Group Title: history of bands in Marquette, Michigan, 1866-1930
Title: A history of bands in Marquette, Michigan, 1866-1930
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 Material Information
Title: A history of bands in Marquette, Michigan, 1866-1930
Physical Description: ix, 173 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Michaelson, Jerrold M ( Jerrold Max ), 1946-
Copyright Date: 1981
Subject: Bands (Music) -- History -- Michigan -- Marquette   ( lcsh )
Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by Jerrold M. Michaelson.
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 157-172.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099370
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000296319
oclc - 08066970
notis - ABS2680


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This dissertation is dedicated to Kirsten,

for having the perseverance to see the study to

its conclusion.


The author would like to acknowledge Dr. Albert Smith

for his helpful suggestions and creative criticism of the

manuscript. A special acknowledgement is noted to Dr.

David Z. Kushner for his encouragement and support during

my tenure at the University of Florida. It was only

through Dr. Kushner's encouragement that the author pur-

sued a degree in the college teaching of music history.

In addition, acknowledgement is due to the Marquette

Historical Society for their cooperation and assistance

in the location of primary documents; the Peter White

Library for access to their microfilms of The Mining

Journal; and Copy Services of Marquette, Michigan, for

their excellent reproductive services.



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................... iii

LIST OF FIGURES... ...................................... vi

ABSTRACT........... .................................... vii


I INTRODUCTION ................................. 1

Statement of the Problem .................... 1
Need for the Study ........................... 2
Definitions.................................. 3
Limitations ................. ................ 4
Methodology ...... ............................ 4


A History of Marquette to 1930 .............. 8
A History of The Marquette Mining Journal... 11
A History of American Bands: Post-Civil
War to 1930 ............................... 14
Patrick Gilmore: "Father of the American
Band".. ........ ....... ......... ........ .... 15
John Philip Sousa ............................ 17
The Bands' Functions ........................ 20
Instrumentation............................. 22
Performed Music............................... 25
Summary ..................................... 27
Justification for the Present Research...... 29

III BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1866-1890)............... 31

Early Marquette Bands ........................ 31
The Marquette Cornet Band.................... 35
The Marquette City Band ...................... 40
The Queen City Cornet Band .... ............. 56
Summary ..................................... 59

IV BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1890-1897)............... 62

1890 and 1891, Years of Active Band
Performance......................... ....... 62
1892, A Year of Declining Band Activity.... 68

1893, A Year of Parades, Balls and
Competition ............................... 70
1894, New Director for the Marquette
City Band .................................. 75
1895, A Time of Reorganization and
Increasing Competition ..................... 78
1896, Marquette City Band's Director
Receives an Award .......................... 82
1897, A Year Without a City Band... .......... 84
Summary ...................................... 85

V BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1898-1906)............... 88

1898, The Marquette City Band
Reorganizes.................................. 88
1898-1900, the Cadet Greys................... 90
1901, 1902, Years of Visiting Bands
The Marquette Branch Prison Band........... 98
1903, Marquette's New Band.................... 103
1904, A Year of Dances and Parades ........... 106
1905, 1906, Years of Popularity for
Hanck's Drum Corps ........................ 108
Summary ...................................... 111

VI BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1907-1930)................ 114

1907, 1908, Years of Visiting Bands and
Hanck's Drum Corps ........................ 114
Our Boy's Band (1909-1914). ................... 118
The Marquette Finnish Band (1909-1914)........ 121
Privately Sponsored Bands (1915-1917)........ 123
The Marquette City Band (1907-1930............ 129
Summary ...................................... 142


Summary..................................... 145
The Bands' Functions ......................... 147
Instrumentation.............................. 149
Performed Music .............................. 150
Implications ................................ 152

BY THE MARQUETTE BANDS ..................... 155

BIBLIOGRAPHY...... ........ ............................. 157

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.................................... 173



1. The Calumet Band--1887 .......................... 41

2. The Marquette City Band--1888. ................... 44

3. Typical "Trap Drummer" of the Period
(circa 1900).................................. 72

4. The Marquette City Band and the St. Jean
Baptiste Society (circa 1893-1895)............ 74

5. Hanck's Drum and Bugle Corps ................... 101

6. The Marquette Branch Prison Band
(circa 1900-1902) ............................. 102

7. Our Boy's Band ................................... 119

8. The Marquette Finnish Band....................... 122

9. The Liberty Hall Band. .......................... 126

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partia3 Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



Jerrold M. Michaelson

August 1981

Chairman: Dr. Albert Smith
Cochairman: Dr. David Z. Kushner
Major Department: Instructional Leadership and Support

The major purpose of the study was to provide a

written history of all bands in Marquette, Michigan,


Throughout the dissertation the following research

questions were answered.

1. What bands were organized in Marquette, Michigan,

during the period 1866-1930?

2. What was the instrumentation of the Marquette


3. For what functions did the bands perform?

4. What compositions did the bands perform?

Within the study a listing of the bands' musical programs

and places of performance was included. Photographs of

several bands were also included in the study.


The method was one of historical analysis of primary/

secondary literature and research documents. The Mining

Journal (Marquette, Michigan) was the major source for the


The data were collected by (1) a methodical search

through the local newspaper, The Mining Journal (1845-

1930); (2) an analysis of photographs of several Marquette

bands during the period 1866-1930; and (3) a survey of

local historical books, magazines and documents.

The study consisted of (1) a review of significant

historical literature on the city of Marquette; (2) an

historical account of the United States' band movement; and

(3) a chronological documentation of the bands that were

organized in Marquette during the period 1866-1930, the

functions for which the Marquette bands performed, the

instrumentation of the Marquette bands, and the music per-

formed by the bands.

The study revealed that Marquette had a rich band

history 1866-1930. The twenty bands that were organized

in Marquette during the studied period fulfilled a need in

the community life of the residents by (1) providing

musical entertainment before the invention of the phono-

graph or radio; (2) providing entertainment for visitors

to Marquette; (3) providing winter entertainment for the

residents; and (4) performing music for social events, ex-

cursions, and municipal celebrations and/or parades. The


findings of the study further supported the theory by

Goldman that the development of the band in the United

States proceeded along roughly parallel lines, in that the

Marquette bands were influenced by the large city bands'

functions, instrumentation and performed music.


Statement of the Problem

The major purpose of the study was to provide a

written history of all bands in Marquette, Michigan, from

the first appearance of the German Silver Cornet Band in

1866 through the end of 1930. An anticipated goal was to

establish an overview of the first sixty-four years in

which Marquette was a part of the national band movement.

A study of sixty-four years (1866-1930) was undertaken

because the national band movement and the Marquette band

movement declined about the year 1930. The study estab-

lished a parallel between the national band development

and the Marquette band development. The overview of the

first sixty-four years showed that the status of bands in

Marquette improved to about 1900, then declined to near

extinction by 1930.

Throughout the dissertation there was an attempt to

answer the following questions:

1. What bands were organized in Marquette,

Michigan, during the period 1866-1930?

2. What was the instrumentation of the Marquette


3. For what functions did the bands perform?

4. What compositions (or composition types) did

the bands perform?

A detailed listing of each band's musical programs

and places of performance was developed. Photographs of

several bands (when available) were collected and pre-

sented in this study.

Lastly, a summary of implications to the historical

significance of the Marquette bands and the national

band movement concluded the research. A comprehensive

bibliography was included.

Need for the Study

The Upper Peninsula of Michigan has a rich band

history. At the present many Upper Peninsula communities

have "city bands" that evolved from the national develop-

ment of bands after the Civil War and/or from the ethnic

bands of the late nineteenth century.

There were very few regional historical publications

that included information on Marquette bands. A lack of

available data on bands in these publications pointed to

a primary need for tracing the development of the

Marquette bands during the period 1866-1930. Another

need for the study was to provide a historical account

of the Marquette bands, since at present none exists. A

historical study on the Marquette bands would eliminate

the possibility of lost or damaged records.

A secondary need for the present research was to

compile and disseminate material on the history of the

Marquette bands. The study would provide information on -

the bands' significance to local history. In addition,

with the recent interest in pluralistic methods of educa-

tional planning, such a study would assist the historian/i ,

educator in establishing a framework for a local music

history and study. /


& 9,

Definitions I

For purposes of this research the following defini-

tions were used.


Band: any ensemble of wind and/or percussion

Drum Corps: an ensemble consisting of parade drums
(field drums), bass drums and cymbals.
The ensemble was used primarily for
drill purposes.

Orchestra: an ensemble consisting of string instru-
ments, winds and percussion.

Performance Media:

Concert: a program of vocal or instrumental music,
usually one in which a number of
musicians perform together.

Open-Air Concert: a concert performed in the out-
doors, usually from a bandstand
or hotel balcony.

Dance: a party to which people come to dance.

Ball: a formal social dance.

Grand Ball: a formal social dance usually more
lofty and dignified than a ball.

Masquerade Ball: a formal social dance at which
masks and fancy costumes or
disguises are worn.

Parade: any organized procession or march.


The present study utilized the following limitations:

1. Only community bands in the city of Marquette

were studied.

2. Community bands used for any purpose (dances,

parades, concerts, picnics, etc.) were


3. Public, private or parochial school bands were

not included in this study.

4. The research was inclusive of Marquette,

Michigan, only.


For purposes of the research the following procedure

in the collation and development of materials was


The method was one of historical analysis of pri-

mary/secondary literature and research documents.

Data Sources

The Mining Journal (Marquette, Michigan) was the

major source for this study. The Mining Journal had

predecessors to 1846 and has been published as The Mining

Journal since 1868. The complete files of The Mining

Journal were located in the Peter White Public Library,

Marquette, Michigan, and in the Longyear Research Library

of the Marquette Historical Society.

Other available sources were:

"Historical Highlights," a series of four hundred

twenty-seven radio manuscripts (1956-1962) on Marquette


Photographs of Marquette bands were available at

the Marquette Historical Society.

A historical dissertation by Payne entitled "History

of the Platform in Marquette"l was used to compile local

historical sources.

Marquette City Directories 1866-1930 were consulted.

Listings of public holidays were used to identify

international events peculiar to the Upper Peninsula.

Historical accounts of the national band movement

were studied to complete a portion of the literature


1Sarah L. Payne. "History of the Platform in
Marquette" (Doctoral Dissertation, Wayne State University,

Marquette historical material (books, articles and

other documents) were studied to provide a local histori-

cal basis for the literature review.

Collection of Data

The collection of data was accomplished by a

methodical search through the local newspaper, The

Journal. For purposes of this study only the years 1845- !

1930 were searched for data on the Marquette bands. -'

There was also an analysis of several photographs of

Marquette's bands and a survey of local historical books,

magazines and documents. The historical material was

available in the Marquette public library, the Peter

White Library, the Marquette Historical Society, and the

Northern Michigan University Library, Marquette, Michigan.

The search, collation, and analysis of material was con-

ducted from June 1980 to June 1981.

Analysis of Data

From the number of organized Marquette bands, the

instrumentation of the bands, the functions for which the

bands performed and the compositions the bands played,

there was an analysis of how and why Marquette partici-

pated in the national band movement.

Organization of the Remaining Chapters

Chapter II contains a review of significant litera-

ture on the City of Marquette, including important events

leading to the establishment of the city and its bands.

This chapter also includes a brief historical account of

the major source of the study, The Mining Journal. This

account is presented because The Mining Journal was

important in the historical documentation of the events in

Marquette. The chapter concludes with an historical

account of the United States' band movement. This

account is necessary in order to establish a parallel

between the Marquette and national band movements.

Chapters III, IV, V, and VI constitute a documenta-

tion of the Marquette bands' functions, instrumentation,

music selections, and related information. In each

chapter the research questions as listed in the Statement

of the Problem are utilized to determine the overall


Chapter VII discusses the implications of the

present findings in relation to the theoretical position

previously espoused in the Review of the Literature and

Research. Practical implications and suggestions for

additional research are cited. An appendix in which

dances (and/or dance compositions) are defined is

included, along with a comprehensive bibliography.


