Group Title: Heterosis and additive breed effects on feedlot and carcass traits from crossing Angus and Brown Swiss /
Title: Heterosis and additive breed effects on feedlot and carcass traits from crossing Angus and Brown Swiss
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 Material Information
Title: Heterosis and additive breed effects on feedlot and carcass traits from crossing Angus and Brown Swiss
Alternate Title: Angus and Brown Swiss
Physical Description: viii, 45 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Marshall, Timothy Thad, 1957-
Publication Date: 1986
Copyright Date: 1986
 Subjects
Subject: Beef cattle -- Breeding   ( lcsh )
Aberdeen-Angus cattle   ( lcsh )
Brown Swiss cattle   ( lcsh )
Animal Science thesis Ph. D
Dissertations, Academic -- Animal Science -- UF
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D.)--University of Florida, 1986.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 42-44.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Timothy Thad Marshall.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099332
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000566788
oclc - 13888392
notis - ACZ3229

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HETEROSIS AND ADDITIVE BREED EFFECTS ON FEEDLOT AND CARCASS
TRAITS FROM CROSSING ANGUS AND BROWN SWISS

















By

TIMOTHY THAD MARSHALL


A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

1986















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


I owe special recognition and appreciation to Don Hargrove for

his guidance as chairman of my supervisory committee, and for under-

standing my personal and professional goals. He and the other

members of my committee (Don Wakeman, Bill Kunkle, Jimmy Cheek, Dwain

Johnson) were interested enough in my pursuit of particular goals to

guide me in the direction necessary to reach those goals most

effectively.

I thank the cattlemen and 4-H and FFA members of Florida for

their support and appreciation while I worked to serve them. Much

appreciation is due my wife, Robin, and family. Without their

encouragement, I would never have finished this degree.

I owe much to my parents, Thad and Lavada Marshall. Because of

their ability to mold a child into a man, I am a hard working, honest

person who cares for the people I serve.

Most of all, I praise God for blessing me with the opportunity to

live in a free country, work in an area I choose, and worship in the

way I believe.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . .... . . . .. ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . ..... ..... v

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii

INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . .. . ... . .. 1

LITERATURE REVIEW . . . . . . .. . . .... 3

Comparative Feedlot Performance, Carcass Characteristics

and Palatability of Dairy- and Beef-Type Steers . . 4

Feedlot Performance . . ... .. . . .... 4

Carcass Characteristics . ....... .. . ... 6

Palatability . . . . . . . .. ..... 9

Heterosis and Additive Breed Effects on Feedlot

Performance and Carcass Characteristics . . ... 10

Maternal Components . . . . . . . ... 10

Individual Components . . . . . . ... 12

MATERIALS AND METHODS . . . . . .... . . . 15

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION . . . . .. . . . ..... 20

Feedlot Performance . . . . . . . . .. 20

Additive Breed Effects . . . . . . . 20


Heterosis Effects














Breed of Sire Effect .

Breed of Dam Effect . .

Breed of Sire by Breed of

Carcass Characteristics . .

Additive Breed Effects .

Heterosis Effects . .

Breed of Sire Effect .

Breed of Dam Effect . .

Breed of Sire by Breed of

SUMMARY . . . . . . .

LITERATURE CITED . . . . .

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . .


Interactions













Interactions


Page















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page



1 MATING DESIGN AND NUMBER OF STEERS BY BREED TYPE . 16

2 COMPOSITION OF DIETS . . . . . . .... 16

3 COEFFICIENTS FOR INDIVIDUAL AND MATERNAL ADDITIVE

EFFECTS, AND HETEROZYGOTIC LOCI FOR VARIOUS

BREED GROUPS . . . . . . . .... . 19

4 ESTIMATES FOR MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL ADDITIVE, AND

MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL HETEROSIS EFFECTS ON

FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE . . . . . . .... 21

5 LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE

BY BREED OF SIRE . . . . . . . .... 25

6 LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES SE FOR FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE

