Group Title: three symphonies of Daniel Gregory Mason
Title: The three symphonies of Daniel Gregory Mason
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 Material Information
Title: The three symphonies of Daniel Gregory Mason style-critical and theoretical analyses
Physical Description: xiii, 166 leaves : ill., music ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kapec, David Neal, 1954-
Publication Date: 1982
Copyright Date: 1982
Subject: Curriculum and Instruction thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Curriculum and Instruction -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1982.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 159-164.
Statement of Responsibility: by David Neal Kapec.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099360
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000319113
oclc - 09299070
notis - ABU5963


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The author is greatly appreciative of Dr. Albert B. Smith, III,

chairman, for his relentless assistance, insights, and guidance. Had

it not been for his constant communication over the years, the author

would have fallen victim to the "all but dissertation" designation.

Special thanks and acknowledgment go to Dr. David Z. Kushner, cochair-

man, for further enhancing my career as performer, educator, and re-

searcher. It was he who acted as mentor and advisor, and reformed me

from my former ways and enlightened me to the research and applications

of music history and literature. Appreciation also goes to Dr. Gordon

D. Lawrence, for his special insights on revisions, and Dr. S. Philip

Kniseley and Dr. Phyllis E. Dorman for their assistance on the


In the securing of information, scores, and recordings, the follow-

ing individuals distinguished themselves. Acknowledgment goes to Mr.

Scott Mason of Wakefield, Rhode Island, in providing permission to

release a copy of the Second Symphony score, and in the use of the

musical examples. Sam Dennison and his staff in the Edwin A. Fleisher

Collection of the Free Library of Philadelphia are thanked for their

assistance in locating and supplying the Second Symphony. Dr. Ernest

H. Sanders, Music Department Chairman at Columbia University, was

most helpful in securing recordings of the symphonies. Bernhard R.

Crystal, Assistant Librarian for Manuscripts, and Alice Schreyer,

Reference Librarian and Bibliographer, both of Columbia University,

were most courteous and helpful during my visit to Butler Library in

securing copies of the First and Third Symphonies. Appreciation also

goes to Mike Webb for his assistance in copying the musical examples.

A special acknowledgment goes to both parents, Andrew J. Kapec

and Loraine J.G. Kapec, and my wife, Leslie Gayle, for their encourage-

ment to see the work to its completion.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . . . . . . . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . ... ...... vii

LIST OF MUSICAL EXAMPLES . . . . . . . .... . ix

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . ... .... . .. .xii


ONE INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . ... .. 1

Statement of the Problem. . . . . . . . 2
Hypotheses. . . . . . . . . ... . .. 3
Need for the Study. . . . . . . . . . 4
Delimitations . . . . . . . . ... . 6
Limitations . . . . . . . ... . . 7
Definitions . . . . . . . ... . . 8
General Terms. . . . . . . . . . 9
Terms Related to Hypotheses. . . . . . 9
Terms Related to Method. . . . . . ... 10
Organization of the Study . . . . . . .. 11

TWO REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE. . . . . . . ... 12

Daniel Gregory Mason in Music Curricula . . ... 13
Music Criticism and Analytical Methods. . . . ... 18
Theory of Music . . . . . . . . . 27
Symphonic Writing of the Time (circa 1910-1949) . .. 33
Justification for the Present Research. . . . ... 37

THREE PROCEDURE . . . . . . . . ... .. .. .39

General Research Design . . . . . . .... 39
Collection of Data. . . . . . . . . ... 44
Analysis of Data. . . . . . . . . ... 45

FOUR SYMPHONY NO. 1 IN C MINOR, OPUS 11 (1913) ..... . 46

Style-Critical and Theoretical Descriptive Analyses . 47
First Movement, Largo sostenuto. . . . ... 48
Second Movement, Larghetto tranquillo. . . ... 53
Final Movement, Allegro motto marcato. . . ... 58

Matrix Tables . . . . . . . . ... .. 66
Summary . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .71

FIVE SYMPHONY NO. 2 IN A MAJOR, OPUS 30 (1928) ...... 73

Style-Critical and Theoretical Descriptive Analyses . 74
First Movement, AZZegro maestoso . . . ... 76
Second Movement, Andante sostenuto . . ... 81
Third Movement, Vivace scherzando. . . . ... 86
Final Movement, Lento, Largamente . . . ... 91
Matrix Tables . . . . . . . . ... .. 95
Summary . . . . . . . . ... . . . 100


Style-Critical and Theoretical Descriptive Analyses . 103
First Movement, Lento serioso, "The Candidate
from Springfield". . . . . . .... .104
Second Movement, Andante doZente, "Massa Linkum" 113
Third Movement, Allegro non troppo e pesante,
"Old Abe's Yarns". ............... 116
Final Movement, Lento serioso, "1865". ...... 119
Matrix Tables . . . . . . . . ... .. 123
Summary . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .128


Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Restatement of Problem and Purpose . . ... 131
Restatement of Methodology . . . . .... .131
Findings. . . . . . . . ... ..... .133
Hypothesis Number One. . . . . . . .. 133
Hypothesis Number Two. . . . . . . .. 135
Hypothesis Number Three. . . . . . ... 138
Hypothesis Number Four . . . . . .... .141
Implications . . . . . . . . . .. 144
Procedure and Methodology. . . . . . .. 144
Hypotheses and Findings. . . . . . ... 145
Recommendations . . . . . . . .... 147


BY MEASURE. . . . . . . . . ... .. 149

BY MEASURE. . . . . . . . . ... .. 152

SYNOPSIS BY MEASURE . . . . . . .... 155


REFERENCES ......... .. ......... .......... 159

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH................. .... ..... 165




1 Sample Matrix Used for Gathering Data for Hypothesis No. 1.

2 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 1. . . .

3 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 2. . . .

4 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 3. . . .

5 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 4. . . .

6 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 1 . . .

7 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 2. . . .

8 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 3 . . .

9 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 4 . . .

10 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 1 . . .

11 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 2 . . .

12 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 3. . . .

13 Component Analysis of Symphon
Hypothesis No. 4. . . .

y No. 1 in

y No. 1 in

y No. 1 in

y No. 1 in

y No. 2 in

y No. 2 in

y No. 2 in

y No. 2 in

y No. 3 in

y No. 3 in

y No. 3 in

y No. 3 in

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to .

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to

Relationship to
Relationship to
. . . . .

Relationship to
. . . . . .

Relationship to

Relationship to

14 Summation of Classical Components of All Symphonies in
Relationship to Hypothesis No. 1 . . . . .

15 Summation of Eclectic Sources Utilized in All Symphonies
in Relationship to Hypothesis No. 2 .. . . . .




















Table Page

16 Frequency of Eclectic Styles of All Symphonies. . . ... 138

17 Summation of Unsophisticated Compositional Techniques of
All Symphonies in Relationship to Hypothesis No. 3. ... 139

18 Summation of Nationalistic Components of All Symphonies in
Relationship to Hypothesis No. 4. . . . . . ... 142



Example No. Page

SYMPHONY NO. 1, First Movement

1 Principal Theme, Antecedent Phrase (measures 1-4) . 48
2 Principal Theme, Consequent Phrase (measures 6-11). . 49
3 Secondary Theme (measures 44-47). . . . . .. 50
4 Third Theme (measures 56-60). . . . . . ... 50
5 Fourth Theme (measures 83-87) . . . . .... .51
6 Presto Theme (measures 381-384) . . . . .... .52

SYMPHONY NO. 1, Second Movement

7 Principal Theme (measures 11-17). . . . . .. 54
8 Modified Principal Theme (measures 18-20) ...... 54
9 Introductory Trumpet Fanfare (measures 59-63) .... . 55
10 Secondary Theme (measures 69-74) . . . . .. 56
11 Modified Secondary Theme (measures 80-83) . . .. 57

SYMPHONY NO. 1, Final Movement

12 Introductory Timpani Solo (measures 1-5). . . .. 58
13 Principal Theme (measures 7-11) . . . . . . 59
14 Interval Comparison of Examples 10 and 13 ...... 59
15 Modified Consequent Phrase (measures 11-14) . . .. 60
16 Bridge Theme (measures 55-59) . . . . . .. 61
17 Secondary Theme (measures 74-83). . . . . . 61
18 Inverted Bridge Material (measures 86-87 compared
with 26-27) . . . . . . . . . . . 62
19 New Thematic Bridge Material (measures 93-97) .... . 62
20 Modified Secondary Theme (measures 181-184 compared
with Example No. 17) . . . . . . . . 64
21 Syncopated Rhythm of Coda (measures 220-225). .... . 65
22 Fully Scored Syncopated Coda Melody (measures
233-234) . . . . . . . . . . .. 65

SYMPHONY NO. 2, First Movement

23 Principal Theme (measures 3-6). . . . . . ... 76
24 Secondary Theme (measures 21-24) . . . . .. 76
25 Inversion of Principal Theme (measures 51-55) . .. 77
26 Third Theme, Transitional (measures 71-79). . . ... 78
27 Fourth Theme, Horn (measures 86-94) . . . ... 79
28 Fifth Theme, Flutes and Harp (measures 94-97) .... . 79

Example No. Page

29 Sixth Theme in Violin (measures 102-105). . . .. 80
30 Rescored Principal Theme, Flute and Bassoon (measures
167-174) . . . . . . . . . . . 81

SYMPHONY NO. 2, Second Movement

31 Principal Theme, Strings (measures 1-8) . . ... 82
32 Secondary Theme (measures 20-24). . . . . ... 83
33 Contrapuntal Duet and Obliggato (measures 34-39). . 83
34 Fugue Subject (measures 91-94). . . . . . . 84
35 Fugue Countersubject (measures 95-98) . . . ... 85
36 Syncopated Bass Line in Fugue (measures 110-114). . 85

SYMPHONY NO. 2, Third Movement

37 Principal Theme (measures 1-7). . . . . . . 86
38 Harp Pizzicato (measures 41-47) . . . . .... .87
39 Secondary Theme, Horn(measures 92-98) . . . ... 87
40 Antecedent Phrase of "Trio" Theme (measures 228-232) . 88
41 Consequent Phrase of "Trio" Theme(measures 233-237) . 89
42 Violin Theme (measures 382-387) Compared with
Example No. 27. . . . . . . . . .. . 90
43 Timpani Rhythm of Coda(measures 400-402). . . .. 90

SYMPHONY NO. 2, Final Movement

44 Principal Theme (measures 1-4) . . . . . 91
45 Recycled Maestoso Rhythm(measures 139-140). . . . 92
46 Harmonic Pyramid in Coda(measures 201-203). . . . 93

SYMPHONY NO. 3, First Movement

47 Opening Lincoln Motif(measures 1-4) . . . ... 104
48 Full Lincoln Theme(measures 186-191). . . . ... 105
49 Star Spangled Banner(measures 1-4). . . . . ... 106
50 Lincoln Motif . . . . . . . . ... ... 106
51 Principal Theme(measures 13-20) . . . . .... 106
52 Secondary Theme(measures 72-80) . . . . .... 107
53 Bridge Theme(measures 80-85). . . . . . ... 108
54 Third Theme Derived from Lincoln Theme(measures
142-149). . . . . . . . ... ..... 109
55 Modulation Theme(measures 168-172). . . . . ... 110
56 Subject of First Fugue, "Lincoln"(measures 186-200) . 111
57 Subject of Second Fugue, "Douglas"(measures 225-232). 112
58 Countersubject of Second Fugue(measures 231-234). . 112
59 Maestoso Tempo Di Marcia Theme(measures 260-264). . 113

SYMPHONY NO. 3, Second Movement

60 Principal Theme(measures 1-6) . . . . . . 114
61 Impressionistic String Harmonies(measures 28-33). . 114


Example No. Page

SYMPHONY NO. 3, Third Movement

62 Principal Theme, Antecedent Phrase (measures 1-8). ... 116
63 Principal Theme, Consequent Phrase measures 18-20). .. 117
64 Secondary Theme (measures 62-69). . . . . ... 117
65 Strings from Coda (measures 217-229). . . . ... 119

SYMPHONY NO. 3, Final Movement

66 Introduction of Funeral March (measures 21-24). ... 120
67 Theme of Funeral March (measures 25-29) . . . .. 121
68 Bridge Material (measures 114-155) . . . ... 121

Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy



David Neal Kapec

December, 1982

Chairman: Dr. Albert B. Smith, III
Cochairman: Dr. David Z. Kushner
Major Department: Curriculum and Instruction

The primary purpose of the study was to ascertain possible explana-

tions as to why Mason's symphonies did not gain wide acceptance or

acclaim. The methodology included identifying in detail the composer's

stylistic characteristics. The three symphonies analyzed were Symphony

No. 1 in C minor, opus 11 (1913), Symphony No. 2 in A major, opus 30

(1928) with the 1944 revisions, and Symphony No. 3 "Lincoln" in Bb

major, opus 35 (1935).

To gain greater reliability of the conclusions four hypotheses

were tested; these were the symphonies failed to gain acceptance and

popularity because 1) they were overburdened with eighteenth century

classical style and forms; 2) they utilized numerous eclectic styles

such as neo-baroque, neo-classicism, neo-romanticism, nationalism,

impressionism, and expressionism; 3) the composer utilized unsophisti-

cated compositional techniques cateringto the untrained listener of

music. The Third Symphony attained what limited popularity it did

because 4) the composer incorporated selected nationalistic elements

into the work.

