,
Toyota, General Electric,
Hewlett-Packard, Nestle and

Mini Marts became ubiq-
uitous because the world
suddenly, if not accidentally
- or perhaps in spite of itself
- discovered the magic and
ability of logistics to meet the
need to move people, mate-

rial and information afford-
ably with precision, economy
and timeliness.
Logistics encompassing
traffic, transportation and
distribution -with acceler-
ated advancements in tech-
nology, communications and
transportation has since
morphed into the global
supply chain.
According to a recent IBM
study, the amount spent on
the global supply chain is
about US$3 trillion. It is also,
arguably, the most complex
and yet fragmented market
in our day, tended by a grow-
ing cadre of supply chain
management professionals.
Today's global supply
chain, at least at the macro
level, claims to be a well
oiled machine. But it is not
always so. Despite significant
advancements, the micro
world of day-to-day opera-
tions continues with the
daunting challenge of ever-
rising customer expectations.

Supply chain
For decades, the build-
ing blocks of the modern
supply chain purchasing,
operations, traffic and data
processing -were regarded

By Joseph Cervenak*

as peripheral to corporate
success and were viewed
top-down as redundant, non-
value, back-room expenses.
These functional depart-
ments, enjoined to reduce
operating expense and make
do with less, were cloistered
defensively behind proce-
dural mysteries and without
an incentive to change the
status quo. Many depart-
ment managers saw change
in terms of budget con-
straints, increased labour
costs and operating capital
drain. Others, who were
unskilled, unknowing, risk
averse or simply lazy, were
reluctant to accrue costly
technological advances or
take on the risk of process
changes. The inventiveness of
re-engineering, outsourcing,
enterprise resource planning,


Today's global supply

chain, at least at the

macro level, claims to be

a well oiled machine


radio frequency identification
technology and the like were,
and continue to be, a sombre
challenge to their status quo.
A number of progres-
sive companies, and their
managers, recognized that
the 'Same Stuff on a Differ-
ent Day' syndrome would no
longer be productive or capa-
ble of serving the continued
prosperity of the enterprise.

Globalisation, though at best
an imprecise concept, forced
an undeniably vigorous com-
petitive environment on many
companies. Once dominant
and secure in a turtle-paced
business arena, many here-

tofore giants of industry had
been rendered irrelevant by
the new world order to wit,
the demise of such venerable
names as Rover, Polaroid, Pan
Am, British Leyland, Atari,
Daewoo, F.W. Woolworth,
Xerox and more.

Challenging and
changing times
Consider three independent
forces that significantly affect
the supply chain process
and frame industry's ability
to respond to the forces of

1. Corporate inventiveness
Supply chain management
is about the management of
the material and information
that flows in multi-staged
production and distribution
networks. Since these are
driven by fierce global

competition and enabled
by advanced information
technology, many companies
have revamped their supply
chain to reduce costs and
increase responsiveness to
changes in the market.
The likes of Wal-Mart,
Colgate, Procter & Gamble,
Target, Johnson & Johnson,
Motorola and Apple are
setting the standards by
matching production and
procurement to customer
requirements as well
as relentlessly pursuing
efficiencies throughout the
chain, less reluctantly than in
the past. These chain forgers
are looking towards academia
for help. Such efforts have

improved the modern supply
chain's ability to deliver a
sustainable competitive
advantage to firms by bringing
value to the consumer. Thus,
these companies are ensuring
their continued success, at
least until the 'Next New
Thing' rears its head.

2. Academic research
The history of formal
supply chain study is well
documented, generally in
scholarly journals. Supply
chains, characterized by
multiple dependencies,
complexities and fragilities,
have provided ample
research material. In the
late 1990s and early 2000s,
the practitioners, seeking
alternatives to the tried
and true, turned to the
archetypal 'blue bloods'
of research Mitroff,

Novack, Agryris, Bertrand
and Bowersox -who over
decades offered their works
in pure research, model
building, surveys, case study
research, action research,
quantitative modelling
and experimentation. In
turn, their works fostered
a growing interest in
specialised higher learning.
In 2004 the Graduate
Management Admission
Council ranked Operations
Logistics as the sixth
most requested area of
specialisation for an MBA.
Taking specialised learning
to the next level, the noted
MIT academic and consultant
Yossi Sheffi, who is also
director of the MIT Center
for Transportation Logistics,
is drawing the attention
of US industry with the
MIT-Zaragoza International
Logistics Program, which
fosters partnerships among
academia, industry and
government to advance the
supply chain. Forward-looking
companies are subscribing
to academic journals and
exploring scientific and
quantitative techniques to
advance the value calculus of
the supply chain.

