Title: Taxonomy, ethology, and ecology of Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae) in eastern North America /
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Title: Taxonomy, ethology, and ecology of Phidippus (Araneae: Salticidae) in eastern North America /
Physical Description: vii, 354 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Edwards, Glavis Bernard, 1948-
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Jumping spiders   ( lcsh )
Spiders   ( lcsh )
Arachnida -- North America   ( lcsh )
Arachnida -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Phidippus
Entomology and Nematology thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Entomology and Nematology -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
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Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1980.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 334-353.
Statement of Responsibility: by Glavis Bernard Edwards, Jr.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
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Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000014514
oclc - 07216164
notis - AAB7741

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TAXONOMY, ETHOLOGY, AND ECOLOGY OF Phidippus
(ARANEAE: SALTICIDAE) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA













BY



GLAVIS BERNARD EDWARDS, JR.


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1980


j















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

In a work of this scope, it is impossible to individually thank

every person who has contributed to its completion, but I do sincerely

thank every one of you.

I would like to single out my committee members: Dr. W. H. Whitcomb,

who tolerated the development of lines of research astray from his own;

Dr. Jonathan Reiskind, for his positive reinforcement and assistance;

and Dr. T. J. Walker, for demanding excellence.

Various types of technical assistance were provided by Mrs. Thelma

C. Carlysle, Mr. P. M. Choate, Dr. Jonathan Reiskind, and Dr. Robert Paul.

Special thanks are due Mrs. Katrina Vaughanfor typing the manuscript

and going to special effort to help make deadlines.

For identifications of prey and enemy records I thank Mrs. E. C. Beck,

and Drs. W. F. Buren, R. J. Gagne, E. E. Grissell, D. H. Habeck, F. W.

Harmston, L. A. Hetrick, K. W. Knopf, P. M. Marsh, F. W. Mead, E. L. Mock-

ford, J. C. E. Nickerson, C. W. Sabrosky, R. I. Sailer, L. A. Stange, T. J.

Walker, H. V. Weems, Jr., and R. E. Woodruff. Thanks are due the technical

staff of the Bureau of Entomology, Division of Plant Industry, for their

assistance and encouragement.

This list would not be complete without mentioning the dear friends

who have put up with me and helped in so many ways: Ron and Peggy

Williams, Earl Williams, Allen Mosler, Fred and Peggy Hansen, Anzle Mead,

Wanda Weintraub, Ruth Schaeffer, Mary Warren; my parents, Glavis and

Margaret Edwards, for their patient and continued support; and most of all,

my wife, Sue, who has managed to keep both of us going.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
ABSTRACT
CHAPTER

1 GENERAL INTRODUCTION

2 TAXONOMY OF EASTERN Phidippus

Introduction
Key to Adult Male Phidippus of the
Eastern U. S.
Key to Adult Female Phidippus of the
Eastern U. S.
Subgenus Anipalpus, new subgenus
Subgenus Phidippus

3 IMMATURE STAGES OF Phidippus SPECIES

4 HYBRIDIZATION IN Phidippus SPECIES

Introduction
Methods
Laboratory Results
Ecological Factors Affecting Hybridization
Species Relationships, Geologic History,
and Speciation
Hybridizations Between Other Species

5 THE COURTSHIPS OF EASTERN Phidippus

Introduction
Methods, Materials, and Terminology
Results
Discussion

6 SOUND PRODUCTION BY COURTING MALES
OF Phidippus mystaceus (Araneae: Salticidae)

Introduction
Experimental Procedure
Results
Discussion
Conclusion
Additional Observations

iii


PAGE

ii
v











7 DIFFERENTIAL ATTACK RESPONSES BY
Phidippus SPP. (ARANEAE: SALTICIDAE) TO
CONTRASTING PREY TYPES 151

Introduction 151
Materials and Methods 151
Results 153
Discussion 157

8 INSTINCT AND CONDITIONED LEARNING AS FACTORS
IN THE PREY-CAPTURE BEHAVIOR OF NAIVE SPIDERLINGS
(ARANEAE: SALTICIDAE) 161

Introduction 161
Methods and Materials 161
Results and Discussion 164

9 MIMICRY IN Phidippus 177

Introduction 177
Methods 177
Results and Discussion 178

10 ECOLOGY OF Phidippus SPECIES 186

Introduction 186
Methods 190
Background 195
Results and Discussion 209
Resource Analysis 233
Species Summaries 243

11 SYNTHESIS 304


APPENDICES

A GLOSSARY 308
B PLACE NAMES 311
C LAKE EDGE HABITATS 312
D OTHER STUDY HABITATS 318
E PREY OF MUD DAUBERS 326
F NEW RECORDS OF PREY CAPTURED BY
SALTICIDS OTHER THAN Phidippus 327
G Attus otiosus HENTZ, 1846, (ARANEAE: SALTICIDAE):
PROPOSED PRESERVATION UNDER THE PLENARY POWERS 331


REFERENCES CITED 334

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH 354


CHAPTER


PAGE
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


TAXONOMY, ETHOLOGY, AND ECOLOGY OF Phidippus
(ARANEAE: SALTICIDAE) IN EASTERN NORTH AMERICA

By

Glavis Bernard Edwards, Jr.

December, 1980

Chairman: Dr. Willard H. Whitcomb
Major Department: Entomology and Nematology

The 16 species of Phidippus occurring in the eastern United States

are redescribed and illustrated together for the first time. Thirteen

of these species occur in Florida. First instars are briefly described

for most of these species for the first time.

Both field and laboratory hybrids of P. regius x P. otiosus and F

backcrosses of hybrid females to males of both parent species are des-

cribed. Hybrid males were sterile; hybrid females backcrossed to males

of either parent species were significantly less fecund than either parent

species. The two species are considered to be advanced sibling species

which lack only the late stages of pre- and/or post zygotic isolating

mechanisms (behavior and/or complete hybrid sterility) to completely

separate each species.

The courtship behavior of 13 of the 16 eastern species, as well as

the P. otiosus x P. regius hybrid, are described, 8 for the first time.

A new method of communication for salticids, sound (made by a stridula-

tory mechanism on each palpus), is reported for P. mystaceus. A combined

visual-vibratory display is reported for P. whitmani.

v









Differences in prey-capture behavior are noted for adult Phidippus

preferred house flies and cabbage looper larvae. Cabbage looper larvae

were captured by all species tested from an average distance of 5 6 mm,

whereas average capture distances of house flies averaged 2 3.5 times

this distance, depending upon the species of Phidippus. Prey-capture

behavior was noticeably different depending upon the type of prey ap-

proached, with a much more stealthy approach used against house flies.

Naive spiderlings, in similar prey-capture tests involving other types

of prey, were shown to rely at least in part on experience after initial

encounters with various prey types. In tests with small ants as the inten-

ded prey, the spiderlings initially attacked the ants, but were driven

away by the ants. Spiderlings thereafter avoided ants for up to 4 days

(the longest test), demonstrating learning of the basic trial-and-error

type. That adult Phidippus generally avoid ants both in the field and

laboratory is evidence that this type of learning is long-lasting.

Preliminary investigations with 2 lizard species indicated that P.

apacheanus was a generalized Batesian mimic of red and black species of

the velvet ant genus Dasymutilla (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae). Nearly all

instars of P. apacheanus exhibited the red and black coloration; mimicry

in adult males was most complete, as it included behavioral elements

as well as color pattern similarity. Adult males of P. cardinalis are

similar in color to males of P. apacheanus, and can probably also be

considered Batesian mimics of Dasymutilla, although other possibilities

are examined.

Most species were found to occur in several habitats, but dominant

in only one, or never dominant. In habitats with more than one domi-

nant, the phenology of the dominants was different. Some microhabitat

separation was exhibited, both between species and between immatures and









adults of the same species. Prey included members of the orders Dip-

tera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Odonata, Orthoptera,

Hemiptera, Homoptera and Araneae. Prey size was significantly correla-

ted with spider size. Enemies included pompilid and sphecid wasps,

acrocerid and mermithid parasitoids, mantispid and dipteran egg predators,

hymenopteran egg parasites, predaceous fungi, frogs, lizards, birds,

and other spiders. Mean reproductive rates correlated well with mean

length of each species; P. clarus was an exception. Niche breadth varied

widely among species, and overall niche overlap was low among species.

Temperature in peninsular Florida probably is less critical than in most

temperate areas; however, at least one activity, hunting, ceased at

temperatures below 150C.















CHAPTER 1
GENERAL INTRODUCTION


The present research can be best described as a multi-discipline

study of the biosystematics of members of the salticid genus Phidippus

in eastern North America, with emphasis on the species occurring in

Florida. It is a natural extension and expansion of previous research

(on the biology of P. regius; Edwards, 1975) and an offshoot of other

research (e.g., Whitcomb et al., 1963) implicating species of Phidippus

and other salticids, as well as many other spiders, as important preda-

tors in agro-ecosystems. The final organization is in reverse order

from how the research was initially conceived, from a study of the ecology

of each species to a comparison of certain behaviors to the redescriptions

and phylogenetic relationships of the species. The taxonomic section

is presented first to introduce and describe the species. It is followed

by ethological research, some of which (courtship behavior) is directly

related to the phylogeny. The ecology section describes the phenology

and both faunal and floral associations of the species. Finally, all

three sections are interwoven to form an overview of the genus.

Adult Phidippus are medium to large spiders (Figure 1-1) and often

brightly colored. Generally they are docile spiders, which will attempt

to hide or flee if threatened by the proximity of a human. Some can be

easily handled; the specific epithet of one species (audax, meaning bold

or audacious) was used to describe the manner of one of these spiders

which would hop onto a person's hand if the hand was placed down





2



carefully near the spider. That they can and will bite if carelessly

handled is demonstrated by numerous reports in California of people

bitten by P. formosus (=P. johnsoni). Elsewhere in the U. S., other

species occasionally have been reported to bite humans, to which I

can personally attest in the case of P. regius. The pain of the bite

is light to moderate and of short duration, usually not lasting more

than a few minutes. At least three species occur commonly about human

dwellings: P. johnsoni along the west coast, P. audax throughout the

eastern and central states, and P. regius in Florida.

Further introduction is best placed with the subject to which

it appertains.































(IK

' .?N



/ "t
l r*i *l.





IIL



I..


; I'







I *


Figure 1-1. Phidippus habitus (dorsal view).