A History of Marquette to 1930

The first white men to reach Michigan were French

explorers from Canada in 1618-1619.1 Forty years later

the prospects of a water passage to the Pacific Ocean,

wealth, fur trading, copper mining, and political comina-

tion of North America inspired additional exploration.2

In 1668 Father Jacques Marquette, the Jesuit mis-

sionary and explorer, traveled along the south shore of

Lake Superior to the Apostle Islands, but did not stop in

the Marquette area.3 Almost two hundred years later a

settlement on the shore of Lake Superior became the city

of Marquette.

The Chippewa Indian title to the Upper Peninsula was

liquidated in 1842 following which the United States

government made mineralogical, topographical and linear

surveys. The information gathered in these surveys was

1Richard F. O'Dell, "Michigan, The Road Toward 1976,"
The Mining Journal, Bicentennial Edition, July 1, 1976,
p. 1.


3"Reminiscences of Early Settlement," History of the
Upper Peninsula of Michigan (Chicago: The Western
Historical Company, 1883), p. 382.

an important factor in the opening and settlement of the

peninsula. In 1844 prospectors "swarmed" into the area

and in 1846 the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron range was estab-


The origin of Marquette was described by Guilford as

a by-product of the Upper Peninsula mining interests.2

In 1849 Amos Harlow, Peter White and other settlers from

Worcester, Massachusetts, arrived at the present site of

Marquette for the purpose of establishing an iron forge

on the shore of Lake Superior.3 The iron ore for the

forge was brought down from the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron

range, twelve miles west of Marquette.

Transportation played an important role in the

development of the iron industry and the City of Marquette.

In 1852 the United States Congress gave the state of

Michigan 750,000 acres of public land to construct a canal

between Lake Superior and Lake Huron.4 The canal was

1L. A. Chase, "City of Marquette," Marquette, The
Queen City of Northern Michigan (Marquette, Michigan:
Guelff Printers, 1924), p. 1.

2Dave Guilford, "History of Marquette County," The
Mining Journal, Bicentennial Edition, July 1, 1976,
p. C-l.

3Richard F. O'Dell, "Michigan, The Road Toward
1976," p. B-8.

4"Public Works," History of the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan, p. 422.

completed in 1857, enabling iron ore shipment from

Marquette through the Great Lakes.1

In 1857 the first Upper Peninsula railroad, between

the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron ore field and the Marquette

ore docks, was opened.2 This railroad replaced the wagon

transportation that had transported iron ore since 1846.

The unincorporated settlement of Marquette, often

called "Worcester" or "Carp River," went through two

stages of municipal growth during the period 1859-1871.

The stages consisted of (1) becoming an incorporated

village in 1859 and (2) becoming a city in 1871.3

In 1868 a fire destroyed the heart of the Marquette

business section, the railroad depot and stores, and the

downtown ore docks.4 As a result, many records of early

settlers and events were lost.

The rebuilding process began with many citizens

arguing the need of a water supply other than Lake

Superior. Consequently, Marquette established and main-

tained a waterworks in 1869. Also in 1869, gas lighting

was first used in the city.5

1"History of Marquette," The Mining Journal,
Centennial Edition, May 10, 1949, p. 12.

2L. A. Chase, "City of Marquette," p. 2.

3L. A. Chase, "Marquette History," The Mining
Journal, Centennial Edition, May 10, 1949, p. 1.



Other significant events important to the growth of

Marquette included the building of a harbor lighthouse

(1853), the establishment of a United States government

land office (1857), the building of a Michigan Branch

Prison in the city of Marquette (1888), the construction

of a hydroelectric plant (1889), the establishment of a

Coast Guard life-saving station (1891), and the founding

of an Upper Peninsula university, Northern State Normal

School (later changed to Northern Michigan University).

Local historian L. A. Chase stated that Marquette's growth

was similar to other small American communities in the

late nineteenth century.2

After the turn of the century the city charter was

established (1917), as Marquette enjoyed increased activity

in the mining industry. The peak mine employment of

11,953 men was reached in the 1920's. In the 1920's there

were over forty mining companies in the Upper Peninsula.

A History of the Marquette Mining Journal

The Mining Journal, the oldest Upper Peninsula news-

paper, played an important role in Marquette's history.

1L. A. Chase, "City of Marquette," pp. 3-8.

2Richard F. O'Dell, "Michigan, The Road Toward
1976," p. B-12.

Betty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," The Mining
Journal, Bicentennial Edition, July 1, 1976, p. C-3.

The Mining Journal was the major Marquette source of

national, regional and local news, thus was extremely

important for the documentation of local history.

Early in The Mining Journal's history the paper

became known as the "greatest industrial paper in the

peninsula."1 The Mining Journal supported the mining

industry, as well as community functions and events.

The paper grew from a small sheet, published weekly in

summer and monthly in winter, to its present size, a

circulation of 80,000.

The predecessor to this paper, The Lake Superior

News, in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, was purchased by

Henry Chase and E. D. Burr, who moved the paper to

Marquette in 1845.2 The paper's plant was located in the

basement of a big boarding house, on the site of the

present Union National Bank.3

From 1845 to 1860 there were several editors, who

did much of the paper's work themselves. These editors

included George Watson, the first editor, and succeeding

lBetty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-3.

2"The Press," History of the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan (Chicago: The Western Historical Co., 1883),
p. 426.

3Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-22.

editors Judd, Isham, Ball, Campbell, Banfield and, in

1860, Charles Earle.1

The paper was destroyed in the Marquette fire of

1868 and was inactive for six months. After the six

months, A. P. Swineford, owner of a Negaunee newspaper,

Mining and Manufacturing News, moved his newspaper plant

to the Marquette area and reestablished a Marquette

paper.2 The Mining Journal name was first used in early

1869. The Mining Journal became a daily in 1884, at

which time Swineford added the AP wire service.

Swineford, an opinionated editor, was twice elected

mayor of Marquette, was elected to the Michigan legisla-

ture, and was appointed Governor of the Alaskan Territory.

In 1889 Swineford sold The Mining Journal to J. M.

Longyear, who remained editor until 1899.3

J. M. Longyear was succeeded as owner/editor by

James Russell. Mr. Russell and his family believed in

community involvement and later purchased WDMJ Radio in

1931, and established WDMJ-TV in 1956. The Mining

Journal remained in the Russell family until 1965, when

1"The Press," History of the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan, p. 426.

2Betty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-22.


it was sold to the Panax Corporation of East Lansing,


The Mining Journal is currently published daily

except for Sundays and legal holidays, and is especially

devoted to Upper Peninsula interests.

A History of American Bands:
Post-Civil War to 1930

The period of band history after the Civil War was

described by Bryant as the "Golden Age of American Bands."2

During the period post-Civil War to 1930, numerous profes-

sional touring bands and local bands had opportunities to

perform concerts, provide music for dances, and play for

other social activities. The outdoor band concert became

a regular summer activity in many communities. Bryant

also stated that amateur bands were formed by municipal

groups, manufacturing companies, colleges, and universi-


A foundation for American bands was laid by Monsieur

Antoine Jullien in a series of concerts 1853-54.4

IBetty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-22.

2Carolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On (Washington,
D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975), p. 21.


4H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America (Garden City, New
York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1957), p. 16.

Monsieur Jullien, the son of a French bandmaster, moved

to New York in 1853 with forty musicians and a large music

library. The bandmaster soon augmented his ensemble to a

total of one hundred musicians (selecting many European

players who fled central Europe during the revolution of

1848), started a publicity campaign and performed a

financially profitable series of concerts.1 In 1854

Jullien returned to Europe where he eventually went bank-

rupt, became mentally ill and died in an insane asylum


Jullien's successful series of concerts aroused con-

siderable interest among the public due to his excellence

of performance, programming of American music, and "daz-

zling" showmanship.3 Antoine Jullien influenced Patrick

Gilmore, who by 1860 had organized his own professional


Patrick Gilmore: "Father of the American Band"

During the period 1860-1890 Patrick Gilmore had

become known as the "Father of the American Band." Having

1H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 29.


3Theodore M. McCarty, editor, "The Band: Past,
Present and Future," Music Journal (Special Edition on
American Music, 1973), p. 5.

4Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 30.

gained recognition as a cornet soloist and director of

several Boston area bands, Gilmore attracted many excel-

lent musicians to his bands.1 His major undertaking had

become the organization of mammoth music festivals. The

first mammoth festival, a five-day National Peace Jubilee

(Boston, 1869), consisted of over 10,000 musicians per-

forming in orchestras, choruses and bands.2 The festival

reportedly drew adverse criticism, but Dwight wrote that

the more usual opinion was that the festival provided

numerous persons with a new belief in music.

Gilmore also organized and staged a World Peace

Jubilee in 1872, which used a larger number of musicians

than the National Peace Jubilee.4 For the Jubilee

Gilmore imported bands from Europe and performed for an

audience of 100,000 people. In a special edition of the

Music Journal, McCarty reported that Gilmore's National

Peace Jubilee lasted eighteen days, netted Gilmore two

gold medals and $50,000.5

For the next twenty years Gilmore led the famous

22nd Regiment Band of New York and completed numerous

1Carolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On, p. 27.


3John S. Dwight, Dwight's Journal of Music, July 3,
1869, p. 63.

4Theodore McCarty, editor, "The Band. .", p. 5.


tours of America and Europe. The 22nd Regiment Band con-

tributed to the national band movement in regards to

instrumentation, performance excellence, and repertoire.

The band (and Gilmore) influenced many late nineteenth

century band directors, including John Philip Sousa.

Patrick Gilmore died in 1892.1

John Philip Sousa

Goldman, in The Concert Band, reported that "The

real successor of Gilmore in popularity and accomplishment

was, of course, John Philip Sousa. ."2 In 1880 Sousa,

at age twenty-six, was appointed director of the Marine

Corps Band. He retained the position for twelve years,

during which he built the group into an expert ensemble,

composed new music, and participated in numerous tours.3

In a Harper's Weekly article, Mead commented that the

Sousa band ". deserves mention as a well-drilled and

well-worked company of skillful performers." In 1892

Sousa left the Marine Corps Band to form his own band.5

1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band (New York:
Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1946), p. 58.

2Ibid., pp. 58-59.

3Carolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On, pp. 29-30.

4Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .. ," p. 785.

5H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 147.

Sousa's new band, which was an immediate success,

originally consisted of forty-nine players, who were

auditioned personally by Sousa.1 The conductor's musical

concept (of the new band) 'stemmed from his thought that a

band was more versatile than a symphony orchestra.2 Sousa

preferred and expected a refined orchestral sound; i.e.,

the band's reed players changed from stiff military reeds

to delicate types common in orchestras; brass players were

instructed to play sensitively, not just to blow as hard

as they could.3 The Sousa band, which varied in size

during the period 1892-1924, continued the band accomplish-

ments of his predecessor, Patrick Gilmore.

Following the Spanish-American War, the Sousa band

toured many states and on one occasion even marched in a

parade. Rarely did the new Sousa band march, as Sousa

preferred the concert stage. Sousa's band was the first

concert band to achieve total financial independence.4

The success of Sousa and his band was mentioned in many

documents, e.g. Goldman states that ". it is probable

that no musical organization in history was known to as

1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 59.

2Paul E. Bierley, John Philip Sousa, an American
Phenomenon (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973),
p. 145.

3Theodore McCarty, "The Band. ," p. 6.


many people, or held in greater popular affection, than

this great American concert band."1

Other important bands and/or bandmasters that

Deserved mention in the band movement between the Civil

War and 1930 included D. W. Reeves, who developed an

excellent marching band, Alessandro Liberati, who became

famous for his circus bands, Frederick Innes, trombonist/

director of several bands, and Giuseppe Creatore, the

leader of one of the first Italian bands in the United


The years 1867-1930 were filled with intensive band

activity. Mead stated that there were in 1889 over

10,000 military bands in the United States.2 Mead also

reported that virtually every city or town had a band

that performed many functions. In the smaller cities

the band averaged twenty-five men each, while in small

rural towns the band numbered from twelve to eighteen

members.3 By the year 1900 the number of United States'

bands had doubled, but had begun to decline after 1910.

Schwartz stated that 1910 was ". .the peak of prestige

and popularity of the concert band."

Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 61.

2Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.


