A HISTORY OF BANDS IN MARQUETTE, MICHIGAN,
JERROLD M. MICHAELSON
A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
This dissertation is dedicated to Kirsten,
for having the perseverance to see the study to
The author would like to acknowledge Dr. Albert Smith
for his helpful suggestions and creative criticism of the
manuscript. A special acknowledgement is noted to Dr.
David Z. Kushner for his encouragement and support during
my tenure at the University of Florida. It was only
through Dr. Kushner's encouragement that the author pur-
sued a degree in the college teaching of music history.
In addition, acknowledgement is due to the Marquette
Historical Society for their cooperation and assistance
in the location of primary documents; the Peter White
Library for access to their microfilms of The Mining
Journal; and Copy Services of Marquette, Michigan, for
their excellent reproductive services.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................... iii
LIST OF FIGURES... ...................................... vi
ABSTRACT........... .................................... vii
I INTRODUCTION ................................. 1
Statement of the Problem .................... 1
Need for the Study ........................... 2
Limitations ................. ................ 4
Methodology ...... ............................ 4
II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND RESEARCH....... 8
A History of Marquette to 1930 .............. 8
A History of The Marquette Mining Journal... 11
A History of American Bands: Post-Civil
War to 1930 ............................... 14
Patrick Gilmore: "Father of the American
Band".. ........ ....... ......... ........ .... 15
John Philip Sousa ............................ 17
The Bands' Functions ........................ 20
Performed Music............................... 25
Summary ..................................... 27
Justification for the Present Research...... 29
III BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1866-1890)............... 31
Early Marquette Bands ........................ 31
The Marquette Cornet Band.................... 35
The Marquette City Band ...................... 40
The Queen City Cornet Band .... ............. 56
Summary ..................................... 59
IV BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1890-1897)............... 62
1890 and 1891, Years of Active Band
Performance......................... ....... 62
1892, A Year of Declining Band Activity.... 68
1893, A Year of Parades, Balls and
Competition ............................... 70
1894, New Director for the Marquette
City Band .................................. 75
1895, A Time of Reorganization and
Increasing Competition ..................... 78
1896, Marquette City Band's Director
Receives an Award .......................... 82
1897, A Year Without a City Band... .......... 84
Summary ...................................... 85
V BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1898-1906)............... 88
1898, The Marquette City Band
1898-1900, the Cadet Greys................... 90
1901, 1902, Years of Visiting Bands
The Marquette Branch Prison Band........... 98
1903, Marquette's New Band.................... 103
1904, A Year of Dances and Parades ........... 106
1905, 1906, Years of Popularity for
Hanck's Drum Corps ........................ 108
Summary ...................................... 111
VI BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1907-1930)................ 114
1907, 1908, Years of Visiting Bands and
Hanck's Drum Corps ........................ 114
Our Boy's Band (1909-1914). ................... 118
The Marquette Finnish Band (1909-1914)........ 121
Privately Sponsored Bands (1915-1917)........ 123
The Marquette City Band (1907-1930............ 129
Summary ...................................... 142
VII SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS ........ 145
The Bands' Functions ......................... 147
Performed Music .............................. 150
Implications ................................ 152
APPENDIX DEFINITIONS OF SELECTED DANCES PERFORMED
BY THE MARQUETTE BANDS ..................... 155
BIBLIOGRAPHY...... ........ ............................. 157
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH.................................... 173
LIST OF FIGURES
1. The Calumet Band--1887 .......................... 41
2. The Marquette City Band--1888. ................... 44
3. Typical "Trap Drummer" of the Period
(circa 1900).................................. 72
4. The Marquette City Band and the St. Jean
Baptiste Society (circa 1893-1895)............ 74
5. Hanck's Drum and Bugle Corps ................... 101
6. The Marquette Branch Prison Band
(circa 1900-1902) ............................. 102
7. Our Boy's Band ................................... 119
8. The Marquette Finnish Band....................... 122
9. The Liberty Hall Band. .......................... 126
Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partia3 Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy
A HISTORY OF BANDS IN MARQUETTE, MICHIGAN,
Jerrold M. Michaelson
Chairman: Dr. Albert Smith
Cochairman: Dr. David Z. Kushner
Major Department: Instructional Leadership and Support
The major purpose of the study was to provide a
written history of all bands in Marquette, Michigan,
Throughout the dissertation the following research
questions were answered.
1. What bands were organized in Marquette, Michigan,
during the period 1866-1930?
2. What was the instrumentation of the Marquette
3. For what functions did the bands perform?
4. What compositions did the bands perform?
Within the study a listing of the bands' musical programs
and places of performance was included. Photographs of
several bands were also included in the study.
The method was one of historical analysis of primary/
secondary literature and research documents. The Mining
Journal (Marquette, Michigan) was the major source for the
The data were collected by (1) a methodical search
through the local newspaper, The Mining Journal (1845-
1930); (2) an analysis of photographs of several Marquette
bands during the period 1866-1930; and (3) a survey of
local historical books, magazines and documents.
The study consisted of (1) a review of significant
historical literature on the city of Marquette; (2) an
historical account of the United States' band movement; and
(3) a chronological documentation of the bands that were
organized in Marquette during the period 1866-1930, the
functions for which the Marquette bands performed, the
instrumentation of the Marquette bands, and the music per-
formed by the bands.
The study revealed that Marquette had a rich band
history 1866-1930. The twenty bands that were organized
in Marquette during the studied period fulfilled a need in
the community life of the residents by (1) providing
musical entertainment before the invention of the phono-
graph or radio; (2) providing entertainment for visitors
to Marquette; (3) providing winter entertainment for the
residents; and (4) performing music for social events, ex-
cursions, and municipal celebrations and/or parades. The
findings of the study further supported the theory by
Goldman that the development of the band in the United
States proceeded along roughly parallel lines, in that the
Marquette bands were influenced by the large city bands'
functions, instrumentation and performed music.
Statement of the Problem
The major purpose of the study was to provide a
written history of all bands in Marquette, Michigan, from
the first appearance of the German Silver Cornet Band in
1866 through the end of 1930. An anticipated goal was to
establish an overview of the first sixty-four years in
which Marquette was a part of the national band movement.
A study of sixty-four years (1866-1930) was undertaken
because the national band movement and the Marquette band
movement declined about the year 1930. The study estab-
lished a parallel between the national band development
and the Marquette band development. The overview of the
first sixty-four years showed that the status of bands in
Marquette improved to about 1900, then declined to near
extinction by 1930.
Throughout the dissertation there was an attempt to
answer the following questions:
1. What bands were organized in Marquette,
Michigan, during the period 1866-1930?
2. What was the instrumentation of the Marquette
3. For what functions did the bands perform?
4. What compositions (or composition types) did
the bands perform?
A detailed listing of each band's musical programs
and places of performance was developed. Photographs of
several bands (when available) were collected and pre-
sented in this study.
Lastly, a summary of implications to the historical
significance of the Marquette bands and the national
band movement concluded the research. A comprehensive
bibliography was included.
Need for the Study
The Upper Peninsula of Michigan has a rich band
history. At the present many Upper Peninsula communities
have "city bands" that evolved from the national develop-
ment of bands after the Civil War and/or from the ethnic
bands of the late nineteenth century.
There were very few regional historical publications
that included information on Marquette bands. A lack of
available data on bands in these publications pointed to
a primary need for tracing the development of the
Marquette bands during the period 1866-1930. Another
need for the study was to provide a historical account
of the Marquette bands, since at present none exists. A
historical study on the Marquette bands would eliminate
the possibility of lost or damaged records.
A secondary need for the present research was to
compile and disseminate material on the history of the
Marquette bands. The study would provide information on -
the bands' significance to local history. In addition,
with the recent interest in pluralistic methods of educa-
tional planning, such a study would assist the historian/i ,
educator in establishing a framework for a local music
history and study. /
For purposes of this research the following defini-
tions were used.
Band: any ensemble of wind and/or percussion
Drum Corps: an ensemble consisting of parade drums
(field drums), bass drums and cymbals.
The ensemble was used primarily for
Orchestra: an ensemble consisting of string instru-
ments, winds and percussion.
Concert: a program of vocal or instrumental music,
usually one in which a number of
musicians perform together.
Open-Air Concert: a concert performed in the out-
doors, usually from a bandstand
or hotel balcony.
Dance: a party to which people come to dance.
Ball: a formal social dance.
Grand Ball: a formal social dance usually more
lofty and dignified than a ball.
Masquerade Ball: a formal social dance at which
masks and fancy costumes or
disguises are worn.
Parade: any organized procession or march.
The present study utilized the following limitations:
1. Only community bands in the city of Marquette
2. Community bands used for any purpose (dances,
parades, concerts, picnics, etc.) were
3. Public, private or parochial school bands were
not included in this study.
4. The research was inclusive of Marquette,
For purposes of the research the following procedure
in the collation and development of materials was
The method was one of historical analysis of pri-
mary/secondary literature and research documents.
The Mining Journal (Marquette, Michigan) was the
major source for this study. The Mining Journal had
predecessors to 1846 and has been published as The Mining
Journal since 1868. The complete files of The Mining
Journal were located in the Peter White Public Library,
Marquette, Michigan, and in the Longyear Research Library
of the Marquette Historical Society.
Other available sources were:
"Historical Highlights," a series of four hundred
twenty-seven radio manuscripts (1956-1962) on Marquette
Photographs of Marquette bands were available at
the Marquette Historical Society.
A historical dissertation by Payne entitled "History
of the Platform in Marquette"l was used to compile local
Marquette City Directories 1866-1930 were consulted.
Listings of public holidays were used to identify
international events peculiar to the Upper Peninsula.
Historical accounts of the national band movement
were studied to complete a portion of the literature
1Sarah L. Payne. "History of the Platform in
Marquette" (Doctoral Dissertation, Wayne State University,
Marquette historical material (books, articles and
other documents) were studied to provide a local histori-
cal basis for the literature review.
Collection of Data
The collection of data was accomplished by a
methodical search through the local newspaper, The Mi.ing
Journal. For purposes of this study only the years 1845- !
1930 were searched for data on the Marquette bands. -'
There was also an analysis of several photographs of
Marquette's bands and a survey of local historical books,
magazines and documents. The historical material was
available in the Marquette public library, the Peter
White Library, the Marquette Historical Society, and the
Northern Michigan University Library, Marquette, Michigan.
The search, collation, and analysis of material was con-
ducted from June 1980 to June 1981.
Analysis of Data
From the number of organized Marquette bands, the
instrumentation of the bands, the functions for which the
bands performed and the compositions the bands played,
there was an analysis of how and why Marquette partici-
pated in the national band movement.
Organization of the Remaining Chapters
Chapter II contains a review of significant litera-
ture on the City of Marquette, including important events
leading to the establishment of the city and its bands.
This chapter also includes a brief historical account of
the major source of the study, The Mining Journal. This
account is presented because The Mining Journal was
important in the historical documentation of the events in
Marquette. The chapter concludes with an historical
account of the United States' band movement. This
account is necessary in order to establish a parallel
between the Marquette and national band movements.
Chapters III, IV, V, and VI constitute a documenta-
tion of the Marquette bands' functions, instrumentation,
music selections, and related information. In each
chapter the research questions as listed in the Statement
of the Problem are utilized to determine the overall
Chapter VII discusses the implications of the
present findings in relation to the theoretical position
previously espoused in the Review of the Literature and
Research. Practical implications and suggestions for
additional research are cited. An appendix in which
dances (and/or dance compositions) are defined is
included, along with a comprehensive bibliography.