CHAPTER 2
TAXONOMY OF ADULT Phidippus

Introduction


The genus Phidippus has not been revised since the Peckhams'

pioneering work (1901, 1909). Their 1909 paper, "Revision of the Atti-

dae of North America," still stands as the definitive work on nearctic

salticids, although numerous species and a few genera have been added

subsequently to the faunal list. Little further work has been done on

Phidippus other than new species descriptions, except for Bryant (1942),

who attempted to redescribe several species; unfortunately, her paper

contained several errors, and the single new species she described is

placed into synonymy herein. The type species of Phidippus is Salticus

variegatus Lucas = Phidippus audax (Hentz).

Genus Phidippus C. L. Koch, 1846

Attus Walckenaer (in part), 1805

Phidippus C. L. Koch, 1846

Phiale C. L. Koch (in part), 1846

Cyrtonota Simon (in part), 1864

Phidippia Simon, 1864

Megatimus Thorell, 1891

Dendryphantes (C. L. Koch, 1837) (in part), Peckham & Peckham, 1896

Synonymical listings indicate only the first use of a name prior to

1940. For complete listings before 1940 see Bonnet (1958). I have attemp-

ted to list all subsequent significant citations for species including

those of Roewer (1954), which are more recent than those of Bonnet even









though published earlier. For explanation of morphological structures

and abbreviations, see Appendix A (Glossary). For explanation of name

and place abbreviations, see Appendix B.

Medium to mostly large jumping spiders, 3.3 mm (small males) to 22

mm (large, gravid females). Integument of prosoma and prosomal appen-

dages sclerotized, reddish brown; ocular quadrangle darker; venter often

yellowish brown. Integumental surface highly reflective. Carapace width

.75 to .90 length, height .50 (females) to .67 (males) width. Ocular

quadrangle .40 to .50 carapace length, more coarsely reticulated than

surrounding integument. PME .30 to .40 distance from ALE to PLE (nearer

ALE). PLE row .75 to .90 carapace width. ALE row .56 to .85 carapace

width. Clypeus radius or less of AME. Central short, longitudinal

furrow within transverse depression just behind PLE row. Thoracic

slope .33 carapace length, approximately 450; cephalic area anterior

to PLE slanted slightly downward.

Distinct setal tufts present in ocular area, usually 2 or 4 (0-6)

situated one laterally below and lightly anterior to each PME, one half-

way between each PME and PLE dorsally (always present in females),

and/or a pair in the middle of the ocular quadrangle. Setal tufts are

present in all free-living individuals of the genus except 1st instars,

and, in several species, adult males. Scale-like setae ("scales")

usually present on palpi, legs, clypeus (in females), and on various

dorsal markings; sometimes covering most of dorsal surface and part of

abdominal venter. Black vestitural setae more or less covering all of

body surface, reduced on chelicerae and sometimes in ocular quadrangle.

Elongate black setae also covering body to lesser extent, concentrated

on lateral cephalic area and on anterior and lateral edges of ocular

quadrangle.









Chelicerae rugose, robust, slightly porrect especially in males,

and iridescent, usually gold-green-blue. Cheliceral promargin with 2

contiguous teeth (partially fused in male), retromargin with 1 tooth.

Endites convergent in females, divergent and with anterolateral cusp in

males. Labium longer than wide, 1/2 length of endites. Sternum slight-

ly narrower to as wide as labium anteriorly, narrowed sharply posteriorly,

4th coxae nearly touching.

Abdomen ovoid, with dorsal pattern which varies from species to

species, several variations on the presumed ancestral central dark

stripe overlain by 4 pairs of light spots. In many species the 2nd spot

pair is fused to form a central triangle. Usually with 2 pair of lateral

bands and a basal (anterior) band, which may be fused together. The

whole dorsum may be overlaid with red or gray scales which obscure the

pattern, especially in males. Venter with 4 rows of dots between epi-

gastric furrow and spinnerets; usually with light stripes bounding a

dark central stripe.

The legs have a structure also occurring in Dendryphantes sensu

latu that I have seen only in these 2 genera and in another dendryphan-

tine genus, Rhetenor. On the dorsal surface of the femur, patella, and

tibia are 2 longitudinal, subparallel depressions in the integument,

most pronounced on the patella. These depressions are very slight in

depth, but readily recognizable by the dense micro-reticulation of the

integument within the depression, much denser and finer than on the

surrounding integument. These depressions are also devoid of setae or

scales. The depressions run nearly the entire length of each segment,

except for the prolateral femoral one which is reduced to half the

length of the femur. It is tempting to speculate a sensory function for









this structure, but there appears to be no difference in sclerotization

from the surrounding integument, nor do there appear to be any glandular

structures associated with these depressions. They are even more reflec-

tive than the surrounding integument, and may function during inter-

individual recognition (occurs in both sexes) somewhat like the chelicerae,

which are much more coarsely reticulate over a larger surface. Another

possible, passive, use is that these small reflective spots may contribute

to an overall camouflage effect; they are more prominent on females

which do not have as extensive leg fringes which tend to hide these

structures.

Leg formula I, IV, II, III for males; IV, I, II, III (or IV, I,

III, II) for females. First pair of legs half again as stout and 2nd

legs slightly stouter than 3rd and 4th pairs. All legs fringed at least

ventrally, especially the first pair, much more developed in males.

Larger males may have proportionately larger and longer forelegs than

smaller conspecific males; this appears to be an allometric growth

phenomenon. Leg I of males usually fringed as follows: femur with black

fringes dorsally, and on pro- and retrolateral edges of venter (area

between ventral fringes glabrous and reflective distally); patella with

white brush and tibia with black brush covering pro-, retrolateral, and

ventral surfaces; metatarsus and tarsus with similar but reduced brushes,

white on proximal half and black on distal half of each segment. White

scales on prolateral surface on segments with white brushes (patella and

proximal halves of metatarsus and tarsus).

Palpal femora have 1-3 dorsal macrosetae each. Leg macrosetation

is restricted to the femur, patella, tibia, and metatarsus of each leg.

Based on the spacing of macrosetae and the arrangement of macrosetae in









other genera, the ancestral leg macrosetation is presumed to have been

arranged in 4 sets on the femur and tibia and 3 sets on the patella and

metatarsus. Otherwise the system of macroseta identification is similar

to that used by Platnick & Shadab (1975). Ventral macrosetae are usually

paired; dorsal and lateral macrosetae are single, with the dorsal macro-

setae along the midline of the segment. Lateral macrosetae are sometimes

marginal but are usually not identified as such unless confusion with

another seta could occur. Marginal macrosetae, when necessary, are

identified by the identification letters of both adjacent surfaces

(e.g., DP = dorsoprolateral). If only one of a ventral pair is present,

it is indicated as either pro- or retrolateral when distinguishable.

Typical macrosetation is as follows: femur I*D 0-1-1-1, DP 0-0-0-2,

tibia I*V 0-2-2-2, metatarsus I*V 0-2-2; femur II D*0-1-1-1, DP* 0-0-0-2,

DR 0-0-0-1, tibia II V 0-1R-2-2, P*0-0-l-0, metatarsus II* V 0-2-2;

femur III*D 0-1-1-1, DP 0-0-0-2, DR 0-0-0-1, patella III R 0-1-0, tibia

III V 0-1P-0-2*, P 0-0-1-0, R 0-1-1*-0, metatarsus III V 0-2-2*, P 0-1-2*,

R 0-1-2*, femur IV* D 0-1-1-1, DP 0-0-0-1, DR 0-0-0-1, patella IV R 0-1-0,

tibia IV V 0-1P-0-2*, P 0-0-1-0, R 0-1-1*-0, metatarsus IV V 0-2-2*,

P 0-1-2*, R 0-1-2*. Segments or individual sets of macrosetae marked

with an asterisk (*) are invariable or nearly so. Those not so marked

are more variable. Consistent differences from the above formula are

noted with species descriptions. Larger specimens tend to have a fuller

complement of macrosetae.

Scale-like setae, if present on legs, much denser on females and

encompassing all but ventral surface of legs. Scales on legs of males

predominantly on but not limited to legs I. Scales on palpi similar in

females to leg scales, in males situated differently, apparently situated

for display as it has evolved for each species.








Females have a well-sclerotized epigynum usually with well-

developed anterolateral rims forming guides or shields over spermathecal

duct openings, the latter usually bending away from each other. Males

have palpi each with a simple embolus; the tegulum has an anterior

rugose area (which I term the protegulum) associated with the embolus,

and an external loop of the sperm duct; and usually a simple lateral

(ectal) tibial apophysis.

The genus is most readily recognized by the possession of a dorsal

pair of setal tufts, iridescent chelicerae, conspicuous leg fringes, and

generally by their large size and dense vestitural setal covering.

Phidippus is a typical genus of the Salticidae: Dendryphantinae and is

most closely related to Dendryphantes sensu latu (i.e., including

Metaphidippus and Eris).

Figures 2-1 and 2-2 illustrate the body parts used in the descrip-

tions. Body measurements and ratios for the species under consideration

in this study are given in Table 2-1. Characters on which hypothetical

phylogeny are based are given in Table 2-2, and the resulting phylogeny

is illustrated in Figure 2-3.

The following species included in Phidippus by Chamberlin and Ivie

(1944), based on the descriptions by Walckenaer (1837) of Abbot's (1792)

unpublished illustrations, are considered to be nomena dubia; their

descriptions give little or no clue as to their specific identity, and

the types are illustrations which contribute little to their identifi-

cation. Also included here are species left in the genus Attus by

Chamberlin & Ivie ibidd), but which are probably juvenile Phidippus;

these latter are marked with an asterisk.








Table 2-1. Measurements and ratios of body parts of species of
Phidippus occurring in the eastern U. S. See Glossary (Appendix A)
for explanation of abbreviations. Ranges represent smallest (on left)
and largest specimens examined.