Traditional analyses of style as prescribed by LaRue, Meyer,

Siegmeister, Hutcheson, Sessions, White, and Piston were employed as

the method of analysis, and the results were quantified into matrix

and summation tables.

Based on the findings, it was concluded that Mason did use neo-

classical elements, but not in sufficient quantities to accept the first

hypothesis; therefore, hypothesis one was rejected. Hypothesis two,

however, was accepted since many eclectic styles were identified.

Hypothesis three was also accepted because of the many unsophisticated

compositional techniques found in these three symphonies. Hypothesis

four was supported by the findings which showed a high degree of

nationalistic elements in his Third Symphony. It was concluded overall

that Mason wrote for the masses, and by choice, he incorporated the

styles which were identified.

The researcher recommended that actual performances of the three

symphonies be conducted, as well as the symphonies being transcribed

to other media for more accessibility to the public. Inclusion of the

findings of this study into music curricula of higher education dealing

with American music, symphonic literature, and nationalism in music

was also recommended.


Daniel Gregory Mason (1873-1953) was among the most widely read

American authors on the subject of music during the first four decades

of this century. Because of this popularity, and the lack of research

dealing with his compositions, the topic of this study was to conduct

an analytical and theoretical study of his three symphonies.

Through such analyses, additional dimensions were ascertained as to why

these works did not gain acclaim through public demand for repeat


As a result of his literary achievements, many institutions and

individuals benefitted from his keen observations, perceptive insights,

and enduring theories concerning music. He lectured and taught through-

out the country promoting music which he felt should be readily acces-

sible to the untrained listener of music. Because of this, his views

appeared to sympathize with Soviet realism (Schwartz, 1972). Mason

philosophically concluded that music was most enduring when it was

socially conceived and suitable for human nature (Mason, 1948). For

example, in the late 1940's, he stated his belief that cyclism (Apel,

1972) was one of the highest sociable aspects within music.

I believe this guidance of the listener through the
labyrinth of a movement by giving him definite themes
and their developments to follow, is one of the most
sociable features of the classic symphony. . I
believe that this process technically known as
"cyclism" of carrying an important theme through a
whole work or cycle of movements, with such changes

as adjust it to changing conditions, is of immense
value both to the variety and the unity of a symphonic
structure, and has limitless possibilities. Note that
it again is a "sociable" process, depending for its
success on both the ingenuity of the composer and the
keenness and adjustability of perception of the listener.
(Mason, 1948, p. X7)

The acceptance of his symphonies, however, was inversely propor-

tionate to the popularity of his lectures, teachings, and theories.

Mason's symphonic writings, therefore, did not receive acclaim from

either the public or the professional musician. Historically, when

such discrepancies existed between the popularity of literary works

and musical compositions of the same individual musician, the composer

was either writing in an antiquated style or an avant-garde fashion

(Apel, 1972). It was this discrepancy--popular literary works versus

unpopular symphonic works--which was the focus of this investigation.

By looking at Mason's compositional styles and forms, this researcher

attempted to ascertain why the composer's three symphonies did not

receive acclaim through repeat performances.

Statement of the Problem

Since Mason's literary articles and lectures were better known

than his symphonies, there has been little analysis of his musical

works. The problem of this study was that heretofore undergraduates,

graduates, and other advanced students of music did not have complete,

systematic analyses of the works of Mason by which to determine why

the symphonies did not gain acceptance into the performing marketplace.

The purpose of the study, therefore, was to ascertain, through detailed

analyses, why the symphonies were not artistically considered to be

great works (Haydon, 1941), worthy of acceptance into the standard

repertory of the major symphony orchestras of America.


Prior to this study there existed no detailed analyses (Howard,

1968) by which to evaluate the symphonies. In order to conduct the

study, four hypotheses were formulated; three were used to reach a

conclusion about why the symphonies did not attain greatness while a

fourth one served to test why the Third Symphony in particular gained

limited popularity. The four hypotheses were

1. The symphonies failed to gain acceptance and popularity be-

cause the composer relied on once popular but antiquated eighteenth

century classical style and forms (neo-classicism) rather than utilizing

contemporary structures and procedures.

2. The symphonies were unpopular because they were written in

a radically eclectic manner using a multitude of sources within one

symphony which caused disunity within, and among, movements. These

eclectic sources tested were neo-baroque, neo-classicism, neo-romanti-

cism, nationalism, impressionism, and expressionism.

3. The symphonies did not achieve repeat performances because

the composer utilized unsophisticated compositional techniques catered

to the untrained listener of music. The refined concert-goer, there-

fore, absorbed the simplistic techniques on a first or second listen-

ing, and the audiences' interests were not captivated on subsequent


4. The composer relied on nationalistic elements in his Third

Symphony more than in the other symphonies, which may account for its

greater popularity than the first two symphonies.

Specific musical examples from the symphony scores provided

evidence with regard to accepting or rejecting the hypotheses. In

addition, there was an attempt to quantify the specific musical

traits relating to the hypotheses so that more valid conclusions

could be achieved. A summary of implications as to how this study

and its conclusions could be utilized in music curricula of higher

education was provided. In addition, implications for specific

courses such as symphonic literature, American music, and national-

ism in music were explored.

Need for the Study

Since it has been recognized (Klein, 1957) that Mason's true

achievements were realized in his literary works, there has been no

attempt to promote his orchestral works, especially his symphonies.

However, since specific course study in American music has evolved--

rather than being grouped under one large category such as twentieth

century music--the inclusion and entry of his musical works could be

more thorough and detailed. The bicentennial celebrations in America,

funded by private and public institutions, acted as a catalyst to pro-

mote the research of music in the United States. Many concert-goers

benefitted from the research initiated in 1976. The present study

continued that same need by the public and serious music students

alike to fulfill basic inquiries into American musical heritage

(Hitchcock, 1974).

Perhaps the greatest need was to analyze Mason's symphonies and

to disseminate the identifiable traits which caused them to lack the

qualities needed for inclusion into the standard orchestral repertory.

By doing this, the student of music would then have a method of

evaluating the symphonies and comparing them with other works. Cur-

riculum planners could also utilize Mason's symphonies as supplements

to other music courses, primarily those dealing with American music

and the symphony.

Hypothesis one addressed the possibility that Mason's works were

not accepted because they were written for an audience of a time

period other than Mason's contemporary listeners. In several of his

other compositions he adhered to classical style, and extensively used

forms such as sonata allegro form, rondo, bi-partite and tri-partite

forms, and scherzi. Perhaps this was a result of the composer's pre-

occupation with imitating models such as Mozart, Beethoven, and

others (Chase, 1960), instead of composing to his contemporary audience

of the twentieth century. This study attempted to test whether he carried

this musical practice over into his symphonies.

The second hypothesis was developed to see whether or not the

composer created disunity within the symphonies by utilizing eclectic

styles and by not formulating his own unique and innovative style.

Although the symphonies,themselves,might not have contained defective

aspects in compositional form, harmony, melody, development, and

orchestration, they may not have appealed to his audiences because of

an overreliance on eclectic writing.

The third hypothesis was formulated from the composer's preoccu-

pation with writing music for the masses instead of for the advanced

music listener. He attempted to assist the untrained listener of music

by oversimplifying the compositional techniques (Apel, 1972), and thus

did not incorporate the frequent complexities needed to qualify the

work as a great composition.

Hypothesis four led to an examination of the effect of nationalism

on the limited success of Mason's Third Symphony. This last hypothesis

had implications for incorporating the symphony into college music

curricula dealing with nationalism, while the former three hypotheses

had implications for curricula dealing with the symphony and American


Although the present study did not prove or disprove conclusively,

through the use of hypotheses, why the symphonies did not gain favor

with the music listening audience, the study did, however, amplify and

present greater dimensions as to why the symphonies did not achieve

greater acclaim.


Since the study was based on the acceptance or rejection of four

specific research hypotheses, it was necessary to delimit the focus of

the study to the three symphonies rather than the six orchestral works

which can be considered symphonic in nature. In addition, the study

was delimited to the musical elements of the scores rather than in-

corporating the opinions and interpretations which other writers have

formulated about Mason's personal life. In this manner, it alleviated

the possibility of other non-musical prejudices to contaminate the

validity of the data and conclusions. Including those mentioned above,

the researcher employed the following delimitations:

1. The eleven movements of the three symphonies of Mason were

cited as the boundaries from which the analytical data were extracted.

The purpose was to gather musical elements which were contained only

in the scores of the symphonies.

2. The particular editions of the scores were chosen as follows:

The University Edition was used for the First Symphony (copyrighted

1926); the Edwin A. Fleisher manuscript version with 1944 revisions

was used for the Second Symphony, and the Juilliard Edition published

by the American Music Center was used for the Third "Lincoln" Symphony


3. The style-critical method chosen was an amalgamation of LaRue

(1970), Siegmeister (1965), Hutcheson (1972), Sessions (1951), White

(1968), Meyer (1973), and Piston (1941, 1950).

4. Although other non-musical factors could have contributed to

the symphonies not achieving public recognition, the present study only

dealt with the musical components contained in the eleven movements of

the three symphonies.

By confining the study to the aforementioned precepts, the evi-

dence gathered was more valid as a means to accept or reject the four

research hypotheses. Through this focusing, the discrepancies which

existed between Mason's literary works and musical works were identi-



The present study employed the following limitations:

1. Conclusions as a result of accepting or rejecting the four

hypotheses could not be generalized to other orchestral works by Mason

with any great reliability.

2. Since the ultimate success of a work depends upon the recep-

tivity of the listening audience, attitudes of the general public may

have contributed or been responsible for the works not achieving suc-

cess. This presented a major limitation to the research because no

identifiable method existed in which to evaluate the skills, percep-

tions, and keenness of the listening audience of the early twentieth


3. The study could not attempt to measure thosenon-musical forces

such as politics, social conflicts, or boycotts by ethnic or other

groups which may or may not have influenced the receptivity to the

symphonies by the general public.

4. If the fourth hypothesis was accepted, then the conclusion

must be limited to Mason's own partial success and not generalized to

state that other composers could gain wider acceptance by using national-

istic traits indigenous to their countries. Nationalism, therefore,

may have proved successful in Mason's case, but a generalization that

nationalism used in any musical composition would increase its popularity

would be invalid.

These limitations provided the framework for reaching conclusions

in this investigation.


For the purpose of this research, the following definitions were


General Terms

Great works. Musical works of sufficient complexity of detail or

implication to sustain the listener's interest during repeated perfor-


Musical esthetics. The sharing of artistic experience between

composer and listener which has three component parts: the musical

composition, the performance, and the response of the audience. The

first two parts form the stimulus and the last part the response or


Style-critical. Defining or establishing features and methods

of treating two major areas. The first major area is the technical

aspects such as form, melody, rhythm, tonality, meter, modality, and

others; the second major area is esthetic, such as expression, meaning,

and social implications.

Theoretical. Fundamental technical knowledge of music in con-

struction and classification of counterpoint, form, orchestration, and

others. It involves the discovery, verification, and organization of

the component parts of music.

Symphony. A multi-movement musical composition for orchestra

using symphony in its title.

Terms Related to Hypotheses

Classical style. A specific style of musical composition charac-

terized by formal elegance, simplicity, dignity, correctness of style,

lack of emotion, and order illustrated in the time period of approxi-

mately 1750-1830 by the Viennese school, especially symphonies and

string quartets of Haydn and Mozart.

Eclectic. Utilizing a multiplicity of styles and "schools" of

composition within one musical work or movement.

Nationalism. Musical compositions which are an expression of

national traits by using elements such as folk melodies, dance rhythms,

ethnic traits, heroic personalities for subject matter, and other

identifiable qualities indigenous to a specific country.

Simplistic manner. Opposite of a great musical work, a musical

composition constructed in such a way that it yields all of its detail

and complexity within a limited number of listening.

Terms Related to Method

Musical formal analysis. Discovering, identifying, and classify-

ing how musical tones are grouped to yield a structure in which a

listener can perceive the organizational groupings such as motifs,

phrases, and cadences into larger structures as sonata, rondo, fugue,

and other major structures.

Harmonic rhythm. The pattern of harmony within a piece of music

which yields important and distinctive features of style and texture.

Stylistic analysis. Same as style-critical under "General Terms."

Although there were numerous other terms which were utilized in

the study, the researcher employed the traditional definitions, and,

therefore, no special amplification was needed here. Definitions of

these terms can be found in Haydon's Introduction to Musicology (1941)

and other authoritative sources (Apel, 1972).


Organization of the Study

The remainder of this research study was organized in the follow-

ing manner: Chapter Two contains a review of the research, theories,

and analytical methods relating to the focus of the study; Chapter Three

outlines the procedure and methodology to be implemented in the accept-

ing or rejecting of the four hypotheses tested; Chapters Four through

Six provide the descriptive analyses, data, and results of Symphonies

One through Three, respectively; and Chapter Seven concludes the study

with a summation of the findings, implications for music curricula,

and recommendations for further study.