The amateur or professional town bands paved the way

for the introduction of public school bands. The school

bands gained in number as civic and professional bands

had begun to decline. By 1930 the professional big bands,

the public school bands and numerous jazz bands had

replaced the town bands as the major entertainment func-

tion for the community.

The Bands' Functions

In the early 1860's brass bands were very popular;

as a result, many Civil War bands were predominately

brass. The function of the Civil War band consisted of

performing for the armies (on the march), playing sere-

nades at the evening's encampments for the officers and

men, serving as medics during the battles, and playing

for ceremonies or dress parades.1

After the Civil War the bands' popularity had

increased, due primarily to the fact that radio and phono-

graph had not become widespread. The bands' function was

providing music for concerts (indoor and outdoor), dances,

parades, picnics, and other social activities. Mead com-

mented that the bands of 1889 dispensed both the popular

and higher class music of the day.2 Mead also stated

ICarolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On, p. 16.

2Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.

that the bands served a necessary educational function,

in that "they provided music to remote sections, where

the inhabitants were unable to hear them at first hand,

and without their local band, they would perhaps never

hear them at all."1

Many of the professional bands from 1870 through the

1920's brought concerts to new heights of popularity in

America. Major bandmasters formed independent bands that

played primarily concerts and an occasional parade.

Patrick Gilmore's and John Philip Sousa's bands toured

extensively in the United States and Europe, performing

concerts designed to entertain. Sousa was reported to

have commented that his function was to give the public

what it wanted.2


The local and professional bands' function during

the period 1867-1930 underwent substantial change. The

early bands provided a service function, performing for a

variety of social and public activities, and/or existed

to serve military purposes. The bands were also con-

spicuous features of public parades and processional


1Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.

2Richard Franko Goldman, Bands of America, p. 60.

In contrast, the bands after the turn of the century

to the 1930's provided entertainment in the form of con-

certs. Although the bands occasionally marched in

parades, the concert had become its major function.


In 1889 most cities and towns had one or more bands.

The smaller city band averaged twenty-five men each,

while the country towns' bands numbered from twelve to

eighteen players.1 The large city bands usually had

forty to fifty members. The average band instrumentation

(in 1889) was as follows:2

one piccolo three trombones or tenor horns
one Eb clarinet two baritones
four Bb clarinets two tubas
two Eb cornets one small drum (snare)
four Bb cornets one bass drum
two alto horns one cymbal player

Most of the American bands used the instrumentation as

previously discussed; however, the large city bands com-

monly added several other instruments. The large city

bands augmented their instrumentation with the following:

double reeds (oboe, English horn, bassoon), alto clari-

nets, saxophones, trumpets, euphoniums, timpani, and

additional numbers of the other instruments.3

1Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.

21bid., p. 786.

3Ibid., p. 785.

Patrick Gilmore was known for his experimentation V

with different instrument groupings. In 1878 Gilmore's

22nd Regiment Band of New York had the following instru-


two piccolos two bassoons
two flutes one contra-bassoon
two oboes one Eb soprano cornet
one Ab sopranino clarinet four Bb cornets
three Eb soprano clarinets two trumpets
sixteen Bb clarinets two fluegelhorns
one alto clarinet four French horns
one bass clarinet two Eb alto horns
one soprano saxophone two Bb tenor horns
one alto saxophone two euphoniums
one tenor saxophone three trombones
one bass saxophone five bombardons (basses)
four percussion players

Gilmore's Band varied in size and instrumentation

considerably during the time he presided over the band.

In 1889 the band's instrumentation included the antonio-

phone, the surrasophone, the helicon tuba, the orpheon,

and the euphonium-trombone.2 Gilmore, for all of his

experimentation, had established the concert band in the

United States.

When the function of the band changed from a

marching band to a concert band medium (about 1900), the

instrumentation was also altered. The professional bands

that were directed by John Philip Sousa had the following


1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 58.

2Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.

Sousa's first bandl
(49 players)

two flutes
two oboes
two Eb clarinets
fourteen Bb clarinets
one alto clarinet
one bass clarinet
two bassoons
three saxophones
four cornets
two trumpets
four French horns
three trombones
two euphoniums
four basses
three percussion players

Sousa's last band2
(75 players)

six flutes and piccolo
two oboes
one English horn
twenty-six Bb clarinets
one alto clarinet
two bass clarinets
two bassoons
four alto saxophones
two tenor saxophones
one baritone saxophone
one bass saxophone
six cornets
two trumpets
four French horns
four ti mbones
two euphoniums
six basses sousaphoness)
three percussion

Percentages of Instrument Families

The percentage of instrument families in the band

was determined by the band's function; i.e.,a band used

primarily for marching had more brass, a concert band had

more woodwinds.

The 1878 concert band of Patrick Gilmore used

approximately fifty-three percent woodwinds, forty-one

percent brass and six percent percussion. Gilmore's

Band toured the United States and Europe, performing

mainly concerts. In contrast, the average band of 1889

was composed of twenty-five percent woodwinds,

1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 59.

2Ibid., p. 60.

sixty-three percent brass, and twelve percent percussion.

In general the average smaller city band was geared to

perform at outdoor events (parades, outdoor concerts) and

as a result had more brass.

The bands of John Philip Sousa extended the trend

toward woodwinds. His earliest band (1898) consisted of

fifty-five percent woodwinds, thirty-nine percent brass,

and six percent percussion. His last band (1924) uti-

lized sixty-four percent woodwinds, thirty-two percent

brass, and four percent percussion. The percentage of

woodwinds to brass greatly influenced the modern concert

band's instrumentation.

Performed Music

The "Golden Age of American Bands" had become an era

of experimentation. Many of the professional bands per-

formed a variety of music designed to entertain audiences,

while marching bands played only marches or spirited


On an American concert tour in 1853-54, Antoine

Jullien, influenced by the internationally known P. T.

Barnum, performed fantasies, popular pieces, quadrilles,

waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, schottisches, tarantelles,

galops and arrangements of classical pieces.1 In

1H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 24.

addition Jullien pleased his audiences with concerts

devoted to national quadrilles (English, Irish, Scotch,

French, Russian, Hungarian, Polish, etc.) or national

airs.1 Jullien the composer performed many of his own

compositions on the concert tour, as well as selections

by American composers such as William Henry Fry.2

During the period 1856-1882, Gilmore's 22nd Regiment

Band performed arrangements of European composers such as

Liszt, Mozart, Beethoven, Verdi, Rossini, and Wagner.3

In addition Gilmore programmed music based on the

American folk tradition such as Old Dan Tucker, Oh!

Susanna, and Nellie Was a Lady. Sacred and patriotic

selections were also played on the Gilmore concerts.

Compositions usually performed were Nearer My God to Thee,

Abide with Me, Ave Maria, The Battle Hymn of the Republic,

Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean, and The Star Spangled


Other professional bands such as John Philip Sousa's

Band performed a variety of marches (many composed by

Sousa), arrangements of popular "airs" (Ta-ra-ra-boomdeay,

Old Folks at Home, and After the Ball), as well as

1H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 24.

2lbid., p. 25.

3Theodore M. McCarty, editor, "The Band. .," p. 5.

4H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 48.

transcriptions of the works of Wagner, Liszt, Beethoven,

and Bach.1 The Sousa concerts were performed to entertain

the public and as McCarty states, "He did so not by being

a missionary or'apostle of good music, but by turning out

colorful, superbly-performed concerts."2

Small city or town bands were influenced by the pro-

fessional bands of Gilmore, Sousa and others. The town

bands emulated the larger bands in regard to music pro-

gramming. The local bands also played music appropriate

to the ethnic make-up of their community; i.e.,a band in

the Upper Peninsula of Michigan might play Finnish folk

songs because of the large number of Finnish immigrants.

The programming tendency in 1867-1930 influenced the

public school band movement that began in the 1920's and

had continued to the present. Bands in the public

schools took over most of the functions that the city

bands performed before the turn of the century.


Richard Franko Goldman, son of the famous conductor

Edwin Franko Goldman, wrote that "the development of the

band in the United States proceeded along roughly parallel

1Theodore M. McCarty, editor, "The Band. .," p. 6.


lines."l The popularity of all American bands, local

and professional, grew rapidly from 1867 to 1910, and

declined until about 1930.

The band's function changed from a purely military

or social mode to that of a refined concert ensemble. In

the 1870's the band played for parades, excursions, and

social events, but by 1900 usually performed only con-


The bands' instrumentation evolved from the brass

bands of the 1860's to the predominately woodwind instru-

mentation of the later Sousa bands. Most of the smaller

city bands followed the models set by the larger profes-

sional organizations.

In general the music played by bands developed from

the performance of music for dance and/or parade to the

intricate transcriptions, difficult marches and arrange-

ments of popular tunes of the time (1930).

The bands of the discussed period filled a need in

the musical life of the community by providing the only v

live music in places that could not maintain orchestras

or other musical ensembles. The period 1867-1930 can

accurately be described as "The Golden Age of the

American Band."

1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 54.

Justification for the Present Research

The Upper Peninsula of Michigan played an important

role in the growth of the state through its iron/copper

mining industries, fishing businesses, and lumber concerns.

The City of Marquette, the geographic and cultural center

of the Upper Peninsula, had a strong tradition of support

for the "arts." The city, with a current population of

25,000, had opera houses, auditoriums, bandshells, orches-

tras, and bands since the 1860's.

The weather conditions also induced the formation of

bands in the 1800's. The winter residents, virtually cut

off from highly populated areas, had to find methods of

entertainment. In the summer months the Upper Peninsula

became a recreational area for Lower Peninsula residents,

also in need of entertainment. The need for major enter-

tainment subsequently led to the formation of local bands.

Although there were many historical sources on

Michigan, the Upper Peninsula, and the City of Marquette,

little information on bands was located. Apparently

bands played an important role in the community, perfor-

ming for dances, picnics and public functions, but local

historians had overlooked their importance. I '

There had been a recent upsurge of regional band i

histories, especially since the bicentennial, to determine

the extent of the national band movement. The major


question of the majority of the studies was, How wide-

spread was the band movement?

From the number of major documented performances by

Marquette bands and the size and nature of the Marquette

concert audience, there was reason to analyze and inter-

pret why the Marquette area was conducive to the formation

of bands. The reasons, as stated, formed the justifica-

tion for the present research.


Early Marquette Bands

The first indication of bands in Marquette was men-

tioned in a radio talk series (1956) by historian Kenyon

Boyer. An elderly resident of Marquette told Boyer that

little music was present during the Civil War days.

During 1866 a group of German settlers, of whom there

were quite a few from pioneer days (1845-1865), formed

the German Silver Cornet Band.2 Boyer indicated that the

group was funded by the village (Marquette) and rehearsed

in a room of the old courthouse. The band practiced two

or three times a week and consisted of ten musicians:

four cornets, four bass horns, a bass drum and a snare

drum. Boyer described the band's uniform as a dark blue

coat with "fancy" braid across the front, with a Civil

War-patterned cap. The band gave several concerts, one

from Ripley's Rock (lower harbor--Marquette). The

Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a
radio series, Historical Highlights, Vol. IV, No. 72,
1952, p. 1.



Mining Journal editor reported that the shore was lined

with people who enjoyed the "spectacle."l

During the period 1867-1870 little band activity was

noticed, but musical activity still played an important

part of the community entertainment. Ensembles were

formed to provide the residents and summer visitors with

dance music. The instrumentation usually consisted of

two violins, a bass viol and another instrument. The

ensembles were called "bands" but were small orchestras.

Performances were noted by Evan's Band, Rudel's Band and


On January 11, 1870, a concert was given by the

Gesang Verein.3 This concert consisted of vocal music

accompanied by the Marquette Brass Band. The concert,

although not well attended because of poor publicity,

provided good singing and "exhilerating" instrumental

playing.4 The Mining Journal reporter commented, ".

the boys play well and we are pleased to see them reor-

ganized and prospering. The fellow who can sling a drum-

stick with Spence has to get up early in the morning."5

1"Concert," The Mining Journal, July 13, 1867, p. 8.

2Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 2.

3"Gesang Verein" is translated as a choral society.

4"German Gesang Verein," The Mining Journal,
January 15, 1870, p. 3.