Phidippus ALE-PME ALE PLE
species, sex ALE-PLE CW CW CW


apacheanus d .33-.31 .67-.65 .84-.81 2.8-3.9
9 .32-.31 .63-.61 .84-.83 4.4-4.5

audax c .35-.32 .71-.59 .85-.75 2.9-5.5
9 .35-.30 .71-.56 .89-.78 3.4-5.4

borealis c .40-.35 .66-.64 .77-.76 3.1-3.5
9 .36-.38 .63-.62 .78-.77 3.7-3.9

cardinalis C .36-.31 .72-.64 .87-.82 3.0-3.9
9 .36-.32 .68-.62 .86-.85 3.6-4.2

clarus d .42-.39 .79-.69 .87-.84 2.5-3.9
9 .40-.35 .73-.69 .83-.80 3.1-5.0

insignarius ci .42-.39 .74-.69 .82-.83 2.3-3.1
9 .43-.40 .83-.69 .97-.88 2.3-3.3

mystaceus d .43-.41 .79-.71 .86-.84 2.7-3.4
9 .39-.36 .76-.71 .90-.89 3.4-4.2

otiosus d .39-.32 .69-.58 .83-.74 3.9-5.6
9 .41-.30 .73-.54 .88-.71 3.5-7.0

pius c .42-.37 .73-.70 .87-.84 2.6-3.2
9 .39-.38 .67-.68 .84-.86 2.8-3.1

princeps cf .39-.39 .75-.79 .87-.89 2.5-2.9
9 .41-.37 .68-.70 .83-.86 2.9-3.6

pulcherrimus d .39-.40 .82-.72 .89-.86 2.6-3.5
9 .43-.36 .84-.70 .89-.87 3.1-3.9

purpuratus c .36-.33 .70-.63 .89-.80 3.3-4.1
9 .34-.35 .72-.62 .90-.81 3.5-4.3

putnami C .42-.42 .86-.76 .94-.89 2.5-3.4
9 .43-.42 .82-.76 .95-.91 2.9-3.8

regius c .37-.31 .64-.49 .76-.63 4.2-7.5
9 .32-.36 .63-.55 .80-.72 4.9-6.7

whitmani c .42-.39 .77-.71 .85-.85 2.7-3.4
9 .42-.40 .78-.74 .89-.85 2.5-3.5

xerus C .37-.34 .75-.72 .89-.87 2.6-3.2


.38-.36 .76-.70 .90-.90


2.8-3.6








Table 2-1 extended.





CW
CL CL


.74-.78
.76-.77

.81-.87
.77-.78

.80-.76
.77-.80

.78-.83
.79-.83

.79-.82
.81-.85

.83-.79
.72-.81

.81-.84
.79-.81

.82-.88
.81-.93

.76-.78
.81-.74

.79-.70
.84-.78

.77-.77
.76-.84

.76-.87
.81-.80

.78-.77
.73-.81

.85-.90
.79-.80

.78-.79
.74-.73

.81-.76


3.8-5.0
5.7-5.9

3.6-6.3
4.5-7.0

3.9-4.6
4.9-4.9

3.8-4.7
4.5-5.1

3.2-4.8
3.8-5.9

2.8-3.9
3.1-4.0

3.3-4.0
4.3-5.2

4.8-6.4
4.3-7.8

3.5-4.1
3.5-4.2

3.2-4.1
3.4-4.7

3.3-4.5
4.1-4.6

4.4-4.7
4.3-5.3

3.2-4.4
4.0-4.4

4.8-8.3
6.2-8.3

3.5-4.3
3.4-4.8

3.2-4.2


.75-.78 3.7-4.6


.47-.46
.46-.45

.51-.45
.49-.41

.47-.43
.46-.43

.51-.49
.48-.49

.54-.50
.51-.47

.51-.47
.51-.50

.52-.49
.52-.46

.45-.43
.50-.46

.48-.51
.49-.42

.47-.45
.50-.46

.49-.47
.47-.49

.48-.50
.51-.46

.54-.49
.49-.50

.49-.42
.47-.38

.49-.49
.50-.45

.50-.46
.50-.49


5.18-10.63
7.08-13.35

4.36-15.24
4.48-18.10

4.90- 9.05
8.45-13.81

4.36- 9.52
6.00-14.29

3.27-10.10
4.29-14.17

4.91- 7.81
5.45- 9.90

4.91- 8.57
6.81-13.33

6.27-13.65
7.63-17.10

4.91- 8.72
6.00-10.48

4.36- 8.54
6.00-11.46

6.25- 8.54
8.48-11.98

5.18-10.48
8.18-14.76

5.18- 9.06
6.00-11.88

6.00-17.78
6.63-21.88

4.09- 9.58
5.18-11.56

5.90-10.20


7.25
10.69

8.39
10.93

7.58
10.96

6.90
10.06

6.37
8.48

6.32
7.65

6.96
9.84

10.04
13.10

6.21
7.79

6.75
8.34

7.32
9.87

8.31
10.07

6.94
8.98

11.78
14.80

6.38
8.05

7.70


8.60-11.70 10.20


X BL














CW


ALE

r /
SPL PME/
PLE
S0 0





























Figure 2-1. Diagrammatic illustration showing characters measured and
macrosetae of legs of Phidippus (dorsal view).





















palpus


endite -




labium -

sternum-




epigynum-


*ia
:atarsus


spinnerets


Figure 2-2. Diagrammatic illustration of Phidippus showing ventral
characters and leg macrosetae.










Table 2-2. Characters used to construct hypothetical phylogeny of
species of Phidippus in the eastern U. S. See Glossary (Appendix A)
for definitions of terms. Characters are considered primitive or
derived based on frequency of occurrence within Phidippus (more common
are considered more primitive) or by comparison with sister group
(Dendryphantes); characters shared between the two genera are consi-
dered more primitive.


Character


Primitive


Derived


Epigynum guides

Epigynum septum

Epigynum surface

Embolus shape

Lateral tufts

Abdomen spotted

Chelicera tubercle

Carapace transverse

Leg I fringe

2nd Abdominal spots

Epigynum surface

Leg I fringe

Ventral lateral str:

Ventral stripes

Ventral stripes

Embolus tip

Central tufts

Tibial apophysis


absent

absent

smoothly sloping

cylindrical

absent

yes

absent

bands absent

black & white

separate

smoothly sloping

black & white

ipes white

2 white

2 white

cylindrical

absent

simple


present

present

depressed centrally

sickle-shaped

present

no

present

present

white only

fused

elevated centrally

black & orange

black or gray

3 light gray

2 or 3 black

flared

present

bifid at tip


I




















































































cIOI

H1 'r
'rl H









Attus cinereus Walckenaer, 1837

A. dissimulator Walckenaer, 1837

A. excubitor Walckenaer, 1837

A. explorater Walckenaer, 1837*

A. fraudulentus Walckenaer, 1837

A. infestus Walckenaer, 1837*

A. insidiosus Walckenaer, 1837

A. investigator Walckenaer, 1837

A. latus Walckenaer, 1837


multivagus Walckenaer, 1837*

pileatus Walckenaer, 1837

pilosus Walckenaer, 1837

purpurarius Walckenaer, 1837

rimator Walckenaer, 1837

sagax Walckenaer, 1837

scrutator Walckenaer, 1837*

signatus Walckenaer, 1837

tridentiger Walckenaer, 1837


The descriptions of the following species are also equivocal:

Phidippus carolinus C. L. Koch, 1846 Attus rupicola Hentz, 1846

P. testaceus C. L. Koch, 1846 Attus sinister Hentz, 1850

Other species considered nomina dubia are listed with their sus-

pected synonyms.

Species misplaced in Phidippus

P. fasciatus Koch & Berendt = Gorgopis fasciata (Koch & Berendt)

P. formosus Koch & Berendt = Gorgopis fasciata (Koch & Berendt)

P. frenata Koch & Berendt = Gorgopis frenata (Koch & Berendt)

P. impressus Koch & Berendt = Gorgopis melanocephala (Koch &

Berendt)

P. marginatus Koch & Berendt = orgopis marginata (Koch & Berendt)

P. melanocephalus Koch & Berendt = Gorgopis melanocephala (Koch &

Berendt)

P. paululus Koch & Berendt = Gorgopis frenata (Koch & Berendt)

P. pusillus Koch & Berendt = Gorgopis frenata (Koch & Berendt)

P. bucculentus Gerstacker = Thyene bucculenta (Gerstacker)

P. inflatus Gerstacker = Thyene inflata (Gerstacker)









P. orbicularis Gerstacker = Thyene orbicularis (Gerstacker)

P. chrysis, Banks = Dendryphantes aurantius (Lucas)

P. disjunctus Banks = Dendryphantes disjunctus (Banks)

P. fartilis, Banks = Dendryphantes fartilis (Peckham & Peckham)

P. fraternus Banks = Dendryphantes aurantius (Lucas)

P. funebris Banks = Dendryphantes funebris (Banks)

P. luteus, Banks = Dendryphantes luteus (Peckham & Peckham)

P. marmoratus, Banks = Dendryphantes fartilis (Peckham & Peckham)

P. militaris, Peckham & Peckham = Dendryphantes marginatus

(Walckenaer)

P. molinor Chamberlin = Dendryphantes marginatus (Walckenaer)

P. multicolor Banks = Dendryphantes aurantius (Lucas)

P. nigropilosus Banks = Dendryphantes nigropilosus (Banks)

P. orichalceus Peckham & Peckham = Dendryphantes aurantius (Lucas)

P. capitatus, Banks = Dendryphantes galathea (Walckenaer)

P. parvus F. O. P.-Cambridge = Dendryphantes galathea (Walckenaer)

P. cyanidens C. L. Koch = Parnaenus cyanidens (C. L. Koch)

P. keratodes Hasselt = Hyllus keratodes (Hasselt)

The several species described from India by Tikader (e.g., 1974) as

Phidippus species do not belong in this genus; I am unable to place them

at present.

I have included in the keys to species alternate characters for

each species in cases where the destruction or absence of one character

might cause confusion. The reader should be aware of populations

variable in color pattern, especially of P. audax. I have attempted to

use characters which would avoid problems in the keys caused by color

pattern, although the latter character is used to some extent. Geographic









area is included where it might be helpful. The term "semi-encircled"

means that the periphery of the dorsum of the abdomen is covered with

colored scales except for the posterior end, which is covered by part of

the central black stripe. The dorsum of the carapace does not include

the clypeus, sides or thoracic slope.


Key to Adult Male Phidippus of the Eastern U. S.