The following chapter is broken into four subsections dealing with

1) Daniel Gregory Mason in Music Curricula, 2) Music Criticism and

Analytical Methods, 3) the Theory of Music, and 4) Symphonic Writing

of the Time circa 1910 to 1949. The first section provides an under-

standing of Mason's theories and his analyses of not only other com-

posers' works, but of his own. The purpose for reviewing his texts

was to ascertain if he, himself, might have provided clues or analyses

of why his symphonies did not gain greater acceptance. Because of

Mason's preoccupation with classical composers, his literary works were

permeated with this influence, and thus provided the basis for the for-

mation of hypothesis one. Although certain sources and materials cited

in this section did not directly contribute to the methodology of the

study, each was essential in providing a basis in the formation of

the study's four hypotheses. These materials were used in establishing

definitions, methodology, and evaluation criteria for this research.

The second section explores the various methods employed by the

music community in ascertaining the worth of a composition, and how a

listener in a particular time period perceived the performance. This

section provides information on other similar research, and how the

method chosen for this study was formulated.

The third section, Theory of Music, deals with the systematized

hierarchy of orchestration, counterpoint, phrasing, form, intervals,


melody, acoustics, and includes those fundamental techniques upon which

all compositions are based. This section also provided other studies

and papers which shed light on the development of the present investi-


The fourth section provides an overview of symphonic compositional

styles of the times (1910-1949). It established the basis for which

to compare Mason's works to the mainstream of compositions'during the

four early decades of the twentieth century.

Daniel Gregory Mason in Music Curricula

Mason wrote nineteen books, and numerous magazine and newspaper

articles. Several of his lectures were later incorporated into some

of his publications. The following section provides a brief description

of those books and how they related to the present study.

Mason's first book, From Grieg to Brahms (1902), contains an

introduction entitled "The Appreciation of Music," in which Mason

sketched the principles of musical art and development in musical

history. It was in this section that Mason expressed his views which

he would later incorporate into his symphonic and other musical works.

This chapter was followed by studies on Grieg, Dvorak, Saint-Saens,

Franck, Tschaikovsky, and Brahms. Mason arranged these composers in

an order in which he felt they exerted an influence on Western music,

specifically orchestral compositions. It was here that Mason's pre-

ference for formal structures was discovered. The final chapter in

this book was an epilogue similar to an essay on the meaning of music

in which he considered life a medium for music. Here, Mason described


his esthetic opinions that music should be written for the untrained

listener of music.

In Beethoven and His Forerunners (1904), Mason devoted the first

section of the volume to subjects such as the development and origins

of music, Palestrina, the music of mysticism, the modern spirit, and

the principles of pure music. The latter portion involved the music

of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Mason treated the material in a sub-

jective manner. It was through the reading of this text and others

that the first hypothesis for this study was developed. Mason con-

sistently praised these composers and hinted that writing in this

classical style should be promoted as it was in the eighteenth century.

Within the volume, The Romantic Composers (1906), Mason took up

the study of composers and their music at the death of Beethoven and

carried it through the period of romanticism. He included in this

work a discussion of the music of Schubert, Schumann, Mendelssohn,

Chopin, Berlioz, and Liszt. His plan for the text followed that of

Beethoven and His Forerunners in that the treatment of the music in-

volved the composers and their works.

The Contemporary Composers (1918a), Mason's fourth book on the

subject of great composers, was arranged in the same manner as the

other books mentioned earlier. An introduction in the form of an essay

on "Democracy and Music" was included with subsequent studies on

Strauss, Elgar, Debussy, and d'Indy. The closing essay was on Music

in America. This was an important source for this research, for it

formed the basis of this study's fourth hypothesis. It was here that

Mason espoused that composers should utilize the sources of their own

country and need not "import" European styles or traditions.


Mason published, under the general heading of The Appreciation of

Music Series (1921), numerous volumes of texts designed for the layman

of music. They were put together from the many lectures and classes

he taught over the years. One volume was coauthored with Thomas

Whitney, and expressed that music should be composed in such a manner

that the uninitiated music listener could appreciate the composition.

Since Mason felt that music should be written for the untrained musical

listener, he felt that composers should use compositional techniques

which would assist the listener in following other compositional com-

plexities which existed throughout the work. The third hypothesis

was developed from this premise.

The Orchestral Instruments and What They Do (1909b) was a book

in which Mason illustrated the various instruments and described their

tone quality and range of pitch. Each family of instruments was dis-

cussed in this work after a description of the orchestra. How the un-

trained listener can interpret the music was also explained. This

publication was intended as a guide for the concert-goer.

The book, From Song to Symphony (1924), was very similar to The

Appreciation of Music except that here Mason approached the study of

composers and their music through analyzing the chief musical media--

folk songs, art songs, opera, oratorio, piano music, chamber music,

and orchestral music--rather than through the various structural forms.

Here, Mason let the reader know his preference for certain musical

media which favor accessible works for the ease of the listener.

Mason considered his Artistic Ideas .(1927) his best book. This

work was developed from a series of lectures which covered topics such

as independence, spontaneity, workmanship, originality, universality,



and fellowship. The audience for this work was the creative artist.

It was through a text such as this where a discrepancy existed between

musical works and literary works. All philosophies contained herein

appeared not to have been utilized by Mason in his symphonies. Had

he employed his literary philosophies espoused in this text into his

musical works, especially originality and innovation, his works could

have perhaps been more widely accepted.

The Dilemma of American Music and Other Essays (1928) was an

accumulation of magazine articles published in Mason's early life.

The layman of music benefitted from this text in that the problems of

early twentieth century American music were discussed. The text pro-

vided added information with regard to the fourth hypothesis. It

further explained Mason's understanding of audiences' skills in music,

and what musical compositions they could comprehend more readily.

Tune In, America (1931) was perhaps his most controversial book

(Chase, 1960). The theme of the book provided an independence from the

feeling of inferiority in relationship to European musicians. Hereto-

fore, the public viewed the composers of America as less creative than

their counterparts in other countries because of the disparity of

music traditions. Mason criticized "imported" conductors for neg-

lecting to perform American works. He felt that jazz, however, was

not worthy of its performance, even though it was indigenously American.

The encouragement of young American composers to adopt an attitude of

"sobriety and restraint" was an underlying theme. It was this text

that may have been responsible for the negative attitudes of the general

public toward Mason's symphonies. This was an example of one of the

non-musical political entities which is discussed in a subsequent sec-

tion of this paper.

Mason traced the growth and development of Brahms as a composer

in The Chamber Music of Brahms (1933). Mason organized the book around

the maturing of Brahms as a man not as a composer. The publication

was intended for the enjoyment of chamber music lovers as well as for

students of music. The author presumed much knowledge about technical

matters, and consequently the text was of little value to the layman

of music. Throughout the book, Mason expressed the loyalty and

respect which he had for Brahms. It also shed light on Mason's use

of formality in structure with a romantic coloring which was a charac-

teristic of Brahms' music. This book provided one of the clues which

pointed to the possibility of Mason using eclectic styles within one


Music in My Time and Other Reminiscences (1938) was a rich source

of Mason's personal life, both biographical and autobiographical.

Mason provided the reader with a further understanding of himself and

his enduring theories concerning music. This source provided a base

on which to both analyze the symphonies and to formulate the


Mason's last book, the Quartets of Beethoven (1947), was an

analytical study of the quartets--all sixteen plus the "Grosse Fugue."

The analyses were highly technical in nature; therefore, they presumed

much information about music theory and analysis. This technical

analysis approach was used in this investigation to evaluate and

analyze Mason's symphonies. Using the composer's own techniques

provided greater credibility to this study.'. The other Mason books are


listed here; however, they contributed less to this study than the

previous sources: The Appreciation of Music (1907) coauthored with

T.W. Surette; Ears to Hear (1925); A Guide to Music for Beginners and

Others (1909a); Music as Humanity and Other Essays (1921); A Neglected

Sense in Piano Playing (1912); Short Studies of Great Masterpieces

(1918b); Great Modern Composers (1916) coauthored with Mary Mason.

The literary sources cited in this section contributed'to the

present study as follows:

1. All sources mentioned provided key points in formulating the

four hypotheses used in the study.

2. A selected group of texts formed the basis of the methodology

of the study. Mason's own analytical technique, which he used in the

study of Beethoven quartets, was of prime interest.

3. Mason's own texts and articles formed the base for conducting

the present study.

4. After a perusal of Mason's literary works, there existed no

possible explanation by the composer, himself, as to why his symphonies

did not receive the same acclaim as his many texts. Had an explana-

tion been discovered, there may not have been a need for this study.

Music Criticism and Analytical Methods

The following material provided the investigator with an overview

of the various sources available for inquiry into topics concerning

criticism and analysis of music. The sources cited functioned as aids

in understanding the more complicated analyses which were used in

testing the four hypotheses in this study.

Crocker, in a text entitled A History of Musica.ZStyle (1966), de-

voted his attention primarily to musical style rather than to music

history. Because the author specialized in various musical periods,

the text attracted many readers for the purpose of utilizing the source

as a reference in various curricula on the subject. None of Mason's

works were used, but the source provided basic analysis and style


The text, A History of Music andMusical Style (1963), by Ulrich and

Pisk contained extensive examples of various style analyses in the

different musical time periods from an historical view rather than an

analytical one. For example the method used for analyzing classical

style music was primarily of form, tonality, and development of the

principal material, and how the composer deviated from traditional

norms. This provided a method for evaluating the data relating to the

first hypothesis. Although used primarily as a music history source,

the style analysis of Ulrich and Pisk provided differentiation between


A compilation of writings by theorists, composers, music critics,

and other personalities involved in the study of music and criticism

was provided in Strunk's Source Readings in Music History (1950). The

most beneficial use of this source came as a supplemental source to

history, literature, and especially music criticism. The many transla-

tions and topics provided rewarding examples that otherwise would not

have been accessible. With this text various periods and events of

music history and criticism were presented so as to form a basis for

esthetics and style analysis. The source readings provided firsthand


information on how outstanding musicians arrived at their particular

theories of music history and criticism.

Warner's, The History of Music, originally written in German under

the title Geschichte der Musik (1973), utilized many approaches to the

history of music through an outline form. The text was significant to

this study because Wbrner proceeded by using stylistic, national, and

biographical views to organize the book, which especially assisted in

the method employed in evaluating the four hypotheses of this study.

One of the most comprehensive texts about music history and cri-

ticism was Haydon's Introduction to Musicology (1941). Haydon pro-

vided the standards for approaching the subject of music history, cri-

ticism, and analysis from different theoretical concepts throughout

time. Not only did Haydon provide theoretical bases for the present

study, but he contributed to the many operational definitions used in

the study. Although Haydon did not provide musical examples, he pre-

sented a more systematized foundation and criteria for music analysis,

theory, criticism, and history.

Some authors segregated the various components that make up the

study of music history by subcontracting a specialist in a particular

field to write about that subject. The results were combined into a

series of books under the main title of history or style analysis. One

such approach was the Prentice-Ba7Z History of Music Series (1965-1969).

The series contains eight different texts; however, the only one that

contributed to the present study was Hitchcock's Music in the United

States: A Historical Introduction (1974). The author explained the

various styles of musical composition which were taking place at the

time Mason wrote his three symphonies. From this text, it was determined


what type of compositions were being accepted by the audiences of

Mason's time. There were no analyses or evaluations of Mason's sym-

phonies in this publication, and no real explanation as to why they

were not accepted. Hitchcock merely listed Mason's name under a

classification he refers to as the second New England school.

Another music series book on history and style covered topics from

Greek and Hebrew music to supplements on contemporary music.' It was

edited by Buck, and entitled the Oxford History of Music (1929). Colles,

author of volume seven, Symphony and Drama 1895-1900 (1934), provided

continuity of how the symphony evolved over the last portion of the

nineteenth century, but he did not mention Mason or his symphonies.

This volume contained an outline of the eclectic styles which Mason may

have used in borrowing from Brahms and d'Indy.

Dart, in his The Interpretation of Music (1954), provided technical

knowledge of how to evaluate musical performances to ascertain if such

performances were recreated in the manner in which the composer intended.

Dart planned his text for those with advanced technical knowledge in

music because he encouraged the serious music enthusiast to scrutinize

performances and compositions. He accomplished this by recommending

the study of original scores and treatises written during the specific

time period in which the work was composed. It was this section which

assisted the investigator of this study in the selection of his method

of analysis and interpretation of scores. Dart organized his book by

starting with the most recent music--where interpretation is not that

vague--and proceeded by retrograde motion to the more complex inter-

pretation of the Middle Ages.


In Composer and Critic (1946), Graf not only traced the develop-

ment of music criticism as a practice, but also discussed two hundred

years of criticism by the most authoritative sources including composers

themselves. The author further employed a "history of ideas method"

by tracing the origin and development of music criticism. Graf provided

standards which were applied to this author's analyses and evaluation

of Mason's symphonies.

One of the best texts on the subject of musical esthetics and

criticism was Hanslick's Vom Musikalisch-Schonon (1854) or The Beautiful

in Music (translated in 1957). Hanslick promoted his philosophy, or

theory of music, by defining music as the experiencing of sounds in

motion and their relationship to movement. This was in direct opposi-

tion to those who maintained that music could depict or narrate a story

as a form of "universal language." Hanslick was labeled an autonomist

because he maintained that music was a self-sufficient realm of orga-

nized sounds which meant nothing. The opposing view (heteronomists)

stated that music functions to denote or connote certain specific ideas,

things, emotions, and was like a language. Since Mason utilized pro-

grammatic elements to describe Lincoln, he would have been classified as

a heteronomist. Although Hanslick and Mason would probably have been

opposed to each other's philosophies, Hanslick's ideas were used in

this research to test the fourth hypothesis. This was done by separating

the pure musical sounds in motion from the extra, nationalistic elements

which denote a nation's heritage.