Other bands were formed to provide entertainment

during 1870. An advertisement for a Grand Masquerade Ball

to be held at the Metropolitan Hotel on February 5, 1870,

lists Whiteside's Band as providing dance music.1 No '

other mention of this particular band was present. Bands

of this type were formed on a "pick-up" basis and

existed only a short time.

On July 4, 1872, as part of the Negaunee, Michigan,

celebration, the Washington Mine Band performed in a

parade and concert that ended with fireworks. Nitro-

glycerine was used in lieu of a cannon. Swineford

reported that the band played well for the occasion and

was well respected in the community.2

Celebrations of holidays and special events in

Marquette usually consisted of the organization of

special trains to provide transportation to the city for

the festivities. The Marquette, Houghton and Ontonagon

Railroad provided the residents with special reduced

fares for the trips. A train loop around Ishpeming,

Negaunee and back to Marquette was occasionally used.

Advertisement, The Mining Journal, February 5,
1870, p. 3.

A. P. Swineford, "Negaunee Celebration," The
Mining Journal, July 13, 1872, p. 1.

3Kenyon Boyer, "Summer Amusements," from a radio
series, Historical Highlights, Vol. II, No. 39, 1950,
p. 2.

One train excursion of July 4, 1874, was accompanied by a

band known as the Marquette German Brass Band.1 The band,

under the direction of a Mr. Rudle, provided fine music,

possessed gentlemanly bearing and reflected 'credit on the

city of Marquette.2 After the train had arrived at the

depot, the band performed several selections after which

they paraded through the city to the lake.3 At lakeside

the band boarded the steamer Michigammee (and accompanying

barge) for a trip to a nearby island. The band enter-

tained the guests throughout the trip. Upon arrival at

the island the band and guests refreshed themselves until

time for the program. The band signaled the guests to

the bandstand by playing the national air Hail Columbia.

The remainder of the presentation consisted of patriotic

speeches and musical selections from the band.4

Marquette (1870-1900) was known as a health resort,

especially for sufferers of hayfever.5 Many tourists

traveled to the city and stayed for one to two months.

Many activities were available, including horse racing,

camping, bicycling, dances, gambling houses, and band

1"The Fourth," The Mining Journal, July 11, 1874,
p. 5.




5Kenyon Boyer, "Summer Amusements in the Old Days,"
p. 1.

concerts. In addition, instrumental concerts, cruises

and dances were given on board visiting yachts.1

In 1875 a company of the Michigan national guard

called the Chasseurs gave a drill, ball and reception in

recognition of Washington's Birthday.2 The ball was held

at the Cozzins Hotel, with music provided by the

Marquette Band. In 1875 Marquette had two bands, but

The Mining Journal editor suggested that another might be

organized under the auspices of the national guard. The

editor also stated that there were enough musicians in

Marquette, and the Chasseurs should have a band of their


The period 1876-1884 was somewhat bleak in regard to

organized band activities. Bands usually played for

dances of the local societies and were mentioned in news-

paper articles on several occasions as performers of

excellent music.

The Marquette Cornet Band

In early 1885 a cornet band began organizing. The

citizens of Marquette were asked to "patronize" a dance

1Kenyon Boyer, "Summer Amusements in the Old Days,"
p. 4.

2"Marquette Chasseurs," The Mining Journal,
February 27, 1875, p. 8.

3The Mining Journal, March 6, 1875, p. 8.

given by the Marquette Cornet Band. On February 3, 1885,

the band members reportedly owed $227 for instruments and

wanted to pay for them by the end of the winter.1

During the month of January, 1885, a Mr. Crim,

manager of the band, made arrangements with the Marquette

Railroad to charter a special train to allow as many

people as possible to attend the benefit dance.2 The

band was well on its way to paying its bills and becoming

an established part of the community.

In February the Marquette Cornet Band was engaged to

play for the German Aid Society's Masquerade Ball on

February 17, 1885.3 On February 9 the Mather Hall, which

was to house the dance, was destroyed by fire.4 The

German Aid Society made arrangements to transfer the ball

to Cole's Hall and asked the Marquette Cornet Band to

advertise the change. The band hired a team of horses

and a sleigh and paraded all over the city, playing as

they went. While playing a selection in front of a local

drugstore, one of the horses dropped dead. Boyer reported

that the town "wits" immediately yelled out that the

l"Dance Given," The Mining Journal, January 17, 1885,
p. 1.

2The Mining Journal, January 31, 1885, p. 1.

3"German Aid Society," The Mining Journal,
January 24, 1885, p. 1.

4"Mather Hall Fire," The Mining Journal, February 14,
1885, p. 1.

poor music was more than the horse could stand.1 At a

band rehearsal on February 19, 1885, the members were

presented with a bill for $150, "the amount due the owners

of the horse which died on the occasion of the band's last

appearance on the streets."2 Considerable discussion

ensued over the advisability of allowing the amount billed.

The band decided to return the bill to Martin Foard (horse

owner) and moved: "that hereafter when the band has

occasion to appear on the street, the members will be

expected to walk or 'chip in' and hire a team of oxen."3

The band was at this time in good financial shape; the

members were rehearsing two or three times each week and

were expected to perform excellent concerts in the summer

of 1885.4

In late spring and summer of 1885 the Marquette

Cornet Band enjoyed an active performance schedule. On

May 19, 1885, Marquette residents, accompanied by the

band, met at the train depot to welcome the newly appointed

governor of the Alaska Territory, A. P. Swineford.

iKenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.

2The Mining Journal, February 21, 1885, p. 1.



Swineford was a senior editor of The Mining Journal and a

resident of Marquette prior to his appointment.1

"Decoration Day," May 30, 1885, was an excellent

opportunity for the band to display some of its talents.

The Marquette Cornet Band led the procession through the

city, performed several patriotic selections, and ended

with the national air, Hail Columbia.2

The Marquette Cornet Band had some competition during

the summer of 1885.3 The Clifton Hotel had negotiated and

hired the Chequamegon orchestra and band to do a series of

outdoor concerts. The Chequamegon band was made up of

several University of Michigan students who spent about a

month in the Marquette area that summer.4

One of the outdoor concerts (July 4, 1885) featured

the Chequamegon orchestra and band. Although no specific

titles of selections were listed in a Mining Journal

article, the program consisted of several band composi-

tions including a piccolo solo, a cornet solo, and a

clarinet solo, all accompanied by the band.5 The last

1"Arrival of the Governor," The Mining Journal,
May 23, 1885, p. 1.

2"Lovingly Remembered," The Mining Journal, June 6,
1885, p. 8.

3Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.

4"Our Summer Attractions," The Mining Journal,
June 13, 1885, p. 8.

5"Chequamegons," The Mining Journal, July 4, 1885,
p. 8.

outdoor concert was attended by over one thousand

Marquette residents and was well received.1

A comment about the Marquette Cornet Band appeared

in an article of The Mining Journal on June 28, 1885.

Four bands including the Calumet City Band, Ishpeming

City Band, Negaunee City Band and the Marquette Cornet

Band performed at the festivities surrounding the

Anniversary of the Odd Fellows Day. All bands partici-

pated in a parade followed by a short concert presentation.

The Calumet Band was believed to have been the superior

organization due partially to the fact that they had more

practice. This seemed to be a subtle suggestion (to the

Marquette Cornet Band) that they needed improvement.2

The next documentation of the Marquette Cornet Band

was found in an issue of The Mining Journal in the summer

of 1886. Swineford reported that the band, now under the

direction of a Mr. Homire, was improving rapidly and pro-

viding the city of Marquette with a series of summer

concerts.3 During the summer of 1886 three musicians

from the steamer Quebec, which had recently sunk in the

Marquette harbor, stayed a brief period in the Marquette

I"Chequamegons," The Mining Journal, July 4, 1885,
p. 8.

A. P. Swineford, "Anniversary of the Odd Fellows
Day," The Mining Journal, January 28, 1885, p. 1.

3Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.

area and performed with the Marquette Cornet Band. The

musicians were a flutist, a violinist, and a harpist.1

By the summer of 1887 the Marquette Cornet Band was not

performing regularly, and consequently disbanded.

The Marquette City Band

In the fall of 1887 Marquette made significant

progress toward the establishment of a permanent "city"

band. A band from Calumet, Michigan, of fifteen pieces

appeared at a firemen's tournament in Marquette. The

band, known as the Calumet Eureka Band, was a younger

version of the Calumet City Band that was known for its


As was indicated in the 1887 photograph of the

Calumet Band (Fig. 1), the instrumentation consisted of

two Eb cornets, three Bb cornets, two alto horns, three

baritones, two trombones, one helicon tuba, one snare

drum and one bass drum.

A group of Marquette citizens persuaded members of

the Calumet Band to settle permanently in Marquette, and

even assisted them with relocation costs and job hunting.

The members of the Calumet Band that relocated to

1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.

21bid., p. 5.

Figure 1. The Calumet Band 1887

Marquette became the nucleus of the Marquette City Band.1

The newly formed band consisted of Matthew Martin, Samson

Waters, James Allen, Edward Rule, Richard Krieg, James

Gilbert, William Trevarrow, Robert Nelson, Francis Rule,

Charles Retallic, Nicholas King and James Trezona.2

1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 5.


The Marquette City Band served many purposes,

including providing the music for an October 8, 1887,

"Kirmiss"1 given by the ladies of a local church. The

band director was William Sanders, who received many

compliments regarding the band's playing.2 At the

"Kirmiss" the band performed a Grand March followed by

different national dances. Over seven hundred people

attended the event and a reporter commenting on the band

stated, "I tell you, that's a fine band."3

In early November of 1887 a group of people from

Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan, accompanied by their own

city band, traveled to Marquette for special entertain-

ment. The entertainment included a large banquet, wine

and toasts, with music provided by the Marquette City

Band. The Sault Band performed a short afternoon concert,

to the delight of the Marquette residents in attendance.

At an evening banquet the Marquette Band was dressed in

full regimentals and provided "elegant" music. The

music at the banquet consisted of a march (to seat the

1Webster's New World Dictionary defines "Kermiss" as
a nationalistic fair or carnival, held usually for

2"Kermiss," The Mining Journal, October 8, 1887,
p. 1.


4"Boomers Do the City," The Mining Journal,
November 3, 1887, p. 8.

guests), dinner music and another march to end the festiv-


From 1866 to 1888 the bands of the Marquette area

were reported to have had "great times." One primary

reason is that in addition to local duties, the bands

accompanied city organizations to conventions, picnics,

and tournaments. The local residents took trips to Sault

Ste. Marie, the Copper Country (Houghton, Michigan, area),

and Mackinac Island, Michigan. On trips the bands fur-

nished music. Upon arrival the band generally gave a con-

cert and then participated in the merriment.

During 1888 there were three separate bands per-

forming in Marquette. The first appearance of the year

for the Marquette City Band occurred on April 3, 1888, at

a dance for the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen. The

band met many of the arriving guests at the train depot

and played several spirited marches. Swineford reported

that the Marquette City Band "surprised even their friends

by its character."2 The full band was present, earned

many compliments from the visitors, and had the following

instrumentation: three clarinets, two cornets, two alto

horns, two trombones, two baritones, one tuba, one snare

1"Boomers Do the City," The Mining Journal,
November 3, 1887, p. 8.

2A. P. Swineford, "The Brotherhood Dance," The
Mining Journal, April 7, 1888, p. 1.

drum, one bass drum, and one cymbal player. The photograph

below (Fig. 2) was taken at Meeske's Park, a local recrea-

tional area in Marquette.

Figure 2. The Marquette City Band 1888

After greeting the guests at the Marquette train

depot, the Marquette City Band (fifteen members), recep-

tion committee, and guests moved in procession to the

Casino, where the dance program began. The program was

lengthy and consisted of waltzes, schottisches, marches

and quadrilles. The evening ended with the popular tune,

Home Sweet Home. The program used for that evening is

as follows:

M rquette City Band Program2
April 3, 1888

Selection -- "Relief of Ekowe".
Waltz .......... ...............
Quadrille ......................

Schottische ............
Quadrille, Lanciers....
Polka ..................

Grand March.......
Sicillian Circle..
Galop .............
Quadrille, Irish..
Sally Waters......
Waltz .............
Quadrille, Ladies
Waltz .............
Virginia Reel.....
Masonic Quadrille.
Polka .............
Waltz .............
Waltz Quadrille...
Galop .............
Old Dan Tucker....
Home, Sweet Home..