1. Ocular setal tufts or crests present 2

1'. Ocular setal tufts or crests absent 8

2. Ocular quadrangle with pair of setal crests and single white

triangular spot, without setal tufts putnami

2'. Without crests or single spot, with 2 or 4 setal tufts 3

3. With 4 setal tufts, both dorsal and lateral 4

3'. With 2 dorsal setal tufts only 6

4. Ocular quadrangle with 3 red (rarely white or absent) spots arrang-

ed transversely, abdomen gray with white spots and very hirsute,

palpal tibial apophysis bifid at tip mystaceus

4'. Ocular quadrangle without spots, abdomen not gray or exceptionally

hirsute, palpal tibial apophysis simple 5

5. Leg I fringe white, abdomen orange to red; not in Florida

insignarius

5'. Leg I fringe black and orange, abdomen black with yellow to orange

spots; SE U. S., Atlantic coast to MD otiosus

6. Dorsum of carapace and abdomen red apacheanus

6'. Dorsum of carapace black, abdomen semi-encircled with tan or yellow

to red 7

7. Embolus projecting distally post protegulum; Canada and adjacent

states borealis








7'. Embolus not projecting distally post protegulum purpuratus

8. Embolus sickle-shaped 9

8'. Embolus not sickle-shaped 10

9. Carapace unmarked, dorsum of abdomen completely red (rarely brown

with white spots); not in Florida princeps

9'. Carapace with a short white band behind each PLE, abdomen semi-

encircled with red; SE U. S. pulcherrimus

10. Dorsum of carapace and abdomen orange to red 11

10'. Dorsum of carapace black, of abdomen variable 13

11. Posterior half abdominal dorsum with 2 pair of white spots, venter

with 3 black stripes, leg I fringe white whitmani

11'. Posterior half abdominal dorsun with 2 black stripes enclosing

2 pair white spots, venter otherwise, leg I fringe black and

white 12

12. Venter of abdomen with 3 gray stripes on pale background, embolus

flared distally cardinalis

12'. Venter of abdomen black, embolus slender and hooked

distally pius

13. Addomen with pair of red stripes, 2nd spot pair separate or

no spots clarus

13'. Abdomen without stripes, 2nd spot pair fused 14

14. White transverse bands behind PLE; small species, Florida

endemic xerus

14.' White submarginal bands below PLE or usually carapace unmarked 15

15. White posterior abdominal spots linear (all light spots may be

fused and yellow to orange), abdomen dorsum with metallic black

scales surrounding 8 quadrangular black spots audax









15'. White posterior abdominal spots oval, black areas monotonous,

without metallic scales; large species, SE U. S., Atlantic

coast to VA regius


Key to Adult Female Phidippus of the Eastern U. S.

1. Epigynum without anterolateral guides 2

1'. Epigynum with anterolateral guides 3

2. Ocular area with 6 setal tufts, quadrangle with a white or tan

triangular spot, abdomen brown with white spots putnami

2'. Ocular area with 4 or 6 setal tufts, quadrangle with 3 white spots

arranged transversely, abdomen gray with white spots, hirsute

mystaceus

3. Epigynum with deep transverse depression in middle third 4

3'. Epigynum without depression 6

4. Dorsum of carapace and abdomen yellow to red apacheanus

4'. Dorsum of carapace gray or black, of abdomen otherwise 5

5. Abdomen semi-encircled with tan to orange, 2nd spot pair fused;

Canada and adjacent states. borealis

5'. Abdomen gray, sometimes semi-encircled with white, 2nd spot pair

not fused purpuratus

6. Epigynum elevated immediately posterior to septum in center of

epigynal plate 7

6'. Epigynum essentially flat or gradually sloping upward posteriorly,

with or without distinct septum 8

7. Carapace with distinct submarginal bands, posterior abdominal spots

enlarged and quadrangular; SE U. S., Atlantic coast to MD otiosus









7'. Carapace rarely with distinct bands, usually either without markings

or covered with colored scales, posterior abdominal spots oval, not

enlarged; large species, SE U. S., Atlantic coast to VA regius

8. Abdominal venter white with black or gray lateral stripes, usually

with narrow median dark stipe; 2nd spot pair separate 9

8'. Abdominal venter black with or without lateral white stripes;

2nd spot pair fused or no dorsal pattern 12

9. Posterior abdomen with 2 pair white spots, dorsum of carapace

and abdomen red to brown, 3 black ventral stripes whitmani

9'. Posterior abdomen with 2 black stripes enclosing 2-3 pair white

spots, dorsum and venter variable 10

10. Two black ventral stripes (median stripe absent), abdomen dorsum

gold to reddish-brown, usually darker in central stripe between

spots clarus

10'. Three light gray ventral stripes, abdomen dorsum variable in

color 11

11. Dorsum of carapace and abdomen red to brown, width of posterior

epigynal notch 3 times its length, equal in width to distance between

duct openings cardinalis

11'. Dorsum of carapace and abdomen yellow to orange, width of posterior

epigynal notch 2 times its length, less in width than distance

between duct openings pius

12. Dorsum of carapace and abdomen brown, without paired spots (rarely

with fused 2nd pair and separate 3rd and 4th pairs, all white);

not in Florida princeps

12'. Dorsum otherwise 13









13. Ocular area with 4 distinct setal tufts, abdomen semi-encircled

with yellow to red 14

13'. Ocular area with 2 dorsal tufts only, the lateral setae not

concentrated into a tuft, but spread out into a weak fringe, abdomen

variable 15

14. Uniquely-shaped white spot in middle of ocular quadrangle, short

yellow-orange transverse bands behind PLE or entire carapace

encircled with gray and/or yellow-orange scales; Florida endemic

xerus

14'. No spot in ocular quadrangle, carapace with white submarginal bands

below PLE or carapace encircled with white scales; not in Florida

insignarius

15. Short white to tan transverse bands behind PLE or entire carapace

encircled with white or tan scales, abdomen semi-encircled with

yellow to red, black quadrangular spots present but mostly covered

by semi-encircling band of scales; SE U. S. pulcherrimus

15'. Carapace without markings or with white submarginal bands below

PLE, never encircled by scales, abdomen rarely semi-encircled by

white or orange, 2nd-4th pair spots rarely fused together and/or

orange, black metallic scales encircling 8 black quadrangular

spots. audax



Subgenus Anipalpus, new subgenus

The name of the subgenus is a contraction of "animated pedipalpus,"

referring to the unusual use of the palpi during courtship by males of

the included species. I designate Phidippus putnami as the type species

of this subgenus.








Two species in this subgenus occur in the eastern U.S., P. putnami

and P. mystaceus. Females of both species have 6 ocular setal tufts

(the central pair is occasionally missing). The epigyna of both species

lack guides; the spermathecal duct openings are in a narrow slit. The

emboli of the males have been modified (flattened) to fit into the slit.

Males of P. putnami have a double setal crest in the ocular quadrangle,

while males of P. mystaceus have a stridulatory organ on each palpus.

Males of both species have yellow fringes on the legs I. The subgenus is

characterized by the 6 tufts, the slit openings in the epigynum and the

flattened embolus.


Phidippus putnami (Peckham & Peckham), 1883

Figures 2-4, 2-21

Attus putnamii Peckham & Peckham, 1883; type in MCZ, examined

Phidippus gracilis Keyserling, 1884 (synonymized by Peckham & Peckham,

1909)

Plexippus putnamii, Peckham & Peckham, 1888

Philaeus princeps (not Peckham & Peckham), Banks, 1892

Phidippus putnamii, Peckham & Peckham, 1901, 1909; Bryant 1942; Muma

1944, 1945; Bonnet, 1958; Richman & Cutler, 1978; Oehler, 1980

P. otiosus, Peckham & Peckham, 1909 (in part,? ; Plate 34, fig. 6a, f)

Dendryphantes putnami, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954


The female was illustrated as early as 1909 by the Peckhams, but

thought to be a variety of P. otiosus.

Males have yellow leg fringes and light metallic blue femur in more

northern specimens, mostly white leg fringes (with a few yellow setae)

and dark metallic blue femur in more southern specimens.









MALE: integument dark; carapace with white bar just below and

behind each PME, large white triangle between PLE, third white bar

(often rubbed off) anteriorly at apex of triangle, short white stripe

directly behind center of triangle; yellow fringe of setae over anterior

eyes, dense cover of bluish gray setae across anterior dorsal ocular

area; no ocular tufts, instead dorsal black setal crests originating

from between PME and PLE extending forward ental to PME almost to level

of ALE; chelicerae proximal half each side with scales in 3 vertical

white and 2 vertical red stripes, with a red transverse bar below

stripes, distal half iridescent blue covered with bluish-gray setae;

clypeus covered with red scales, fringed with white setae; palpal femur

covered dorsally with white scales, tibia with long ectal fringe of

white-tipped black setae, cymbium fringed with black setae and covered

dorsally with bluish-gray setae; leg I fringes all yellow or all white

except black setae mixed in on prolateral tibia, covered dorsally with

white scales; femur I dorsal fringe rudimentary, ventral setal fan pale

yellow, distal prolateral and ventral surfaces covered densely with

white scales and white or yellow prolateral setal fan, retrolatero-

ventral edge with elongate tuft of pale yellow setae, swollen ventrally,

light to dark metallic blue on pro-, retrolateral, and ventral surfaces;

dorsal abdominal markings white; venter of abdomen blue-black or black

bordered laterally by wide white stripes.

FEMALE: integument normal color; carapace with dorsal markings as

in male or covered with white scales, chelicerae covered with white

setae on proximal half, metallic green distal half; 6 ocular tufts, the

midocular pair somewhat smaller than the other 2 pair, rarely lacking;

clypeus, palpi, and legs with white setal fringes; abdominal integument

brown, bronze, or black, dorsal abdominal spots white or tan.









LEG MACROSETATION: no consistent differences; sometimes metatarsi

III & IV V 0-0-1 or 0-0-2.


Phidippus mystaceus (Hentz), 1846

Figures 2-5, 2-22

Attus mystaceus Hentz, 1846; type destroyed

Phidippus asinarius C. L. Koch, 1846; (synonymized by Marx, 1890)

Phidippus electus C. L. Koch, 1846; (synonymized by Marx, 1890)

Cyrtonota multivaga, Simon, 1864; not Attus multivagus Walckenaer,

1837, a NOMEN DUBIUM

Phidippus mystaceus, Emerton, 1877; Peckham & Peckham, 1909; Muma, 1944;

Muma & Jeffers, 1945; Bonnet, 1958; Specht & Dondale, 1960;

Whitcomb et al., 1963; Berry, 1970; Edwards, in Richman & Cutler,

1978; Oehler, 1980

Phidippus incertus Peckham & Peckham, 1901; type in MCZ, examined

(synonymized by Peckham & Peckham, 1909)

Dendryphantes mystaceus, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

Phidippus hirsutus Barrows, 1919; type in OSU, examined

(synonymized by Edwards, in Richman & Cutler, 1978)

P. incertus, Bryant, 1942; Warren et al., 1967

P. hirsutus, Bryant, 1942; Kaston, 1948; Whitcomb et al., 1963

Dendryphantes hirsutus, Roewer, 1954


Hentz's written description could fit either P. mystaceus or P.

purpuratus, but his illustration of the extra long setal tufts on the

carapace indicates that the species he was describing was P. mystaceus.