The purpose of Cuyler's The Symphony (1973) was to trace the two

hundred year development of the symphony as a musical form by citing

and discussing the most representative compositions and other


contributory symphonies from each period of music. Unfortunately, there

was no mention of Mason's symphonies. Cuyler described the development

of the symphony during Mason's time, but did not include him in a list

of composers who wrote symphonies. The analyses used by Cuyler com-

prised general analytical techniques and were not patterned after any

one method. Her style of analysis was used for a different result and,

therefore, did not contribute to the method of analysis in the present


LaRue's Guidelines for Style Analysis (1970) had a great influence

on the investigator because it was this text which was used by the re-

searcher in coursework while pursuing graduate studies. The text was

one of the few in which a systemized method of musical analysis was

employed in great detail. The investigator used a modified version of

LaRue's method. Of greatest value were chapters two through six in

discussing the sound, harmony, melody, rhythm, and growth (SHMRG) tech-

nique of analysis.

One of the two doctoral dissertations on Mason, Klein's "The

Contributions of Daniel Gregory Mason in American Music" (1957),

dealt with an overview of Mason as author, lecturer, educator, adminis-

trator, and composer. The dissertation was very comprehensive and

excellently written, but without detailed analyses of any of Mason's

symphonies. The publication contained a very thorough report of the

genealogy of Mason's family, including the other notable musicians in

the family. Klein's outstanding achievement, however, was an accurate

listing of all of the composer's works which was more detailed than any

other preexisting list of works by the composer. Instead of using the

Dewey decimal system for cataloging Mason's'works at Columbia University,

Klein separated the compositions into boxes. By using an index as a

guide, a particular work could now be located for study. This organi-

zation was helpful in securing scores for this investigation.

Two years after Klein's research, another dissertation appeared;

this time the author, Lewis, placed emphasis on the "Life and Music of

Daniel Gregory Mason" (1959). Here, Lewis provided more detailed analyses

than Klein, especially with regard to Mason's feeling that an indigenous

American music was formulated through folk songs and other inherent

qualities in America. Lewis did identify where these qualities existed

in Mason's works, and to some extent, in the symphonies. But the

identification was general and did not provide information which proved

or disproved the four hypotheses of this study. Again the dissertation

was an excellent overview of several topics; however, the author never

provided detailed analyses on which to evaluate Mason's music. Nor

was there any attempt by Lewis to formulate hypotheses about Mason's

compositions. By providing examples of Mason's own theories with some

analysis, Lewis came very close to the objectives of this study. How-

ever, he did not amplify on those ideas by providing analyses sufficient

enough to yield evidence of why the public did not widely accept Mason's

symphonies as great works of art. Lewis' dissertation was cited as a

forerunner to the present study.

Another dissertation was completed by Hanna entitled "A Statistical

Analysis of Some Style Elements in the Solo Piano Sonatas of Franz

Schubert" (1965). Hanna determined certain style elements in Schubert's

Sonatas by tabulating the harmonic, melodic, and rhythmic components and

established the progressions of each. The results were presented in

summary tables. It was this method of quantifying the musical elements

into tabular form which was of significance to this study rather than

the topic of Schubert.

Since the present study was involved in identifying specific

qualities which could prove or disprove the four hypotheses, analytical

techniques were borrowed from Schwejda's "An Investigation of the

Analytical Techniques Used by Rudolph Reti in The Thematic Process in

Music"(1967). Here, there was a systematic approach in regard to

1) organic unity, 2) intuition and analysis, 3) esthetics and analysis,

4) sense perception and analysis, and 5) Reti's thematic transforma-

tions. This dissertation assisted in the methodology section of this

research by providing sources for analytical procedures.

The purpose of Kliewer's "The Concept of Organic Unity in Music

Criticism and Analysis" (1966) was to define what organic unity means

in a musical composition, and, in a logical way, how it applied to music

analysis. The study defined organic unity as a composition which is

coherently whole in which elements are completely interrelated. They

were integrated so that a high degree of affinity exists between the

parts and the whole. When analyzing a piece of music Kliewer believed

that one must, therefore, be reminded that it was an attempt to show

the essence of the composition while still considering the whole.

In looking for sources which might yield forms of analysis for

Mason's symphonies, the investigator perused Wenk's Analysis of Twen-

tieth Century Music: 1940-1970 (1975). Although Wenk listed Lewis'

dissertation on Mason, he was misleading, because Lewis' study did not

give a complete analysis of Mason's works. Since no other sources were

mentioned in Wenk's study, it provided further evidence that verified a

need to analyze Mason's symphonies.


Other studies, texts, or research data which influenced the pre-

sent study in the direction of analytical techniques, model studies,

similar methodology, or other guiding principles, but were not adequately

significant for individual discussion, are listed here: "The Symphonies

of Gustav Mahler: A Study of Musical Process and Symphonic Structure as

Related to the Composer's Programmatic Intentions and Literary Exposi-

tions" (Bergfeld, 1969); "The Symphonies of Anton Bruckner" (Wilcox,

1956); "The Four Symphonies of Charles Ives: A Critical Analytical Study

of the Musical Style of Charles Ives" (Badolato, 1958); "The Symphonies

of Sergei Prokoviev" (Brown, 1967); "An Analytical and Statistical Study

of the Harmony in Carl Nielsen's Six Symphonies" (Wilson, 1967); "Stylis-

tic Analysis of Selected Works by Frank Martin" (Tupper, 1964); "Music

and Language: Some Related Analytical Techniques" (Youngblood, 1960);

"Harmonic Analysis and Musical Style: Harmonic Causal Factors of Style

Recognition in Music, Methods of Analysis" (Schaeffer, 1937); "Stylistic

Development in Selected Symphonies of William Schuman: A Comparison

of Symphonies Three and Nine" (McKinley, 1977); The Art of Music: A

Short History of Musical Styles and Ideas (Cannon, Johnson, and Waite,

1960); Musical Form and Performance (Cone, 1968); The Continuity of

Music: A History of Influence (Kolodin, 1969); "The Organ Symphonies of

Charles Marie Widor" (Wilson, 1966); A History of Western Music (Grout,


The sources previously cited in the criticism and analysis section

contributed to the present study in the following ways:

1. The two dissertations completed in the late 1950's acted as

bases to continue the research of Mason's music. They also provided

the boundaries for this study so as not to duplicate previous research.


2. After reviewing sources dealing with symphonic literature,

there was revealed a total absence of Mason's symphonies which further

verified the need of the study.

3. Numerous sources provided the esthetic, analytical, and

philosophical bases on which to critique the Mason symphonies and

evaluate the data.

4. Particular sources yielded definitions of terms which were

more operational for this study than traditional definitions found


5. Previous accepted methodologies were the source for the for-

mation of the method employed in this study.

Theory of Music

The following section contains a discussion of various sources of

theoretical analyses while still addressing how composers used com-

ponents of music which form the foundation for composition. Although

no one particular method of theoretical analysis was utilized, selected

procedures from LaRue, Siegmeister, Hutcheson, Sessions, White, Meyer,

and Piston on analyzing component musical fundamentals were employed.

Piston's text on Harmony (1941) has been the most widely used

source on the subject of music theory in America. The author dealt

with fundamental theoretical concepts and practices, and provided a

framework on which more complex theories may be laid. Through Piston's

own admission, he felt that the text was at a disadvantage in compari-

son to other sources because it did not address the problems of con-

temporary practice. The author's fundamental belief was that vertical

treatment of harmony is the most valuable technique for studying the

subject. To arrive at a systematic analysis, this text was used in

conjunction with Piston's The Musical Experience (1950) which was more

thorough in its representation of the author's academic theory of music.

This work consisted of six lectures given at the Juilliard School of

Music in 1949; they dealt with musical impulse, musical ear, composer,

performer, listener, and music in the world today. It was this work

of Piston which provided direction for the present study.

Sessions also provided fundamental musical concepts in his Harmonic

Practice (1951). In chapter fourteen of this book, Sessions presented

the "Inadequacy of Theory as a Guide to Contemporary Practice." This

was the very point which Piston admitted was lacking in his treatise

on the topic. Since theory is a product of practice, the theorist has

to supplement the text to keep the theory up to date on the practice.

Although the text contained no outstanding or revealing method, it was

used as a source in establishing the methodology of hypothesis testing

for this study.

White focused his Understanding and Enjoying Music (1968) on the

development of musical understanding. His audience is the college and

university student who has the prerequisites of music listening and

literature. The first five chapters were devoted to the elements of

music while the following sections amplified specific composers' works

and the relationship to the musical period in which they were composed.

This reference contributed to the approach of analyzing the Mason

symphonies by focusing on how the composer's (Mason) symphonies deviated

from the mainstream of writing during the first four decades of the

twentieth century.


Meyer's purpose for writing Explaining Music: Essays andExplora-

tions (1973) was twofold. One was concerning the criticism of music,

while still expressing his own theory of music, and the second was

presenting a systematic procedure for analysis based on criticism. By

the author's own admission, current theorists had to be both critics

and theorists. He dealt with the structure and process of a particular

work, and how the procedure functions on the listener. The Explorations

portion of the text identified systematic analysis and, therefore, was

partially used to evaluate the four hypotheses of this study. Through a

systematic process, Meyer clarified component parts of composition by

starting with motives of a phrase and concluded with the impact of the

entire work. Through this approach one was able to systematically

extract the elements of interest from each musical composition. The

process was similar to a checklist in that all areas were explored even

though a composition may have been void of a particular element. As a

result of Meyer being both an educational researcher and musician, his

definitions and methodologies were of great significance to this study.

His technique of analysis also intertwined esthetics with analysis

which generates greater unity between listener and composer. This

technique was partially employed when data were collected from the

Mason symphonies.

Hutcheson, in his Musical Form and Analysis (1972), utilized inde-

pendent modules to convey his technique of analysis. Complete with

learning materials, testing, and recycling methods for mastery of

material, Hutcheson incorporated his analysis into a practicing ex-

perience for the student. Therefore, this text was one of few reviewed

that incorporated theoretical, analytical, and educational elements

under the same cover. It provided a practical illustration for the

method used in this study.

Benward's dissertation, "A Proposal for the Analysis of Motion

Factors in Music" (1951), provided a more systematic manner of analyzing

progressions of harmony, melody, and contrapuntal elements. In his

study, he focused on one fundamental element of music theory and

introduced a technique to identify how motion was achieved through

various factors in music. Benward's study provided a theoretical base

of harmonic progressions in music for the investigation of Mason's


Similar to Benward's study, Pierce also identified an aspect of the

total fundamentals of music theory through his "The Analysis of Rhythm

in Tonal Music" (1968). This dissertation considered rhythm, pitch,

and the fundamental duration unit as the primary musical elements for

his topic. Pierce's study was developed on the premise of Schenker's

concept of natural analysis based on the overtone series. Numerous

analyses were discussed by Pierce in a way in which the structural

accent--by their durations, resolutions, and other accents--was divided

up into the musical tones. Of special interest was the relationship

between structural accents and metrical accents. The Pierce study pro-

vided specific detail in which to analyze rhythmic elements in the

Mason symphonies, especially in the fourth hypothesis for folk or dance


In the study "An Introduction to the Analysis of Certain Contem-

porary Harmonic Practices" (1942), Cooper summarized various studies

which were conducted on harmonic analysis. By perusing this source,

the investigator was introduced to a multiplicity of concepts and

procedures in regard to harmonic analysis used in the early 1900's.

Since Mason's Third Symphony was written in the same year as Cooper's

dissertation, harmonic practices of analysis of this same time period

were judged appropriate to include in the methodology of this paper.

Just as Cooper analyzed aspects of harmony, and Pierce rhythm,

Solie conducted a study on melody entitled "The Analysis of Melody: A

Study of Selected Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Theorists" (1977).

She explained how melody acts as the primary source of organic unity.

Her study was a result of her dissatisfaction with present theoretical

explanations for melodic analysis. By basing her approach on formalist

or morphological analyses, modeled on musical grammar or architecture,

she was able to establish a sound method for the identification and

classification of melody. Through applying her method to the analyses

of the Mason symphonies, the present investigator was able to utilize

a more detailed procedure than other sources.

Since one of the hypotheses of this study dealt with Mason emu-

lating classical style, an appropriate article which incorporated both

theoretical and stylistic aspects of classical music was Moe's "The

Implied Model in Classical Music" (1977). The author described two

models; one called explicit external and the other explicit internal.

The former model described a work which was constructed from another

work of the same composer. For example one movement of a symphony

might have been based upon the model or form of a string quartet. In

the explicit internal model, however, the composer was interested in

stating a principal musical idea, developing or breaking that idea down,

and later restoring it to its original form. For example sonatas and

minuets were implied models of this type. Moe's concept and definition

of the explicit internal model of classical music was used in the col-

lection of data for this study.

In "The Melodic Structure of Tonal Music: A Theoretical Study"

(1974), Narmour examined aspects of melody including archetypal struc-

tures, gap filling techniques, triadic, axial and linear components, and

curvilinear forms. He also studied the Cooper-Meyer method (each of

these theoreticians' methods has been explained under previous sections

of this review of literature) and the Schenkerian method. This source

presented many theoretical treatises of various personalities under one


Toch's The Shaping Forces in Music: An Inquiry into the Nature of

Harmony, Melody, Counterpoint, and Form (1948) was used for the composer-

theoretician viewpoint. Many other treatises on theory have been written

by noncomposers; however, this source had a greater usage because the

author was a practicing composer.