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND RESEARCH
A History of Marquette to 1930
The first white men to reach Michigan were French
explorers from Canada in 1618-1619.1 Forty years later
the prospects of a water passage to the Pacific Ocean,
wealth, fur trading, copper mining, and political comina-
tion of North America inspired additional exploration.2
In 1668 Father Jacques Marquette, the Jesuit mis-
sionary and explorer, traveled along the south shore of
Lake Superior to the Apostle Islands, but did not stop in
the Marquette area.3 Almost two hundred years later a
settlement on the shore of Lake Superior became the city
The Chippewa Indian title to the Upper Peninsula was
liquidated in 1842 following which the United States
government made mineralogical, topographical and linear
surveys. The information gathered in these surveys was
1Richard F. O'Dell, "Michigan, The Road Toward 1976,"
The Mining Journal, Bicentennial Edition, July 1, 1976,
3"Reminiscences of Early Settlement," History of the
Upper Peninsula of Michigan (Chicago: The Western
Historical Company, 1883), p. 382.
an important factor in the opening and settlement of the
peninsula. In 1844 prospectors "swarmed" into the area
and in 1846 the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron range was estab-
The origin of Marquette was described by Guilford as
a by-product of the Upper Peninsula mining interests.2
In 1849 Amos Harlow, Peter White and other settlers from
Worcester, Massachusetts, arrived at the present site of
Marquette for the purpose of establishing an iron forge
on the shore of Lake Superior.3 The iron ore for the
forge was brought down from the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron
range, twelve miles west of Marquette.
Transportation played an important role in the
development of the iron industry and the City of Marquette.
In 1852 the United States Congress gave the state of
Michigan 750,000 acres of public land to construct a canal
between Lake Superior and Lake Huron.4 The canal was
1L. A. Chase, "City of Marquette," Marquette, The
Queen City of Northern Michigan (Marquette, Michigan:
Guelff Printers, 1924), p. 1.
2Dave Guilford, "History of Marquette County," The
Mining Journal, Bicentennial Edition, July 1, 1976,
3Richard F. O'Dell, "Michigan, The Road Toward
1976," p. B-8.
4"Public Works," History of the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan, p. 422.
completed in 1857, enabling iron ore shipment from
Marquette through the Great Lakes.1
In 1857 the first Upper Peninsula railroad, between
the Negaunee-Ishpeming iron ore field and the Marquette
ore docks, was opened.2 This railroad replaced the wagon
transportation that had transported iron ore since 1846.
The unincorporated settlement of Marquette, often
called "Worcester" or "Carp River," went through two
stages of municipal growth during the period 1859-1871.
The stages consisted of (1) becoming an incorporated
village in 1859 and (2) becoming a city in 1871.3
In 1868 a fire destroyed the heart of the Marquette
business section, the railroad depot and stores, and the
downtown ore docks.4 As a result, many records of early
settlers and events were lost.
The rebuilding process began with many citizens
arguing the need of a water supply other than Lake
Superior. Consequently, Marquette established and main-
tained a waterworks in 1869. Also in 1869, gas lighting
was first used in the city.5
1"History of Marquette," The Mining Journal,
Centennial Edition, May 10, 1949, p. 12.
2L. A. Chase, "City of Marquette," p. 2.
3L. A. Chase, "Marquette History," The Mining
Journal, Centennial Edition, May 10, 1949, p. 1.
Other significant events important to the growth of
Marquette included the building of a harbor lighthouse
(1853), the establishment of a United States government
land office (1857), the building of a Michigan Branch
Prison in the city of Marquette (1888), the construction
of a hydroelectric plant (1889), the establishment of a
Coast Guard life-saving station (1891), and the founding
of an Upper Peninsula university, Northern State Normal
School (later changed to Northern Michigan University).
Local historian L. A. Chase stated that Marquette's growth
was similar to other small American communities in the
late nineteenth century.2
After the turn of the century the city charter was
established (1917), as Marquette enjoyed increased activity
in the mining industry. The peak mine employment of
11,953 men was reached in the 1920's. In the 1920's there
were over forty mining companies in the Upper Peninsula.
A History of the Marquette Mining Journal
The Mining Journal, the oldest Upper Peninsula news-
paper, played an important role in Marquette's history.
1L. A. Chase, "City of Marquette," pp. 3-8.
2Richard F. O'Dell, "Michigan, The Road Toward
1976," p. B-12.
Betty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," The Mining
Journal, Bicentennial Edition, July 1, 1976, p. C-3.
The Mining Journal was the major Marquette source of
national, regional and local news, thus was extremely
important for the documentation of local history.
Early in The Mining Journal's history the paper
became known as the "greatest industrial paper in the
peninsula."1 The Mining Journal supported the mining
industry, as well as community functions and events.
The paper grew from a small sheet, published weekly in
summer and monthly in winter, to its present size, a
circulation of 80,000.
The predecessor to this paper, The Lake Superior
News, in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, was purchased by
Henry Chase and E. D. Burr, who moved the paper to
Marquette in 1845.2 The paper's plant was located in the
basement of a big boarding house, on the site of the
present Union National Bank.3
From 1845 to 1860 there were several editors, who
did much of the paper's work themselves. These editors
included George Watson, the first editor, and succeeding
lBetty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-3.
2"The Press," History of the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan (Chicago: The Western Historical Co., 1883),
3Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-22.
editors Judd, Isham, Ball, Campbell, Banfield and, in
1860, Charles Earle.1
The paper was destroyed in the Marquette fire of
1868 and was inactive for six months. After the six
months, A. P. Swineford, owner of a Negaunee newspaper,
Mining and Manufacturing News, moved his newspaper plant
to the Marquette area and reestablished a Marquette
paper.2 The Mining Journal name was first used in early
1869. The Mining Journal became a daily in 1884, at
which time Swineford added the AP wire service.
Swineford, an opinionated editor, was twice elected
mayor of Marquette, was elected to the Michigan legisla-
ture, and was appointed Governor of the Alaskan Territory.
In 1889 Swineford sold The Mining Journal to J. M.
Longyear, who remained editor until 1899.3
J. M. Longyear was succeeded as owner/editor by
James Russell. Mr. Russell and his family believed in
community involvement and later purchased WDMJ Radio in
1931, and established WDMJ-TV in 1956. The Mining
Journal remained in the Russell family until 1965, when
1"The Press," History of the Upper Peninsula of
Michigan, p. 426.
2Betty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-22.
it was sold to the Panax Corporation of East Lansing,
The Mining Journal is currently published daily
except for Sundays and legal holidays, and is especially
devoted to Upper Peninsula interests.
A History of American Bands:
Post-Civil War to 1930
The period of band history after the Civil War was
described by Bryant as the "Golden Age of American Bands."2
During the period post-Civil War to 1930, numerous profes-
sional touring bands and local bands had opportunities to
perform concerts, provide music for dances, and play for
other social activities. The outdoor band concert became
a regular summer activity in many communities. Bryant
also stated that amateur bands were formed by municipal
groups, manufacturing companies, colleges, and universi-
A foundation for American bands was laid by Monsieur
Antoine Jullien in a series of concerts 1853-54.4
IBetty Lou Kitzman, "The Mining Journal," p. C-22.
2Carolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On (Washington,
D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1975), p. 21.
4H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America (Garden City, New
York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1957), p. 16.
Monsieur Jullien, the son of a French bandmaster, moved
to New York in 1853 with forty musicians and a large music
library. The bandmaster soon augmented his ensemble to a
total of one hundred musicians (selecting many European
players who fled central Europe during the revolution of
1848), started a publicity campaign and performed a
financially profitable series of concerts.1 In 1854
Jullien returned to Europe where he eventually went bank-
rupt, became mentally ill and died in an insane asylum
Jullien's successful series of concerts aroused con-
siderable interest among the public due to his excellence
of performance, programming of American music, and "daz-
zling" showmanship.3 Antoine Jullien influenced Patrick
Gilmore, who by 1860 had organized his own professional
Patrick Gilmore: "Father of the American Band"
During the period 1860-1890 Patrick Gilmore had
become known as the "Father of the American Band." Having
1H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 29.
3Theodore M. McCarty, editor, "The Band: Past,
Present and Future," Music Journal (Special Edition on
American Music, 1973), p. 5.
4Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 30.
gained recognition as a cornet soloist and director of
several Boston area bands, Gilmore attracted many excel-
lent musicians to his bands.1 His major undertaking had
become the organization of mammoth music festivals. The
first mammoth festival, a five-day National Peace Jubilee
(Boston, 1869), consisted of over 10,000 musicians per-
forming in orchestras, choruses and bands.2 The festival
reportedly drew adverse criticism, but Dwight wrote that
the more usual opinion was that the festival provided
numerous persons with a new belief in music.
Gilmore also organized and staged a World Peace
Jubilee in 1872, which used a larger number of musicians
than the National Peace Jubilee.4 For the Jubilee
Gilmore imported bands from Europe and performed for an
audience of 100,000 people. In a special edition of the
Music Journal, McCarty reported that Gilmore's National
Peace Jubilee lasted eighteen days, netted Gilmore two
gold medals and $50,000.5
For the next twenty years Gilmore led the famous
22nd Regiment Band of New York and completed numerous
1Carolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On, p. 27.
3John S. Dwight, Dwight's Journal of Music, July 3,
1869, p. 63.
4Theodore McCarty, editor, "The Band. .", p. 5.
tours of America and Europe. The 22nd Regiment Band con-
tributed to the national band movement in regards to
instrumentation, performance excellence, and repertoire.
The band (and Gilmore) influenced many late nineteenth
century band directors, including John Philip Sousa.
Patrick Gilmore died in 1892.1
John Philip Sousa
Goldman, in The Concert Band, reported that "The
real successor of Gilmore in popularity and accomplishment
was, of course, John Philip Sousa. ."2 In 1880 Sousa,
at age twenty-six, was appointed director of the Marine
Corps Band. He retained the position for twelve years,
during which he built the group into an expert ensemble,
composed new music, and participated in numerous tours.3
In a Harper's Weekly article, Mead commented that the
Sousa band ". deserves mention as a well-drilled and
well-worked company of skillful performers." In 1892
Sousa left the Marine Corps Band to form his own band.5
1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band (New York:
Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1946), p. 58.
2Ibid., pp. 58-59.
3Carolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On, pp. 29-30.
4Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .. ," p. 785.
5H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 147.
Sousa's new band, which was an immediate success,
originally consisted of forty-nine players, who were
auditioned personally by Sousa.1 The conductor's musical
concept (of the new band) 'stemmed from his thought that a
band was more versatile than a symphony orchestra.2 Sousa
preferred and expected a refined orchestral sound; i.e.,
the band's reed players changed from stiff military reeds
to delicate types common in orchestras; brass players were
instructed to play sensitively, not just to blow as hard
as they could.3 The Sousa band, which varied in size
during the period 1892-1924, continued the band accomplish-
ments of his predecessor, Patrick Gilmore.
Following the Spanish-American War, the Sousa band
toured many states and on one occasion even marched in a
parade. Rarely did the new Sousa band march, as Sousa
preferred the concert stage. Sousa's band was the first
concert band to achieve total financial independence.4
The success of Sousa and his band was mentioned in many
documents, e.g. Goldman states that ". it is probable
that no musical organization in history was known to as
1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 59.
2Paul E. Bierley, John Philip Sousa, an American
Phenomenon (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1973),
3Theodore McCarty, "The Band. ," p. 6.
many people, or held in greater popular affection, than
this great American concert band."1
Other important bands and/or bandmasters that
Deserved mention in the band movement between the Civil
War and 1930 included D. W. Reeves, who developed an
excellent marching band, Alessandro Liberati, who became
famous for his circus bands, Frederick Innes, trombonist/
director of several bands, and Giuseppe Creatore, the
leader of one of the first Italian bands in the United
The years 1867-1930 were filled with intensive band
activity. Mead stated that there were in 1889 over
10,000 military bands in the United States.2 Mead also
reported that virtually every city or town had a band
that performed many functions. In the smaller cities
the band averaged twenty-five men each, while in small
rural towns the band numbered from twelve to eighteen
members.3 By the year 1900 the number of United States'
bands had doubled, but had begun to decline after 1910.
Schwartz stated that 1910 was ". .the peak of prestige
and popularity of the concert band."
Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 61.
2Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.
The amateur or professional town bands paved the way
for the introduction of public school bands. The school
bands gained in number as civic and professional bands
had begun to decline. By 1930 the professional big bands,
the public school bands and numerous jazz bands had
replaced the town bands as the major entertainment func-
tion for the community.