.......By City Band
............ Hanahan
....... Round House

............ Round the Loop
... ... ..... ... ..... .. B .L .E .
.................Our Guests
... ....... Everybody Dance
...............Copper Train
.............. Pea Shooter
................Debs G.S.T.
..........Mackinac Division
e................. C.B. & Q.
............. B. of R. R. B.
.................Turn Table
........ ... Mining Journal
...................O R C .
.................Our Shacks
..................Log Train
...................Our Cons
.............. D S. S. & A .
............Absent Brothers
...........Diamond Crossing
.............. C N & A .
.......... ........ Orders

Another April performance for the Marquette City Band

was a War Song Concert on April 10, 1888. The War Song

Concert was made up of patriotic music, speeches by local

politicians and a short parade. In addition to the

1A. P. Swineford, "The Brotherhood Dance," p. 1.


Marquette City Band, a local drum corps, Wentworth's

Nickel Plate Drum Corps, provided entertainment. The

drum corps met the train at the depot, played a "street

beat," and performed a drill.1 The director of the

Marquette City Band, a Mr. Owen, along with his musi-

cians, were said to be a pleasant body of men, who ful-

filled their duties "perfectly."2 The War Song Concert

was described by Swineford as a great success.

Additional 1888 performances included weekly con-

certs at the bandshell, beginning on May 27. The band

also played with other bands in parades and events such

as picnics, baseball games a-id county fairs. Area bands

that performed in Marquette during 1888 were The English

Oak Band of Negaunee, The Houghton Cornet Band and The

Champion Band.

According to the editor of The Mining Journal, A. P.

Swineford, the Marquette City Band had an excellent repu-

tation during 1888.4 In appreciation for the band's

summer concert series, they were entertained at Mackinac

Island, Michigan, by Marquette residents, Captain and

'A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, April 14,
1888, p. 1.



4A. P. Swineford, "They Captured the Island," The
Mining Journal, July 28, 1888, p. 1.

Mrs. Gasbell. The Marquette City Band played a few selec-

tions so well that nearby neighbors invited the band to

dinner. The band declined, since they had already eaten,

and instead were presented with fine cigars. The band

was well received at the island.1

The Marquette City Band occasionally played for

church-sponsored events for which they were remunerated.

A local resident, J. M. Longyear, funded a performance

of the Marquette City Band at a Presbyterian Church picnic

on August 18, 1888.2

The annual Upper Peninsula State Fair, held

September 22-29, 1888, in Marquette, was another musical

outlet for area bands. Concerts were scheduled through-

out the week with the Marquette City Band and the

Champion City Band as the main attractions. The weather

was an important factor in the bands' concerts. The fair

concerts were usually held at an outdoor bandstand, but

the Champion Band had to move into one of the fair

buildings (Machinery Hall) due to cool temperatures.3

Political rallies were events at which bands could

perform. The Marquette City Band escorted a politician

1A. P. Swineford, "They Captured the Island," The
Mining Journal, July 28, 1888, p. 1.

2"Presbyterian Picnic," The Mining Journal,
August 18, 1888, p. 1.

3The Mining Journal, September 29, 1888, p. 1.

(Honorable Roswell G. Horr) and the Harrison-Morton Club

from the Hotel Marquette to the Casino Opera House for a

rally on October 27, 1888.1 In addition The Marquette

City Band, The Marquette Drum Corps and the Queen City

Cornet Band provided entertainment for a political victory

celebration after the national election of 1888.

Swineford reported that the Republican party held a lob-

ster bake on November 17, 1888, at which every Republican

in town was present.

The Marquette City Band's last concert of 1888 was

a Sunday afternoon performance on November 9. The

program consisted of sacred selections, popular songs and

operatic excerpts. The Sunday afternoon's program is

listed below.

Marquette City Band Program3
November 9, 1888

Glee--"Come See What Pleasure"..........J. Elliot
Chorus--"The Heavens Are Telling"..........Hayden
Sacred Fantasia .............................Smith
Chorus--"Gloria" (12th mass) ...............Mozart
Andante, A Pastoral...........................Webb
Second Selection--"Moses in Egypt"........Rossini
Serenade--"Queen of the Night"............... .Chase
Chorus--"Hallelujah".................. .....Handel
Serenade--"Silent Night".................... Bocked
"Sweet Bye and Bye"..................... --------

1"A Great Rally," The Mining Journal, October 28,
1888, p. 1.
2A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, November 17,
1888, p. 8.

3"An Afternoon Concert," The Mining Journal,
December 15, 1888, p. 1.

In 1889 the bands of Marquette performed for many

different events and functions. The first performance of

the year occurred on January 17, 1889. The Knights of

the Maccabees held a dance at Odd Fellows Hall, music

furnished by the Marquette City Band. The attendance was

described by Longyear as the largest in the history of

the Odd Fellows Hall.1 The Marquette City Band began the

musical evening with several selections featuring two

local vocalists. The vocal solos were enthusiastically

received, as encores were requested. Longyear also

reported that the Marquette City Band played "especially

good music."2

The Marquette Rifles, a local drill team, provided

the Marquette City Band with its next opportunity to per-

form. The Rifles had arranged for an exhibition drill

performance by visiting drill teams and, as was the

custom, the Marquette City Band led the uniformed proces-

sion to the depot. At the depot the band performed for

the visiting Emmet Guards of Ishpeming, Michigan. After

the short performance, the entire group paraded to a

local hall where the Marquette City Band supplied music

for dancing.3

1The Mining Journal, January 12, 1889, p. 8.

J. M. Longyear, The Mining Journal, January 19,
1889, p. 1.

3The Mining Journal, February 16, 1889, p. 8.

The Marquette City Band included vocal soloists on

their concerts of 1889. An April concert programmed

operatic selections, performed by local vocalists. On

the program were pieces from the popular opera "Erminie,"

performed at this concert for the first time in the Upper


Later in April, 1889, the Marquette City Band per-

formed Easter dance music for the Knights of the

Maccabees. One hundred fifty couples attended the Easter

dance, which lasted until 3:00 A.M. Longyear reported

that the City Band supplied music "of the best."2

A May 17, 1889, concert by the Marquette City Band

was reviewed in an article in The Mining Journal.

Longyear described the band's performance as "grand mag-

nificent, inspiring music," and indicated that the band

met all expectations.3 Longyear reported that a Mr.

Cramer, the band director, praised the work of his

musicians that night, described the band as the finest in

the Upper Peninsula, and stated that the band was above

average for Army (type) bands.4 The program consisted of

1"Watch For It," The Mining Journal, March 23, 1889,
p. 1.

2. M. Longyear, "The Merry Maccabees," The Mining
Journal, April 27, 1889, p. 1.

3j. M. Longyear, "The Concert," The Mining Journal,
May 18, 1889, p. 1.


a euphonium solo performed by F. Rule; a clarinet solo

performed by Charles Geill (this solo drew an encore); a

march, The Field of the Cloth of Gold; and vocal solos,

Annie Laurie and The Bugler, composed by Pinsuti.1 The

$240 earned from the concert was used for the purchase

of new uniforms.2

After soliciting bids for new uniforms, The

Marquette City Band purchased the uniforms from S.

Kaufman and Sons, a local merchant. Several bids sub-

mitted from other cities were lower, but the band argued

that the city had helped them raise the money, so the

home firm should receive the bid.3 The first appearance

in the new uniforms occurred on June 28, 1889, in a per-

formance for the Skandia Society. The band reportedly

felt so proud of the uniforms that they eclipsed all

previous performance efforts.4

The Marquette City Band made a humanitarian gesture

when they performed a sacred concert for the benefit of

the victims of the Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood of 1889.

IJ. M. Longyear, "The Concert," The Mining Journal,
May 18, 1889, p. 1.

2"S. Kaufman & Sons Get It," The Mining Journal,
May 25, 1889, p. 1.


4"Scandinavians Celebrate," The Mining Journal,
June 29, 1889, p. 1.

It was advertised that the band program would consist of

the "greatest strains from the greatest composers."l

During the week of June 22, 1889, the Marquette City

Band performed twice, in addition to the regular outdoor

concert. On June 22, 1889, the band played for the com-

mencement of the St. Joseph Academy, a local girls school.

The graduation class consisted of three young ladies. The

processional selection for the commencement was Ivanhoe

March by Blake. Additional selections included an over-

ture and two concert pieces. The musical portion of the

event also had several mixed instrumental/vocal ensembles.2

The second performance of the Marquette City Band

during the week of June 22, 1889, was a parade for the

French Canadian Society. The parade through Marquette was

led by the Marquette City Band (sixteen musicians), the

Lake Angeline Band (fourteen musicians), and the Gitchie

Gummee or Red Men's Band (fourteen musicians) of Negaunee,

Michigan. Each band performed a short concert following

the parade.3

The Fourth of July celebrations in Marquette were

usually festive occasions. In 1889 the Marquette City

1J. M. Longyear, "Hurrah for the Band," The Mining
Journal, June 8, 1889, p. 1.

2"First Graduate," The Mining Journal, June 29,
1889, p. 8.

3"A Great Day," The Mining Journal, June 29, 1889,
p. 8.

Band paraded through the city at 5:30 A.M. to begin the

day with a musical salute. At 9:00 A.M. the band marched

to the train depot to greet arriving guests from Negaunee

and Ishpeming. During the day baseball games were

played, while the Marquette City Band provided music for

dancing at a local club.1

The Marquette City Band gained a new trombonist in

July of 1889. The musician--William T. Allen, from

Yorkshire, England--was described by Longyear as the best

slide trombonist in the state.2 The Marquette City Band

had developed an excellent reputation in the state of

Michigan and the members felt that they were the best in

the Upper Peninsula. In mid-July of 1889 the Marquette

City Band issued a challenge to the Calumet City Band.3

The prize was to be $500 or $1,000 a side, b :t no accep-

tance from Calumet was documented.

During 1889 The Mining Journal and The Calumet News

waged an editorial battle over their respective city

bands. The Calumet paper published a statement regarding

the July challenge of the bands. The Calumet News'

editor mentioned that even if the Calumet City Band were

1"The Fourth in the Queen City," The Mining Journal,
July 6, 1889, p. 1.

J. M. Longyear, "A Valuable Acquisition," The
Mining Journal, July 13, 1889, p. 1.

3J. M. Longyear, "Challenge," The Mining Journal,
July 13, 1889, p. 1.

to accept the challenge, they (Calumet) would play three

pieces more difficult than the composition Crown of

Victory. In response The Mining Journal editor, Longyear,

stated, "The Calumet article is so naive, that it provokes

a smile. The Calumet News must think our band [Marquette]

never tackled anything but Sunday school music."1

In August of 1889 the Marquette City Band played for

picnics, gave their regular outdoor concerts, and partici-

pated in a state band contest. The first picnic,

August 10, 1889, was given for a local union of workers.

The union, which included over six hundred people,

traveled to Champion, Michigan, for the picnic.2

The second picnic was enjoyed by a party of one

hundred fifty Marquette professionals. The group visited

a nearby mountain and Longyear reported that the band

played in the middle of the mountain peak.3

The Knights of the Maccabees helped sponsor the

Marquette City Band's participation in a state band con-

test in Muskegon, Michigan, on August 15, 1889.4 The

1J. M. Longyear, "Challenge," The Mining Journal,
July 13, 1889, p. 1.

2"Picnic Day," The Mining Journal, August 10, 1889,
p. 1.

3J. M. Longyear, "Picnic on Mt. Mesnard," The
Mining Journal, August 24, 1889, p. 1.

4"Talk of the Town," The Mining Journal, August 3,
1889, p. 1.

contest was one of the biggest achievements of the band,

since they won second place.1 The competition, between

older bands (with a greater reputation), had a large

number of entries. Each band performed the same composi-

tion in competition--The Field of the Cloth of Gold.2

The results of the contest were: Otsego Band--first

place, three hundred thirty-five points; Marquette City

Band--second place, two hundred thirty-five points; and

The Silver Cornet Band of Port Huron--third place. The

Marquette City Band's director, William Sanders, had not

expected the band to win second place.3

A concert given by the Marquette City Band on

August 24, 1889, was attended by many local residents.