In the Spring issue of the College Music Symposium (1977), a series

of articles, as a result of a music theory convention, were published

under the title of "If We Are All Theorists, Why Aren't We All Theorists?"

The title was adopted from a specific paper by Browne in which he de-

scribed music theory as being a separate academic discipline. Although

the article was primarily a philosophical treatise rather than adding

to analytical technique, it did provide guidelines from which to ap-

proach theoretical analysis.

The following sources also contributed to the procedure and

methodology of the theoretical analyses found in this study: "The

Validity of Information Theory as an Analytical Tool" (Hessert, 1969);

"Music Theory in Re-Transition: Centripetal Signs" (Forbe, 1977); and

"Metaphor and Model in the Analysis of Melody" (Solie, 1972).

The sources previously mentioned dealing with the theory of music

contributed to the present study as follows:

1. The sources cited provided operational definitions and guide-

lines to conduct the theoretical analyses necessary to gather evidence

and data for the four hypotheses.

2. They provided a panorama of different theoretical approaches

from which to choose or combine into the methodology section of this


3. Through the inclusion of these sources, specific theoreticians'

philosophies were identified for use in this study. Subsequent re-

searchers, therefore, wishing to replicate this study would know the

specific theoreticians used.

4. The sources provided models for evaluating the hypotheses

proposed in this study.

5. The texts, dissertations, and articles provided review of the

state of the art in treatment of theoretical analysis.

Symphonic Writing of the Time (circa 1910-1949)

Symphonic writing in the United States during the four decades of

the twentieth century was in a transitional period freeing American com-

posers from the German-European tradition of writing to the establish-

ing of an inherent American style. Although most symphonists from

America were still obtaining their compositional training from European

conservatories and academies during this time, most notably under Nadia

Boulanger (1887-1979), they would return to the United States to develop

their own unique style interrelated with eclectic techniques. At the

close of the nineteenth century the nationalistic movement was in vogue

in countries such as Russia, Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Poland,

Czechoslovakia, England, and others. This influenced American com-

posers to write symphonies based on Indian themes and rhythms, jazz

elements, black spirituals, folk songs and dances, patriotic subjects,

and other topics indigenously American.

Notwithstanding, the United States composers, trying to create

their own unique tradition, were products of their European training

and incorporated those techniques subconsciously into their works.

Those composers influenced by Boulanger, such as Copland, Harris, and

Piston, were employing American folk songs in a neo-classical context.

Many others were devout neo-romanticists who identified with leading

late nineteenth century composers of France, Germany, Scandinavian

countries, Italy, and other prominent European countries.

Also during this time composers started introducing new atonal

and avant-garde techniques into their works to achieve a wider range

of sonorities. This experimentation led to twelve-tone methods, quarter

tones, micro-tones, and electronic music which were incorporated into

the symphony later in this period.

The composers cited below represented the most exemplary symphonists

writing in the United States during this four decade period.

Although Walter Piston (b. 1894) wrote eight symphonies, his

First (1938) is perhaps the most praised. It is a three movement work

and follows a fast-slow-fast pattern. The symphony is constructed neo-

classically in form and is reminiscent of the Viennese style of

writing. The composer emphasized rhythmic motion as the key element

rather than thematic development.

Roger Sessions (b. 1896) composed four symphonies; however, his

First (1927) was most representative of the symphonies of this time.

It is a neo-classical work in structure with chromatic and dissonant

harmonies. Since Sessions was a pupil of Ernest Bloch (1880-1959),

the former incorporated traits of his mentor--such as intense melodies

and chromatic harmonies--into his works. Sessions, however, employed

the twelve-tone method in his Third Symphony which was evidence of

Schoenberg's influence.

The six symphonies of Roy Harris (b. 1898) paved the way for a

unique American tradition, especially his Third Symphony (1939) in one

movement. Even though the work was originally a four movement composi-

tion, he consolidated it to avoid the stereotypical formal design of

the neo-classical influence of the 1920's-1930's. To enhance the

nationalistic spirit of symphonic writing, Harris' Symphony Number

Four (1940),subtitled the "Folksong Symphony, and his Symphony Number

Six, "The Gettysburg Address" (1944), were both based upon unique

American elements. Although he steered away from neo-classicism, he

did incorporate neo-baroque techniques in his writing. This represented

the eclectic nature of symphonic writing during this time.

Howard Hanson's (1898-1981) six symphonies could perhaps be cited

as the most representative of symphonic writing in the United States

during this period. Although his musical compositions were not American

in a nationalistic style, his extensive use of neo-romanticism was

characteristic of many American born composers. His First Symphony,

"Nordic" (1923), expressed Hanson's resolve as a romantic and also his

attraction to the nationalistic flavor of various countries. Most

notable, however, was his Second Symphony, "Romantic" (1920),


commissioned by the Boston Symphony. In this symphony, the composer

expressed his belief in neo-romanticism exemplified by the lyrical

themes, chromatic harmonies, and large orchestral scoring. The re-

maining symphonies were also commissioned by major American orchestras

which further enhanced the position of Hanson's relationship to the

American audience as an American composer. The Fourth and Fifth

Symphonies, however, revealed some neo-baroque traits with American-

romantic treatment.

Since much of Aaron Copland's (b. 1900) training was with Nadia

Boulanger, his compositions were very much influenced by her neo-

classical outlook. Although his usual style incorporated jazz modes

and rhythms, atonal harmonies, and scoring instruments in their extreme

registers, his Third Symphony (1945) followed a classical framework

with a tonal center in a four movement structure. Copland was one com-

poser who led in the development of a unique American style.

Other composers such as Elliot Carter (b. 1908) and Samuel Barber

(1910-1981) contributed to the American style with compositions of

their own. In the case of Barber's Second Symphony (1944), commissioned

by the United States Army Air Force, it was a work written to bolster

the patriotism and nationalism of the troops in the service. American

composers, therefore, were being called upon not only for their Z'art

pour Z'art esthetics, but also for their functional patriotic value as

well. Although Ernest Bloch (1880-1959) was not American born, he melded

European elements with American national styles which resulted in in-

fluencing many composers of this country. For example, his America

(1926), based on American folk songs, hymns, and American Indian melo-

dies, contributed to the creation of a nationalistic style.

Other composers and academicians who influenced American symphonic

writing prior to, and during, the time period 1910-1949 were Arthur

Foote (1853-1937); George Chadwick (1854-1931); Arthur Whiting (1861-

1936); Horatio Parker (1863-1919); Mrs. H.H.A. Beach (1867-1944); and

Frederick Converse (1871-1940). These composers also had a direct in-

fluence on Mason, and played an important role in shaping his symphonic


Justification for the Present Research

Although Mason's literary contributions to American music were

more popular than his symphonies, there has been no attempt to have an

analysis of his symphonic works presented for evaluation. The purpose

of this evaluation was to verify whether the difficulty lay in the

construction, style, or form of the music, or whether Mason's music was

disallowed for non-musical reasons. There have been no conclusions

(Tuthill, 1948) about why the symphonies did not gain acceptance in

any of the sources cited in the Review of Literature section of this

study; therefore, the query still existed. It was the purpose of this

study to provide unbiased, authoritative evidence and conclusions to

answer this query.

During the bicentennial celebration, interest in American music

was enhanced. Mason's music, however, still escaped the attention of

public and private research. The present study was justified in that

it contributed some answers about a composer associated with the Boston


This study was one of few which utilized the testing of hypotheses

in the area of music style-critical and theoretical analyses. Other

previous studies in this area conducted harmonic and style analyses

and arrived at a conclusion based upon subjective interpretation rather

than verifiable evidence.

If the hypotheses were rejected, answers could be sought in other

areas, perhaps non-musical explanations. Without hypotheses, however,

the researcher had no restraints placed on the study. A justification

for this study existed under the need for greater objectivity and veri-

fiable methodology in analyzing musical compositions.

There also existed a need to provide supplemental curriculum

material in courses dealing with American music, nationalism in music,

and symphonic literature. Since these courses are now taught as separate

topics on the undergraduate and graduate levels--rather than being

grouped under one course--there existed a need to provide authorita-

tive and systematic analyses of Mason's symphonies for inclusion in

these areas.

Since this study intended to accept or reject the four research

hypotheses with a minimum of prejudice and subjectivity, an unbiased

method for collecting and interpreting the evidence was chosen. The

following section, therefore, illustrates how such reliable evidence

was collected and analyzed so as to provide confidence in the con-



In testing the four research hypotheses, the following procedures

and techniques were employed.

General Research Design

In order to employ the method previously described in Chapter Two,

it was necessary to amplify exactly how the symphonies were to be

broken down into parts for data collection. The following section

deals with the design of analyzing the eleven individual movements

of Mason's three symphonies.

The general research design was formulated around the four


1. The symphonies failed to gain acceptance and popularity be-

cause the composer relied on once popular but antiquated eighteenth

century classical style and forms (neo-classicism) rather than utilizing

contemporary structures and procedures.

2. The symphonies were unpopular because they were written in a

radically eclectic manner using a multitude of sources within one

symphony which caused disunity within and among movements. These

eclectic sources tested were neo-baroque, neo-classicism, neo-romanti-

cism, nationalism, impressionism, and expressionism.

3. The symphonies did not achieve repeat performances because

the composer utilized unsophisticated compositional techniques catered


to the untrained listener of music. The refined concert-goer, there-

fore, absorbed the simplistic techniques on a first or second listen-

ing, and the audiences' interests were not captivated on subsequent


4. The composer relied on nationalistic elements in his Third

Symphony more than in the other symphonies, which may account for its

somewhat greater popularity than the first two symphonies.

The style-critical method chosen was used to identify component

musical parts of the symphonies such as form, tonality, modality,

consonance, dissonance, melody, rhythm, meter, counterpoint, ornamen-

tation, expression, and the relationship of these components to the

four hypotheses. The theoretical analyses were a means by which the

style-critical analysis could be determined, and, therefore, knowledge

of the construction, classification, and organization of these same

components was also employed. The analyses were of the entire eleven

movements of Mason's three symphonies.

Once the component parts were extracted, using techniques de-

scribed by LaRue (1970), Siegmeister (1965), Hutcheson (1972), Sessions

(1951), White (1968), Meyer (1973), and Piston (1941 and 1951), the data

were separated into four groups corresponding to the four hypotheses.

The operational definitions described earlier, in addition to selected

sources from the Review of the Literature section, provided the criteria

for evaluating whether or not the component musical parts related to

one or more of the hypotheses. From the evidence gathered in this

fashion, four frequency summation tables were constructed corresponding

to the four hypotheses. By imposing frequency requirements on each

table, evidence was gathered to accept or reject a particular hypothesis


through a quantitative and verifiable analysis with a limited amount

of subjectivity. These tables provided the data for making conclusions

on the study's four hypotheses.

Within the eleven individual movements of the three symphonies,

there existed component musical parts making up the bases for style-

critical and theoretical analyses. During several visual perusals of

the scores, with recordings of the symphonies being played, the in-

vestigator identified these component musical parts and qualified them

as to whether or not they provided evidence for one or more of the re-

search hypotheses. For example, if within the first movement of a

symphony, strict sonata form was found with adherence to appropriate

tonal relationships in the development and recapitulation (which quali-

fies it as classical trait), it was coded as a positive (+) element

in supporting hypothesis one. If the form deviated significantly in

structure and tonal relationship where it could not be distinctively

classical, it was coded a negative (-) value. This design was followed

in each movement of each symphony identifying as many music theory com-

ponents as practicable. This provided a measurable device (Travers,

1978), in comparing the component musical parts that exerted a positive

influence on a particular hypothesis with the total components iden-

tified. For example, if thirty separate themes were identifiable, and

eighteen of them were distinguishable as classical, a ratio of eighteen

to thirty, or a 60% positive value, would be revealed in favor of

hypothesis number one. Numerical criteria were then presented so as

to evaluate the data in accepting or rejecting a specific hypothesis.

After the raw data were collected for each movement of all three

symphonies, a matrix was constructed comparing the positive values to

the total values identified for each hypothesis. The following table

(see Table 1) provides a general example of such a matrix. From the

table, a ratio of positive elements to the total elements for each

hypothesis was determined. For example, adding the total elements under

hypothesis one, sixty-three, and comparing the positive values, thirty-

two, a ratio of 32/63 or a 50.8% positive ratio was obtained from all

movements of one symphony. This procedure provided the raw data for

accepting or rejecting hypothesis one. A similar table was used for

each of the other hypotheses.

Table 1
Sample Matrix Used for Gathering Data for Hypothesis No. 1

(+) (-
Positive elements Negative elements Total Ratio (%)

Themes 8 7 15 53.5

Forms 18 12 30 60.0

Harmony/Key 2 5 7 28.6

Orchestration 4 7 11 36.4

Totals 32 31 63 50.8

In order to determine whether or not a particular hypothesis should

be accepted or rejected, the investigator established specific positive

ratios as criteria for each. These were

1. If a positive ratio of 75% was attained for each symphony,

then hypothesis one was accepted for that particular symphony. It was

possible that the hypothesis could have been accepted for one symphony

and rejected for another. If this occurred the hypothesis could be

partially accepted for the entire study. The criterion of 75% was

utilized because of the high usage of neo-classicism in symphonic writing

during the time period 1910-1949. Since most compositions during this

time contained neo-classical elements, a 75% criterion was formulated to

meet what would be considered an overabundant use of this style of

composition. Had it not been for the high use of neo-classicism during

this time period, a lower percentage criterion could have been employed.