The Bands' Functions
In the early 1860's brass bands were very popular;
as a result, many Civil War bands were predominately
brass. The function of the Civil War band consisted of
performing for the armies (on the march), playing sere-
nades at the evening's encampments for the officers and
men, serving as medics during the battles, and playing
for ceremonies or dress parades.1
After the Civil War the bands' popularity had
increased, due primarily to the fact that radio and phono-
graph had not become widespread. The bands' function was
providing music for concerts (indoor and outdoor), dances,
parades, picnics, and other social activities. Mead com-
mented that the bands of 1889 dispensed both the popular
and higher class music of the day.2 Mead also stated
ICarolyn Bryant, And the Band Played On, p. 16.
2Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.
that the bands served a necessary educational function,
in that "they provided music to remote sections, where
the inhabitants were unable to hear them at first hand,
and without their local band, they would perhaps never
hear them at all."1
Many of the professional bands from 1870 through the
1920's brought concerts to new heights of popularity in
America. Major bandmasters formed independent bands that
played primarily concerts and an occasional parade.
Patrick Gilmore's and John Philip Sousa's bands toured
extensively in the United States and Europe, performing
concerts designed to entertain. Sousa was reported to
have commented that his function was to give the public
what it wanted.2
The local and professional bands' function during
the period 1867-1930 underwent substantial change. The
early bands provided a service function, performing for a
variety of social and public activities, and/or existed
to serve military purposes. The bands were also con-
spicuous features of public parades and processional
1Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.
2Richard Franko Goldman, Bands of America, p. 60.
In contrast, the bands after the turn of the century
to the 1930's provided entertainment in the form of con-
certs. Although the bands occasionally marched in
parades, the concert had become its major function.
In 1889 most cities and towns had one or more bands.
The smaller city band averaged twenty-five men each,
while the country towns' bands numbered from twelve to
eighteen players.1 The large city bands usually had
forty to fifty members. The average band instrumentation
(in 1889) was as follows:2
one piccolo three trombones or tenor horns
one Eb clarinet two baritones
four Bb clarinets two tubas
two Eb cornets one small drum (snare)
four Bb cornets one bass drum
two alto horns one cymbal player
Most of the American bands used the instrumentation as
previously discussed; however, the large city bands com-
monly added several other instruments. The large city
bands augmented their instrumentation with the following:
double reeds (oboe, English horn, bassoon), alto clari-
nets, saxophones, trumpets, euphoniums, timpani, and
additional numbers of the other instruments.3
1Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.
21bid., p. 786.
3Ibid., p. 785.
Patrick Gilmore was known for his experimentation V
with different instrument groupings. In 1878 Gilmore's
22nd Regiment Band of New York had the following instru-
two piccolos two bassoons
two flutes one contra-bassoon
two oboes one Eb soprano cornet
one Ab sopranino clarinet four Bb cornets
three Eb soprano clarinets two trumpets
sixteen Bb clarinets two fluegelhorns
one alto clarinet four French horns
one bass clarinet two Eb alto horns
one soprano saxophone two Bb tenor horns
one alto saxophone two euphoniums
one tenor saxophone three trombones
one bass saxophone five bombardons (basses)
four percussion players
Gilmore's Band varied in size and instrumentation
considerably during the time he presided over the band.
In 1889 the band's instrumentation included the antonio-
phone, the surrasophone, the helicon tuba, the orpheon,
and the euphonium-trombone.2 Gilmore, for all of his
experimentation, had established the concert band in the
When the function of the band changed from a
marching band to a concert band medium (about 1900), the
instrumentation was also altered. The professional bands
that were directed by John Philip Sousa had the following
1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 58.
2Leon Mead, "The Military Bands. .," p. 785.
Sousa's first bandl
two Eb clarinets
fourteen Bb clarinets
one alto clarinet
one bass clarinet
four French horns
three percussion players
Sousa's last band2
six flutes and piccolo
one English horn
twenty-six Bb clarinets
one alto clarinet
two bass clarinets
four alto saxophones
two tenor saxophones
one baritone saxophone
one bass saxophone
four French horns
four ti mbones
six basses sousaphoness)
Percentages of Instrument Families
The percentage of instrument families in the band
was determined by the band's function; i.e.,a band used
primarily for marching had more brass, a concert band had
The 1878 concert band of Patrick Gilmore used
approximately fifty-three percent woodwinds, forty-one
percent brass and six percent percussion. Gilmore's
Band toured the United States and Europe, performing
mainly concerts. In contrast, the average band of 1889
was composed of twenty-five percent woodwinds,
1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 59.
2Ibid., p. 60.
sixty-three percent brass, and twelve percent percussion.
In general the average smaller city band was geared to
perform at outdoor events (parades, outdoor concerts) and
as a result had more brass.
The bands of John Philip Sousa extended the trend
toward woodwinds. His earliest band (1898) consisted of
fifty-five percent woodwinds, thirty-nine percent brass,
and six percent percussion. His last band (1924) uti-
lized sixty-four percent woodwinds, thirty-two percent
brass, and four percent percussion. The percentage of
woodwinds to brass greatly influenced the modern concert
The "Golden Age of American Bands" had become an era
of experimentation. Many of the professional bands per-
formed a variety of music designed to entertain audiences,
while marching bands played only marches or spirited
On an American concert tour in 1853-54, Antoine
Jullien, influenced by the internationally known P. T.
Barnum, performed fantasies, popular pieces, quadrilles,
waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, schottisches, tarantelles,
galops and arrangements of classical pieces.1 In
1H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 24.
addition Jullien pleased his audiences with concerts
devoted to national quadrilles (English, Irish, Scotch,
French, Russian, Hungarian, Polish, etc.) or national
airs.1 Jullien the composer performed many of his own
compositions on the concert tour, as well as selections
by American composers such as William Henry Fry.2
During the period 1856-1882, Gilmore's 22nd Regiment
Band performed arrangements of European composers such as
Liszt, Mozart, Beethoven, Verdi, Rossini, and Wagner.3
In addition Gilmore programmed music based on the
American folk tradition such as Old Dan Tucker, Oh!
Susanna, and Nellie Was a Lady. Sacred and patriotic
selections were also played on the Gilmore concerts.
Compositions usually performed were Nearer My God to Thee,
Abide with Me, Ave Maria, The Battle Hymn of the Republic,
Columbia, the Gem of the Ocean, and The Star Spangled
Other professional bands such as John Philip Sousa's
Band performed a variety of marches (many composed by
Sousa), arrangements of popular "airs" (Ta-ra-ra-boomdeay,
Old Folks at Home, and After the Ball), as well as
1H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 24.
2lbid., p. 25.
3Theodore M. McCarty, editor, "The Band. .," p. 5.
4H. W. Schwartz, Bands of America, p. 48.
transcriptions of the works of Wagner, Liszt, Beethoven,
and Bach.1 The Sousa concerts were performed to entertain
the public and as McCarty states, "He did so not by being
a missionary or'apostle of good music, but by turning out
colorful, superbly-performed concerts."2
Small city or town bands were influenced by the pro-
fessional bands of Gilmore, Sousa and others. The town
bands emulated the larger bands in regard to music pro-
gramming. The local bands also played music appropriate
to the ethnic make-up of their community; i.e.,a band in
the Upper Peninsula of Michigan might play Finnish folk
songs because of the large number of Finnish immigrants.
The programming tendency in 1867-1930 influenced the
public school band movement that began in the 1920's and
had continued to the present. Bands in the public
schools took over most of the functions that the city
bands performed before the turn of the century.
Richard Franko Goldman, son of the famous conductor
Edwin Franko Goldman, wrote that "the development of the
band in the United States proceeded along roughly parallel
1Theodore M. McCarty, editor, "The Band. .," p. 6.
lines."l The popularity of all American bands, local
and professional, grew rapidly from 1867 to 1910, and
declined until about 1930.
The band's function changed from a purely military
or social mode to that of a refined concert ensemble. In
the 1870's the band played for parades, excursions, and
social events, but by 1900 usually performed only con-
The bands' instrumentation evolved from the brass
bands of the 1860's to the predominately woodwind instru-
mentation of the later Sousa bands. Most of the smaller
city bands followed the models set by the larger profes-
In general the music played by bands developed from
the performance of music for dance and/or parade to the
intricate transcriptions, difficult marches and arrange-
ments of popular tunes of the time (1930).
The bands of the discussed period filled a need in
the musical life of the community by providing the only v
live music in places that could not maintain orchestras
or other musical ensembles. The period 1867-1930 can
accurately be described as "The Golden Age of the
1Richard Franko Goldman, The Concert Band, p. 54.
Justification for the Present Research
The Upper Peninsula of Michigan played an important
role in the growth of the state through its iron/copper
mining industries, fishing businesses, and lumber concerns.
The City of Marquette, the geographic and cultural center
of the Upper Peninsula, had a strong tradition of support
for the "arts." The city, with a current population of
25,000, had opera houses, auditoriums, bandshells, orches-
tras, and bands since the 1860's.
The weather conditions also induced the formation of
bands in the 1800's. The winter residents, virtually cut
off from highly populated areas, had to find methods of
entertainment. In the summer months the Upper Peninsula
became a recreational area for Lower Peninsula residents,
also in need of entertainment. The need for major enter-
tainment subsequently led to the formation of local bands.
Although there were many historical sources on
Michigan, the Upper Peninsula, and the City of Marquette,
little information on bands was located. Apparently
bands played an important role in the community, perfor-
ming for dances, picnics and public functions, but local
historians had overlooked their importance. I '
There had been a recent upsurge of regional band i
histories, especially since the bicentennial, to determine
the extent of the national band movement. The major
question of the majority of the studies was, How wide-
spread was the band movement?
From the number of major documented performances by
Marquette bands and the size and nature of the Marquette
concert audience, there was reason to analyze and inter-
pret why the Marquette area was conducive to the formation
of bands. The reasons, as stated, formed the justifica-
tion for the present research.
BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1866-1890)
Early Marquette Bands
The first indication of bands in Marquette was men-
tioned in a radio talk series (1956) by historian Kenyon
Boyer. An elderly resident of Marquette told Boyer that
little music was present during the Civil War days.
During 1866 a group of German settlers, of whom there
were quite a few from pioneer days (1845-1865), formed
the German Silver Cornet Band.2 Boyer indicated that the
group was funded by the village (Marquette) and rehearsed
in a room of the old courthouse. The band practiced two
or three times a week and consisted of ten musicians:
four cornets, four bass horns, a bass drum and a snare
drum. Boyer described the band's uniform as a dark blue
coat with "fancy" braid across the front, with a Civil
War-patterned cap. The band gave several concerts, one
from Ripley's Rock (lower harbor--Marquette). The
Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a
radio series, Historical Highlights, Vol. IV, No. 72,
1952, p. 1.
Mining Journal editor reported that the shore was lined
with people who enjoyed the "spectacle."l
During the period 1867-1870 little band activity was
noticed, but musical activity still played an important
part of the community entertainment. Ensembles were
formed to provide the residents and summer visitors with
dance music. The instrumentation usually consisted of
two violins, a bass viol and another instrument. The
ensembles were called "bands" but were small orchestras.
Performances were noted by Evan's Band, Rudel's Band and
On January 11, 1870, a concert was given by the
Gesang Verein.3 This concert consisted of vocal music
accompanied by the Marquette Brass Band. The concert,
although not well attended because of poor publicity,
provided good singing and "exhilerating" instrumental
playing.4 The Mining Journal reporter commented, ".
the boys play well and we are pleased to see them reor-
ganized and prospering. The fellow who can sling a drum-
stick with Spence has to get up early in the morning."5
1"Concert," The Mining Journal, July 13, 1867, p. 8.
2Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 2.
3"Gesang Verein" is translated as a choral society.
4"German Gesang Verein," The Mining Journal,
January 15, 1870, p. 3.