3. Disruptive events
Catastrophic, episodic and
unexpected events have
captured headlines since
the first days of print. Now,
with instantaneous high-tech
communications networks
and social media tools, we
are real-time witnesses to
disruptive events. Each event -
whether a natural catastrophe,
a political convulsion, an
economic crisis, or a terrorist
attack frequently and
severely strains each link of
the supply chain.

Attempting to predict
catastrophic events is
best left to the black-box
phenomena researchers. A
critical, albeit aggressive,
look at pattern projection,
frequency and probability
statistics and the application
of risk management
techniques, coupled with hire
and promotion of creative
people with right-brain ideas,
will provide the framework to
mitigate service and supply
disruptions in the future.
With the three forces
identified here, strategic
alignment, in-house silo
elimination and integration,
partner collaboration and
synchronisation within the
supply chain will be neces-
sary to meet the challenges
posed by an ever-dynamic
world economy. The growth
in business logistics systems
in recent years has been
As Dominic Obrigkeit,
vice-president of Evergreen,
one of the world's largest
shipping companies, notes:
"Survival for today's global
player requires inventive
thinking followed with quick
and decisive action. The
arena is fast-paced and chal-
lenging. And it is not at all
forgiving. The wrong action
- or, worse, inaction causes
the movement of goods to
stop [and] that is fatal."
The challenges for today's
supply chain management pro-
fessional are, indeed, clear. m

*Joseph Cervenak is managing
principal of Kemper-Joseph,
LLC, www.kemperjoseph.com
Email: info@kemperjoseph llc


The growth in business

logistics systems in recent

years has been dramatic


Business transformation

and the need for change:

a way of life and not an option

Business transforma-
tion was formerly
seen as a once-in-a-lifetime
event, a sort of fundamen-
tal reset prompted by a
rare, short-lived disruption
such as a new technology,
a devastating scandal or
a dramatic shift in costs.
But if the recent economic
upheaval reveals anything,
it is that companies of all
sizes, in all industries, are
operating in a more vola-
tile, less predictable envi-
ronment and that change
has become a way of life.
To navigate such a rocky
landscape, companies must
be ready to repeatedly
transform themselves.
There is now a need to
institutionalise capacity to
alter strategies again and
again as business condi-
tions require. However, few
companies are competent at
doing this.

A review of businesses faced
with enterprise-threatening
events would reveal that
most have failed to make
the transformation that
situations demanded. For
example, Circuit City, once a
hugely successful electronics
big-box store, attempted to
remake itself numerous times
as it faced competition from
newcomers like Best Buy (in
physical stores) and Amazon
and others (on the internet).

But there was a limit to
that company's capacity to
respond to new challenges
with a broad-based, endur-
ing plan that could involve,
for example, simultaneously
targeting electronic gamers
aggressively; carrying a
deeper inventory of product
lines, renegotiating leases
in out-of-the-way locations,
improving customer service
and promoting a robust and
attractive website.

The problem is that most
companies do not have an
adequately proactive road
map for transformation.
Instead, they attempt to
change on the fly, reacting
to business disruption with
equally explosive responses
that may not be useful six
months down the road or
perhaps even sooner. A more
carefully crafted strategy to
manage internal or external
change may seem beyond a
company when it is actually
facing a new obstacle or
crisis; but if an organisation
prepares for transforma-
tion at a time when it is not
occurring, steering through it
is far less difficult.

Strategies for
Each company's strategy for
approaching transforma-
tion falls into one of three
categories. These categories

in turn determine the level
of transformation, the timing
and the magnitude that the
company can support.