2. If three of the'six eclectic elements were identified to exist

within each of the movements of a particular symphony for the second

hypothesis, then the researcher concluded that the movement was eclec-

tic. If a majority of movements of a particular symphony were eclectic,

two movements of the three for the First Symphony or three movements of

the four for the Second and Third Symphonies, then the entire symphony

was identified as eclectic, and the hypothesis was accepted. It was

possible to accept the hypothesis for one symphony and reject for

another, leading to a possible partial acceptance of the hypothesis

for the overall study.

3. If a positive ratio of 60% or more was attained for the third

hypothesis on each symphony, then hypothesis number three was accepted.

The purpose of having the threshold at 60% was that in order to be a

"great work" a composition had to have sufficient complexity. It was

concluded that 40% complexity was deemed insufficient (Haydon, 1940).

If a higher criterion percentage was selected, then the work would

have had to meet such a high level of complexity that the work would

have been labelled esoteric, and it would have been of little performance



4. If two or more elements in the areas of folk songs, ethnic

dance rhythms, folk song instrumentation, and descriptive nationalistic

elements were identified within one movement, then it was labelled

nationalistic. If a majority of movements of the symphony, two out of

the three movements for Symphony One, and three of the four movements

for Symphonies Two and Three, then the symphony was classified as

nationalistic, and the hypothesis was accepted.

It was anticipated that the aforementioned research design would

be adequate in evaluating the four hypotheses. Although it is customary

to use the same criterion percentage for each hypothesis being tested,

it was felt that the hypotheses of the present study were each unique

and, by their nature, required a different criterion percentage in

accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. The design incorporated statis-

tical elements with style-critical and theoretical analyses and provided

sufficient evidence to accept or reject the hypotheses.

Collection of Data

The collection of the scores and recordings was accomplished by a

personal visit to Columbia University in New York City on June 16, 1981.

Both the First and Third Symphonies were secured at Columbia, as well

as recordings of the Second and Third Symphonies. The particular edi-

tions used were the University Edition, copyrighted in 1926, for the

First Symphony, and the Juilliard Edition published by the American

Music Center (1935) was used for the Third Symphony. The Second Symphony

was secured through the mail from the Edwin A. Fleisher Collection of

the Free Library of Philadelphia.

During the visit to Columbia a discovery was made of two old re-

cordings of Mason's Symphonies, numbers Two and Three. Both were re-

cordings of radio broadcasts from April 11 and February 8, 1948, respec-

tively. The Second Symphony was performed by the New York Philharmonic,

Bruno Walter conducting, and the Third Symphony was performed by the

Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Karl Krueger conducting. It was the Krueger

performance which was used as an audio aid in gathering the data from

the score. Both of these recordings, on the old seventy-eight discs,

were very rare because there were only a few extant recordings of the

Third Symphony. Personal copies of both recordings were successfully

obtained. The search and analysis of other pertinent information was

begun at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., on June 7, 1979,

and was completed in April, 1982, in Gainesville, Florida.

Analysis of Data

From the identifiable musical components which made up the stylistic

and theoretical bases of Mason's three symphonies, an analysis of why

the composer's works did not gain public acceptance was conducted.

The raw data, therefore, came from the organizational elements of music

theory. These available data were classified as: 1) a positive value

for those elements contributing to the support of a particular hypothe-

sis, 2) a negative value to those elements that related to disproving

a particular hypothesis (or not relating at all). From the ratio of

positive values to total values, a determination was made for accepting

or rejecting the particular hypothesis involved.


Before component musical items could be identified as either a

positive or negative element with regard to each of the four hypotheses,

style-critical and theoretical descriptive analyses were completed.

In accordance with the previously described research design (see Chapter

Two), the musical analyses involved numerous perusals of the score

identifying items such as form, tonality, modality, consonance, dis-

sonance, melody, rhythm, meter, counterpoint, ornamentation, and ex-

pression. Theoretical analyses yielded knowledge of the construction,

classification, and organization of these same components. Only after

both the style-critical and theoretical components were extracted could

they be tabulated into matrix tables quantifying these component parts

as either a positive value supporting a particular hypothesis or a

negative value.

As a result, the following chapter is divided into two sections.

The first division is a descriptive analysis of the style-critical and

theoretical components which form the bases of the symphony. These

components relate directly to all the elements of the four hypotheses:

themes, forms, harmonies and key relationships, and orchestration for

the first hypothesis; neo-baroque, neo-classicism, neo-romanticism,

nationalism, impressionism, and expressionism for the second hypothesis;

repetition, cyclism, form, and orchestration for the third hypothesis;

and rhythms, melodies, instrumentation, descriptions, and orchestration

for the fourth hypothesis.

The musical examples provided illustrative evidence of these com-

ponents which have a direct bearing on one or more of the hypotheses.

From this descriptive analysis, matrix tables were provided to quantify

the components which yielded either a supporting or non-supporting role

to the particular hypothesis involved.

The second division of the chapter includes the component musical

analyses in matrix form with brief discussions of the findings. These

matrices are presented in table form, and each corresponds to the four

hypotheses. Each table contains the total number of elements analyzed,

the total number of supporting elements, and the total number of non-

supporting elements. The numerical ratios are presented with a brief

discussion of the criteria, conclusions, and implications for accepting

or rejecting each of the four hypotheses.

Style-Critical and Theoretical Descriptive Analyses

The First Symphony in C minor is scored for a traditional orchestra

of flutes, oboes, English horn, clarinets in Bb, bass clarinet in Bb,

bassoons, horns in F, trumpets in C, trombones, tuba, kettle, snare,

and bass drums, cymbals, triangle, glockenspiel, harp, violins, violas,

violoncellos, and basses. 'The three movement symphony is dedicated to

Edward G. de Coppet, who assisted Mason financially when the composer

travelled abroad to study with d'Indy. One of Mason's original drafts

contained four movements; however, he extracted it for a completely

separate work. This was indeed desirable from the listener's point of

view because the three movements alone make it a lengthy performance.

Perhaps Mason was influenced by Beethoven's choice of removing the

Grosse Fugue from the latter's opus 132 string quartet. The following

section presents detailed descriptive analysis by movement.

First Movement, Largo sostenuto

The movement opens with the flutes and clarinets presenting a

descending chromatic antecedent phrase in three-four meter (see Example

No. 1).

Example No. 1
Principal Theme, Antecedent Phrase (measures 1-4)

FI.rzs /,,7
rLA2. 1*2

B-4-54, I I

At the Poco andante the clarinets continue the consequent phrase of

the principal theme with reinforcement from the flutes, oboes, and

English horn (see Example No. 2).

Example No. 2
Principal Theme, Consequent Phrase (measures 6-11)

24Z. iZ v

At rehearsal mark one (measure 14) the strings provide a repeat of the

antecedent phrase while the oboe subsequently recalls the consequent

phrase. This same theme is restated in the violoncello at the next

Poco animate section (measure 26), but this time an ascending violin

solo bridges the two violoncello phrases.

At the Tranquillo (measure 36) the oboe and English horn, in duet

fashion, restate the theme of the violin. This also serves as the

bridge to the next section. By using bridge themes as the basis for

new thematic development, Mason attains greater cohesion and continuity.

Following this section, the secondary theme is introduced by the strings

and woodwinds (see Example No. 3). The next fourteen measures act

as a bridge to the third theme. During this time, Mason uses triple

rhythm to cause a metric accelerando and later initiates a true

stringendo with the harp glissando as a climax to the allegro moderate.

Example No. 5
Fourth Theme (measures 83-87)

7 ,

vice versa, Mason creates a quick question and answer section which

intensifies the motion of the work. This technique is repeated in

the woodwinds and later in the strings. At the A Tempo (measure 98)

the exchange of pointalistic motifs between strings and woodwinds

reaches a high point before the Tranquillo section recalls a varia-

tion of the principal theme. When comparing measures 113-126 with

forty-four through fifty-one, it is revealed that a recycling of themes

and sections is taking place. Although this does make for long listen-

ing, it adds cohesion to the movement. Using stretto technique with

the fourth theme in the horns, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons, Mason

accomplishes a bridge to the Largamente (measure 37) where the strings

repeat the secondary theme (see Example No. 3). This theme is used

as the codetta to conclude the first section of the first movement

as the strings fade out at a piano-pianissimo dynamic to the double


After a four measure introduction by the trumpets and trombones,

the strings recall the first two measures of the principal theme in

canon form. This technique is repeated after a sustained bridge sec-

tion by the woodwinds;

Example No. 3
Secondary Theme (measures 44-47)

At the allegro Mason uses a triplet and syncopated theme to accom-

plish both a contrasting theme and accelerated tempo (see Example No. 4).

It is scored for the strings, but later is reinforced by the woodwinds.

Example No. 4
Third Theme (measures 56-60)

VilLlI Z

This same theme is then repeated an octave higher at rehearsal mark

seven (measure 64). At the next rehearsal mark Mason employs split

thematic presentation by stating the first portion of the secondary

theme in the strings, and the upper woodwinds continue with the

second portion. This technique continues until the horns introduce

a fourth theme in hemiola fashion (see Example No. 5). With the

violoncello filling in the rests and long quavers of the horns, and

At measure 195 the third theme (see Example No. 4) is recalled in

the trumpets and trombones with reinforcing lines from the strings and

woodwinds. As the syncopated theme continues in the woodwinds, the

strings create tension with thirty-second-note descending patterns

which repeat every measure. Through the Largamente and Maestoso sec-

tions, Mason creates further climax with trilling woodwinds and fortis-

simo, syncopated brass. The climax is not calmed until a full restate-

ment of the third theme (see Example No. 4) is initiated by the strings

and bassoons at measure 214, which is exactly the same as measures

thirty-six through sixty. At the repeat of this theme, the trumpet,

employed as a cantus firms, states the principal theme in augmented

form. The moZto sostenuto at measure 333 contains a restatement of

the secondary theme (see Example No. 3) in the strings. At the repeat

of this theme, measure 353, the horns and upper woodwinds are embellish-

ing in obliggato fashion scored in eighth-note triplets. Mason closes

the second section of the first movement again at a piano-pianissimo

dynamic with a double bar.

The next section, Presto, is in triple meter, but is marked at a

tempo to indicate one beat per measure. A rapid eighth-note theme

commences in the bassoon (see Example No. 6) and is supported by the

Example No. 6
Presto Theme (measures 381-384)

i 1 6-6- r-

woodwinds. On its repeat the strings add pizzicato, ascending quarter-

notes, while the first violin carries the next repeat. Using the prin-

cipal motif of the Presto theme (see Example No. 6) as the coda, Mason

slows the tempo for a final Maestoso section which concludes the first


Throughout the first movement the listener must endure many thematic

introductions which.are not continued, developed, or repeated. New

thematic material is introduced for bridges or extensions rather than

extracting transitionary material from preexisting themes. Since a new

theme is introduced in the Presto section as the coda, the listener is

expecting an extended section rather than an abrupt conclusion for an


Second Movement, Larghetto tranquillo

The clarinets and violins provide a ten measure introduction by

utilizing stretto technique on an ascending chromatic line. The melodic

introduction of the principal theme is accompanied by a quicker tempo

than the introduction, sixty-six to sixty-nine beats per minute as

opposed to fifty-two to fifty-four beats per minute. The English horn

presents the principal theme as the bassoon and viola provide a counter-

line. Both are supported by string and harp accompaniment (see Example

No. 7). With the transition of the principal theme to the clarinet,

Mason incorporates mixed meter such as three-two meter followed by

four-four meter to give the theme an extended, irregular phrase length

(see Example No. 8). The flute repeats the modified theme of the

clarinet, and the horn follows with the original theme (see Example

No. 7). A transition, based on the principal theme, is used to bridge


Example No. 7
Principal Theme (measures 11-17)

Example No. 8
Modified Principal Theme (measures 18-20)

CAAilUM ,4

the previous section with the fully scored, fortissimo repeat of the

principal theme at the Largamente.

At the Andantino commoda the key changes to F-sharp minor, and the

trumpet introduces a two measure fanfare followed by a fermata (see

Example No. 9). This fanfare is a motif derived from the secondary

theme which occurs later in this section. The triplet motif is repeated

in stretto by the harp, bassoon, clarinet, flute, and strings. The

harp continues with embellishing glissandi as the strings reinforce the

triplet rhythm of the fanfare motif. At rehearsal mark thirty-nine

(measure 69), the oboe presents, in full, the secondary theme


Example No. 9
Introductory Trumpet Fanfare (measures 59-63)

-I-o-4T Z w=


22 -I

(see Example No. 10) accompanied by ascending and descending arpeggiated

chords in the harp with oscillating triplets in the strings.