BY BREED OF DAM .................. 27

7 LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR DAYS ON FEED, FINAL

FEEDLOT AGE, AND AVERAGE DAILY GAIN BY BREED OF

SIRE X BREED OF DAM . . . . . . .... 29

8 ESTIMATES FOR MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL ADDITIVE,

AND MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL HETEROSIS EFFECTS ON

CARCASS TRAITS . . . . . . . ..... 31

9 LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR CARCASS TRAITS BY

BREED OF SIRE AND BREED OF DAM . . . . .. 14









Table Page



10 LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR FAT OVER THE

RIBEYE (CM) BY BREED OF SIRE AND BREED OF DAM . . 35

11 LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR MARBLING SCORE AND

WARNER-BRATZLER SHEAR FORCE VALUE BY BREED OF SIRE

AND BREED OF DAM .................. 38
















Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate School of the
University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy


HETEROSIS AND ADDITIVE BREED EFFECTS ON FEEDLOT AND CARCASS
TRAITS FROM CROSSING ANGUS AND BROWN SWISS


By

Timothy Thad Marshall

May 1986


Chairman: Don D. Hargrove
Major Department: Animal Science


A total of 132 steers, produced over a two-year period in a

diallele crossbreeding program in which Angus (A), Brown Swiss (BS),

and A x BS reciprocal F1 crossbred cows were bred to bulls of the

same three breed-types, were group-fed by breed-type to about 1 cm

outside fat. The mathematical model used to determine main and

interaction effects included breed of sire, breed of dam, year, and

all two-way interactions, plus initial feedlot age and outside fat as

covariates. Maternal and individual components of heterosis and

additive breed effects were estimated.

Additive effects for the Angus breed were expressed as deviations

from the Brown Swiss. Maternal additive effects of the Angus breed

on initial weight, slaughter weight, weight per day of age, warm

carcass weight, and warm carcass weight per day of age were

significant and negative. Individual additive effects for the Angus









were negative and significant for all feedlot traits except average

daily gain, and were significant for all carcass traits except ribeye

area per 100 kg warm carcass and percentage of kidney, pelvic and

heart fat.

Maternal heterosis effects were significant and in the desirable

direction only for initial feedlot weight (P<.05), slaughter age

(P<.10), and days on feed (P<.01). Individual heterosis effects were

significant only for carcass maturity (-5.5 of a score) and marbling

(.95 of a degree).

Angus-sired steers had lighter initial and slaughter weights and

weight per day of age than those sired by Brown Swiss bulls.

Angus-sired steers were also younger at slaughter, required fewer

days on feed, and consumed less dry matter than Brown Swiss-sired

steers. Angus-sired steers also produced younger, lighter-weight

carcasses with smaller ribeyes, less weight per day of age, more

marbling, lower cutability, and with higher tenderness ratings.

Steers sired by F1 bulls were intermediate to the parent breeds in

the above traits, but did not differ significantly from Angus-sired

steers for initial weight, weight per day of age, carcass weight per

day of age, or tenderness, or from Brown Swiss-sired steers for yield

grade and marbling score. Breed of dam effects were very similar to

those for breed of sire. Breed of sire by breed of dam interaction

effects were significant for days on feed, slaughter age, marbling

score, and Warner-Bratzler shear value.















INTRODUCTION


The agonizing dilemma of the American farmer has become the

centerpiece for Academy Award winning movie performances, much as

once was the disappearance of the old west. The search for

management systems which will enable the continuation of production

agriculture must advance without pause. The cause:effect

relationship between land use and land value has made extensive beef

production systems less practical in a growing number of regions.

The beef cow must, therefore, become a more efficient production unit

if the beef industry is to survive.

Planned, systematic crossbreeding is a well documented tool,

useful for increasing production in the beef business. Possibly more

important than the heterosis obtained from crossbreeding is the

degree to which the breeds being crossed complement each other.

Because of higher milk production of dairy x beef crossbred females

(Rutledge et al., 1971), these females usually wean heavier calves

than do straightbred beef females. Nelson et al. (1982) found that

Brown Swiss x Hereford cows weaned heavier calves and had a higher

weaning rate than did Angus x Hereford, Charolais x Hereford, and

straightbred Hereford cows. These cattle were producing in a

midwestern environment, not one comparable to that in which

commercial cattle are produced in Florida.









The objectives of this study were to determine the heterosis and

additive breed effects for feedlot performance and carcass

characteristics resulting from a diallele crossbreeding system

involving the Angus and Brown Swiss breeds.