Although specific selections of music for the concert

were not listed in a Mining Journal article, Longyear

reported that some listeners complained about not being

able to hear the music at the outer limits of the crowd.4

Longyear also stated that the execution of the music

". .was almost perfect."5

1"Honors for the Band," The Mining Journal,
August 17, 1889, p. 1.

2Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands of Marquette," p. 6.

3"Honors for the Band," p. 1.

4j. M. Longyear, "The Band Concert," The Mining
Journal, August 31, 1889, p. 1.


The Marquette City Band spent the remainder of 1889

with performances that included a Labor Day celebration,

parade and concert; a state fair, in Marquette; and a

final concert on November 27, 1889. The final concert

was given in order to raise money for new uniforms.1

The Queen City Cornet Band

The Marquette City Band had competition in the early

part of April, 1888. Another band of fourteen young men,

aged seventeen to twenty-three, rehearsed several nights

a week, gave benefit concerts, and raised $300 for new

instruments. The band, known as the Queen City Cornet

Band, had the following instrumentation: one Eb cornet,

one Bb cornet, two alto horns, two tenor horns, one

baritone, one tuba, one snare drum, and one bass drum.2

The original members of the Queen City Cornet Band

were Albert Miller, leader; Frank Kreig, Oscar Stewart,

Charles Cameron, Will Bowden, Fred Miller, Henry Kreig,

and Will Hammill.3 The band had evidently been the brunt

of many jokes around the city. The Queen City Cornet

Band was commonly referred to as the "kid" band. The

I"The Band Concert," The Mining Journal,
November 30, 1889, p. 1.

2A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, April 21,
1888, p. 1.


Mining Journal editor, in an article on April 21, 1888,

suggested that the band's leader was experienced and

able to produce quality music.1

The band's first public appearance was scheduled for

May 30, 1888; however, the event actually occurred on

May 19, 1888. On that date the Marquette City Band and

Wentworth's Drum Corps were playing at the Marquette

bandstand when, unannounced, the Queen City Cornet Band

appeared at the opposite end of the street. They per-

formed a march as they paraded toward the bandstand. The

young members played so well that they surprised the

people of the city. The "kid" band had performed for the

first time.2

During the next few months the Queen City Cornet

Band solicited funds and gave benefit concerts. With

the collected funds the group purchased uniforms from a

local clothing manufacturer. The uniforms were dark blue

with white stripes on the trousers and gold braid (in

loops) on the coats. The uniforms also had torch-bearing

hats, for use in night parades.3 The Queen City Cornet

Band performed on several occasions during 1888,

1A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, April 21,
1888, p. 1.

2The Mining Journal, May 20, 1888, p. 1.

3Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 6.

including a lobster feast on November 10, 1888.1 The

band's last appearance of 1888 was a Thanksgiving ball

in late November.2

In March .of 1889 the Queen City Cornet Band began

raising funds to purchase a new set of instruments. The

band, still known as the "kid" band, made plans to stage

a Grand Ball in Armory Hall.3 The ball was planned to

raise money for the band and was scheduled for March 4,

1889, the band's first anniversary. Homier's Orchestra

was hired to furnish music for the ball; however, the

Queen City Cornet Band performed several numbers. Also

in attendance at the Grand Ball was the Star Cornet Band

of Ishpeming, Michigan. (This group was also described

as a "kid" band.) The Queen City Cornet Band and the

Star Cornet Band combined for a few selections during

that evening. The Queen City Cornet Band appeared

occasionally after the March 4, 1889, Grand Ball, but

became dormant in early 1890.

1The Mining Journal, November 17, 1888, p. 1.

2The Mining Journal, December 3, 1888, p. 1.

3"The Queens," The Mining Journal, March 2, 1889,
p. 1.

4"Queen City Cornet Band Dance," The Mining Journal,
March 9, 1889, p. 1.


The Bands' Functions

During the period 1866-1890 the Ma ,uette bands

served a variety of functions. One of the major functions

was performing music for parades. The parades were

usually for holidays, political rallies, and special

events. Each parade was generally followed by a short

band concert.

The bands also played music for public social activi-

ties such as picnics and dances. Other performances con-

sisted of traveling to Upper Peninsula cities and perfor-

ming on the trains, and performing for conventions or


Another function of the Marquette bands during the

period 1866-1890 was performing music at the train depot.

The performances were usually for the benefit of digni-

taries or visitors for special celebrations.

Lastly, the Marquette bands began a series of outdoor

and indoor concerts for the citizens of the city. The

concerts were well attended and were usually performed

during the summer months.


In the early part of the researched period the

Marquette bands consisted of brass and percussion

instruments. Early band instrumentation included upper

and lower brass instruments with bass and snare drums.

The early bands had ten to twelve players.

By 1887 the size and instrumentation of the

Marquette bands had changed. The bands were expanded to

fifteen or sixteen players, with mid-range brass instru-

ments also being used. Alto horns, baritones, trombones,

and helicon tubas were commonly used. The Eb and Bb

cornets, snare drum and bass drum were also a part of the

1887 band instrumentation.

Performed Music

The Marquette bands performed for m Ly different

functions during the period 1866-1890. For each function

the bands were required to perform different musical

selections. The music consisted of marches for parades

and concerts, patriotic music for concerts or special

holidays, sacred music for concerts, and arrangements of

popular songs as well as solo selections for a variety of


Music for dances during the period usually included

popular dance "tunes" such as schottisches, quadrilles,

galops, polkas and Virginia reels. Each dance began with

a Grand March and ended with a popular song.

In general the period 1866-1890 was active for the

Marquette bands. The bands' instrumentation expanded


from about ten musicians to sixteen with brass instru-

ments predominating. A variety of music was performed

with concerts, dances and parades as the bands' major



1890 and 1891, Years of Active Band Performance

In 1890 the only active band in Marquette was the

Marquette City Band. As in previous years the band pro-

vided music for different societies, organizations and

city government functions.

The Marquette City Band's director, William Sanders,

conducted the band for the first time of 1890 on March 20.

This performance, a meeting of the Knights of the

Maccabees, consisted of only three selections.1

The traditional practice of meeting trains was

observed in April of 1890. The Marquette City Band met

several groups of arriving guests at the train depot.

For example, on April 5, 1890, the Odd Fellows engaged

the band to play for their annual celebration, which

included meeting the train at the depot, a parade and


Occasionally the Marquette City Band performed for

favors. During the week of April 5, 1890, the band

1"Maccabees in Force," The Mining Journal,
March 20, 1890, p. 1.

2"Odd Fellows Celebrate," The Mining Journal,
April 5, 1890, p. 8.

played music for a parade sponsored by the Marquette

Rifles, a local drill team. In exchange for unlimited

use of the Marquette Rifle's meeting hall, the Marquette

City Band collected no fee.1

A similar event for which the band collected no fee

occurred on April 25, 1890. On that date the band,

escorted by the Marquette Rifles, serenaded the home of

the new mayor, J. M. Longyear. In appreciation the mayor

and his wife distributed cigars to the band.2

The weekend of Memorial Day (May 30, 1890) the

Marquette City Band performed for three events. A parade

honoring the war dead proceeded to the city cemetery,

where flowers were placed on the veterans' graves. The

band then opened the official exercises with a sort con-

cert consisting of an overture of national airs, bugle

calls and civil war songs. The commemoration of the war

dead also included patriotic speeches by local officials

and a performance by a local chorus.3 Later that evening

the band gave a well-attended ball, at which they

1"Company 'G' Gathers Laurels," The Mining Journal,
April 12, 1890, p. 1.

2"Serenaded the Mayor," The Mining Journal,
April 26, 1890, p. 1.

3"Flower Strewn Graves," The Mining Journal,
May 31, 1890, p. 1.

performed many waltzes of the time. In 1890 the

Marquette City Band was known as the best band in the

Upper Peninsula.1

The City of Marquette had two bandstands in 1890.

One bandstand, near the Marquette Hotel, was the site of

the Marquette City Band's first summer night concert of

the year, on June 28, 1890. The program was as follows:

Marquette City Band Program2
June 28, 1890

March..."Pride of the Baritone"............... King
Selection..."Reminiscences of Meyerbeer"..Heinecke
Waltzes..."Sounds of Erin".................. Bennett
Pot Pourri..."The Huguenots"............... Heinecke
Serenade..."To Mamie Pettee".......................
Galop..."Furore".................... .........Tobiani

The second summer concert was scheduled for the other

bandstand, which was located on the opposite side of the

city. The band alternated between the two bandstands and

performed twice a month during the summer of 1890.

Other 1890 performances included a parade for the

Union Sunday school picnic (August 21)3 and several

1"Marquette City Band Ball," The Mining Journal,
May 31, 1890, p. 1.

2"First Summer Night Concert," The Mining Journal,
June 21, 1890, p. 1.

3"Hundreds of Happy Children," The Mining Journal,
August 23, 1890, p. 1.

concerts at the Marquette County Fair (the week of

September 6, 1890).1

The Marquette City Band had financial difficulty in

early 1891. To alleviate this difficulty the band

approached the Marquette City Council for funding. The

council could not support the band, so an appeal was made

to the citizens of the city. The Mining Journal's editor

suggested that private citizens "open their private purse


Because of the band's summer performance schedule,

the band members could not earn as much pay as other

Marquette citizens. Since most concerts, parades aid

picnics were in the summer months, the bandsmen would

have to leave work. Longyear thought the city should

reimburse the bandsmen for lost work time.3

The Marquette City Band's fourth annual subscription

concert was given in April of 1891. The concert,

attended by over six hundred people, was a welcome suc-

cess. The proceeds of the concert were used to fund the

1891 concert series.

l"It Beats the Record," The Mining Journal,
September 13, 1890, p. 1.

2"Deserving of Consideration," The Mining Journal,
March 7, 1891, p. 1.


4J. M. Longyear, "Marquette City Band's Fourth
Annual," The Mining Journal, April 25, 1891, p. 1.

The subscription concert program began with Von

Suppe's Poet and Peasant Overture. A reviewer stated that

the band appeared nervous at the beginning, but eventually

settled down.1 Second on the program was a variety of

vocal music, including solos, duets and quartets. In

addition the concert featured Charles Geill, who per-

formed a clarinet solo followed by an encore. The encore

was Variations on Coming Thro' the Rye. Geill was

described by The Mining Journal's editor as an artist of

rare ability. Full band selections included Soldier

Life by Bela and a grand march, Good Night by Tula. The

concert was considered to have been the most successful

in the band's history.2

The Marquette City Band performed the first outdoor

concert of 1891 at the Marquette bandstand on May 13,

1891. The concert, which lasted only a few minutes due

to cold temperatures, consisted of three selections.3 A

second 1891 outdoor performance was held for Memorial Day

exercises (May 30, 1891) and featured the band performing

in a manner similar to past years. The band led a parade

which was followed by a concert and public speeches.4

1J. M. Longyear, "Marquette City Band's Fourth
Annual," The Mining Journal, April 25, 1891, p. 1.


3"First Band Concert of the Season," The Mining
Journal, May 16, 1891, p. 1.

4"Memorial Day," The Mining Journal, June 6, 1891,
p. 8.

A great deal of musical activity was scheduled for

the Marquette 1891 Fourth of July celebration. An

official schedule listed several Marquette City Band con-

certs and an annual parade. The Marquette City Band per-

formed in the "Grand Parade" along with the English Oak

Band of Negaunee, Michigan, and the Star Cornet Band of

Ishpeming, Michigan. The Marquette City Band was billed

as the official Fifth Regiment Band, the billing indica-

tive of a military affiliation for this event.1

The 1891 Fourth of July celebration, which attracted

five thousand visitors from out of the city, continued

into the evening. That same evening the American Organi-

zation of United Workmen sponsored a ball for the benefit

of the Marquette City Band. The band performed music for

the ball, the proceeds of which were used to purchase new


Other 1891 summer performances of the Marquette City

Band included picnics, the county fair, dances (for

several organizations), and the regular outdoor concerts.