Stability of nomenclature also favors retaining P. mystaceus for this

species.








MALE: carapace integument with dark blue tinge, ocular area with 3

red-orange transverse spots; chelicerae iridescent green; 4 long ocular

tufts; clypeus with mixed yellow and white fringe over-hanging proximal

two-thirds of chelicerae; palpi with white lateral fringes on patella

and tibia, dorsal cymbium with white and yellow setae and central spot

of white and yellow scales; aplpi with short, blunt macrosetae encir-

cling tip; leg I femur lacks dorsal fringe, with dorsal subproximal

black setal tuft projecting anteriorly, venter with band of yellow

scales, prolateroventral fringe lacking, prolateral surface metallic dark

blue, dorsal distal edge of femur and all other segments covered with

yellow scales, all fringes yellow; legs II-IV with yellow scales on

distal segments and white scales on proximal segments; dorsum of abdomen

with pattern like female overlain with long gray setae; venter of

abdomen gray with 4 rows of pale dots.

A single dimorphic male of P. mystaceus is known. It is similar to

the typical males with the following differences: carapace covered

dorsally, laterally, and posteriorly with red scales, edged with yellow

scales posteriorly; rounded transverse integumental ridge in ocular

quadrangle (similar to P. toro Edwards); 4 typical setal tufts absent,

instead 2 central tufts in ocular quadrangle.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: integument

normal color, carapace covered with gray scales, ocular spots white

outlined in black; third pair weak ocular tufts often present between

ocular spots; clypeus covered with white scales, clypeus and palpi

fringed with white setae, overhanging chelicerae as in male; legs

covered with scales and having simple fringes, both white on females

from eastern states, both yellow on females from midwestern states.


I









LEG MACROSETAE: metatarsus III & IV V 0-1-2.


Subgenus Phidippus

The remainder of the species of the eastern U. S. belong to the

nominal subgenus. They are characterized by the usually cylindrical shape

of the embolus and well developed anterolateral epigynal rims forming

guides for the emboli. Most species have a longitudinal median septum

dividing the anterior 1/3 to 1/2 of the spigynum. The purpuratus group

has the protegulum extended ectanteriorly and the epigyna have a deep

transverse depression across the central third.


cardinalis group

Four species in this group (P. cardinalis, P. pius, P. whitmani,

P. clarus) occur in the eastern U. S. All are covered dorsally with

yellow to red or brown scales and have a bilineate dark stripe pattern

on the abdominal dorsum, and a trilineate dark stripe pattern on the

abdominal venter (central stripe usually absent in P. clarus). The

epigynum lacks a septum; the tegulum of the palpus is relatively narrow

compared to other species groups.


Phidippus cardinalis (Hentz), 1845

Figures 2-6, 2-23

Attus rufus Hentz, 1835; NOMEN NUDUM

Attus cardinalis Hentz, 1845 (d); type destroyed

Attus rufus Hentz, 1846 (9); type destroyed; NEW SYNONYMY

Plexippus rufus C. L. Koch, 1846 (synonymized by Marx, 1890)

Plexippus bivittatus C. L. Koch, 1846 (synonymized by Marx, 1890)

Phiale modest C. L. Koch, 1846 (synonymized by Banks, 1913)

Attus mccookii Peckham & Peckham, 1883; type in MCZ, examined; NEW

SYNONYMY









Phidippus ruber Keyserling, 1884; type in BMNH, examined (synonymized

with P. mccookii by Peckham & Peckham, 1909)

P. cardinalis, Peckham & Peckham, 1888; Wallace, 1950; Bonnet, 1958;

Richman & Cutler, 1978; Gertsch, 1979

Dendryphantes cardinalis, Simon, 1901; Roewer, 1954

Phidippus oaklandensis Tullgren, 1901 (synonymized by Petrunkevitch, 1911)

P. mccooki, Muma, 1944; Kaston, 1948; Whitcomb et al., 1963


Much confusion about the identities of P. cardinalis and P. mccooki

has existed since the Peckhams (1909) illustrated both species in

consecutive figures. I have never seen a male palp as illustrated for

P. mccooki. The drawing of the epigynum of this species appears to be a

good rendition of P. whitmani, whereas the description of the female

color pattern is that of P. pius. The type of P. mccooki is a female

with a typical P. cardinalis epigynum. I can only speculate that the

illustration of the P. mccooki male habitus is misplaced, and was meant

to be the initial entry under P. cardinalis. Cheliceral color in the

male of P. cardinalis agrees with Hentz's description and distinguishes

this species from P. apacheanus.

Although the Peckhams (1909) were unable to recognize P. rufus,

which they had previously attributed to what they renamed as P. whitmani,

Hentz's description must be of the female of P. cardinalis. Only 3

eastern species (P. cardinalis, P. pius, P. whitmani) have 3 ventral,

dark longitudinal stripes, and only 2 of these (P. cardinalis, P. pius)

have 2 short dorsal, dark longitudinal stripes broken by 2 pairs of

white spots. Since the type locality of P. rufus is Alabama, and the

red form of P. pius occurs east of the Appalachians, P. rufus must be P.

cardinalis.









MALE: integument reddish; carapace covered with red scales dor-

sally; chelicerae dark red proximal half,weakly iridescent blue distal

half; no ocular setal tufts clypeus and palpi fringed with black setae;

palpal femur with white or red scales on distal edge; leg I femur also

with white or red scales on distal edge (white on legs II-IV), petellar

brush black except white on proximal half of prolateral surface, white

scales on proximal half patella; scales on proximal halves metatarsus

and tarsus white to orange; dorsum of abdomen covered with red scales,

with 2 black stripes in posterior half overlaid with 2 pair white spots,

all of which may also be covered with red scales; venter of abdomen dark

gray.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: 2 dorsal

setal tufts; white scales below lateral eyes, across proximal edge of

chelicerae, and on clypeus; clypeus also with dense fringe of white

setae; palpi fringed with white-tipped black setae; dorsum red to brown,

posterior stripes and spots not overlaid with red scales; venter of

abdomen pale with 3 narrow gray stripes.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0, tibia II V 0-1R-1R or 0-0-2;

tibia III V 0-0-0-2, R 0-0-1-0; metatarsus III V 0-0-1 or 0-1-2,

R 0-0-2; metatarsus IV V 0-0-1 or 0-0-2.


Phidippus plus Scheffer, 1906

Figures 2-7, 2-24

Phidippus pius Scheffer, 1906; type supposed to be in USNM, lost

P. plus, Peckham & Peckham, 1909; Bonnet, 1958; Edwards, 1977; Cutler,

1977; Richman & Cutler, 1978

Dendryphantes plus, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954









Phidippus abboti Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944; type in AMNH, examined

(synonymized by Edwards, 1977)

Dendryphantes abboti, Roewer, 1954

Phidippus abboti, Barnes & Barnes, 1955; Bonnet, 1958; Berry, 1970

Considerable variation in color pattern occurs in this species. In

the typical form, females are yellow and males are orange; this color

form holds throughout the northern range of the species and to the

southwest (from the eastern plains to New Jersey and south to Texas).

Southeast of the Appalachian Mountains, from Virginia to Florida, fe-

males are orange and males are red (P. abboti color form) and the amount

of black on the legs and palpi is increased. Toward the southwestern

portion of the range, in Texas, the black markings on the legs and palpi

are only faintly indicated.

Although the type of P. pius is lost, Scheffer's description leaves

no doubt as to which species he was describing.

MALE: integument yellow to red; carapace covered dorsally with

yellow to red scales, lacking in ocular area in red males; no ocular

setal tufts; clypeus with white setal fringe; palpi yellow to red,

cymbium black, femur black in red males, white lateral fringes on

patella, tibia, and cymbium; legs with black on ventral half of pro-

lateral surface of all femora, distal third patella, distal half tibia,

distal two-thirds metatarsus, distal half tarsus except for extreme

distal edge which is pale (red males have femur, tibia and metatarsus

all black), white scales sparsely on all legs and palpi; dorsum of

abdomen covered with yellow to red scales; 2 posterior stripes similar

to P. cardinalis and covered sparsely with metallic scales; venter pale

(orange males) to black (red males).









FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: integument

yellow to orange; 2 weak dorsal setal tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed

with white setae; venter of abdomen with 3 narrow gray lines like P.

cardinalis.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0, tibia II V 0-1R-lR-2; patella

III R 0-0-0, tibia III V 0-0-0-2, R 0-0-1-0, metatarsus III V 0-0-2;

tibia IV R 0-0-1-0, metatarsus IV V 0-0-2.


Phidippus whitmani Peckham & Peckham, 1909

Figures 2-8, 2-25

Phidippus paludatus C. L. Koch, 1846; NOMEN OBLITUM

P. rufus (not Hentz), Peckham & Peckham, 1889 (in part,dc)

Dendryphantes rufus, Simon, 1901

Phidippus whitmanii Peckham & Peckham, 1909

Dendryphantes whitmanii, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

P. whitmani, Comstock, 1912; Kaston, 1948; Bonnet, 1958; Berry, 1970;

Cutler, 1977; Richman & Cutler, 1978; Gertsch, 1979

P. insolens (not Hentz), Kaston, 1938a, b

Banks' description (1913) of the pinned type of P. paludatus

indicates it to be a specimen of P. whitmani. The latter name has been

used for the species ever since the Peckhams' description (1909), over

50 years ago.

Females are brown in the northern states, red in the southern

states. Southern males are more completely covered with red scales on

anterior dorsum of carapace, only anterior half of distance from PME to

AME exposed.

MALE: carapace covered with red scales dorsally except anterior to

PME, where dark integument is exposed, laterally and on thoracic slope








covered with white scales; chelicerae proximal half covered with white

setae, especially medially, distal half faintly metallic blue; no ocular

setal tufts; clypeus covered with white scales and setal fringe; palpi

with white fringe entire length laterally and on cymbium dorsally,

covered with white scales entire length dorsally; leg I-IV covered with

white scales, all fringes white; integument of all femora black; dorsal

abdomen covered with red scales, dorsal abdominal markings white; venter

of abdomen gray laterally, with 3 narrow black stripes enclosing 2 sub-

mesal white stripes.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: carapace

completely covered with red or brown scales dorsally; 2 weak dorsal

setal tufts; palpi fringed with white setae but lacking scales; dorsal

abdomen covered with red to brown scales except for white markings,

rarely with 2 black lines posteriorly like P. cardinalis and P. pius.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0, tibia II V 0-1R-1P or 0-0-2;

patella III IV R 0-0-0, tibia III V 0-0-0-2, metatarsus III V 0-0-2,

P 0-0-2, R 0-0-2; metatarsus IV V 0-0-2.