Immediately following the complete statement of the theme by the

oboe, there is a repeat of the introduction by the trumpet (see Example

No. 9), but this time the statement is a diminished fourth lower in

pitch. Instead of an exact repeat of the secondary theme, the flute

and clarinet melody now contains the same intervals but the rhythm has

been modified (see Example No. 11 and compare to Example No. 10). The

theme continues in the new modified version in duet fashion with the

oboe and violin as principals. With the secondary theme continuing,

the harp and strings provide an arpeggiated triplet melody which acts


Example No. 10
Secondary Theme (measures 69-74)

0 1-- -~ I

Example No. 11
Modified Secondary Theme (measures 80-83)

as a counterline to the theme. The listener experiences multifaceted

thematic treatment as the lower woodwinds introduce motifs of the theme

in a highly contrapuntal fashion incorporating stretto. This complex

section is resolved by the trombone recalling the secondary theme in

its entirety. With a transition based upon this,theme (see Example Nos.

10 and 11), Mason recapitulates the principal theme in its original key

of Db major (see Example No. 7).

Measures 134-140 are almost identical with measures eleven through

eighteen, and measures 141-147 are easily recognizable from measures

eighteen through twenty-four; therefore, Mason is adhering to classical re-

capitulation. At the Maestoso section, the fully scored orchestra, at a

fortissimo dynamic, drives home the repeated recapitulation of the princi-

pal theme. At rehearsal mark fifty (measure 155), the subito piano iden-

tifies a long extended crescendo to the recapitulation of the secondary

theme. After the subito piano, the same line is repeated, except this

time at a fortissimo dynamic. This section is reminiscent of the concertino-

ripieno style of the concerto grosso form of the baroque period; therefore,

it is an identifiable trait that Mason utilizes neo-baroque elements. This

occurs again before the violin and flute solos, accompanied by augmen-

tation of the principal theme, introduce the-recapitulation of the

secondary theme at the A Tempo, motto tranquillo. The English horn

and flute are scored to state two complete phrases of the secondary

theme before the horn and solo violin restate a motif from the principal

theme. The movement concludes with the violoncello stating a descending

line which is accompanied by sustained Db major chords at a piano-

pianissimo dynamic.

This movement presents the formal side of Mason, for the themes

are presented in a coherent exposition and concluded by an identifiable

recapitulation. The movement represents the major core on which to

build two outer movements. The balance for which Mason strived was

attained through an expressive and cohesive second movement.

Final Movement, Allegro molto marcato

The third, and final,movement begins with a timpani solo enforced

by heavy, sforzandi chords and moving quarter-note rhythms in the horns

and trumpets (see Example No. 12). The principal theme ensues directly

Example No. 12
Introductory Timpani Solo (measures 1-5)

mmr 'd ^r

after the timpani roll, and is scored for horns in five-four meter

(three plus two accents) (see Example No. 13). This theme has a re-

markable similarity to the secondary theme (see Example No. 10) of the

Example No. 13
Principal Theme (measures 7-11)

second movement. If one were to compare the two, side by side, the

interval relationships nearly coincide (see Example No. 14). Again the

Example No. 14
Interval Comparison of Examples 10 and 13

_4 / ffS o-L', '

".i_." ,:

listener is introduced to recycled material and does not have the

privilege of a fresh new principal theme for the finale. A short con-

sequent phrase using augmented note values, based on the horn theme

(see Example No. 13), is scored for the violins (see Example No. 15).

Example No. 15
Modified Consequent Phrase (measures 11-14)

U- i I 1 1 ,- 11

This begins a pattern of Mason basing many of his transition and bridge

themes on the consequent phrase of the previous theme of that section.

On the repeat of the principal theme, the violins are supported

by the bassoons and clarinets to provide a variation in scoring. With

a series of ascending runs passing from various sections of the orches-

tra, Mason accomplishes a climax for the fully scored repeat of the

principal theme. This is attained at rehearsal mark fifty-seven

(measure 39). Mason again uses the consequent phrase (see Example No.

14) as the basis for a transition to the bridge theme which appears in

the clarinet (see Example No. 16), and is supported by flutes and

pizzicato strings. The violins repeat this theme and continue to

provide an extension to the introduction of the secondary theme. The

Piu tranquilZo provides the descriptive markings for the introduction

of the secondary theme in the violin accompanied by the strings and

upper woodwinds (see Example No. 17). For the bridge material following


Example No. 16
Bridge Theme (measures 55-59)

Example No. 17
Secondary Theme (measures 74-83)

2Ui'V AiJlO ruS SJurll

this theme, Mason recycles bridge material he used previously, except

this time he inverts it (see Example No. 18). Instead of an ascending

melody, therefore, this theme descends.

At the Largamente, sostenuto, Mason introduces new material which

functions as a bridge to the recapitulation of the principal theme

(see Example No. 19). Although the listener anticipates further

development of the new theme, they are denied, and it is dropped just

prior to a restatement of the principal theme. At Tempo I, rehearsal


Example No. 18
Inverted Bridge Material (measures 86-87 compared with 26-27)

Measures 86-87

LP Iq" ^ 'I ..

Measures 26-27

Example No. 19
New Thematic Bridge Material (measures 93-97)

vWIJ :

I -

mark sixty-three, Mason recalls the first six measures of the third

movement and repeats them here; however, he superimposes the secondary

theme with some scoring changes to disguise the straight duplication.

At Tempo I, non troppo allegro, the bassoon is called upon to re-

state the antecedent phrase of the theme. The consequent phrase is not

repeated with it, but is used as a bridge and not a part of the main

theme. The bassoon repeats the theme again with tremolandi strings

accompanying. A bridge prepares a fully scored recapitulation of the

principal theme at rehearsal mark sixty-nine (Tempo un poco maestoso),

and this time the entire principal theme, antecedent and consequent

phrases, are recalled. When the secondary theme is recalled, however,

the rhythm is modified, but the integrity of the melodic line is pre-

served (see Example No. 20).

At rehearsal mark seventy-three, Mason also recalls the third

theme with its original descriptive Largamente, sostenuto. After a

short bridge using motifs of the third theme in stretto, Mason recalls

the introduction once more with the timpani rhythm dominating. The

scoring following this thins out to primarily woodwinds as they recall

the bridge theme used in the first section of the movement. This then

leads to a fully scored principal theme section (see Example No. 16).

The brass initiate a syncopated rhythm (see Example No. 21) which

signifies the beginning of the coda. It is exchanged between brass

and woodwind sections until the Allargando section recalls a more fully

scored syncopated melody (see Example No. 22) which is based on a motif

of the principal theme (compare Example Nos. 22 with 14). The symphony

is concluded with the consequent phrase of the principal theme (see

Example No. 15) scored very thinly at a piano-pianissimo dynamic.

Example No. 20
Modified Secondary Theme (measures 181-184 compared with
Example No. 17)

Measures 181-184


Example No. 17


Example No. 21
Syncopated Rhythm of Coda (measures 220-225)

(--- I. I i

Example No. 22
Fully Scored Syncopated Coda Melody (measures 233-234)

F2 -S' f |auk- C R i

Instead of a major grandiose finale, Mason finishes in a subdued


Because of the numerous themes and developments, it was expected

that a more definitive and conclusive ending be executed; however,

Mason chose to finish with a whimper instead of a bang.

From the descriptive analyses it was revealed that Mason did pre-

fer to write in primarily both a neo-romantic and neo-classical style.

With inclusions of whole-tone scales, planing chords, and flute and

harp scoring, impressionistic style was also. identified, perhaps from

his visit to France to study with d'Indy. He further utilized many

unsophisticated techniques such as cyclism and numerous repetitions.

From Mason's literary works and philosophical writings, it was concluded

that perhaps he intended to include these accessible techniques so the

untrained listener of music could relate to the symphony.

Other characteristics included chromatic harmonies in a tonal

center; lyrical and expressive melodies with a wide tessitura; the

employment of several main and subordinate themes, as well as new themes

as bridge material; a preference for scoring the main themes for either

the woodwinds or strings and the brass functions as a supporting en-

semble; and the compositional technique of stretto. For a measure by

measure synopsis see Appendix A.

Matrix Tables

From the style-critical and theoretical descriptive analyses,

elements relating to the first hypothesis, classical themes, forms,

harmony and key relationships, and orchestrations, were quantified into

a component analysis table (see Table 2). Here, each of the positive

and negative components were presented in relationship to the total com-

ponents being analyzed for each movement of the symphony. A correspond-

ing positive ratio percentage was also included in the table. Looking

at the "Total Average for Symphony" row of Table 2, the researcher found

a total of thirty-six positive classical components, thirty-nine nega-

tive components, and a total of seventy-five components. This yielded

a positive ratio percentage of 48%. Since the previously established

criterion needed to accept the hypothesis for this symphony was 75%,

the hypothesis was rejected for this symphony due to the insufficient

number of positive classical elements.

Table 2
Component Analysis of Symphony No. 1 in Relationship to
Hypothesis No. 1

Positive and Negative Elements
(+) (-) Totals Ratio (%)

Mov't I 2 2 5 40
Mov't II 2 5 7 28.5
Mov't III 1 3 4 25

Mov't I 3 2 5 60
Mov't II 4 3 7 57.1
Mov't III 8 3 11 72.7

Mov't I 1 4 5 20
Mov't II 1 3 4 25
Mov't III 2 3 5 40

Mov't I 4 2 6 66.7
Mov't II 3 3 6 50
Mov't III 5 5 10 50

Ratio Totals
Mov't I 10 11 21 47.6
Mov't II 10 14 24 41.7
Mov't III 16 14 30 53.3

Total Average
for Symphony
Mov'ts I-III 36 39 75 48

From the descriptive analyses, Table 3 was constructed which iden-

tified the total number of neo-baroque, neo-classical, neo-romantic,

nationalistic, impressionistic, and expressionistic styles within each

of the three movements of the First Symphony. Referring to the row

marked "Number of Different Styles within One Movement," it was deter-

mined that two of the three movements, according to the previously

stated criterion, qualified as eclectic in nature, and subsequently,

the entire symphony was identified as eclectic. In testing hypothesis

number two on the data from the First Symphony, it was concluded that

the hypothesis was accepted due to the data meeting the criterion.

Component Analysis

Table 3
of Symphony No. 1 in Relationship to
Hypothesis No. 2

Mov't I Mov't II Mov't III Totals

Neo-Baroque 0 0 0 0

Neo Classical 2 1 5 8

Neo-Romantic 6 5 3 14

Nationalism 0 0 0 0

Impressionism 1 1 0 2

Expressionism 0 0 0 0

Totals 9 7 8 24

Number of Dif- 3 3 2
ferent Styles
within One Movement

Gathering the positive and negative elements in relationship to the

elements of hypothesis three--repetition, cyclism, form, and orchestra-

tion--evidence was presented in Table 4 for the accepting or rejecting

of the hypothesis. Column one provided the positive components, column

two provided the negative components, column three presented the total

components, and column four contained the positive ratio percentages.

Looking at the "Total Averages for Symphony" section of the table, it

was discovered that forty-six positive components were identified,

twenty-seven negative components were cited, and a total of seventy-

three components were counted. This yielded an overall symphony ratio

of 63% in favor of the utilization of unsophisticated techniques. Since

the overall ratio for the symphony exceeded the criterion of 60%,

hypothesis three was accepted, and it was concluded that Mason was

writing in an unsophisticated manner as far as the First Symphony was


Although hypothesis four really did not apply to the First and

Second Symphonies, it was employed to establish a comparative relation-

ship to the Third Symphony. For example, Table 5 yielded evidence which

identified the First Symphony as having almost no nationalistic ele-

ments. Although no acceptance or rejection applied to this symphony,

the lack of nationalistic elements supported, indirectly, the acceptance

of hypothesis four for Symphony Three. Therefore, the absence of

nationalistic elements in the first two symphonies supported the

accepting of the fourth hypothesis as much as the inclusion of the

same nationalistic elements in the Third Symphony.

Table 4
Component Analysis of Symphony No. 1 in Relationship to
Hypothesis No. 3

Positive and Negative Components
(+) (-) Totals Ratio (%)

Mov't I
Mov't II
Mov't III



Mov't I
Mov't II
Mov't III

Ratio Totals
Mov't I
Mov't II
Mov't III

Total Average
for Symphony

50.0 *





73 63.0

Table 5
Component Analysis of Symphony No. 1 in Relationship to
Hypothesis No. 4

Mov't I Mov't II Mov't III Totals

Rhythms 0 0 1 1
(dance or ethnic)

Melodies 0 0 1 1
(folk or ethnic)

Instrumentation 0 0 0 0
(folk instruments)

Descriptions 0 0 0 0
(musical descriptions)

Orchestrations 0 0 0 0
(emulating folk or
ethnic sonorities)

Totals 0 0 2 2

Number of Different 0 0 2 2
Folk Elements within
Each Movement


The first section of this chapter presented the style-critical and

theoretical analyses and the accompanying musical examples. From these

analyses the second section of the chapter provided the data supporting

or not supporting the four hypotheses.

Of the seventy-five different components dealing with classical

themes, forms, harmony and key relationships, and orchestration, thirty-

six, or 48%, were supportive of hypothesis one (see Table 2). Since

the criterion for accepting the first hypothesis was established at

75%, the hypothesis was rejected for this symphony.

Of the six different eclectic styles of composition--neo-baroque,

neo-classicism, neo-romanticism, nationalism, impressionism, and ex-

pressionism--the first two, neo-baroque and neo-classicism, were identi-

fied as the most frequent throughout the symphony (see Table 3). Since

enough different eclectic styles appeared within two of the three move-

ments, the entire symphony qualified as eclectic, and hypothesis two

was accepted for this symphony.