LITERATURE REVIEW


The degree of success of a crossbreeding system depends mainly on

1) the level of performance in economically important traits of the

breeds selected and 2) the specific combining ability of those

breeds. Because of higher milk production of dairy x beef crossbred

females (Rutledge et al., 1971), they generally wean heavier calves

than do beef females. Both van Dijk (1983) and Nelson et al. (1982)

reported that Brown Swiss x British beef crossbred females weaned

heavier calves and had higher weaning rates than did straightbred

British beef females, resulting in more kilograms of calf weaned per

cow exposed. The dairy x beef crossbred cow can be a profitable unit

in some cow-calf management systems.

Although the potential for dairy breeding in beef production has

long been pondered, few studies have been implemented to evaluate the

effects of complementarity and heterosis in dairy x beef crosses.

Most data collected on this topic have been on maternal and pre-

weaning calf performances. Since many workers have compared beef and

dairy breeds in terminal crossbreeding studies, these data will be

reviewed to enhance the understanding of postweaning performance and

carcass characteristics of dairy breeds.









Comparative Feedlot Performance. Carcass Characteristics
and Palatability of Dairy and Beef Steers



Feedlot Performance

Before comparisons in feedlot performance can be made, one must

determine to what endpoint the cattle will be fed (weight, age, or

composition constant). The endpoint used will cause the results to

differ significantly for most parameters.

Cartwright (1982) stated that rate of gain of dairy steers can be

expected to be similar to that of steers from beef breeds of similar

mature size. This concurs with results reported by Cole et al.

(1963) and Martin (1971). In contrast, Cundiff et al. (1981)

reported that Brown Swiss crossbred calves gained at slightly slower

rates than did calves sired by bulls of the large Continental beef

breeds. However, these calves gained at significantly faster rates

than did calves sired by the smaller British-breed bulls. Similarly,

Hentges et al. (1973) reported significantly faster gains for Brown

Swiss-sired calves than for Hereford, Hereford x Angus, and Holstein

crossbred calves. Similar results were reported by Young et al.

(1978), Cole et al. (1963), and Adams et al. (1973). Henderson

(1969) reviewed and summarized 19 trials comparing Holstein and beef

steers, and reported faster gains for Holstein steers than for beef

steers in all trials. These differences ranged from a low of .02 to

a high of .5 pound per day.

It is difficult to derive meaningful inferences when comparing

differences in feed efficiency among breeds of cattle fed for equal

lengths of time or fed to equal weights. When Brown Swiss or









Holstein steers were compared to steers of the British beef breeds

under these feeding criteria, dairy steers tended to be more

efficient in converting feed to gain (Hentges et al., 1973; Cundiff

et al., 1981; Cole et al., 1963). A review of 19 studies (Henderson,

1969) showed that beef and Holstein steers were equally efficient in

converting feed into gain (8.16 versus 8.19 lb feed/lb gain,

respectively). However, the results were not consistent between

experiments. The Holstein steers were more efficient in three of the

studies and less efficient in seven. Henderson also reported a

significant correlation between rate of gain and efficiency of feed

utilization when computed within breed; however, this correlation did

not hold true when calculated from combined data on beef and Holstein

steers.

Hentges et al. (1973) reported that Brown Swiss-sired steers

consumed more feed than steers of beef breeds. Since high levels of

milk production require a high level of feed intake, dairy breeds

have indirectly been selected for a high level of feed intake and,

hence, large gastrointestinal capacity. Henderson (1969) reported

that daily feed intake, expressed as a percentage of body weight, was

higher for Holstein steers than for beef steers in all but one of the

19 studies reviewed. The respective averages were 2.6 and 2.4%.

Dean et al. (1976a) reported similar results for Holstein and

Hereford steers.

Few comparisons of feedlot performance of beef and dairy steers

have been made when the two types were fed to comparable carcass

composition endpoints. Dean et al. (1976a) fed calves that were 0,

25, and 50% Holstein breeding to a common slaughter grade. The 50%









Holstein steers gained .13 kg and .08 kg less per day than did the 0

and 25% Holstein steers, respectively.