Phidippus clarus Keyserling, 1884

Figures 2-9, 2-26

Attus podagrosus Hentz, 1846; type destroyed; NOMEN DUBIUM, NOMEN OBLITIM

Phidippus auctus C. L. Koch, 1846; specimens from Keyserling coll., BMNH,

examined; NOMEN OBLITUM

Phidippus castrensis C. L. Koch, 1846; NOMEN DUBIUM, NOMEN OBLITUM

Phidippus clarus Keyserling, 1884

P. clarus, Peckham & Peckham, 1909; Kaston, 1948; Wallace, 1950; Barnes

& Barnes, 1955; Bonnet, 1958; Whitcomb & Tadic, 1963; Whitcomb, 1963;

Berry, 1970; Richman & Cutler, 1978, Oehler, 1980









P. insolens (not Hentz), Peckham & Peckham, 1888

P. multiformis Emerton, 1891; type in HCZ, examined (synonymized by

Peckham & Peckham, 1909)

P. minutus Banks, 1892; type in MCZ, examined (synonymized by Peckham

& Peckham, 1909)

Philaeus princeps (not Peckham & Peckham), Banks, 1892

Phidippus bilineatus Tullgren, 1901 (synonymized by Roewer, 1954)

Phidippus clarconensis Tullgren, 1901 (synonymized by Wallace, 1950)

Dendryphantes insolens, Simon, 1901

D. multiformis, Simon, 1901

D. castrensis, Simon, 1901

Phidippus podagrosus, Banks, 1910

Dendryphantes clarus, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

P. rimator, Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 (not Attus rimator Walckenaer, 1837

a NOMEN DUBIUM); Kaston, 1953, 1972, 1978; Snetsinger, 1954;

Cutler, 1977

Numerous other references cited in behavior or ecology sections.

The usage of P. rimator (Walckenaer) for this species, a name which

has become increasingly used for P. clarus, is completely unwarranted.

The single illustration by Abbot (1792) given the name Attus rimator by

Walckenaer (1837) was recognized as an immature by Chamberlin & Ivie

(1944) when they resurrected the name. It is well know that immatures

have been usually difficult, if not impossible given past techniques, to

identify to species. Furthermore, I have examined a color reproduction

of the copy of Abbot's drawing kept at the Museum of Comparative Zoology,

and cannot positively identify the drawing to genus, much less to

species; the dorsal pattern cannot be matched with any known species.









In saying this I might add that I have personally reared most of the

species of Phidippus occurring in the eastern U. S., including P.

clarus, and therefore have first hand acquaintance with their appearance

as immatures.

MALE: integument dark; no dorsal ocular tufts; clypeus and lateral

edges of palpi fringed with black setae; dorsum of palpal femur, patel-

la, tibia, and cymbium covered with white scales and setae; leg I femur

with dorsal fringe white, prolateroventral fringe absent, patella brush

black, proximal fourth of tibial brush white; dorsum of abdomen with

short white basal band, side stripe of red scales each side, dark

metallic central stripe; venter of abdomen dark gray with 3 black stripes,

the stripes sometimes enclosing a slight amount of white.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: integument

normal color; 2 weak dorsal tufts; white scales below eyes laterally and

densely covering clypeus, long white setal fringe on clypeus, palpi;

abdomen with variable coloration, lateral wide stripes tan, yellow, or

orange and median stripe tan, brown or black; venter of abdomen white

enclosed by lateral black stripes which meet posteriorly, sometimes with

faint median gray stripe.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0; metatarsus IV V 0-0-1 or

0-0-2.


audax group

The 5 eastern species in this group (P. audax, P. otiosus, P.

regius, P. xerus, P. insignarius) all have 4 setal tufts on the females

as opposed to 6 or 2 tufts on females of other groups. Lumping these

species together on the basis of number of setal tufts seems tenuous; P.

insignarius and probably P. xerus will likely be shown to belong to








other species groups when the fauna of the western U. S. becomes better

known. Males of the 3 other species all have a cheliceral tubercle,

which seems to be a shared, derived character. Behavioral data also

seems to relate these 3 species (see chapter on courtship).


Phidippus audax (Hentz), 1845

Figures 2-10, 2-27

Attus morsitans Walckenaer, 1805; NOMEN NUDUM, NOMEN DUBIUM

Salticus variegatus Lucas, 1833; type lost; petition to suppress

(Levi & Pinter, 1970) under consideration by the I.C.Z.N.

Attus audax Hentz, 1835; NOMEN NUDUM

A. tripunctatus Hentz, 1835; NOMEN NUDUM

A. morsitans Walckenaer 1837; NOMEN DUBIUM

A. audax Hentz, 1845; type destroyed; petition submitted to designate as

type species of genus (Levi & Pinter, 1970)

A. tripunctatus Hentz, 1846 (synonymized by Banks, 1893)

A. fasciolatus, Hentz, 1846 (synonymized by Banks, 1910)

Phidippus togatus C. L. Koch, 1846; NEW SYNONYMY

Phidippus purpurifer C. L. Koch, 1846

P. smaragdifer C. L. Koch, 1846

P. alchymista C. L. Koch, 1846

P. rufimanus C. L. Koch, 1846

P. dubious C. L. Koch, 1846

P. mundulus C. L. Koch, 1846

P. personatus C. L. Koch, 1846

P. concinnatus C. L. Koch, 1846 (Koch names synonymized by Banks, 1910)

P. morsitans, Peckham & Peckham, 1888 (synonymized by Peckham & Peckham,

1909)








P. rauterbergii Peckham & Peckham, 1888 (synonymized by Banks, 1916)

P. tripunctatus, Emerton, 1891

P. audax, Banks, 1893; Peckham & Peckham, 1909; Bonnet, 1958; Kaston,

1948, 1953, 1972, 1978; Levi & Levi, 1968; Cutler, 1977; Richman &

Cutler, 1978; Gertsch, 1979; Oehler, 1980

P. howardii Peckham & Peckham, 1896, NEW SYNONYMY

P. rauterbergii, Peckham & Peckham, 1901, 1909; Bonnet, 1958

P. howardi, Peckham & Peckham, 1901, 1909; Bonnet, 1958

P. variegatus, Peckham & Peckham, 1909 (the Peckhams considered audax

and variegatus to be 2 separate species); Kaston, 1938; Bryant, 1942

Dendryphantes audax, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

D. howardi, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

D. rauterbergii, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

Phidippus bryantae Kaston, 1945 (synonymized by Kaston, 1948)

Also mentioned in numerous behavioral and ecological papers which are

mentioned with their respective chapters.

Phidippus morsitans might also apply to P. regius C. L. Koch but

would be unavailable for that species also.

This is an extremely common species over most of eastern and mid-

western North America. It varies widely in both size and color pattern,

although at least some individuals of a particular population retain the

typical color pattern. Some individuals in Texas and Mexico reach

nearly 20 mm in length, perhaps in part due to the lack of competition

from a common, large species (like P. regius in Florida).

MALE: integument dark; carapace with or without lateral white sub-

marginal band of variable size extending behind and below PLE; anterior

face of each chelicera with subdistal tubercle; no ocular setal tufts;









clypeus fringed with black setae; palpal femur and patella with white

scales and setae dorsally, black setae laterally and on dorsal cymbium;

leg I with typical fringing; abdomen with spots white, yellow, or red,

either distinct or coalesced with each other or with lateral bands, most

of resulting patterns illustrated by Hill (1978); venter of abdomen with

outer rows of dots often overlain with white scales which encroach to

variable extent over median black stripe which is never completely

covered.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: no cusp on

chelicerae; 4 setal tufts; clypeus sparsely covered with white scales

and white setae; palpi fringed with black setae, some of which have

white tips.

LEG MACROSETAE: metatarsus III R 0-0-2; metatarsus IV V 0-0-2. Only

species with an individual with femur I DR 0-0-0-1.


Phidippus otiosus (Hentz), 1846

Figures 2-11, 2-28

Attus pulcher Walckenaer, 1837, p. 439

A. pulcher pallida Walckenaer, 1837, p. 439

A. peregrinus Walckenaer, 1837, p. 445

A. otiosus Hentz, 1846; type destroyed; petition for retention submitted

to I. C. Z. N. (see Appendix C)

Phidippus lunulatus C. L. Koch, 1846 (synonymized by Banks, 1910)

P. otiosus, Peckham & Peckham, 1888, 1901, 1909; Bryant, 1942; Murrill,

1942; Wallace, 1950, Bonnet, 1958; Anderson, 1966; Levi & Levi, 1968;

Kaston, 1972, 1978; Edwards et al., 1974; Muma, 1975; Edwards, 1977;

Richman, 1977; Hill, 1979; Gertsch, 1979









Dendryphantes otiosus, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

Phidippus dorsalis Bryant, 1942 (o'holotype); holotype in MCZ, examined;

NEW SYNONYMY

P. pulcher, Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944; Richman, 1978; Richman & Cutler, 1978

Dendryphantes pulcher, Roewer, 1954

Although P. pulcher (Walckenaer) has priority, the specific epithet

pulcher in various generic combinations has only been used 6 times in

the literature (3 in checklists), whereas P. otiosus (Hentz) has been

used over 20 times (7 in checklists). Usage favors retention of P.

otiosus.

MALE: carapace with very wide yellow to orange submarginal bands

from PME to near posterior edge, not meeting behind but partially cover-

ing thoracic slope; chelicerae with tubercle like P. audax; 4 setal

tufts; clypeus sparsely fringed with black setae; palpi covered with

yellow to orange scales and setae on dorsal and lateral femur, ectal

edge of patella; dorsal cymbium covered with black setae; leg I with

typical fringes except yellow to orange where normally white, prolatero-

ventral femur fringe lacks distal third, yellow setae and scales on

distal femur; legs II-IV with yellow scales on dorsal distal femur and

proximal patella; dorsal abdominal markings yellow, gold, or orange,

center stripe metallic black, green, or blue; venter of abdomen black.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: carapace

submarginal bands white to yellow; chelicerae without tubercle; ventral

edge of clypeus to entire face covered with white scales, weakly fringed

with yellow setae to strongly fringed with white overhanging proximal

third of chelicerae; palpi densely fringed laterally with white or

yellow setae; legs covered with white or yellow scales; abdomen integument









gray, tan, or black, dorsal abdominal markings white to yellow-orange;

venter of abdomen with broad black stripe with or without white border

which may encroach on middle of black band.