In identifying unsophisticated compositional techniques in regard

to repetition, cyclism, form, and orchestration, of the seventy-three

components identified, forty-six were positive and in support of

hypothesis three by a 63% ratio (see Table 4). Because this ratio

exceeded the criterion of 60%, hypothesis three was accepted for this

symphony, and it provided evidence to support that Mason was writing

in an unsophisticated manner for his First Symphony.

As mentioned previously, the fourth hypothesis did not apply to

the First Symphony. Because the research identified the lack of

nationalistic components in this symphony, it indirectly supported the

acceptance of hypothesis four for the Third Symphony.


Before component musical items could be identified as either a

positive or negative element with regard to each of the four hypotheses,

style-critical and theoretical descriptive analyses were completed.

In accordance with the previously described research design (see Chapter

Two), the musical analyses involved numerous perusals of the score

identifying items such as form, tonality, modality, consonance, dis-

sonance, melody, rhythm, meter, counterpoint, ornamentation, and ex-

pression. Theoretical analyses yielded knowledge of the construction,

classification, and organization of these same components. Only after

both the style-critical and theoretical components were extracted could

they be tabulated into matrix tables quantifying these component parts

as either a positive value supporting a particular hypothesis or a

negative value.

As a result, the following chapter is divided into two sections.

The first division is a descriptive analysis of the style-critical and

theoretical components which form the bases of the symphony. These

components relate directly to all the elements of the four hypotheses:

themes, forms, harmonies and key relationships, and orchestration for

the first hypothesis; neo-baroque, neo-classicism, neo-romanticism,

nationalism, impressionism, and expressionism for the second hypothesis;

repetition, cyclism, form, and orchestration for the third hypothesis;

and rhythms, melodies, instrumentation, descriptions, and orchestra-

tion for the fourth hypothesis.

The musical examples provided illustrative evidence of these com-

ponents which have a direct bearing on one or more of the hypotheses.

From this descriptive analysis, matrix tables were provided to quantify

the components which yielded either a supporting or non-supporting role

to the particular hypothesis involved.

The second division of the chapter includes the component musical

analyses in matrix form with brief discussions of the findings. These

matrices are presented in table form, and each corresponds to the four

hypotheses. Each table contains the total number of elements analyzed,

the total number of supporting elements, and the total number of non-

supporting elements. The numerical ratios are presented with a brief

discussion of the criteria, conclusions, and implications for accepting

or rejecting each of the four hypotheses.

Style-Critical and Theoretical Descriptive Analyses

With the exception of the double bassoon, clarinet in A, tuba,

and extra percussion, Mason does not deviate from the instrumentation

he used in his first symphony (see Chapter Four). Perhaps this is evi-

dence of his choosing not to experiment or deploy innovation. The work

is dedicated to Mary Lord Mason (Taintor was her former name), the

composer's wife since October 8, 1904.

In response to Lawrence Gilman, a music writer for the New York

Herald Tribune in the 1920's and 1930's, Mason provided a brief synopsis

of his symphony prior to its New York premiere by Bruno Walter on

February 18, 1932. The original premiere was by Fritz Reiner and the

Cincinnati Symphony on November 7, 1930. Mason's overview was pub-

lished in the New York Herald Tribune on January 31, 1932, and pro-

vided some of the composer's insights of the thematic material of the

symphony. It is in this article where Mason admits he is a romantic at

heart, and felt that expression was the supreme quality of music. He

further states his preferences for tonality. Apparently Mason was

criticized for having too much repetition and cyclism in his First

Symphony because in the article he utilizes defensive language to state

that this symphony was less cyclic and more innovative with fresh themes.

He treats the entire symphony as if it were a one movement sonata

allegro form. The first movement is the exposition, the second and

third movements are the development, and the fourth movement is the

recapitulation. Although he defends this technique as a new form, the

present writer felt that he was rationalizing his wholesale duplica-

tion of the first movement for the fourth.

Apparently Mason underwent quite a deviation in philosophy between

the time he wrote his Second Symphony and his Third, because in this

article he says:

Finally, I prefer my music without program, and
find that stories distract my attention from the
emotional expression and the plastic beauty which
are for me the essential values in musical art.
(Mason, 1932, p. M13)

This is taken up in more detail in Chapter Six.

The following is a detailed analysis of Mason's Second Symphony

with identifying components which support or deny the four stated


First Movement, Allegro maestoso

After a two measure introduction of sustained chords, a grandiose

crescendo with timpani roll preempts the principal theme which is

scored for full brass, violins, and woodwinds with counterpoint pro-

vided by the basses and trombones (see Example No. 23). After twenty

Example No. 23
Principal Theme (measures 3-6)

Zia 20,4 L i,


A .

measures of vigorous brass scoring, the bass clarinet and first clarinet

introduce the secondary theme in stretto (see Example No. 24). It is

Example No. 24
Secondary Theme (measures 21-24)

iv' A



characterized by ascending quavers followed by descending semi-quavers.

A very lengthy, tense, and restless bridge, based on the secondary

theme and accompanied by tremolandi strings, builds to a fully scored

inversion of the principal theme (see Example No. 23 and compare to

Example No. 25). Also, this time a whole tone scale is employed in-

stead of the chromatic line in the original main theme.

Example No. 25
Inversion of Principal Theme (measures 51-55)

The next section is a duplicate of the previous bridge between the

main theme and the secondary theme. At the Poco Piu Mosso (measure 72)

Mason scores a rich sonority made up of strings with clarinet embellish-

ment. Although this is new thematic material (see Example No. 26), it

is used as a transition to introduce what Mason calls his fourth main

theme in the horn (see Example No. 27). Throughout this section Mason

introduces entirely fresh themes, but he employs no development of

them. This section is similar to a through-composed German lied.

Immediately following the horn solo (see Example No. 27), flutes and

harp state a connotative triplet figure reminiscent of impressionistic

Example No. 26
Third Theme, Transitional (measures 71-79)

aVlW -
Vd ,

.~~, 4JL~


Example No. 27
Fourth Theme, Horn (measures 86-94)

,f's I
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writing (see Example No. 28). As soon as the flutes conclude and com-

plete an eight measure phrase, Mason again recalls new material at the

Example No. 28
Fifth Theme, Flutes and Harp (measures 94-97)

poco con motor (see Example No. 29). The horn theme (see Example No. 27)

is also recalled in duet fashion between the first violin and oboe, and
the repeat of theme six (see Example No. 29) follows in the strings.

pooo con motor (see Example No. 29). The horn theme (see Example No. 27)

is also recalled in duet fashion between the first violin and oboe, and

the repeat of theme six (see Example No. 29) follows in the strings.

Example No. 29
Sixth Theme in Violin (measures 102-105)

a A -C A

This leads directly into a recapitulation of the pesante-scored main

theme (see Example No. 23). Throughout this section, the running,

tremolandi eighth-notes in the strings maintain unity while still

providing climax. As the scoring thins out and the tempo reduced by

a rallentando, Mason recalls the main theme in the flute; however,

the key is E major. This tonality is retained until the conclusion

of the first movement. In addition, the bassoon provides the ascending

chromaticcounterline to the flute (see Example No. 30). Immediately

following the flute and bassoon duet the tuba and harp imitate the

opening motif of the bassoon (Example No. 30), as if another repeat

was ensuing; however, it is soon identified as a false entry. Five

measures after the false entry, the flute and bassoon theme repeats;

this time the strings replace what had been the flute line, and the

bassoon theme is picked up by the clarinet and viola. The next few

measures contain an inverted recall of the main theme; however, this

time the violoncello restates the counterline (see Example No. 30).

Example No. 30
Rescored Principal Theme, Flute and Bassoon
(measures 167-174)

sA'ri3 I'

At rehearsal mark eighteen (measure 181) Mason commences the coda

by presenting a motif of the bassoon counterline (Example No. 30) in

stretto fashion to accomplish a type of harmonic pyramid in E major.

At the Pii mosso (measure 200) the horn intones a long-short-long

funeral-like rhythm on the major third of the chord while the solo

violin arpeggiates downward on the E major triad. Sparce scoring allows

the movement to dissipate until the A clarinet is sustaining a single

note on the tonic E. This provides the bridge to segue to the second

movement, attacca.

Second Movement, Andante sostenuto

The second movement is connected to the first by the clarinet,

and the principal theme of this movement begins promptly at measure one


in the strings (see Example No. 31). The inner voices of the string

section, with their chromatic, contrasting motion, provide the rich

Example No. 31
Principal Theme, Strings (measures 1-8)

~~i ~ AvaL i~~yirl:

) Y10LA r

17 VLM z ,a 10 SS.

T 7-

27.r? D~ 4

support of the almost sacred, lyrical melody of the first violin.

This section is truly a harmonic and scoring masterpiece for the

composer. Only twenty measures later, Mason introduces a second theme

(see Example No. 32), animated in tempo, in the English horn and

bassoon. Because of similar intervals, countour of line, and rhythm

similarities, this second theme seems to be a derivative of the main

t `~ f L

Example No. 32
Secondary Theme (measures 20-24)

7 sieij 2SiS-- l----- ^.sM ^ .- "T -:^-= =

theme (compare Example Nos. 32 with 31). With the conclusion of the

English horn and bassoon theme, Mason incorporates a contrapuntal duet

among flutes, clarinet, and strings. In the original version of the

score, the flutes and violins were synonomous (see Example No. 33), but

Example No. 33
Contrapuntal Duet and Obliggato (measures 34-39)

in his 1944 revision he offset the flute theme as an obliggato with the

string theme, and varied the rhythm. The results are similar to a

canon with other thematic material embellishing the section. This

theme repeats an octave higher in the strings, and the flute and clari-

net obliggati are technically more embellished.

At the risoluto, con moto the brass take up the secondary theme

(Example No. 32) as the violins frantically ascend and descend in a

frenzy of sixteenth-note runs. This connects a long transition section

based on motifs of the secondary theme, as the tempo stringendos to

bridge to the recall of the main theme.

The tempo primo, sostenuto carries a restatement of the main string

theme, in the original key; however, it is scored an octave lower.

With the exception of minor woodwind obliggati, the next twenty measures

are almost a duplicate of the first twenty measures. Directly after the

complete recall of the main theme, Mason recalls neo-baroque techniques,

and provides an exposition of a four-voice fugue. Although primarily

scored for strings, the woodwinds contribute to the counterpoint with

embellishments. The four measure subject is rhythmically lively, as

it uses dotted eighth- and sixteenth-notes in a chromatic ascending

line (see Example No. 34). Mason employs a regular, syncopated

Example No. 34
Fugue Subject (measures 91-94)

countersubject which is rhythmically derived from the subject (see

Example No. 35). The exposition only lasts sixteen measures, however,

Example No. 35
Fugue Countersubject (measures 95-98)

-.--- ~

then dissolves into a quasi development section with highly contrapuntal

writing. The motifs from the subject, countersubject, and syncopated

bass line (see Example No. 36) are employed as the thematic bases for

the section. Mason creates tension with the aid of heavy percussion,

Example No. 36
Syncopated Bass Line in Fugue (measures 110-114)

glissandi runs in the strings, and supporting woodwinds until the brass

recall the main theme (Example No. 31) at the Andante Maestoso section.

The strings continue to state the rhythm of the fugue while embellish-

ing the rest of the main theme with thirty-second-note runs. The heavy

brass and quick runs of the strings are silenced at the subito piano

some twenty measures later. Here, a brass choir embellishes the main

theme with suspensions, passing tones, and anticipation tones to convey


a sense of reverence. Afterwards, the violins and flutes, in the ex-

treme high registers of their instruments, repeat the principal theme.
This is interrupted by the return of the reverently subdued brass choir
which creates tension with an ascending chromatic line until it is re-
solved to a blossoming C major chord in the strings, brass, and bassoons.

The movement concludes with sustained C major triads scored in
different inversion positions at a pianissimo dynamic. The composer's

original score had a fully orchestrated ending at a fortissimo level.

Third Movement, Vivace scherzando

Mason chooses a fast paced, hemiola rhythm as the principal theme
(see Example No. 37) for the scherzo movement. Though it is presented

Example No. 37
Principal Theme (measures 1-7)

Y ACiL SCALU'UlO N,- n'# ?
I r)tiii i = 1 i-4- l' . I--- 1 11

in the context of C-sharp minor, it is highly chromatic and syncopated.
Mason focuses the theme around the dominant chord of C-sharp minor to
create greater harmonic tension. When the main theme is repeated some
thirty-nine measures later, and up an augmented fourth, the harp pizzi-
catos four notes which reinforce the clarinet, bassoon, and oboe, and

are a derivative of the main theme of the first movement except in
augmentation (see Example No. 38 and compare to Example No. 23). With

Example No. 38
Harp Pizzicato (measures 41-47)

Ko. ^<~ ^i^

derivations of the main theme in the strings and embellished in the
woodwinds, the first section concludes in pizzicato style, and is set
off by a grand pause.
After the first grand pause, the horn states an aggressive second
theme (see Example No. 39) which is taken up by the woodwinds. As soon

Example No. 39
Secondary Theme, Horn (measures 92-98)

as the theme begins to develop Mason discontinues it and cordons it
off with another grand pause. The material between the second and
third grand pauses is an exact duplicate, except for minor scoring

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