Reactive approach:
This is a difficult transforma-
tion strategy. Although mini-
mal, it has become second
nature to the most seasoned
executives. A change in
circumstances provokes a
short-term response gener-
ally, abrupt shifts that require
little cross-company co-ordi-
nation or follow-up. In fact,
this strategy is an essential
management tool only when
incremental change from the
status quo is required. Unfor-
tunately, it is also the most
limited and unsustainable.
Problems arise when execu-
tives try to apply this approach
to situations that call for more
sweeping and highly detailed
Too often, executives rely
on reactive techniques they
know well, even when the situ-
ation begs for a more struc-
tured, thoughtful plan that will
yield more lasting change.

Programmatic approach:
This strategy is more com-
prehensive and is appropri-
ate when major change is
required and a company has
sufficient lead time. In such
circumstances, the com-
pany launches a widespread
change initiative across the
lines of business that are

By Fritz H. Pinnock
most affected. In this case
example, a cross-functional
programme office is set up,
with tactics identified, mile-
stones established, execu-
tives assigned to oversight, a
communications programme
launched and progress
tracked. The programmes can
be effective in dealing with
a contained effect of threat
such as a new competitor or
a new product from a rival.
And their potential to reward
is greater than that of the
reactive approach because
they are more forward-look-
ing. But, as the name of this
category implies, the trans-
formation is a programme.

With a systematic, planned
sequence of activities
designed to achieve spe-
cific goals within a specific
period of time, the outcome,
however, takes longer than a
reactive transformation.

This is the most long-term
and sustainable strategy.
However, only a few com-
panies have implemented it
successfully. Unlike the first
two approaches, sense-and-
adjust is dynamic, constantly
and consistently smoothing



out volatility in areas of busi-
ness that are subject to swift
and dynamic change, such
as research and development
or frontline operations like
manufacturing and logistics.

Sensing is an ongoing effort
to gather and analyse data
on current and future busi-
ness conditions and, more
important, translate it into
likely outcomes. The sens-
ing process should leverage
baseline planning informa-
tion what is captured in
strategic and operating
plans and synthesise it with
key performance data to
form a single 'dashboard' of
actionable information that
can be used by business unit
heads or corporate leaders
in functions like information
technology, human resources
or marketing. A high-quality
sensing dashboard offers
an early organisational
indicator of future business
conditions. The dashboard

flags data indicating that
an operational adjustment
is needed. For example, a
business unit head may use a
dashboard to reveal unan-
ticipated decreases in either
product unit price or volume
that could translate to an
overall decline in revenue. On
the other hand, a logistics
firm may place its sensing
system on alert for changes
in pricing and functional-
ity of handheld computers,
wireless communications,

mapping software and the
like. That goal would deter-
mine how and when to start
applying these technologies
to businesses (and how to
avoid being blindsided by a

Adjusting approach:
This is the process of altering
business strategies on the
basis of sensed outcomes. In
this phase, done in tandem
with sensing, business unit
or department heads assess
data to determine possible
resource and capability trade-
offs. They explore the impact
on people, processes and
technology and then develop
a consensus on the plan that
is most appropriate for build-
ing or maintaining a competi-
tive position. In the case of
an unexplained drop in unit
prices, the adjustment may be
an emphasis on marketing,
innovation or layoffs. And, if
a company has learned that
it could outpace its rivals by
implementing a GPS system, a

slate of new training pro-
grammes that could teach
new employees how to use
the technology may be just as
important as purchasing the
equipment itself. As adjust-
ments are made, the sensing
capability picks up and contin-
ues the cycle, both scanning
the horizon for market shifts
and monitoring the execution
of these strategic responses.
Sensing does little good in
the absence of adjusting, and
vice versa. m



Cruise shipping and land-based

tourism in the Caribbean tied

the knot some time ago

ome relationships are
definitely not built
on 'love at first sight'.
They develop over time,
often from a rocky start,
through growing under-
standing and accommoda-
tions and then into trust
and mutuality. Such long
relationships often have
long engagements which
resolve into a marriage
no less tumultuous than
the engagement. So has it
been with cruise shipping
and land-based tourism in
the Caribbean.
I was reminded of this
when I travelled recently and
overheard a conversation on
the past tension between the
two. Happily, the discordant
notes of that tension have
faded into the past and the
Region has seen the mutual-
ity in rather stark terms.
Depending on the source
of information, the Carib-
bean accounts for between
40 and 50 per cent of the
international cruise destina-
tion market. That is a signifi-
cant chunk of the ever-grow-
ing industry which in 2006
had worldwide demand of
16 million potential passen-
gers (Lighthouse Founda-
tion). The numbers game is
not insignificant. With the
Caribbean still in the grip
of the worldwide recession,
the need to boost arrivals is

By Milton Samuda

extremely important, even in
the face of deep discounts on
product prices.