LEG MACROSETAE: metatarsus IV V 0-1-2.


Phidippus regius C. L. Koch, 1846

Figures 2-12, 2-13, 2-29

Phidippus regius C. L. Koch, 1846, p. 146

Attus regius, Walckenaer, 1847

Salticus sagraeus Lucas, 1857

Attus miniatus Peckham & Peckham, 1883 (synonymized by Edwards, 1975,

unpubl.; Richman & Cutler, 1978)

Phidippus miniatus, Peckham & Peckham, 1888, 1901, 1909

P. variegatus (not Lucas), Franganillo, 1930; Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944;

Wallace, 1950

P. regius, Bryant, 1943; Bonnet, 1958; Levi & Levi, 1968; Levi & Pinter,

1970; Muma, 1975; Cutler, 1977; Hill, 1977; Kaston, 1978; Richman &

Cutler, 1978; Edwards, 1975, 1979; Cutler, 1979; Gertsch, 1979

Dendryphantes regius, Simon, 1901; Roewer, 1954

D. miniatus, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

Phidippus tullgreni Wallace, 1950; NEW SYNONYMY (may be P. otiosus -

P. regius hybrid)

Richman & Cutler (1978) synonymized P. miniatus with P. regius on

the authority of the unpublished thesis of Edwards (1975). This species

has been involved in considerable confusion with P. audax over use of

the name P. variegatus and because of their similar appearance.

MALE: integument dark; carapace rarely with wide white submarginal

bands (possibly hybrid); chelicerae with tubercle like P. audax; no









ocular tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed with black setae; leg I femur

with distal prolateral white setae and scales; dorsal abdomen black with

white markings; venter of abdomen black.

FEMALE: carapace lacking scales or covered to variable extent with

gray, tan and/or orange scales, ocular quadrangle never completely

covered; chelicerae without tubercle, sometimes red-violet, may be

covered proximally with white scales; 4 ocular setal tufts; clypeus and

palpi with white fringes, clypeus covered with white scales; legs with

or without gray, tan or orange scales; dorsal abdomen black or dark

brown with or without covering of gray, tan, brown and/or orange scales;

dorsal markings white or pale orange, sometimes overlaid with tan or

orange scales, markings outlined with remnant of central dark band;

venter of abdomen black, bordered with stripes of white scales when

abdomen black dorsally.

LEG MACROSETAE: metatarsus IV V 0-1-2. P. regius, the largest

species represented, was most likely to have more macrosetae than normal;

especially the ventral subproximals on tibiae II-IV might be paired.


Phidippus xerus Edwards, 1978, emendation

Figures 2-14, 2-30

Phidippus xeros Edwards, 1978; holotype deposited in MCZ

P. xeros, Richman, 1979

A few specimens in collections were labeled P. workman. The

specific epithet was not latinized in the original description, and is

here emended. All known specimens of this species have been collected

in Florida.

MALE: integument dark; carapace with short white transverse bands

behind PLE; no ocular tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed with black setae;









palpi with dorsal white scales on femur and patella; leg I like P.

regius, except dorsal femur fringe of white-tipped black setae; dorsal

abdomen black with white markings; venter of abdomen black with 4 rows

pale dots.

FEMALE: integument normal color; carapace with markings like male

(except they are yellow) or usually (including clypeus and over anterior

eyes) covered with gray, yellow, and/or orange-yellow scales, except for

lower thoracic slope and ocular quadrangle (which has white spot in

center); 4 weak ocular setal tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed with

white; tibia I reddish on proximal half with white fringe; dorsal

abdominal markings orange-yellow to red-orange, or rarely lateral

stripes lacking and yellow spots and basal band present; venter of

abdomen like male.

LEG MACROSETAE: no consistent differences; ventral and lateral

medians on metatarsi III & IV variable.


Phidippus insignarius C. L. Koch, 1846

Figures 2-15, 2-30

Phidippus insignarius C. L. Koch, 1846, 1851

Philaeus monticola Banks, 1896 (synonymized by Peckham & Peckham, 1909)

Phidippus comatus Peckham & Peckham, 1901 (in part, C) (recognized by

Peckham & Peckham, 1909)

P. insignarius, Peckham & Peckham, 1909; Kaston, 1948; Muma, 1949;

Whitcomb & Tadic, 1963; Cutler, 1977; Richman & Cutler, 1978

Dendrvnhantes insignarius, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

P. fraudulentus, Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944; not Attus fraudulentus

Walckenaer, 1837, a NOMEN DUBIUM

P. insigniarius, Bonnet, 1958









Bonnet (1958) noted that the correct Latin spelling of the specific

epithet is insigniarius. If Koch had misspelled the name unintentional-

ly, this correction would be valid. However, Koch used the same spelling

again in 1851, indicating he deliberately spelled the name without the

extra "i", therefore the original spelling must stand.

There are no authenticated records of P. insignarius occurring

anywhere in Georgia. If it does occur there, I would expect it to be in

the mountains of the northwest part of the state, certainly not in the

coastal plain of the southeast part from where Abbot made his drawings.

Attus fraudulentus Walckenaer could be an immature of any of several

southeastern species of Phidippus.

MALE: chelicerae weakly iridescent green; 4 ocular tufts, the

dorsal pair longer and denser than usual; carapace with submarginal

white band of scales extending well back on thoracic slope; clypeus

densely covered with white scales and with long white fringe overhanging

chelicerae; palpal femur, patella, tibia, and cymbium covered dorsally

with white setae; leg I dense white scale cover on prolateroventral

surface of femur, patella and tibia; leg I femur with weak dorsal fringe

of mixed black and white setae, prolateroventral fringe white and short,

retrolateroventral fringe white, very long and dense; all other leg I

fringes white, dorsal stripe of white scales from distal tip patella to

distal tip tarsus; legs II-IV similar but with progressively reduced

fringes and scales, leg IV lacking most scales; dorsum of abdomen with

pattern like female but overlain with orange scales; venter of abdomen

with median black stripe that narrows toward spinnerets, white stripes

on each side.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: 4 normal

setal tufts; submarginal band less distinct than in male; white scales









covering clypeus; clypeus and palpi fringed with white setae; legs with

simple white fringes; abdomen with white basal band and lateral bands,

tan to orange wide stripes laterally, white central triangular spot and

white to orange posterior spots.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0, tibia II 0-0-lR-1P or

0-0-1R-0; patella III R 0-0-0, tibia III 0-0-0-1P, metatarsus III P

0-0-2; metatarsus IV V 0-0-2.


princeps group

The 2 species in this group, P. princeps and P. pulcherrimus, are

closely related allopatric species. Both have large, sickle-shaped

emboli and a very long epigynal septum. Phidippus pulcherrimus is known

from Florida and the southern parts of Alabama and Georgia. Phidippus

princeps occurs from northeastern Texas and North Carolina north to

Minnesota and New England. This group is probably related to the audax

group, as evidenced by some similarities in color pattern.


Phidippus princeps (Peckham & Peckham), 1883

Figures 2-16, 2-31

Attus insolens Hentz, 1835; NOMEN NUDUM

A. insolens Hentz, 1845; type destroyed; NOMEN DUBIUM

Attus princeps Peckham & Peckham, 1883; type in MCZ, examined

Philaeus princeps, Peckham & Peckham, 1888

Phidippus brunneus Emerton, 1891; type in MCZ, examined (synonymized by

Bryant, 1942)

P. princeps, Peckham & Peckham, 1901, 1909; Kaston, 1948; Barnes &

Barnes, 1955; Bonnet, 1958; Berry, 1970; Cutler, 1977; Hill,

1977a, b; Richman & Cutler, 1978; Oebler, 1980








P. insolens, Peckham & Peckham, 1909 (in part, d); Muma & Jeffers, 1945;

?Muma & Muma, 1949

Dendryphantes princeps, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

P. dorsalis Bryant, 1942 (in part, 9); paratypes in MCZ, examined

The only eastern species that comes close to resembling Hentz's

description is the species now known as P. princeps. The name P.

insolens has been misused for P. apacheanus, although a badly rubbed

specimen of the latter species could fit the description.

MALE: integument nearly black; no ocular setal tufts; clypeus

sparsely fringed with black setae; palpi fringed laterally with black

setae, covered dorsally with white scales on femur and patella; leg I

distal prolaterodorsal femur with white scales and setae, distal half

patella with black fringe, all fringes unusually short; dorsum of

abdomen completely covered with red scales, rarely brown with white or

red central triangle and 2 pair posterior spots; venter of abdomen black

bordered with row of pale dots.

FEMALE: sparse cover of white scales on carapace and legs; 4

ocular setal tufts; clypeus densely covered with white scales and setae

especially along ventral edge; palpi fringed with white setae; dorsum of

abdomen usually unmarked brown, occasionally with white median stripe

running length of abdomen but not reaching either anterior or posterior

ends of abdomen, rarely with white triangle followed by 2 pair posterior

spots, or intermediate condition between central stripe and spots;

venter of abdomen with broad black stripe bordered laterally and posteri-

orly by white.

LEG MACROSETAE: tibia II V 0-1R-1R-2; tibia III & IV V 0-0-0-2,

metatarsus III & IV V 0-0-2.









Phidippus pulcherrimus Keyserling, 1884

Figures 2-17, 2-31

Phidippus pulcherrimus Keyserling, 1884; type in MCZ, examined

P. pulcherrimus, Marx, 1890; Banks, 1901, 1904, 1910; Peckham & Peckham

1909; Bonnet, 1958; Edwards, 1977; Richman & Cutler, 1978; Edwards

& Hill, 1978

Dendryphantes pulcherrimus, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

The anecdote by Hill (Edwards & Hill, 1978), proclaiming to be the

first description of the male of P. pulcherrimus, is incomplete.