Other bands were formed to provide entertainment
during 1870. An advertisement for a Grand Masquerade Ball
to be held at the Metropolitan Hotel on February 5, 1870,
lists Whiteside's Band as providing dance music.1 No '
other mention of this particular band was present. Bands
of this type were formed on a "pick-up" basis and
existed only a short time.
On July 4, 1872, as part of the Negaunee, Michigan,
celebration, the Washington Mine Band performed in a
parade and concert that ended with fireworks. Nitro-
glycerine was used in lieu of a cannon. Swineford
reported that the band played well for the occasion and
was well respected in the community.2
Celebrations of holidays and special events in
Marquette usually consisted of the organization of
special trains to provide transportation to the city for
the festivities. The Marquette, Houghton and Ontonagon
Railroad provided the residents with special reduced
fares for the trips. A train loop around Ishpeming,
Negaunee and back to Marquette was occasionally used.
Advertisement, The Mining Journal, February 5,
1870, p. 3.
A. P. Swineford, "Negaunee Celebration," The
Mining Journal, July 13, 1872, p. 1.
3Kenyon Boyer, "Summer Amusements," from a radio
series, Historical Highlights, Vol. II, No. 39, 1950,
One train excursion of July 4, 1874, was accompanied by a
band known as the Marquette German Brass Band.1 The band,
under the direction of a Mr. Rudle, provided fine music,
possessed gentlemanly bearing and reflected 'credit on the
city of Marquette.2 After the train had arrived at the
depot, the band performed several selections after which
they paraded through the city to the lake.3 At lakeside
the band boarded the steamer Michigammee (and accompanying
barge) for a trip to a nearby island. The band enter-
tained the guests throughout the trip. Upon arrival at
the island the band and guests refreshed themselves until
time for the program. The band signaled the guests to
the bandstand by playing the national air Hail Columbia.
The remainder of the presentation consisted of patriotic
speeches and musical selections from the band.4
Marquette (1870-1900) was known as a health resort,
especially for sufferers of hayfever.5 Many tourists
traveled to the city and stayed for one to two months.
Many activities were available, including horse racing,
camping, bicycling, dances, gambling houses, and band
1"The Fourth," The Mining Journal, July 11, 1874,
5Kenyon Boyer, "Summer Amusements in the Old Days,"
concerts. In addition, instrumental concerts, cruises
and dances were given on board visiting yachts.1
In 1875 a company of the Michigan national guard
called the Chasseurs gave a drill, ball and reception in
recognition of Washington's Birthday.2 The ball was held
at the Cozzins Hotel, with music provided by the
Marquette Band. In 1875 Marquette had two bands, but
The Mining Journal editor suggested that another might be
organized under the auspices of the national guard. The
editor also stated that there were enough musicians in
Marquette, and the Chasseurs should have a band of their
The period 1876-1884 was somewhat bleak in regard to
organized band activities. Bands usually played for
dances of the local societies and were mentioned in news-
paper articles on several occasions as performers of
The Marquette Cornet Band
In early 1885 a cornet band began organizing. The
citizens of Marquette were asked to "patronize" a dance
1Kenyon Boyer, "Summer Amusements in the Old Days,"
2"Marquette Chasseurs," The Mining Journal,
February 27, 1875, p. 8.
3The Mining Journal, March 6, 1875, p. 8.
given by the Marquette Cornet Band. On February 3, 1885,
the band members reportedly owed $227 for instruments and
wanted to pay for them by the end of the winter.1
During the month of January, 1885, a Mr. Crim,
manager of the band, made arrangements with the Marquette
Railroad to charter a special train to allow as many
people as possible to attend the benefit dance.2 The
band was well on its way to paying its bills and becoming
an established part of the community.
In February the Marquette Cornet Band was engaged to
play for the German Aid Society's Masquerade Ball on
February 17, 1885.3 On February 9 the Mather Hall, which
was to house the dance, was destroyed by fire.4 The
German Aid Society made arrangements to transfer the ball
to Cole's Hall and asked the Marquette Cornet Band to
advertise the change. The band hired a team of horses
and a sleigh and paraded all over the city, playing as
they went. While playing a selection in front of a local
drugstore, one of the horses dropped dead. Boyer reported
that the town "wits" immediately yelled out that the
l"Dance Given," The Mining Journal, January 17, 1885,
2The Mining Journal, January 31, 1885, p. 1.
3"German Aid Society," The Mining Journal,
January 24, 1885, p. 1.
4"Mather Hall Fire," The Mining Journal, February 14,
1885, p. 1.
poor music was more than the horse could stand.1 At a
band rehearsal on February 19, 1885, the members were
presented with a bill for $150, "the amount due the owners
of the horse which died on the occasion of the band's last
appearance on the streets."2 Considerable discussion
ensued over the advisability of allowing the amount billed.
The band decided to return the bill to Martin Foard (horse
owner) and moved: "that hereafter when the band has
occasion to appear on the street, the members will be
expected to walk or 'chip in' and hire a team of oxen."3
The band was at this time in good financial shape; the
members were rehearsing two or three times each week and
were expected to perform excellent concerts in the summer
In late spring and summer of 1885 the Marquette
Cornet Band enjoyed an active performance schedule. On
May 19, 1885, Marquette residents, accompanied by the
band, met at the train depot to welcome the newly appointed
governor of the Alaska Territory, A. P. Swineford.
iKenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.
2The Mining Journal, February 21, 1885, p. 1.
Swineford was a senior editor of The Mining Journal and a
resident of Marquette prior to his appointment.1
"Decoration Day," May 30, 1885, was an excellent
opportunity for the band to display some of its talents.
The Marquette Cornet Band led the procession through the
city, performed several patriotic selections, and ended
with the national air, Hail Columbia.2
The Marquette Cornet Band had some competition during
the summer of 1885.3 The Clifton Hotel had negotiated and
hired the Chequamegon orchestra and band to do a series of
outdoor concerts. The Chequamegon band was made up of
several University of Michigan students who spent about a
month in the Marquette area that summer.4
One of the outdoor concerts (July 4, 1885) featured
the Chequamegon orchestra and band. Although no specific
titles of selections were listed in a Mining Journal
article, the program consisted of several band composi-
tions including a piccolo solo, a cornet solo, and a
clarinet solo, all accompanied by the band.5 The last
1"Arrival of the Governor," The Mining Journal,
May 23, 1885, p. 1.
2"Lovingly Remembered," The Mining Journal, June 6,
1885, p. 8.
3Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.
4"Our Summer Attractions," The Mining Journal,
June 13, 1885, p. 8.
5"Chequamegons," The Mining Journal, July 4, 1885,
outdoor concert was attended by over one thousand
Marquette residents and was well received.1
A comment about the Marquette Cornet Band appeared
in an article of The Mining Journal on June 28, 1885.
Four bands including the Calumet City Band, Ishpeming
City Band, Negaunee City Band and the Marquette Cornet
Band performed at the festivities surrounding the
Anniversary of the Odd Fellows Day. All bands partici-
pated in a parade followed by a short concert presentation.
The Calumet Band was believed to have been the superior
organization due partially to the fact that they had more
practice. This seemed to be a subtle suggestion (to the
Marquette Cornet Band) that they needed improvement.2
The next documentation of the Marquette Cornet Band
was found in an issue of The Mining Journal in the summer
of 1886. Swineford reported that the band, now under the
direction of a Mr. Homire, was improving rapidly and pro-
viding the city of Marquette with a series of summer
concerts.3 During the summer of 1886 three musicians
from the steamer Quebec, which had recently sunk in the
Marquette harbor, stayed a brief period in the Marquette
I"Chequamegons," The Mining Journal, July 4, 1885,
A. P. Swineford, "Anniversary of the Odd Fellows
Day," The Mining Journal, January 28, 1885, p. 1.
3Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.
area and performed with the Marquette Cornet Band. The
musicians were a flutist, a violinist, and a harpist.1
By the summer of 1887 the Marquette Cornet Band was not
performing regularly, and consequently disbanded.
The Marquette City Band
In the fall of 1887 Marquette made significant
progress toward the establishment of a permanent "city"
band. A band from Calumet, Michigan, of fifteen pieces
appeared at a firemen's tournament in Marquette. The
band, known as the Calumet Eureka Band, was a younger
version of the Calumet City Band that was known for its
As was indicated in the 1887 photograph of the
Calumet Band (Fig. 1), the instrumentation consisted of
two Eb cornets, three Bb cornets, two alto horns, three
baritones, two trombones, one helicon tuba, one snare
drum and one bass drum.
A group of Marquette citizens persuaded members of
the Calumet Band to settle permanently in Marquette, and
even assisted them with relocation costs and job hunting.
The members of the Calumet Band that relocated to
1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 4.
21bid., p. 5.
Figure 1. The Calumet Band 1887
Marquette became the nucleus of the Marquette City Band.1
The newly formed band consisted of Matthew Martin, Samson
Waters, James Allen, Edward Rule, Richard Krieg, James
Gilbert, William Trevarrow, Robert Nelson, Francis Rule,
Charles Retallic, Nicholas King and James Trezona.2
1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 5.
The Marquette City Band served many purposes,
including providing the music for an October 8, 1887,
"Kirmiss"1 given by the ladies of a local church. The
band director was William Sanders, who received many
compliments regarding the band's playing.2 At the
"Kirmiss" the band performed a Grand March followed by
different national dances. Over seven hundred people
attended the event and a reporter commenting on the band
stated, "I tell you, that's a fine band."3
In early November of 1887 a group of people from
Sault Sainte Marie, Michigan, accompanied by their own
city band, traveled to Marquette for special entertain-
ment. The entertainment included a large banquet, wine
and toasts, with music provided by the Marquette City
Band. The Sault Band performed a short afternoon concert,
to the delight of the Marquette residents in attendance.
At an evening banquet the Marquette Band was dressed in
full regimentals and provided "elegant" music. The
music at the banquet consisted of a march (to seat the
1Webster's New World Dictionary defines "Kermiss" as
a nationalistic fair or carnival, held usually for
2"Kermiss," The Mining Journal, October 8, 1887,
4"Boomers Do the City," The Mining Journal,
November 3, 1887, p. 8.
guests), dinner music and another march to end the festiv-
From 1866 to 1888 the bands of the Marquette area
were reported to have had "great times." One primary
reason is that in addition to local duties, the bands
accompanied city organizations to conventions, picnics,
and tournaments. The local residents took trips to Sault
Ste. Marie, the Copper Country (Houghton, Michigan, area),
and Mackinac Island, Michigan. On trips the bands fur-
nished music. Upon arrival the band generally gave a con-
cert and then participated in the merriment.
During 1888 there were three separate bands per-
forming in Marquette. The first appearance of the year
for the Marquette City Band occurred on April 3, 1888, at
a dance for the Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen. The
band met many of the arriving guests at the train depot
and played several spirited marches. Swineford reported
that the Marquette City Band "surprised even their friends
by its character."2 The full band was present, earned
many compliments from the visitors, and had the following
instrumentation: three clarinets, two cornets, two alto
horns, two trombones, two baritones, one tuba, one snare
1"Boomers Do the City," The Mining Journal,
November 3, 1887, p. 8.
2A. P. Swineford, "The Brotherhood Dance," The
Mining Journal, April 7, 1888, p. 1.
drum, one bass drum, and one cymbal player. The photograph
below (Fig. 2) was taken at Meeske's Park, a local recrea-
tional area in Marquette.
Figure 2. The Marquette City Band 1888
After greeting the guests at the Marquette train
depot, the Marquette City Band (fifteen members), recep-
tion committee, and guests moved in procession to the
Casino, where the dance program began. The program was
lengthy and consisted of waltzes, schottisches, marches
and quadrilles. The evening ended with the popular tune,
Home Sweet Home. The program used for that evening is
M rquette City Band Program2
April 3, 1888
Selection -- "Relief of Ekowe".
Waltz .......... ...............
Old Dan Tucker....
Home, Sweet Home..
.......By City Band
....... Round House
............ Round the Loop
... ... ..... ... ..... .. B .L .E .