The last 1891 concert displayed the Marquette City

Band's support for the other "arts." To encourage

Marquette residents' interest in art, the band played a

1"Official Program for Today's Celebration," The
Mining Journal, July 4, 1891, pp. 1-8.

2"Will Uniform the Band," The Mining Journal,
July 4, 1891, p. 3.

concert at a local art show. The YMCA had obtained the

art on loan from a Lower Peninsula art gallery.1

1892, A Year of Declining Band Activity

Although 1889-1891 were years of constant band per-

formance in Marquette, 1892 was a year of declining acti-

vity. One of the primary reasons was the formation of a

new orchestra. The orchestra director, W. H. Bartley,

made arrangements with the Marquette City Band to form an

orchestra recruited from its members. Bartley believed

that the formation of a new orchestra would enable the

band to fulfill engagements for concerts, dances and

parades.2 The Bartley Orchestra, as this new orchestra

was called, consisted of two violins, viola, cello, double

bass, two clarinets, flute, two cornets, trombone, and

drums with all the usual traps.3 The new orchestra played

many engagements during 1892.

When the members of the Marquette City Band were not

performing with Bartley's Orchestra they played for

events such as the January 15, 1892, Marquette Carnival

and Ball and the January 23, 1892, Firemen's Ball. At

l"On a Grand Scale," The Mining Journal,
November 21, 1891, p. 1.

"A New Orchestra," The Mining Journal, January 9,
1892, p. 1.


the Firemen's Ball the firemen and bandsmen were attired

in their respective uniforms. To commence the ball the

band played a grand march, which was led by James Grey,

a local fireman. Grey evidently improvised new dance

combinations so interesting that the band found it diffi-

cult to keep playing.1

Masquerade balls were popular in 1892. Six members

of the Marquette City Band usually performed dance music

at the balls. The last "grand" masquerade ball of the

189. season (March 1, 1892) offered prizes for the best

costumes and dancers.2

After May of 1892 the declining interest in band

music was attributed to the increased popularity of acti-

vities in the Marquette Opera House. The Opera House

hired road plays, musicals, orchestras, and other enter-

tainment. An example of the type of entertainment the

Opera House offered was The Miller Brothers Traveling

Play. The play featured dancing, acrobatics, and acting,

and was accompanied by a small orchestra.3

The Marquette City Band performed during the summer

of 1892 for the traditional Memorial Day Celebration,

1"Firemen's Ball," The Mining Journal, January 23,
1892, p. 1.

2"The Last Chance," The Mining Journal,
February 27, 1892, p. 1.

3"'Kajanka'--Miller Brothers," The Mining Journal,
July 23, 1892, p. 1.

which included a parade and concert. In June of 1892 the

band played for the Knights of the Maccabees annual

picnic, which also consisted of a parade and concert. The

band was partially funded by the Maccabees during the

summer of 1892.1

In August of 1892 the band played in Houghton,

Michigan, for an Upper Peninsula celebration of the

Hibernian Society.2 The celebration was mentioned in

Houghton's newspaper, but the Marquette City Band was not

recognized. Longyear, editor of The Mining Journal, re-

torted that "our band" could still play with the best of

them and should have received a mention in the paper.3

Final 1892 performances by the Marquette City Band

were the annual Labor Day parade and several engagements

at the Marquette Casino. The engagements at the Casino

consisted of performing music for roller skating, and

became a weekly job during the winter months.

1893, A Year of Parades, Balls and Competition

The Marquette City Band heralded the new year, 1893,

by playing dance music for a series of masquerade balls.

1"K.O.T.M. Celebrates," The Mining Journal, June 11,
1892, p. 1.

2The Hibernian Society (1870-1931) was an organiza-
tion of people of Irish heritage in the Upper Peninsula
of Michigan.

3J. M. Longyear, "A Singular Omission," The Mining
Journal, August 13, 1892, p. 1.

These balls were held at the Marquette Casino. As in

previous years, the band also played music for skating at

the Casino's skating rink.1

In February or early March of 1893, several members

of the Marquette City Band moved out of the city, cre-

ating vacancies in the band. New members were recruited

by March 10, 1893, and new music had been purchased for

the summer concerts.

To raise money for new uniforms the Marquette City

Band planned to give an April 28, 1893, concert. The

concert was postponed until May 5, 1893, and was per-

formed in the Marquette Opera House. The audience was

smaller than the band was accustomed to, but they played

well despite the low attendance.2 Also in May the band

played for an arriving trainload of Marquette residents

returning from the Chicago World's Fair.3

The Hughes Orchestra, a local ensemble which had

performed in Marquette for two years provided competition

for the Marquette City Band during 1893. During that

year the director of the Hughes Orchestra formed a band

from the members of his orchestra and led the traditional

1"First Masquerade of the Season," The Mining
Journal, January 28, 1893, p. 1.

2The Mining Journal, May 6, 1893, p. 1.

3"It Was a Grand Trip," The Mining Journal, May 13,
1893, p. 8.

Memorial Day parade. Up until this time the Marquette

City Band had always led the parade.

The Hughes Band/Orchestra was a group of capable

musicians. Their excellent quality was supported by the

fact that musicians from metropolitan areas were

recruited for this band/orchestra. For example, Hughes

hired a "trap drummer" from Boston who was reported to

have been one of the best men in the business.1 A typical

"trap drummer" of the period is shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. Typical "Trap Drummer" of the Period (circa 1900)

1The Mining Journal, February 11, 1893, p. 8.

During the 1893 summer months the Marquette City

Band played music for its regular outdoor concert series

and performed for different local societies; e.g., many

functions were played for the St. Jean Baptiste Society.

In Figure 4 the Marquette City Band was assembling for a

parade (circa 1893-1895). At the parade the band's

instrumentation consisted of two clarinets, three cornets,

three alto horns, two tenor horns (baritones), one trom-

bone, two basses, one snare drum and one bass drum.

The City of Marquette had no plans for an 1893 public

Fourth of July celebration, so the Marquette City Band

participated in an Ishpeming, Michigan, parade. Other

bands including the Star Cornet Band of Ishpeming were

also in attendance at the Ishpeming parade.1 Additional

Marquette City Band performances consisted of supplemen-

ting the Hughes Orchestra for a lawn party (July 13,

1893) and a concert of sacred music at Presque Isle

(August 6, 1893).

On August 27, 1893, the Marquette City Band performed

in a parade sponsored by the Ancient Order of the

Hibernians of the Upper Peninsula. The parade (and con-

nected events) brought visitors from all over the Upper

Peninsula and featured the Houghton Silver Cornet Band,

l"Quiet Fourth of July," The Mining Journal, July 8,
1893, p. 1.




Figure 4. The Marquette City Band and
The St. Jean Baptiste Society
(circa 1893-1895)

the Ishpeming City Band, the Negaunee City Band, and the

Lake Linden City Band.1

A short time after the 1893 annual Labor Day celebra-

tion the Marquette City Band received the'resignation of

its director, William Sanders. Sanders, who served as

director for eleven years, had accepted a position with

the Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Michigan. The mining

firm had hired Mr. Sanders to form and direct a band

composed of company employees. The Marquette City Band

selected Samuel Waters as the temporary director, to

replace Sanders.

1894, New Director for the Marquette City Band

In early December of 1893 the Marquette City Band

announced that V. E. David, from Billings, Montana, had

been selected as the new director. David, an experienced

musician, had previously taught piano, band instruments,

and concert music. An announcement concerning David's

appointment as director of the Marquette City Band

1The Mining Journal, September 2, 1893, p. 1.

2"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal,
October 14, 1893, p. 1.

3"The Band Will Cling Together," The Mining Journal,
October 7, 1893, p. 8.

appeared in a February 2, 1894, issue of The Presto, a

Chicago music journal.1

David recruited members, rehearsed the Marquette City

Band during the winter'of 1894, and also participated in

other musical activities; i.e., instrument sales, sheet

music sales, and private lessons.2 The first informal

performance of the Marquette City Band under the direction

of V. E. David occurred on May 31, 1894. On that date

the band serenaded the home of Mayor and Mrs. H. Kaufman,

to celebrate their recent return from a vacation. The

band was later served refreshments by Mayor and Mrs.


The Marquette City Band's first formal performance

of 1894 was a concert for charity on June 2. The con-

cert, which began with the overture L'Amazone by

Laurendeau, consisted of choral, vocal and instrumental

solos and full band selections. A Mining Journal repor-

ter indicated that the people of Marquette were pleasantly

surprised at the excellent caliber of performance since

1"The New Band Leader," The Mining Journal,
December 2, 1893, p. 1.

2"V. E. David," Marquette City and County Directory,
1894 (Detroit, Michigan: R. L. Polk, 1894), p. 187.

3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, June 2,
1894, p. 1.

the departure of the former director and a majority of

the band.1

On July 4, 1894, the Marquette City Band sponsored a

picnic and invited the residents of the city. Hundreds

of people crowded into the park to hear and enjoy the

band's music. The Mining Journal reporter stated that

the band had decided to play for the picnic rather than

travel to Newberry, Michigan (one hundred miles east of

Marquette), where they would have received a fee of one

hundred dollars.2 The decision to play for the picnic

indicated that the band had allegiance to the City of


After the Marquette City Band played an outdoor con-

cert on the balcony of the Marquette Hotel (July 19,

1894), many residents believed that they had heard the

final concert of the band. Several members of the band

had made plans to leave the Marquette area, but were

convinced by city residents to remain through the 1894


The next concert of July 26, 1894, was a performance

for the prisoners of the Branch State Prison in Marquette.

l"Should Keep Up the Practice," The Mining Journal,
June 2, 1894, p. 1.

2"MCB Picnic," The Mining Journal, July 7, 1894,
p. 1.

3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, July 21,
1894, p. 1.

The carriage procession to the prison began at 7:30 A.M.,

after which the band played more than an hour on the

prison lawn and it the prison corridors.1

Several strikes in the mining industry occurred in

the summer of 1894. The strikers in Ironwood, Michigan,

became so unruly that the Marquette Company "G" of the

National Guard was sent to retain order. When the strike

ended the Guard returned via special train. The Guard

was met at the train depot by the Marquette City Band,

which played several patriotic selections.2

Other 1894 performances included a picnic for the

National Guard, a Labor Day parade, and a regular appear-

ance at the Casino--music for skating.

1895, A Time of Reorganization
and Increasing Competition

In January of 1895 the Marquette City Band reorgan-

ized and elected the following officers: President,

Charles T. Geill; Business Manager, Sam Waters;

Librarian/Secretary, J. H. Hoar; and Treasurer, Alfred

Hibbard. V. E. David was retained as director.3 During

l"City Band Cheers Prisoners," The Mining Journal,
July 28, 1894, p. 1.

2"Left Everything Quiet," The Mining Journal,
August 7, 1894, p. 8.

3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal,
January 12, 1895, p. 1.

1895 the band's major intent was to perform throughout

the winter months in addition to their regular summer

schedule. The intention was partially realized as

several winter performances were documented.

On February 21, 1895, the Marquette City Band played

another cone rt at the Marquette Branch Prison. The band

and city officials (with wives, friends and acquaintances)

traveled to the prison by horse-drawn sleigh. The trip

was reported to have been enjoyable, but punctuated by the

"usual chorus of feminine screams whenever the sleigh

lurched to one side or the other. ." The prison con-

cert program, as listed in The Mining Journal on

February 23, 1895, was as follows:

Marquette City Band Program2
February 21, 1895

Overture ..................."Belle of the Village"
"America ................................... ...
Waltz ..................... "Lakota"........ ......
Song and Dance............. Sweet Little Daisy"..
Waltz ..................... "Sounds from Erin"....
Overture.................. "Enchantress"....... ..
"The Star Spangled Banner" ......................
March ..................... "Triumphal"......... ...

The Marquette City Band had little performing

activity during March and April of 1895. The band per-

formed on occasion for the Casino skating rink, but

1"At the Branch Prison," The Mining Journal,
February 23, 1895, p. 1.


generally remained inactive until the summer. The inac-

tivity was believed to have been due to the variety of

entertainment present in Marquette. At that time two

orchestras, The Hughes Ideal Orchestra and The Marquette

Ideal Orchestra, were active, in addition to musicals or

plays at the Marquette Opera House. Other attractions in

Marquette during 1895 included dancing clubs, dramatic

clubs, and vocal/instrumental religious concerts.