So what else can
the Caribbean do?
Just like any marriage, the
relationship between cruise
tourism and land-based
tourism must operate within
the bounds of some legal
framework. I suggest that
this framework cannot be
left merely to the application
of common law principles,
the implications of interna-
tional treaty commitments
and the details of deals
between governments and
cruise lines. I wish to sug-
gest that, while our heads
of government grapple with
the deep-seated governance
issues which have stymied
the growth of Caricom,
they should also ensure that
the issues surrounding the
implementation of the dream


The problem is that most

companies do not have an

adequately proactive road map

for transformation


embodied in Protocol VI (now
a part of the Revised Treaty
of Chaguaramas Establish-
ing the Caribbean Commu-
nity, including the Caricom
Single Market and Economy)
be resolved quickly so that
a comprehensive regional
transportation plan may be
developed which will include
the legal framework required
for encouraging and securing
the growth of cruise ship-
ping to the mutual benefit
of land-based tourism and
cruise ships and on the basis
of a responsible and sustain-
able environment. In that
regard, Caribbean municipal
laws must be harmonised and
intra-Caricom agreements
struck in a manner which
ensures that encouragement
and that securing of growth.
Of necessity, the cruise
lines would have to be
integral to the discussions
throughout; but the ties
are already there and the
need to base the resultant
legal framework on some
sensible commercial premise
means that realistic negotia-
tions must be held. At the
time of writing, Jamaica is
in the disciplining grip of an
International Monetary Fund

(IMF) programme in which
the word 'incentive' has to
be whispered. However, in
a highly competitive market,
Jamaica and the Caribbean
dare not take their unfair
share of the cruise ship-
ping pie for granted. On the
contrary, they should seek
to secure it and expand it as
part of recognition of the
importance of tourism to
the entire Region and the
important role which cruise
shipping plays in that regard.

Governments use many
economic tools to encourage
investment in targeted indus-
tries. These tools are usually
given legislative underpinning
and framework. Tourism as a
whole, and cruise shipping in
particular, is an industry in which
the Region has a competitive
advantage and still untapped
potential. Every effort should
be made to encourage robust
growth in these areas.
In a previous article, I
wrote of some 'Legal Consid-
erations Concerning Cruise
Ships' and identified both
some personal and global
considerations. I opined then
that "the cruise shipping

industry is a vital partner
of Caribbean tourism" and
that the evolving munici-
pal and international legal
frameworks would result in
"greater intrusion by law-
makers and foreign ministers
around the globe." Although
that last comment was made
in the context of environment
implications, it is generally
true and I therefore suggest
that Caricom be proactive
rather than reactive.
Our failure to be proactive
has already manifested itself
in the neglect of an air and
sea policy (for the transpor-
tation of goods) which has
hindered the development of
the Caricom Single Market.
Are we to suffer the same
fate in relation to the carriage
of persons by sea?

Footnote on the Gulf
of Mexico Disaster
Some lawyers must be sali-
vating. This disaster encom-
passes criminal and civil law
violations and implications.
It has a number of potential
criminally accused. It has
a multiplicity of potential
plaintiffs and not just one
potential defendant, BP, as is
commonly thought. Its legal

implications are not con-
strained by time but could
run past the usual statutes
of limitation if resultant
injury and damage manifest
themselves at a later date.
It will cause municipal and
federal legislatures to review
applicable legislation and
pull in legal draftsmen to
either amend or craft new
legislation. It is going to
consume more billable hours,
more court time and more
legislative time than any other
environmental catastrophe
in history. And it will spawn
more books and movie deals
than may at first be imagined.
Yes, for sure, the Gulf
of Mexico Oil Spill Disaster
is a lawyer's dream; but all
lawyers know, too, that the
disaster has been an abso-
lute nightmare for so many
people whose lives have been
disrupted with devastating
effect. On behalf of lawyers
everywhere, including those
who will 'profit' from the dis-
aster, I have offered a prayer
for those many. m

Milton Samuda is managing
partner of the Jamaican-
based law firm Samuda &


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