... ....... Everybody Dance
.............. Pea Shooter
e................. C.B. & Q.
............. B. of R. R. B.
........ ... Mining Journal
...................O R C .
.............. D S. S. & A .
.............. C N & A .
.......... ........ Orders
Another April performance for the Marquette City Band
was a War Song Concert on April 10, 1888. The War Song
Concert was made up of patriotic music, speeches by local
politicians and a short parade. In addition to the
1A. P. Swineford, "The Brotherhood Dance," p. 1.
Marquette City Band, a local drum corps, Wentworth's
Nickel Plate Drum Corps, provided entertainment. The
drum corps met the train at the depot, played a "street
beat," and performed a drill.1 The director of the
Marquette City Band, a Mr. Owen, along with his musi-
cians, were said to be a pleasant body of men, who ful-
filled their duties "perfectly."2 The War Song Concert
was described by Swineford as a great success.
Additional 1888 performances included weekly con-
certs at the bandshell, beginning on May 27. The band
also played with other bands in parades and events such
as picnics, baseball games a-id county fairs. Area bands
that performed in Marquette during 1888 were The English
Oak Band of Negaunee, The Houghton Cornet Band and The
According to the editor of The Mining Journal, A. P.
Swineford, the Marquette City Band had an excellent repu-
tation during 1888.4 In appreciation for the band's
summer concert series, they were entertained at Mackinac
Island, Michigan, by Marquette residents, Captain and
'A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, April 14,
1888, p. 1.
4A. P. Swineford, "They Captured the Island," The
Mining Journal, July 28, 1888, p. 1.
Mrs. Gasbell. The Marquette City Band played a few selec-
tions so well that nearby neighbors invited the band to
dinner. The band declined, since they had already eaten,
and instead were presented with fine cigars. The band
was well received at the island.1
The Marquette City Band occasionally played for
church-sponsored events for which they were remunerated.
A local resident, J. M. Longyear, funded a performance
of the Marquette City Band at a Presbyterian Church picnic
on August 18, 1888.2
The annual Upper Peninsula State Fair, held
September 22-29, 1888, in Marquette, was another musical
outlet for area bands. Concerts were scheduled through-
out the week with the Marquette City Band and the
Champion City Band as the main attractions. The weather
was an important factor in the bands' concerts. The fair
concerts were usually held at an outdoor bandstand, but
the Champion Band had to move into one of the fair
buildings (Machinery Hall) due to cool temperatures.3
Political rallies were events at which bands could
perform. The Marquette City Band escorted a politician
1A. P. Swineford, "They Captured the Island," The
Mining Journal, July 28, 1888, p. 1.
2"Presbyterian Picnic," The Mining Journal,
August 18, 1888, p. 1.
3The Mining Journal, September 29, 1888, p. 1.
(Honorable Roswell G. Horr) and the Harrison-Morton Club
from the Hotel Marquette to the Casino Opera House for a
rally on October 27, 1888.1 In addition The Marquette
City Band, The Marquette Drum Corps and the Queen City
Cornet Band provided entertainment for a political victory
celebration after the national election of 1888.
Swineford reported that the Republican party held a lob-
ster bake on November 17, 1888, at which every Republican
in town was present.
The Marquette City Band's last concert of 1888 was
a Sunday afternoon performance on November 9. The
program consisted of sacred selections, popular songs and
operatic excerpts. The Sunday afternoon's program is
Marquette City Band Program3
November 9, 1888
Glee--"Come See What Pleasure"..........J. Elliot
Chorus--"The Heavens Are Telling"..........Hayden
Sacred Fantasia .............................Smith
Chorus--"Gloria" (12th mass) ...............Mozart
Andante, A Pastoral...........................Webb
Second Selection--"Moses in Egypt"........Rossini
Serenade--"Queen of the Night"............... .Chase
Serenade--"Silent Night".................... Bocked
"Sweet Bye and Bye"..................... --------
1"A Great Rally," The Mining Journal, October 28,
1888, p. 1.
2A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, November 17,
1888, p. 8.
3"An Afternoon Concert," The Mining Journal,
December 15, 1888, p. 1.
In 1889 the bands of Marquette performed for many
different events and functions. The first performance of
the year occurred on January 17, 1889. The Knights of
the Maccabees held a dance at Odd Fellows Hall, music
furnished by the Marquette City Band. The attendance was
described by Longyear as the largest in the history of
the Odd Fellows Hall.1 The Marquette City Band began the
musical evening with several selections featuring two
local vocalists. The vocal solos were enthusiastically
received, as encores were requested. Longyear also
reported that the Marquette City Band played "especially
The Marquette Rifles, a local drill team, provided
the Marquette City Band with its next opportunity to per-
form. The Rifles had arranged for an exhibition drill
performance by visiting drill teams and, as was the
custom, the Marquette City Band led the uniformed proces-
sion to the depot. At the depot the band performed for
the visiting Emmet Guards of Ishpeming, Michigan. After
the short performance, the entire group paraded to a
local hall where the Marquette City Band supplied music
1The Mining Journal, January 12, 1889, p. 8.
J. M. Longyear, The Mining Journal, January 19,
1889, p. 1.
3The Mining Journal, February 16, 1889, p. 8.
The Marquette City Band included vocal soloists on
their concerts of 1889. An April concert programmed
operatic selections, performed by local vocalists. On
the program were pieces from the popular opera "Erminie,"
performed at this concert for the first time in the Upper
Later in April, 1889, the Marquette City Band per-
formed Easter dance music for the Knights of the
Maccabees. One hundred fifty couples attended the Easter
dance, which lasted until 3:00 A.M. Longyear reported
that the City Band supplied music "of the best."2
A May 17, 1889, concert by the Marquette City Band
was reviewed in an article in The Mining Journal.
Longyear described the band's performance as "grand mag-
nificent, inspiring music," and indicated that the band
met all expectations.3 Longyear reported that a Mr.
Cramer, the band director, praised the work of his
musicians that night, described the band as the finest in
the Upper Peninsula, and stated that the band was above
average for Army (type) bands.4 The program consisted of
1"Watch For It," The Mining Journal, March 23, 1889,
2. M. Longyear, "The Merry Maccabees," The Mining
Journal, April 27, 1889, p. 1.
3j. M. Longyear, "The Concert," The Mining Journal,
May 18, 1889, p. 1.
a euphonium solo performed by F. Rule; a clarinet solo
performed by Charles Geill (this solo drew an encore); a
march, The Field of the Cloth of Gold; and vocal solos,
Annie Laurie and The Bugler, composed by Pinsuti.1 The
$240 earned from the concert was used for the purchase
of new uniforms.2
After soliciting bids for new uniforms, The
Marquette City Band purchased the uniforms from S.
Kaufman and Sons, a local merchant. Several bids sub-
mitted from other cities were lower, but the band argued
that the city had helped them raise the money, so the
home firm should receive the bid.3 The first appearance
in the new uniforms occurred on June 28, 1889, in a per-
formance for the Skandia Society. The band reportedly
felt so proud of the uniforms that they eclipsed all
previous performance efforts.4
The Marquette City Band made a humanitarian gesture
when they performed a sacred concert for the benefit of
the victims of the Johnstown, Pennsylvania, flood of 1889.
IJ. M. Longyear, "The Concert," The Mining Journal,
May 18, 1889, p. 1.
2"S. Kaufman & Sons Get It," The Mining Journal,
May 25, 1889, p. 1.
4"Scandinavians Celebrate," The Mining Journal,
June 29, 1889, p. 1.
It was advertised that the band program would consist of
the "greatest strains from the greatest composers."l
During the week of June 22, 1889, the Marquette City
Band performed twice, in addition to the regular outdoor
concert. On June 22, 1889, the band played for the com-
mencement of the St. Joseph Academy, a local girls school.
The graduation class consisted of three young ladies. The
processional selection for the commencement was Ivanhoe
March by Blake. Additional selections included an over-
ture and two concert pieces. The musical portion of the
event also had several mixed instrumental/vocal ensembles.2
The second performance of the Marquette City Band
during the week of June 22, 1889, was a parade for the
French Canadian Society. The parade through Marquette was
led by the Marquette City Band (sixteen musicians), the
Lake Angeline Band (fourteen musicians), and the Gitchie
Gummee or Red Men's Band (fourteen musicians) of Negaunee,
Michigan. Each band performed a short concert following
The Fourth of July celebrations in Marquette were
usually festive occasions. In 1889 the Marquette City
1J. M. Longyear, "Hurrah for the Band," The Mining
Journal, June 8, 1889, p. 1.
2"First Graduate," The Mining Journal, June 29,
1889, p. 8.
3"A Great Day," The Mining Journal, June 29, 1889,
Band paraded through the city at 5:30 A.M. to begin the
day with a musical salute. At 9:00 A.M. the band marched
to the train depot to greet arriving guests from Negaunee
and Ishpeming. During the day baseball games were
played, while the Marquette City Band provided music for
dancing at a local club.1
The Marquette City Band gained a new trombonist in
July of 1889. The musician--William T. Allen, from
Yorkshire, England--was described by Longyear as the best
slide trombonist in the state.2 The Marquette City Band
had developed an excellent reputation in the state of
Michigan and the members felt that they were the best in
the Upper Peninsula. In mid-July of 1889 the Marquette
City Band issued a challenge to the Calumet City Band.3
The prize was to be $500 or $1,000 a side, b :t no accep-
tance from Calumet was documented.
During 1889 The Mining Journal and The Calumet News
waged an editorial battle over their respective city
bands. The Calumet paper published a statement regarding
the July challenge of the bands. The Calumet News'
editor mentioned that even if the Calumet City Band were
1"The Fourth in the Queen City," The Mining Journal,
July 6, 1889, p. 1.
J. M. Longyear, "A Valuable Acquisition," The
Mining Journal, July 13, 1889, p. 1.
3J. M. Longyear, "Challenge," The Mining Journal,
July 13, 1889, p. 1.
to accept the challenge, they (Calumet) would play three
pieces more difficult than the composition Crown of
Victory. In response The Mining Journal editor, Longyear,
stated, "The Calumet article is so naive, that it provokes
a smile. The Calumet News must think our band [Marquette]
never tackled anything but Sunday school music."1
In August of 1889 the Marquette City Band played for
picnics, gave their regular outdoor concerts, and partici-
pated in a state band contest. The first picnic,
August 10, 1889, was given for a local union of workers.
The union, which included over six hundred people,
traveled to Champion, Michigan, for the picnic.2
The second picnic was enjoyed by a party of one
hundred fifty Marquette professionals. The group visited
a nearby mountain and Longyear reported that the band
played in the middle of the mountain peak.3
The Knights of the Maccabees helped sponsor the
Marquette City Band's participation in a state band con-
test in Muskegon, Michigan, on August 15, 1889.4 The
1J. M. Longyear, "Challenge," The Mining Journal,
July 13, 1889, p. 1.
2"Picnic Day," The Mining Journal, August 10, 1889,
3J. M. Longyear, "Picnic on Mt. Mesnard," The
Mining Journal, August 24, 1889, p. 1.
4"Talk of the Town," The Mining Journal, August 3,
1889, p. 1.
contest was one of the biggest achievements of the band,
since they won second place.1 The competition, between
older bands (with a greater reputation), had a large
number of entries. Each band performed the same composi-
tion in competition--The Field of the Cloth of Gold.2
The results of the contest were: Otsego Band--first
place, three hundred thirty-five points; Marquette City
Band--second place, two hundred thirty-five points; and
The Silver Cornet Band of Port Huron--third place. The
Marquette City Band's director, William Sanders, had not
expected the band to win second place.3
A concert given by the Marquette City Band on
August 24, 1889, was attended by many local residents.
Although specific selections of music for the concert
were not listed in a Mining Journal article, Longyear
reported that some listeners complained about not being
able to hear the music at the outer limits of the crowd.4
Longyear also stated that the execution of the music
". .was almost perfect."5
1"Honors for the Band," The Mining Journal,
August 17, 1889, p. 1.
2Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands of Marquette," p. 6.
3"Honors for the Band," p. 1.
4j. M. Longyear, "The Band Concert," The Mining
Journal, August 31, 1889, p. 1.
The Marquette City Band spent the remainder of 1889
with performances that included a Labor Day celebration,
parade and concert; a state fair, in Marquette; and a
final concert on November 27, 1889. The final concert
was given in order to raise money for new uniforms.1
The Queen City Cornet Band
The Marquette City Band had competition in the early
part of April, 1888. Another band of fourteen young men,
aged seventeen to twenty-three, rehearsed several nights
a week, gave benefit concerts, and raised $300 for new
instruments. The band, known as the Queen City Cornet
Band, had the following instrumentation: one Eb cornet,
one Bb cornet, two alto horns, two tenor horns, one
baritone, one tuba, one snare drum, and one bass drum.2
The original members of the Queen City Cornet Band
were Albert Miller, leader; Frank Kreig, Oscar Stewart,
Charles Cameron, Will Bowden, Fred Miller, Henry Kreig,
and Will Hammill.3 The band had evidently been the brunt
of many jokes around the city. The Queen City Cornet
Band was commonly referred to as the "kid" band. The
I"The Band Concert," The Mining Journal,
November 30, 1889, p. 1.
2A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, April 21,
1888, p. 1.
Mining Journal editor, in an article on April 21, 1888,
suggested that the band's leader was experienced and
able to produce quality music.1
The band's first public appearance was scheduled for
May 30, 1888; however, the event actually occurred on
May 19, 1888. On that date the Marquette City Band and
Wentworth's Drum Corps were playing at the Marquette
bandstand when, unannounced, the Queen City Cornet Band
appeared at the opposite end of the street. They per-
formed a march as they paraded toward the bandstand. The
young members played so well that they surprised the
people of the city. The "kid" band had performed for the
During the next few months the Queen City Cornet
Band solicited funds and gave benefit concerts. With
the collected funds the group purchased uniforms from a
local clothing manufacturer. The uniforms were dark blue
with white stripes on the trousers and gold braid (in
loops) on the coats. The uniforms also had torch-bearing
hats, for use in night parades.3 The Queen City Cornet
Band performed on several occasions during 1888,
1A. P. Swineford, The Mining Journal, April 21,
1888, p. 1.
2The Mining Journal, May 20, 1888, p. 1.
3Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," p. 6.
including a lobster feast on November 10, 1888.1 The
band's last appearance of 1888 was a Thanksgiving ball
in late November.2
In March .of 1889 the Queen City Cornet Band began
raising funds to purchase a new set of instruments. The
band, still known as the "kid" band, made plans to stage
a Grand Ball in Armory Hall.3 The ball was planned to
raise money for the band and was scheduled for March 4,
1889, the band's first anniversary. Homier's Orchestra
was hired to furnish music for the ball; however, the
Queen City Cornet Band performed several numbers. Also
in attendance at the Grand Ball was the Star Cornet Band
of Ishpeming, Michigan. (This group was also described
as a "kid" band.) The Queen City Cornet Band and the
Star Cornet Band combined for a few selections during
that evening. The Queen City Cornet Band appeared
occasionally after the March 4, 1889, Grand Ball, but
became dormant in early 1890.
1The Mining Journal, November 17, 1888, p. 1.
2The Mining Journal, December 3, 1888, p. 1.
3"The Queens," The Mining Journal, March 2, 1889,
4"Queen City Cornet Band Dance," The Mining Journal,
March 9, 1889, p. 1.
The Bands' Functions
During the period 1866-1890 the Ma ,uette bands
served a variety of functions. One of the major functions
was performing music for parades. The parades were
usually for holidays, political rallies, and special
events. Each parade was generally followed by a short
The bands also played music for public social activi-
ties such as picnics and dances. Other performances con-
sisted of traveling to Upper Peninsula cities and perfor-
ming on the trains, and performing for conventions or
Another function of the Marquette bands during the
period 1866-1890 was performing music at the train depot.
The performances were usually for the benefit of digni-
taries or visitors for special celebrations.
Lastly, the Marquette bands began a series of outdoor
and indoor concerts for the citizens of the city. The
concerts were well attended and were usually performed
during the summer months.
In the early part of the researched period the
Marquette bands consisted of brass and percussion
instruments. Early band instrumentation included upper
and lower brass instruments with bass and snare drums.
The early bands had ten to twelve players.
By 1887 the size and instrumentation of the
Marquette bands had changed. The bands were expanded to
fifteen or sixteen players, with mid-range brass instru-
ments also being used. Alto horns, baritones, trombones,
and helicon tubas were commonly used. The Eb and Bb
cornets, snare drum and bass drum were also a part of the
1887 band instrumentation.
The Marquette bands performed for m Ly different
functions during the period 1866-1890. For each function
the bands were required to perform different musical
selections. The music consisted of marches for parades
and concerts, patriotic music for concerts or special
holidays, sacred music for concerts, and arrangements of
popular songs as well as solo selections for a variety of
Music for dances during the period usually included
popular dance "tunes" such as schottisches, quadrilles,
galops, polkas and Virginia reels. Each dance began with
a Grand March and ended with a popular song.
In general the period 1866-1890 was active for the
Marquette bands. The bands' instrumentation expanded
from about ten musicians to sixteen with brass instru-
ments predominating. A variety of music was performed
with concerts, dances and parades as the bands' major
BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1890-1897)
1890 and 1891, Years of Active Band Performance
In 1890 the only active band in Marquette was the
Marquette City Band. As in previous years the band pro-
vided music for different societies, organizations and
city government functions.
The Marquette City Band's director, William Sanders,
conducted the band for the first time of 1890 on March 20.
This performance, a meeting of the Knights of the
Maccabees, consisted of only three selections.1
The traditional practice of meeting trains was
observed in April of 1890. The Marquette City Band met
several groups of arriving guests at the train depot.
For example, on April 5, 1890, the Odd Fellows engaged
the band to play for their annual celebration, which
included meeting the train at the depot, a parade and
Occasionally the Marquette City Band performed for
favors. During the week of April 5, 1890, the band
1"Maccabees in Force," The Mining Journal,
March 20, 1890, p. 1.
2"Odd Fellows Celebrate," The Mining Journal,
April 5, 1890, p. 8.
played music for a parade sponsored by the Marquette
Rifles, a local drill team. In exchange for unlimited
use of the Marquette Rifle's meeting hall, the Marquette
City Band collected no fee.1
A similar event for which the band collected no fee
occurred on April 25, 1890. On that date the band,
escorted by the Marquette Rifles, serenaded the home of
the new mayor, J. M. Longyear. In appreciation the mayor
and his wife distributed cigars to the band.2
The weekend of Memorial Day (May 30, 1890) the
Marquette City Band performed for three events. A parade
honoring the war dead proceeded to the city cemetery,
where flowers were placed on the veterans' graves. The
band then opened the official exercises with a sort con-
cert consisting of an overture of national airs, bugle
calls and civil war songs. The commemoration of the war
dead also included patriotic speeches by local officials
and a performance by a local chorus.3 Later that evening
the band gave a well-attended ball, at which they
1"Company 'G' Gathers Laurels," The Mining Journal,
April 12, 1890, p. 1.
2"Serenaded the Mayor," The Mining Journal,
April 26, 1890, p. 1.
3"Flower Strewn Graves," The Mining Journal,
May 31, 1890, p. 1.
performed many waltzes of the time. In 1890 the
Marquette City Band was known as the best band in the
The City of Marquette had two bandstands in 1890.
One bandstand, near the Marquette Hotel, was the site of
the Marquette City Band's first summer night concert of
the year, on June 28, 1890. The program was as follows:
Marquette City Band Program2
June 28, 1890
March..."Pride of the Baritone"............... King
Selection..."Reminiscences of Meyerbeer"..Heinecke
Waltzes..."Sounds of Erin".................. Bennett
Pot Pourri..."The Huguenots"............... Heinecke
Serenade..."To Mamie Pettee".......................
The second summer concert was scheduled for the other
bandstand, which was located on the opposite side of the
city. The band alternated between the two bandstands and
performed twice a month during the summer of 1890.
Other 1890 performances included a parade for the
Union Sunday school picnic (August 21)3 and several
1"Marquette City Band Ball," The Mining Journal,
May 31, 1890, p. 1.
2"First Summer Night Concert," The Mining Journal,
June 21, 1890, p. 1.
3"Hundreds of Happy Children," The Mining Journal,
August 23, 1890, p. 1.
concerts at the Marquette County Fair (the week of
September 6, 1890).1
The Marquette City Band had financial difficulty in
early 1891. To alleviate this difficulty the band
approached the Marquette City Council for funding. The
council could not support the band, so an appeal was made
to the citizens of the city. The Mining Journal's editor
suggested that private citizens "open their private purse
Because of the band's summer performance schedule,
the band members could not earn as much pay as other
Marquette citizens. Since most concerts, parades aid
picnics were in the summer months, the bandsmen would
have to leave work. Longyear thought the city should
reimburse the bandsmen for lost work time.3
The Marquette City Band's fourth annual subscription
concert was given in April of 1891. The concert,
attended by over six hundred people, was a welcome suc-
cess. The proceeds of the concert were used to fund the
1891 concert series.
l"It Beats the Record," The Mining Journal,
September 13, 1890, p. 1.
2"Deserving of Consideration," The Mining Journal,
March 7, 1891, p. 1.
4J. M. Longyear, "Marquette City Band's Fourth
Annual," The Mining Journal, April 25, 1891, p. 1.
The subscription concert program began with Von
Suppe's Poet and Peasant Overture. A reviewer stated that
the band appeared nervous at the beginning, but eventually
settled down.1 Second on the program was a variety of
vocal music, including solos, duets and quartets. In
addition the concert featured Charles Geill, who per-
formed a clarinet solo followed by an encore. The encore
was Variations on Coming Thro' the Rye. Geill was
described by The Mining Journal's editor as an artist of
rare ability. Full band selections included Soldier
Life by Bela and a grand march, Good Night by Tula. The
concert was considered to have been the most successful
in the band's history.2
The Marquette City Band performed the first outdoor
concert of 1891 at the Marquette bandstand on May 13,
1891. The concert, which lasted only a few minutes due
to cold temperatures, consisted of three selections.3 A
second 1891 outdoor performance was held for Memorial Day
exercises (May 30, 1891) and featured the band performing
in a manner similar to past years. The band led a parade
which was followed by a concert and public speeches.4
1J. M. Longyear, "Marquette City Band's Fourth
Annual," The Mining Journal, April 25, 1891, p. 1.
3"First Band Concert of the Season," The Mining
Journal, May 16, 1891, p. 1.
4"Memorial Day," The Mining Journal, June 6, 1891,
A great deal of musical activity was scheduled for
the Marquette 1891 Fourth of July celebration. An
official schedule listed several Marquette City Band con-
certs and an annual parade. The Marquette City Band per-
formed in the "Grand Parade" along with the English Oak
Band of Negaunee, Michigan, and the Star Cornet Band of
Ishpeming, Michigan. The Marquette City Band was billed
as the official Fifth Regiment Band, the billing indica-
tive of a military affiliation for this event.1
The 1891 Fourth of July celebration, which attracted
five thousand visitors from out of the city, continued
into the evening. That same evening the American Organi-
zation of United Workmen sponsored a ball for the benefit
of the Marquette City Band. The band performed music for
the ball, the proceeds of which were used to purchase new
Other 1891 summer performances of the Marquette City
Band included picnics, the county fair, dances (for
several organizations), and the regular outdoor concerts.
The last 1891 concert displayed the Marquette City
Band's support for the other "arts." To encourage
Marquette residents' interest in art, the band played a
1"Official Program for Today's Celebration," The
Mining Journal, July 4, 1891, pp. 1-8.