In July of 1895 the Marquette City Band was hired by

the Marquette Street Railroad Company to provide music

for dancing at Presque Isle, a park in north Marquette.

The railroad furnished transportation to the concert.1

Another July performance featured the band in a parade

and picnic sponsored by the German Aid Society. The

parade proceeded from downtown to Meeske's Grove2 for the

picnic. The entire event lasted the whole day of July 27,


In August the Ringling Brothers Circus performed in

Marquette. Longyear commented on the circus acts and the

circus' famous band led by Antonio Liberati. In the

circus performance Liberati played cornet solos, which

1"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, July 15,
1895, p. 1.

2According to the Marquette Historical Society,
Meeske's Grove was located near a local brewery on the
southwest side of Marquette.

Longyear reported were enjoyed by the Marquette


The last parade/concert of 1895 occurred in the week

of August 18, 1895. The parade, which included six area

bands, was followed by a meagerly attended evening con-


The final 1895 performance by the Marquette City

Band was a dance given by G. L. Burtis on October 25,

1895. Burtis was moving his mill from Marquette to

Munising, Michigan (Spring, 1896), and the dance, attended

by over twelve hundred people, was considered to be a

farewell ball. A Mining Journal reporter commented that

the dancers would not leave until the twenty-six numbers

of the "order of dances" were exhausted.2 The band at

this time was under the direction of Charles Geill,3 suc-

ceeding V. E. David, who resigned to become manager of

the postal telegraph office. At the farewell ball the

Marquette City Band played waltzes, airs, and a grand

march (with one hundred forty-eight couples in line).

1j. M. Longyear, "Ringling Brothers Circus," The
Mining Journal, August 17, 1895, p. 1.

2"'Twas A Grand Success," The Mining Journal,
October 26, 1895, p. 1.

3Charles Geill was listed in the Marquette City
Directory (1895-1896) as the leader/president of the
Marquette City Band and the manager of the Marquette
Ideal Orchestra.

4"'Twas A Grand Success," p. 1.

1896, Marquette City Band's Director
Receives an Award

In 1896 the Marquette City Band remained active and

elected new officers at a rehearsal on January 9. The

newly elected officers were: President, Charles

Deckelman; Vice-President, William Anger; Treasurer,

Alfred Hibbard; Librarian/Secretary, J. J. Hoar; Business

Manager, Samuel Waters; and Director, Charles Geill.1

On January 16, 1896, the band augmented the Marquette

Ideal Orchestra's concert which featured selections made

famous by Gilmore's Band. Although titles of the concert

selections were not listed in The Mining Journal, Longyear

stated that theatrical effects were utili ed to sensa-

tionalize the music. Longyear also reported that authen-

tic thunderstorm sounds were used in one of the performed

pieces.2 The program included a flute solo by Hoelscher,

a cornet solo by Young, a saxophone solo by Charles

Geill, and a violin solo by the orchestra's director, a

Mr. Muhlbauer.3

The women of Marquette also had an interest in per-

forming band music. The Young Ladies' Lake Superior

1"Band Officers Elected," The Mining Journal,
January 11, 1896, p. 8.

J. M. Longyear, "Ideal Orchestra Will Give a
Concert," The Mining Journal, January 13, 1896, p. 8.


Mission Band met regularly at local residences, but no

evidence of public performances exists.1

The Marquette City Band rehearsed weekly until

April 6, 1896, a rehearsal at which the band members pre-

sented director Charles Geill with a gold-headed cane. An

engraved inscription on the cane was as follows:

"Presented to Charles Geill by The Marquette City Band,

April 6, 1896."2 Geill was surprised and appreciative of

the fine gift. The band at this time was thought to be

in excellent financial and musical condition, and was pre-

paring for the summer concert season.

Generally any type of band activity is documented in

Marquette's newspaper, The Mining Journal. A reporter

mentioned in a Mining Journal article of June 6, 1896,

that a five-piece German band passed through Marquette.

The band spent the afternoon and evening playing on the

street corners probablyy for donations). The reporter

also commented that "the music was a long ways from bad."3

The Marquette City Band had a brisk summer performance

schedule playing for the St. Jean Baptiste Society on

June 24, 1896, for regular outdoor concerts, and for a

1"City Brevities," The Mining Journal, February 6,
1896, p. 5.

2"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, April 11,
1896, p. 1.

3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, June 6,
1896, p. 1.

July 4, 1896, celebration in Marquette. The July 4 per-

formance included a parade followed by a concert. The

concert selections consisted of The Star Spangled Banner,

Hail Columbia and America.1

The final Marquette City Band performance of 1896

was a parade in recognition of the election of McKinley

as president of the United States. Longyear reported

that the bands in attendance marched in the mud and their

music was drowned out by the crowd's noise.

1897, A Year Without A City Band

Although the citizens of Marquette had a substantial

interest in bands and band music, there was no organized

band in the city during the first half of 1897. Because

there was no band in Marquette, organizations were forced

to use other musical groups or hire out-of-town bands.

For example, on Memorial Day (May 30, 1897) the civic

societies used a fife and drum corps to lead the annual


The absence of a city band became so great that the

St. Jean Baptiste Society persuaded some former band mem-

bers to reorganize, rehearse and perform on June 24,

l"Grand Civic Procession," The Mining Journal,
July 4, 1896, p. 8.

2J. M. Longyear, "Marched in the Mud," The Mining
Journal, November 7, 1896, p. 1.

1897, at the society's annual festival. The Marquette

City Band represented the Marquette chapter of the society

at this Upper Peninsula function. The parade and concert

were the only city band performances of 1897.1

An important City of Marquette event was marred by

the absence of a town band. The statue of Father

Marquette was unveiled with the assistance of other city

bands. The Calumet City Band was the official representa-

tive of Marquette at the festivities.2 The Calumet City

Band also appeared in Marquette at parties, parades and

other functions during 1897.


The Bands' Functions

During the period 1890-1897 the Marquette bands'

functions remained generally the same as they had been

during the period 1866-1889. The Marquette bands' per-

formances consisted of the traditional practice of meeting

trains, serenading political figures, playing for parades,

and providing music for dances, masquerade balls or


1"Tri-Colored Flags Wave," The Mining Journal,
June 26, 1897, p. 1.

2"Statue on Its Pedestal," The Mining Journal,
July 15, 1897, p. 8.

In general the performances in Marquette during

1890-1897 changed somewhat from a parade emphasis to that

of a concert emphasis. Many more indoor and outdoor con-

certs were given during the period 1890-1897 than in the

period 1866-1889. The bands of Marquette had started to

entertain through concerts rather than other social per-



In 1890 the Marquette bands' instrumentation was

brass and percussion, but by early 1891 the bands had

begun using woodwind instruments. The Marquette City

Band had clarinets in 1891 and also featured, on occasion,

solos for saxophone, flute, vocalist or violin. The

solos were accompanied by the full band. In general the

brass instrumentation with added woodwinds prevailed

during the period 1890-1897.

Performed Music

During the period 1890-1897 the Marquette bands per-

formed music for parades, such as marches and popular

tunes. On concerts the bands played selections such as

Civil War songs, national airs and patriotic tunes. The

performance of selections such as these was attributed

to the possibility of a Spanish-American War. In addi-

tion, more arrangements/transcriptions of the "classics"


were programmed by the Marquette City Band. Overtures,

sacred selections and arrangements of operatic material

were commonly used on the Marquette concerts. Lastly,

dance music was usually performed on concerts, at picnics,

and at masquerade balls or dances.

The period 1890-1897 was considered to be a transi-

tional period in regard to the bands' functions, instru-

mentation, and performed music. The function was

changing from marching to concert; the instrumentation was

utilizing more woodwinds than in previous years; and more

concert-oriented selections were being performed.


1898, The Marquette City Band Reorga tzes

Although there were no active bands in the city of

Marquette during 1897, the Marquette City Band reorganized

in early 1898. At a band rehearsal on January 6, 1898,

the Marquette City Band's members elected the following

officers: F. L. Simmons, director/manager; Joe Hoar,

secretary; and Alf Hebbard, treasurer.1 During 1898 the

twelve-piece Marquette City Band had the following instru-

mentation: three cornets, one clarinet, two alto horns,

two trombones, one baritone, one Eb bass, one snare drum,

and one bass drum.2

The Marquette City Band performed a concert and

three parades during the first half of 1898. The concert,

a benefit for starving Cubans (pre-Spanish-American War),

included a local orchestra, vocal soloists, instrumental

soloists, as well as the City Band. On the program the

Marquette City Band played marches and ended the concert

with The Star Spangled Banner.3

l"Band Gets Together," The Mining Journal,
January 5, 1898, p. 8.


3"Patrons Will Help the Starving," The Mining
Journal, March 1, 1898, p. 1.


The first of three parades in 1898 featured the

Marquette City Band playing music for over two thousand

people. The parade, described by a Mining Journal repor-

ter as a "patriotic march," started at one end of town,

proceeded to the other end of town, and returned.1 In

addition to the Marquette City Band, who performed two

selections on the march, other marching units included

the Boys Brigade (a scout-like organization) and the

Marquette Volunteers (a military volunteer group).2

The second parade of 1898 was staged for the depar-

ture of the Upper Peninsula Lake Superior Guards, which

had been called up to active duty. This May 21, 1898,

Marquette parade was performed for a jubilant crowd that

had turned out to support the Lake Superior Guards.3

The third parade of 1898 was the last public per-

formance of the Marquette City Band. The parade, given

on Decoration Day, May 28, 1898, consisted of marches

and patriotic music. Shortly after May 1898, The Cadet

Greys Band edged the Marquette City Band out of the

available performance opportunities.

1"All Turn Out Together," The Mining Journal,
May 7, 1898, p. 1.


3"Departure of the Lake Superior Guards," The
Mining Journal, May 21, 1898, p. 1.

4"Soldiers, Dead of the Civil War," The Mining
Journal, May 28, 1898, p. 1.

1898-1900, The Cadet Greys

The Cadet Greys band was organized in 1898 by

Charles Geill. During 1898 the band rehearsed twice

weekly in the city hall, had a voting contest to choose

the band's name, and gave benefit concerts for new uni-

forms .

The Cadet Greys had twenty-one members, who had

their own instruments, and consisted of the following

instrumentation: two clarinets, one soprano saxophone,

one alto saxophone, one tenor saxophone, one baritone

saxophone, four cornets, three alto horns, two tenor

horns, one baritone horn, one Bb bass, one tuba, two

percussionists, and a drum major.2

In 1898 the Cadet Greys officers were Charles Geill,

leader; John Coughlin, president; W. H. Latterall, vice-

president; and G. Schroeder, secretary/treasurer.3

The first public appearance for the Cadet Greys

occurred two months after they organized. On April 7,

1898, the band played a short concert for the Marquette

city council, to publicize the band's fund raising

1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a
radio series, Historical Highlights, Vol. IV, No. 72,
1952, p. 7.

2"It Wants a Name," The Mining Journal, March 19,
1898, p. 1.

3Ibid .

activities.1 The Cadet Greys were raising money to pur-

chase additional instruments, new uniforms and music.

Another fund raising event occurred on May 20, 1898.

On that date the Cadet Greys gave a Grand Ball, to raise

money for uniforms. At the Grand Ball music was fur-

nished by the Marquette Ideal Orchestra and admission was

twenty-five cents, with supper extra.3

The first public appearance of the Cadet Greys in

their new uniforms was a performance for the Swedish

Crown Society of Marquette on June 24, 1898.4 The uni-

forms that the band wore at the performance were gray in

color, with gold braid, coupled with a military helmet

that had a large yellow plume.5 The Mining Journal re-

porter described the uniform as a "showy costume."6

During the next three months of 1898 (August,

September and October) the Cadet Greys performed three

times: (1) a parade on August 13, 1898, to greet firemen

l"New Band Gets Out," The Mining Journal, April 9,
1898, p. 1.

2"City Brevities," The Mining Journal, May 14, 1898,
p. 1.


4"Midsummer's Day Picnics," The Mining Journal,
June 25, 1898, p. 8.



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