When large dairy breeds (Holstein and Brown Swiss) were compared

to British beef breeds at comparable gains or fatness, the dairy

breeds were 10-25% lower in energetic efficiency (Garrett, 1971;

Newland et al., 1979). Cundiff et al.' (1981) reported that, when

breeds of varying types were fed to a constant fat trim, Brown

Swiss-sired calves were similar in feed efficiency to those sired by

bulls of the Continental beef breeds and less efficient than steers

sired by bulls of the British beef breeds. In addition, they

reported that the larger-framed, later-maturing steers required

longer feeding periods to reach the same fatness endpoint. This

resulted in Brown Swiss steers using a higher percentage of their

consumed feed for body maintenance and less for growth, when compared

to the smaller steers sired by British beef bulls. Garrett (1971)

concluded that the difference in feed efficiency between dairy and

beef steers seemed to be due to the more efficient fat deposition

(energy storage) of beef steers and the higher maintenance

requirement per unit of body weight of the dairy steers.



Carcass Characteristics

As with feedlot performance, carcass characteristics are affected

by the slaughter endpoint to which steers are fed. Therefore, the

data will be reviewed according to endpoint used (weight or age vs.

fatness).

Henderson (1969), in a review of 19 studies, reported that








Holstein steers had from 2.5 to 4.0% lower dressing percentage than

did beef steers. Branaman et al. (1962), Wellington (1971), and Koch

et al. (1982) reported a 3 to 4% reduction in dressing percentage for

dairy steers compared to beef steers. In contrasts to these reports,

higher dressing percentages were reported for dairy steers by Cole et

al. (1963), Judge et al. (1965), Urick et al. (1974), and Bertrand et

al. (1983). Due to the fact that dairy steers have a larger

gastrointestinal tract relative to body weight than do beef steers,

it would be expected that they would have a lower dressing percentage

(Henderson, 1969).

Dressing percentage is affected by degree of fatness. When dairy

and beef steers were compared at a constant age or weight, dairy

steers had less fat over the ribeye (FOE) and a higher cutability

(Cole et al., 1963; Young et al., 1978; Willham, 1973; Ramsey et al.,

1963; Judge et al., 1965; Urick et al., 1974; Koch et al., 1982;

Henderson, 1969; Wellington, 1971; Bertrand et al., 1983). Kempster

et al. (1976) reported that dairy breeds tended to deposit higher

proportions of their fat internally and a lower proportion as

subcutaneous fat. Although Cole et al. (1963), Wellington (1971),

and Adams et al. (1973) reported higher kidney, pelvic and heart fat

(KPH) percentages for dairy steers, Henderson (1969) reported a

tendency for beef steers to have a higher KPH percentage. Young et

al. (1978) also reported that Holstein-sired calves produced

carcasses with a lower percentage of KPH than calves sired by

Hereford, Angus, Brahman, and Devon bulls.

Historically, dairy cattle have been thought of as

light-muscled. However, the literature shows varied results when








ribeye areas (REA) were compared among dairy and beef steers

slaughtered at common age or weight endpoints. Urick et al. (1974)

reported a larger average REA in carcasses from Brown Swiss x Angus

steers than in carcasses from Angus steers. Judge et al. (1965),

Cole et al. (1963), and Wellington (1971) reported a larger average

REA in British beef carcasses than in Holstein carcasses. Adams et

al. (1973) showed no difference in REA/100 kg carcass weight for

steers sired by Simmental, Maine-Anjou, Lincoln Red, Brown Swiss,

Charolais, Angus and Hereford bulls. However, carcasses from steers

sired by Limousin bulls had significantly larger ribeyes relative to

weight. Henderson (1969) reported varied results in his review, but

most studies indicated that Holsteins tended to have a smaller

average REA than British beef steers.

Cole et al. (1963) reported the marbling scores for Holstein,

Angus and Hereford steers, slaughtered at 900 pounds or 20 months of

age, as Practically Devoid, Modest, and Moderate, respectively.

Differences in marbling scores were varied in the 19 studies reviewed

by Henderson (1969). However, since dairy steers were slaughtered

with an average of .39 in less FOE than beef steers, lower marbling

scores were expected in the dairy steers. Ramsey et al. (1963),

Branaman et al. (1962), Judge et al. (1965), and Ziegler et al.

(1971) reported lower average marbling scores in carcasses of

Holstein steers than in carcasses of beef steers. In addition,

Wellington (1971) reported that carcasses from Holstein steers

averaged one marbling score lower than the Angus carcasses; however,

the average score for both breeds was within the Choice quality

grade. Willham (1973) reported no difference in marbling score









between Brown Swiss crossbred and beef steer carcasses. Similarly,

Adams et al. (1973) reported no marbling differences between Brown

Swiss and Angus carcasses.