2"Will Uniform the Band," The Mining Journal,
July 4, 1891, p. 3.
concert at a local art show. The YMCA had obtained the
art on loan from a Lower Peninsula art gallery.1
1892, A Year of Declining Band Activity
Although 1889-1891 were years of constant band per-
formance in Marquette, 1892 was a year of declining acti-
vity. One of the primary reasons was the formation of a
new orchestra. The orchestra director, W. H. Bartley,
made arrangements with the Marquette City Band to form an
orchestra recruited from its members. Bartley believed
that the formation of a new orchestra would enable the
band to fulfill engagements for concerts, dances and
parades.2 The Bartley Orchestra, as this new orchestra
was called, consisted of two violins, viola, cello, double
bass, two clarinets, flute, two cornets, trombone, and
drums with all the usual traps.3 The new orchestra played
many engagements during 1892.
When the members of the Marquette City Band were not
performing with Bartley's Orchestra they played for
events such as the January 15, 1892, Marquette Carnival
and Ball and the January 23, 1892, Firemen's Ball. At
l"On a Grand Scale," The Mining Journal,
November 21, 1891, p. 1.
"A New Orchestra," The Mining Journal, January 9,
1892, p. 1.
the Firemen's Ball the firemen and bandsmen were attired
in their respective uniforms. To commence the ball the
band played a grand march, which was led by James Grey,
a local fireman. Grey evidently improvised new dance
combinations so interesting that the band found it diffi-
cult to keep playing.1
Masquerade balls were popular in 1892. Six members
of the Marquette City Band usually performed dance music
at the balls. The last "grand" masquerade ball of the
189. season (March 1, 1892) offered prizes for the best
costumes and dancers.2
After May of 1892 the declining interest in band
music was attributed to the increased popularity of acti-
vities in the Marquette Opera House. The Opera House
hired road plays, musicals, orchestras, and other enter-
tainment. An example of the type of entertainment the
Opera House offered was The Miller Brothers Traveling
Play. The play featured dancing, acrobatics, and acting,
and was accompanied by a small orchestra.3
The Marquette City Band performed during the summer
of 1892 for the traditional Memorial Day Celebration,
1"Firemen's Ball," The Mining Journal, January 23,
1892, p. 1.
2"The Last Chance," The Mining Journal,
February 27, 1892, p. 1.
3"'Kajanka'--Miller Brothers," The Mining Journal,
July 23, 1892, p. 1.
which included a parade and concert. In June of 1892 the
band played for the Knights of the Maccabees annual
picnic, which also consisted of a parade and concert. The
band was partially funded by the Maccabees during the
summer of 1892.1
In August of 1892 the band played in Houghton,
Michigan, for an Upper Peninsula celebration of the
Hibernian Society.2 The celebration was mentioned in
Houghton's newspaper, but the Marquette City Band was not
recognized. Longyear, editor of The Mining Journal, re-
torted that "our band" could still play with the best of
them and should have received a mention in the paper.3
Final 1892 performances by the Marquette City Band
were the annual Labor Day parade and several engagements
at the Marquette Casino. The engagements at the Casino
consisted of performing music for roller skating, and
became a weekly job during the winter months.
1893, A Year of Parades, Balls and Competition
The Marquette City Band heralded the new year, 1893,
by playing dance music for a series of masquerade balls.
1"K.O.T.M. Celebrates," The Mining Journal, June 11,
1892, p. 1.
2The Hibernian Society (1870-1931) was an organiza-
tion of people of Irish heritage in the Upper Peninsula
3J. M. Longyear, "A Singular Omission," The Mining
Journal, August 13, 1892, p. 1.
These balls were held at the Marquette Casino. As in
previous years, the band also played music for skating at
the Casino's skating rink.1
In February or early March of 1893, several members
of the Marquette City Band moved out of the city, cre-
ating vacancies in the band. New members were recruited
by March 10, 1893, and new music had been purchased for
the summer concerts.
To raise money for new uniforms the Marquette City
Band planned to give an April 28, 1893, concert. The
concert was postponed until May 5, 1893, and was per-
formed in the Marquette Opera House. The audience was
smaller than the band was accustomed to, but they played
well despite the low attendance.2 Also in May the band
played for an arriving trainload of Marquette residents
returning from the Chicago World's Fair.3
The Hughes Orchestra, a local ensemble which had
performed in Marquette for two years provided competition
for the Marquette City Band during 1893. During that
year the director of the Hughes Orchestra formed a band
from the members of his orchestra and led the traditional
1"First Masquerade of the Season," The Mining
Journal, January 28, 1893, p. 1.
2The Mining Journal, May 6, 1893, p. 1.
3"It Was a Grand Trip," The Mining Journal, May 13,
1893, p. 8.
Memorial Day parade. Up until this time the Marquette
City Band had always led the parade.
The Hughes Band/Orchestra was a group of capable
musicians. Their excellent quality was supported by the
fact that musicians from metropolitan areas were
recruited for this band/orchestra. For example, Hughes
hired a "trap drummer" from Boston who was reported to
have been one of the best men in the business.1 A typical
"trap drummer" of the period is shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Typical "Trap Drummer" of the Period (circa 1900)
1The Mining Journal, February 11, 1893, p. 8.
During the 1893 summer months the Marquette City
Band played music for its regular outdoor concert series
and performed for different local societies; e.g., many
functions were played for the St. Jean Baptiste Society.
In Figure 4 the Marquette City Band was assembling for a
parade (circa 1893-1895). At the parade the band's
instrumentation consisted of two clarinets, three cornets,
three alto horns, two tenor horns (baritones), one trom-
bone, two basses, one snare drum and one bass drum.
The City of Marquette had no plans for an 1893 public
Fourth of July celebration, so the Marquette City Band
participated in an Ishpeming, Michigan, parade. Other
bands including the Star Cornet Band of Ishpeming were
also in attendance at the Ishpeming parade.1 Additional
Marquette City Band performances consisted of supplemen-
ting the Hughes Orchestra for a lawn party (July 13,
1893) and a concert of sacred music at Presque Isle
(August 6, 1893).
On August 27, 1893, the Marquette City Band performed
in a parade sponsored by the Ancient Order of the
Hibernians of the Upper Peninsula. The parade (and con-
nected events) brought visitors from all over the Upper
Peninsula and featured the Houghton Silver Cornet Band,
l"Quiet Fourth of July," The Mining Journal, July 8,
1893, p. 1.
Figure 4. The Marquette City Band and
The St. Jean Baptiste Society
the Ishpeming City Band, the Negaunee City Band, and the
Lake Linden City Band.1
A short time after the 1893 annual Labor Day celebra-
tion the Marquette City Band received the'resignation of
its director, William Sanders. Sanders, who served as
director for eleven years, had accepted a position with
the Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Michigan. The mining
firm had hired Mr. Sanders to form and direct a band
composed of company employees. The Marquette City Band
selected Samuel Waters as the temporary director, to
1894, New Director for the Marquette City Band
In early December of 1893 the Marquette City Band
announced that V. E. David, from Billings, Montana, had
been selected as the new director. David, an experienced
musician, had previously taught piano, band instruments,
and concert music. An announcement concerning David's
appointment as director of the Marquette City Band
1The Mining Journal, September 2, 1893, p. 1.
2"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal,
October 14, 1893, p. 1.
3"The Band Will Cling Together," The Mining Journal,
October 7, 1893, p. 8.
appeared in a February 2, 1894, issue of The Presto, a
Chicago music journal.1
David recruited members, rehearsed the Marquette City
Band during the winter'of 1894, and also participated in
other musical activities; i.e., instrument sales, sheet
music sales, and private lessons.2 The first informal
performance of the Marquette City Band under the direction
of V. E. David occurred on May 31, 1894. On that date
the band serenaded the home of Mayor and Mrs. H. Kaufman,
to celebrate their recent return from a vacation. The
band was later served refreshments by Mayor and Mrs.
The Marquette City Band's first formal performance
of 1894 was a concert for charity on June 2. The con-
cert, which began with the overture L'Amazone by
Laurendeau, consisted of choral, vocal and instrumental
solos and full band selections. A Mining Journal repor-
ter indicated that the people of Marquette were pleasantly
surprised at the excellent caliber of performance since
1"The New Band Leader," The Mining Journal,
December 2, 1893, p. 1.
2"V. E. David," Marquette City and County Directory,
1894 (Detroit, Michigan: R. L. Polk, 1894), p. 187.
3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, June 2,
1894, p. 1.
the departure of the former director and a majority of
On July 4, 1894, the Marquette City Band sponsored a
picnic and invited the residents of the city. Hundreds
of people crowded into the park to hear and enjoy the
band's music. The Mining Journal reporter stated that
the band had decided to play for the picnic rather than
travel to Newberry, Michigan (one hundred miles east of
Marquette), where they would have received a fee of one
hundred dollars.2 The decision to play for the picnic
indicated that the band had allegiance to the City of
After the Marquette City Band played an outdoor con-
cert on the balcony of the Marquette Hotel (July 19,
1894), many residents believed that they had heard the
final concert of the band. Several members of the band
had made plans to leave the Marquette area, but were
convinced by city residents to remain through the 1894
The next concert of July 26, 1894, was a performance
for the prisoners of the Branch State Prison in Marquette.
l"Should Keep Up the Practice," The Mining Journal,
June 2, 1894, p. 1.
2"MCB Picnic," The Mining Journal, July 7, 1894,
3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, July 21,
1894, p. 1.
The carriage procession to the prison began at 7:30 A.M.,
after which the band played more than an hour on the
prison lawn and it the prison corridors.1
Several strikes in the mining industry occurred in
the summer of 1894. The strikers in Ironwood, Michigan,
became so unruly that the Marquette Company "G" of the
National Guard was sent to retain order. When the strike
ended the Guard returned via special train. The Guard
was met at the train depot by the Marquette City Band,
which played several patriotic selections.2
Other 1894 performances included a picnic for the
National Guard, a Labor Day parade, and a regular appear-
ance at the Casino--music for skating.
1895, A Time of Reorganization
and Increasing Competition
In January of 1895 the Marquette City Band reorgan-
ized and elected the following officers: President,
Charles T. Geill; Business Manager, Sam Waters;
Librarian/Secretary, J. H. Hoar; and Treasurer, Alfred
Hibbard. V. E. David was retained as director.3 During
l"City Band Cheers Prisoners," The Mining Journal,
July 28, 1894, p. 1.
2"Left Everything Quiet," The Mining Journal,
August 7, 1894, p. 8.
3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal,
January 12, 1895, p. 1.
1895 the band's major intent was to perform throughout
the winter months in addition to their regular summer
schedule. The intention was partially realized as
several winter performances were documented.
On February 21, 1895, the Marquette City Band played
another cone rt at the Marquette Branch Prison. The band
and city officials (with wives, friends and acquaintances)
traveled to the prison by horse-drawn sleigh. The trip
was reported to have been enjoyable, but punctuated by the
"usual chorus of feminine screams whenever the sleigh
lurched to one side or the other. ." The prison con-
cert program, as listed in The Mining Journal on
February 23, 1895, was as follows:
Marquette City Band Program2
February 21, 1895
Overture ..................."Belle of the Village"
"America ................................... ...
Waltz ..................... "Lakota"........ ......
Song and Dance............. Sweet Little Daisy"..
Waltz ..................... "Sounds from Erin"....
Overture.................. "Enchantress"....... ..
"The Star Spangled Banner" ......................
March ..................... "Triumphal"......... ...
The Marquette City Band had little performing
activity during March and April of 1895. The band per-
formed on occasion for the Casino skating rink, but
1"At the Branch Prison," The Mining Journal,
February 23, 1895, p. 1.
generally remained inactive until the summer. The inac-
tivity was believed to have been due to the variety of
entertainment present in Marquette. At that time two
orchestras, The Hughes Ideal Orchestra and The Marquette
Ideal Orchestra, were active, in addition to musicals or
plays at the Marquette Opera House. Other attractions in
Marquette during 1895 included dancing clubs, dramatic
clubs, and vocal/instrumental religious concerts.
In July of 1895 the Marquette City Band was hired by
the Marquette Street Railroad Company to provide music
for dancing at Presque Isle, a park in north Marquette.