MALE: carapace with short white transverse bands behind PLE; no

ocular setal tufts; clypeus with sparse black fringe; palpi fringed with

black setae, femur covered dorsally with white scales; dorsal leg I like

P. princeps; dorsal abdominal semi-encircling band yellow (1 specimen)

or red, spots white to red, metallic scales on black median stripe;

venter of abdomen black.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: 2 dorsal

setal tufts; carapace with bands like male or entire carapace sparsely

covered with white to tan scales; clypeus with white scales and setae,

especially along ventral edge; palpi with white setal fringe, white

scales on tarsus and distal tibia; legs covered with white setae; dorsal

abdominal spots usually white, rarely yellow to orange; venter of

abdomen with wide black stripe with or without white borders laterally.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0, tibia II V 0-1R-1R-2;

tibia III V 0-0-0-2, R 0-0-1-0; tibia IV V 0-0-0-2; metatarsus III &

IV V 0-0-2.


purpuratus group

Three species occurring in the eastern U. S. belong to the purpuratus










group. One species, P. borealis, ranges across northern North America

west from New Hampshire to Washington and Alaska. A primarily south-

western species, P. apacheanus, ranges east from California and Utah to

North Carolina and Florida. The third species, P. purpuratus, is

restricted to the eastern half of North America. All the species in

this group can be readily recognized by the forms of the genitalia. In

males, the protegulum is extended anteriorly on the ectal side. The

embolus is a short, notched structure which arises anteriorly, but

appears to be mentally attached to the extension of the protegulum. The

epigynum is like other members of the subgenus in the placement of

anterior guides but differs in having a deep, rectangular, transverse

depression across the central third.

The johnsoni group of western North America is intermediate between

this group and the audax group. In the johnsoni group, the protegulum

is less extended, the embolus longer, and the epigynum lacks the central

depression.


Phidippus apacheanus Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1929

Figures 2-18, 2-32

Phidippus bardus Peckham & Peckham, 1901; type in MCZ, examined; NOMEN

OBLITUM; NEW SYNDNYMY

P. insolens (not Hentz), Peckham & Peckham, 1901, 1909 (in part?)

Dendryphantes insolens Simon, 1901; Roewer, 1954

Phidippus ferrugineous Scheffer, 1904; type in MCZ, examined; NOMEN

OBLITUM; NEW SYNONYMY

Phidippus apacheanus Chamberlin & Gertsch, 1929; type in AMNH, examined

Phidippus nikites Chamberlin & Ivie, 1935; type in AMNH, examined;

NEW SYNONYMY









P. nikites, Muma, 1949; Bonnet, 1958

Dendryphantes apacheanus, Roewer, 1954

D. nikites, Roewer, 1954

P. apacheanus, Bonnet, 1958; Gardner, 1965; Levi & Levi, 1968; Cutler,

1977; Richman & Cutler, 1978; Edwards & Hill, 1978; Kaston, 1978;

Gertsch, 1979

P. paludatus (not C. L. Koch), Kaston, 1972

The Peckhams (1909) incorrectly synonymized P. bardus and P.

ferrugineous with P. insolens (Hentz). This confusion resulted in a

redescription of the species by Chamberlin & Gertsch (1929) as P.

apacheanus, by which name it has been known since; the lone exception

was Kaston (1972) who used P. paludatus C. L. Koch, but later recognized

and corrected his error (Kaston, 1978).

The males of P. apacheanus (described from Utah) and P. nikites

(described from California) are identical. The P. nikites type of

epigynum differs from the typical P. apacheanus epigynum in that the

central depression is shallow and not set off by a distinct rim. I

consider this only a variation; a single female from Florida had a P.

nikites type epigynum, but all other Florida specimens were typical.

Other specimens from the type locality of P. nikites were typical of P.

apacheanus (S. Johnson, personal communication, and specimens sent for

confirmation). A similar type of variation occurs in females of P.

borealis, and may represent a remnant recessive genetic representation

of a less derived condition. The epigynum of the female allotype of P.

nikites is somewhat shrivelled, which has changed the direction of the

openings to the spermathecal ducts, accounting for this difference as

noted in Chamberlin & Ivie's description.









MALE: integument dark; carapace covered with yellow to red scales

dorsally in ocular quadrangle and above thoracic slope; 2 dorsal setal

tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed with black setae; leg I patellar brush

black except white on proximal half of prolateral surface, white scales

on proximal half patella; scales on proximal halves metatarsus and

tarsus white to orange; abdomen covered dorsally with yellow to red

scales except for mid-dorsal black stripe, which may also be overlaid

with scales; venter of abdomen black, outer rows of pale dots more

conspicuous than inner rows.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: palpi with

lateral yellow fringes; tibia I proximal half reddish, legs with scat-

tered white scales; yellow to red dorsal scale cover may be reduced so

that spider appears to be black with yellow or red abdominal stripes and

a pale basal band; black central stripe may be indented by 0-3 pair of

yellow or red spots.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0; metatarsus III P 0-0-2, R 0-

0-2; tibia IV P 0-0-0-0, metatarsus IV V 0-0-0 or 0-1-2.


Phidippus borealis Banks, 1895

Figures 2-19, 2-33

Phidippus borealis Banks, 1895; 2 syntypes supposed to be at MCZ,

lost; Neotype designated, the larger of 2 specimens in a vial from

the type locality

Phidippus altanus Gertsch, 1934 (synonymized by Edwards, 1977)

P. altanus, Gertsch & Jellison, 1939; Chickering, 1944; Levi & Levi, 1951

P. borealis, Edwards, 1977; Cutler, 1977; Richman & Cutler, 1978

Phidippus borealis was incorrectly synonymized with P. purpuratus

Keyserling. The types are lost; since Banks' original description was









somewhat equivocal, I have designated a neotype male from Crawford

Notch, New Hampshire, the type locality; it is deposited in the Museum

of Comparative Zoology.

MALE: 2 weak dorsal tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed with black

setae; leg I patella and proximal half tibia reddish, both fringed with

black setae; dorsal abdominal markings tan to orange; venter of abdomen

black, inner rows of dots inconspicuous.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: 2 dorsal

tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed with white setae; leg I unicolorous,

not banded like male; dorsal abdominal markings white to orange.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0; tibia III V 0-0-0-2, R 0-0-1-

0; metatarsus III V 0-0-0 or 0-1-2, P 0-0-2, R 0-0-2; tibia IV R 0-0-1-

0; metatarsus IV V 0-1-2, P 0-0-2, R 0-0-2.


Phidippus purpuratus Keyserling, 1884

Figures 2-20, 2-33

Phidippus purpuratus Keyserling, 1884 (p. 489)

Phidippus albomaculatus Keyserling, 1884 (p. 491); syntypes in MCZ,

BMNH, examined; NEW SYNONYMY, Lectotype designated

P. galathea (not Walckenaer), Peckham & Peckham, 1888

P. mystaceus (not Hentz), Emerton, 1875, 1891

P. purpuratus, Peckham & Peckham, 1909; Kaston, 1948, 1978; Bonnet, 1958;

Whitcomb et al., 1963; Cutler, 1977; Richman & Cutler, 1978

P. electus (not C. L. Koch), Banks, 1910, 1913; NOMEN DUBIUM

Dendryphantes purpuratus, Petrunkevitch, 1911; Roewer, 1954

Banks (1910) considered P. electus to be a synonym of P. albo-

maculatus (purpuratus). Later (1913) he examined the pinned type, found









it to be a juvenile, and made no comment on its identity. Other authors

have considered it a synonym of P. mystaceus. It probably cannot be

recognized.

I examined specimens labelled "Type" of P. albomaculatus from both

the Museum of Comparative Zoology and from the British Museum (Natural

History). A specimen at the MCZ has been labelled lectotype by L.

Pinter, and I so designate it.

MALE: integument dark; 2 weak dorsal setal tufts; clypeus and

palpi fringed with black setae; leg I all fringes black, with few white

setae below normally placed white scales on proximal halves patella,

metatarsus, and tarsus, femur prolateroventral fringe very short,

prolateral surface of femur with metallic green or blue reflections;

dorsal abdominal markings tan to red, spots usually less distinct than

in female; venter dark edged with white laterally.

FEMALE: similar to male with following differences: 2 dorsal

setal tufts; clypeus and palpi fringed with white setae; integument of

abdomen dark gray, dorsal abdominal markings white or tan; venter of

abdomen black with or without lateral white stripes, inner rows of dots

conspicuous.

LEG MACROSETAE: femur II DR 0-0-0-0; patella III R 0-0-0, tibia

III V 0-0-0-2, metatarsus III V 0-0-1 or 0-0-2, P 0-0-2, R 0-0-2;

metatarsus IV V 0-0-1 or 0-0-2.


~



































Figure 2-4. Phidippus putnami: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.













A





... X "' n f


I:
** r ~ .i







'. C .'
19








Bt
\j ~
P."^ "

/. -. \
/ ~ 1 '' fc ; .
'* '
"i.,-- **' " '
i} ^ !










l..


N.r~
*-; J4



































Figure 2-5. Phidippus mystaceus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.















A
It










-'I





\'. I '.


to. C'_ 1~


ZdB

ZOB


* .4,



































Figure 2-6. Phidippus cardinalis: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.






























f.-



































Figure 2-7. Phidippus plus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.








A


F.".
Ut>:
"^ -,-





'':;i \iiB



































Figure 2-8. Phidippus whitmani: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.






















































ij.w^


Pr *.<




































Figure 2-9. Phidippus clarus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female,
D. Dorsal view of abdomen of male.



































Figure 2-10. Phidippus audax: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.


































Figure 2-11. Phidippus otiosus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.













'"* A

r ;

a




4 /
'', --. /
i .





.* -,. i.
r:: .: -"



-" c
i I
:!* ---, .1
4 .4., v






C



7."4




j~~~ $ ~5"



































Figure 2-12. Phidippus regius: A. Dorsal view of female,
B. Dorsal view of abdomen of male.



































Figure 2-13. Phidippus regius: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum.


































































































/ ,



































Figure 2-14. Phidippus xerus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female,
D. Dorsal view of abdomen of male.















.4i

'1 4


*" ~


B

' y l. j


































Figure 2-15. Phidippus insignarius: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.







































































*1 0 .. I,.
,.P6


-- : ("

'' ' "'

~ Y



































Figure 2-16. Phidippus princess: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum.






































Figure 2-17. Phidippus pulcherrimus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.



































Figure 2-18. Phidippus apacheanus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.


































Figure 2-19. Phidippus borealis: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.


































Figure 2-20. Phidippus purpuratus: A. Ventral view of male palp,
B. Ventral view of female epigynum, C. Dorsal view of female.
























































Figure 2-21. Distribution map of Phidippus putnami.

























































Figure 2-22. Distribution map of Phidippus mystaceus.
























































Figure 2-23. Distribution map of Phidippus cardinalis.





















































































Figure 2-24. Distribution map of Phidippus plus.


j
























































Figure 2-25. Distribution map of Phidippus whitmani.






















































Figure 2-26. Distribution map of Phidippus clarus.

























































Figure 2-27. Distribution map of Phidippus audax.
























































Figure 2-28. Distribution map of Phidippus otiosus.































































Figure 2-29. Distribution map of Phidippus regius.




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