The railroad furnished transportation to the concert.1
Another July performance featured the band in a parade
and picnic sponsored by the German Aid Society. The
parade proceeded from downtown to Meeske's Grove2 for the
picnic. The entire event lasted the whole day of July 27,
In August the Ringling Brothers Circus performed in
Marquette. Longyear commented on the circus acts and the
circus' famous band led by Antonio Liberati. In the
circus performance Liberati played cornet solos, which
1"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, July 15,
1895, p. 1.
2According to the Marquette Historical Society,
Meeske's Grove was located near a local brewery on the
southwest side of Marquette.
Longyear reported were enjoyed by the Marquette
The last parade/concert of 1895 occurred in the week
of August 18, 1895. The parade, which included six area
bands, was followed by a meagerly attended evening con-
The final 1895 performance by the Marquette City
Band was a dance given by G. L. Burtis on October 25,
1895. Burtis was moving his mill from Marquette to
Munising, Michigan (Spring, 1896), and the dance, attended
by over twelve hundred people, was considered to be a
farewell ball. A Mining Journal reporter commented that
the dancers would not leave until the twenty-six numbers
of the "order of dances" were exhausted.2 The band at
this time was under the direction of Charles Geill,3 suc-
ceeding V. E. David, who resigned to become manager of
the postal telegraph office. At the farewell ball the
Marquette City Band played waltzes, airs, and a grand
march (with one hundred forty-eight couples in line).
1j. M. Longyear, "Ringling Brothers Circus," The
Mining Journal, August 17, 1895, p. 1.
2"'Twas A Grand Success," The Mining Journal,
October 26, 1895, p. 1.
3Charles Geill was listed in the Marquette City
Directory (1895-1896) as the leader/president of the
Marquette City Band and the manager of the Marquette
4"'Twas A Grand Success," p. 1.
1896, Marquette City Band's Director
Receives an Award
In 1896 the Marquette City Band remained active and
elected new officers at a rehearsal on January 9. The
newly elected officers were: President, Charles
Deckelman; Vice-President, William Anger; Treasurer,
Alfred Hibbard; Librarian/Secretary, J. J. Hoar; Business
Manager, Samuel Waters; and Director, Charles Geill.1
On January 16, 1896, the band augmented the Marquette
Ideal Orchestra's concert which featured selections made
famous by Gilmore's Band. Although titles of the concert
selections were not listed in The Mining Journal, Longyear
stated that theatrical effects were utili ed to sensa-
tionalize the music. Longyear also reported that authen-
tic thunderstorm sounds were used in one of the performed
pieces.2 The program included a flute solo by Hoelscher,
a cornet solo by Young, a saxophone solo by Charles
Geill, and a violin solo by the orchestra's director, a
The women of Marquette also had an interest in per-
forming band music. The Young Ladies' Lake Superior
1"Band Officers Elected," The Mining Journal,
January 11, 1896, p. 8.
J. M. Longyear, "Ideal Orchestra Will Give a
Concert," The Mining Journal, January 13, 1896, p. 8.
Mission Band met regularly at local residences, but no
evidence of public performances exists.1
The Marquette City Band rehearsed weekly until
April 6, 1896, a rehearsal at which the band members pre-
sented director Charles Geill with a gold-headed cane. An
engraved inscription on the cane was as follows:
"Presented to Charles Geill by The Marquette City Band,
April 6, 1896."2 Geill was surprised and appreciative of
the fine gift. The band at this time was thought to be
in excellent financial and musical condition, and was pre-
paring for the summer concert season.
Generally any type of band activity is documented in
Marquette's newspaper, The Mining Journal. A reporter
mentioned in a Mining Journal article of June 6, 1896,
that a five-piece German band passed through Marquette.
The band spent the afternoon and evening playing on the
street corners probablyy for donations). The reporter
also commented that "the music was a long ways from bad."3
The Marquette City Band had a brisk summer performance
schedule playing for the St. Jean Baptiste Society on
June 24, 1896, for regular outdoor concerts, and for a
1"City Brevities," The Mining Journal, February 6,
1896, p. 5.
2"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, April 11,
1896, p. 1.
3"City News in Brief," The Mining Journal, June 6,
1896, p. 1.
July 4, 1896, celebration in Marquette. The July 4 per-
formance included a parade followed by a concert. The
concert selections consisted of The Star Spangled Banner,
Hail Columbia and America.1
The final Marquette City Band performance of 1896
was a parade in recognition of the election of McKinley
as president of the United States. Longyear reported
that the bands in attendance marched in the mud and their
music was drowned out by the crowd's noise.
1897, A Year Without A City Band
Although the citizens of Marquette had a substantial
interest in bands and band music, there was no organized
band in the city during the first half of 1897. Because
there was no band in Marquette, organizations were forced
to use other musical groups or hire out-of-town bands.
For example, on Memorial Day (May 30, 1897) the civic
societies used a fife and drum corps to lead the annual
The absence of a city band became so great that the
St. Jean Baptiste Society persuaded some former band mem-
bers to reorganize, rehearse and perform on June 24,
l"Grand Civic Procession," The Mining Journal,
July 4, 1896, p. 8.
2J. M. Longyear, "Marched in the Mud," The Mining
Journal, November 7, 1896, p. 1.
1897, at the society's annual festival. The Marquette
City Band represented the Marquette chapter of the society
at this Upper Peninsula function. The parade and concert
were the only city band performances of 1897.1
An important City of Marquette event was marred by
the absence of a town band. The statue of Father
Marquette was unveiled with the assistance of other city
bands. The Calumet City Band was the official representa-
tive of Marquette at the festivities.2 The Calumet City
Band also appeared in Marquette at parties, parades and
other functions during 1897.
The Bands' Functions
During the period 1890-1897 the Marquette bands'
functions remained generally the same as they had been
during the period 1866-1889. The Marquette bands' per-
formances consisted of the traditional practice of meeting
trains, serenading political figures, playing for parades,
and providing music for dances, masquerade balls or
1"Tri-Colored Flags Wave," The Mining Journal,
June 26, 1897, p. 1.
2"Statue on Its Pedestal," The Mining Journal,
July 15, 1897, p. 8.
In general the performances in Marquette during
1890-1897 changed somewhat from a parade emphasis to that
of a concert emphasis. Many more indoor and outdoor con-
certs were given during the period 1890-1897 than in the
period 1866-1889. The bands of Marquette had started to
entertain through concerts rather than other social per-
In 1890 the Marquette bands' instrumentation was
brass and percussion, but by early 1891 the bands had
begun using woodwind instruments. The Marquette City
Band had clarinets in 1891 and also featured, on occasion,
solos for saxophone, flute, vocalist or violin. The
solos were accompanied by the full band. In general the
brass instrumentation with added woodwinds prevailed
during the period 1890-1897.
During the period 1890-1897 the Marquette bands per-
formed music for parades, such as marches and popular
tunes. On concerts the bands played selections such as
Civil War songs, national airs and patriotic tunes. The
performance of selections such as these was attributed
to the possibility of a Spanish-American War. In addi-
tion, more arrangements/transcriptions of the "classics"
were programmed by the Marquette City Band. Overtures,
sacred selections and arrangements of operatic material
were commonly used on the Marquette concerts. Lastly,
dance music was usually performed on concerts, at picnics,
and at masquerade balls or dances.
The period 1890-1897 was considered to be a transi-
tional period in regard to the bands' functions, instru-
mentation, and performed music. The function was
changing from marching to concert; the instrumentation was
utilizing more woodwinds than in previous years; and more
concert-oriented selections were being performed.
BANDS IN MARQUETTE (1898-1906)
1898, The Marquette City Band Reorga tzes
Although there were no active bands in the city of
Marquette during 1897, the Marquette City Band reorganized
in early 1898. At a band rehearsal on January 6, 1898,
the Marquette City Band's members elected the following
officers: F. L. Simmons, director/manager; Joe Hoar,
secretary; and Alf Hebbard, treasurer.1 During 1898 the
twelve-piece Marquette City Band had the following instru-
mentation: three cornets, one clarinet, two alto horns,
two trombones, one baritone, one Eb bass, one snare drum,
and one bass drum.2
The Marquette City Band performed a concert and
three parades during the first half of 1898. The concert,
a benefit for starving Cubans (pre-Spanish-American War),
included a local orchestra, vocal soloists, instrumental
soloists, as well as the City Band. On the program the
Marquette City Band played marches and ended the concert
with The Star Spangled Banner.3
l"Band Gets Together," The Mining Journal,
January 5, 1898, p. 8.
3"Patrons Will Help the Starving," The Mining
Journal, March 1, 1898, p. 1.
The first of three parades in 1898 featured the
Marquette City Band playing music for over two thousand
people. The parade, described by a Mining Journal repor-
ter as a "patriotic march," started at one end of town,
proceeded to the other end of town, and returned.1 In
addition to the Marquette City Band, who performed two
selections on the march, other marching units included
the Boys Brigade (a scout-like organization) and the
Marquette Volunteers (a military volunteer group).2
The second parade of 1898 was staged for the depar-
ture of the Upper Peninsula Lake Superior Guards, which
had been called up to active duty. This May 21, 1898,
Marquette parade was performed for a jubilant crowd that
had turned out to support the Lake Superior Guards.3
The third parade of 1898 was the last public per-
formance of the Marquette City Band. The parade, given
on Decoration Day, May 28, 1898, consisted of marches
and patriotic music. Shortly after May 1898, The Cadet
Greys Band edged the Marquette City Band out of the
available performance opportunities.
1"All Turn Out Together," The Mining Journal,
May 7, 1898, p. 1.
3"Departure of the Lake Superior Guards," The
Mining Journal, May 21, 1898, p. 1.
4"Soldiers, Dead of the Civil War," The Mining
Journal, May 28, 1898, p. 1.
1898-1900, The Cadet Greys
The Cadet Greys band was organized in 1898 by
Charles Geill. During 1898 the band rehearsed twice
weekly in the city hall, had a voting contest to choose
the band's name, and gave benefit concerts for new uni-
The Cadet Greys had twenty-one members, who had
their own instruments, and consisted of the following
instrumentation: two clarinets, one soprano saxophone,
one alto saxophone, one tenor saxophone, one baritone
saxophone, four cornets, three alto horns, two tenor
horns, one baritone horn, one Bb bass, one tuba, two
percussionists, and a drum major.2
In 1898 the Cadet Greys officers were Charles Geill,
leader; John Coughlin, president; W. H. Latterall, vice-
president; and G. Schroeder, secretary/treasurer.3
The first public appearance for the Cadet Greys
occurred two months after they organized. On April 7,
1898, the band played a short concert for the Marquette
city council, to publicize the band's fund raising
1Kenyon Boyer, "Early Bands in Marquette," from a
radio series, Historical Highlights, Vol. IV, No. 72,
1952, p. 7.
2"It Wants a Name," The Mining Journal, March 19,
1898, p. 1.
activities.1 The Cadet Greys were raising money to pur-
chase additional instruments, new uniforms and music.
Another fund raising event occurred on May 20, 1898.
On that date the Cadet Greys gave a Grand Ball, to raise
money for uniforms. At the Grand Ball music was fur-
nished by the Marquette Ideal Orchestra and admission was
twenty-five cents, with supper extra.3
The first public appearance of the Cadet Greys in
their new uniforms was a performance for the Swedish
Crown Society of Marquette on June 24, 1898.4 The uni-
forms that the band wore at the performance were gray in
color, with gold braid, coupled with a military helmet
that had a large yellow plume.5 The Mining Journal re-
porter described the uniform as a "showy costume."6
During the next three months of 1898 (August,
September and October) the Cadet Greys performed three
times: (1) a parade on August 13, 1898, to greet firemen
l"New Band Gets Out," The Mining Journal, April 9,
1898, p. 1.
2"City Brevities," The Mining Journal, May 14, 1898,
4"Midsummer's Day Picnics," The Mining Journal,
June 25, 1898, p. 8.