Few differences were reported among carcasses of Brown Swiss

crossbreds, Holstein crossbreds, Angus x Hereford crossbreds, and

Hereford steers when all were fed to a Choice quality grade (Hentges

et al., 1973). Dean et al. (1976b) reported that there were

increases in length of feeding period, carcass weight, marbling

score, and REA as the Holstein breeding increased from 0 to 25 and to

50%, when the steers were fed to a subjectively estimated constant

fatness. There were, however, corresponding decreases in FOE and

REA/100 kg carcass weight as percentage of Holstein breeding

increased. There was no effect of percentage Holstein breeding on

yield grade.

When dairy and beef steers are fed to the same carcass fatness,

there are some important differences that remain. These differences,

summarized in terms of the deviation of dairy breeds from British

beef breeds, are: 1) lower dressing percentage due to a larger

gastrointestinal tract and greater fill; 2) equal fat deposition over

the loin but less external fat and more internal fat (KPH) deposi-

tion; and 3) lean distribution indicating a) little difference in

ratios of weight of muscles or cuts, b) lower ratio of muscle to

bone, and c) ribeye tends to taper at distal end, reducing acceptable

steaks that can be cut from the loin (Henderson, 1969).



Palatability

Data reported in the literature would suggest little effect of

dairy breeding on palatability when cattle are fed to any endpoint









(fatness, weight or age), if they are fed for at least 180 days.

Branaman et al. (1962), Judge et al. (1965), Urick et al. (1974), and

Koch et al. (1982) reported no significant differences in Warner-

Bratzler shear values (WBS) or taste panel scores due to breed type.

Ziegler et al. (1971) showed no significant differences in WBS

between Holstein, beef and Holstein x beef crossbred steers.

However, there was a tendency for Holstein steers to be less tender

than steers of the British breeds and more tender than Charolais

steers. Ramsey et al. (1963) reported that steaks from Holstein

steers were significantly more tender than those from Brahman steers

and tended to be less tender than those from Hereford and Santa

Gertrudis steers.


Heterosis and Additive Breed Effects on Feedlot
Performance and Carcass Characteristics


Beef production parameters are composites of the additive breed

and heterotic effects exerted upon the calf directly and by maternal

environment. Thus, to utilize information from crossbreeding studies

in the design of optimal crossbreeding systems, one must be able to

partition the overall effects into those due to each breed, both

direct and maternal, and those due to heterosis, both direct and

through the maternal ability of the crossbred dam.



Maternal Components

Alenda et al. (1980) reported no significant maternal breed

effect on daily gain, ribeye area, or ribeye area per 100 kg of









carcass for Angus, when comparing Angus, Hereford and Charolais.

Their results included negative maternal heterosis estimates for

ribeye area and ribeye area per 100 kg of carcass from crossing Angus

with Hereford and Charolais, all of which were significant except for

ribeye area in the Angus x Charolais crosses.

Peacock et al. (1982) mated Angus (A), Brahman (B), and Charolais

(C) bulls in all combinations to A, B, C, and reciprocal firstcross

AB, AC, and BC females. They reported no significant maternal breed

effect on average daily gain, carcass weight, fat over the ribeye,

ribeye area per 100 kg of carcass, tenderness, or quality grade. The

steers were slaughtered after a constant time on feed. Significant

maternal heterosis estimates were reported for carcass weight and fat

over the ribeye (17 kg and .2 cm) when Angus and Brahman were

crossed. The only significant maternal heterosis estimate reported

in the Angus x Charolais crosses was for carcass weight (8.6 kg).

Gregory et al. (1978a,b) reported estimates of maternal breed

effects for Angus and Brown Swiss. The Brown Swiss breed showed a

significantly greater maternal additive effect for weight at 200,

312, and 424 days of age than did the Angus, with the 424 day

advantage being 45.6 kg. There was no significant difference in

maternal breed effect for average daily gain. The Brown Swiss

differed significantly from the Angus by exhibiting a higher maternal

breed effect for carcass weight (34.5 kg) and fat over the ribeye

(.15 cm), and a lower maternal breed effect for cutability (1%) when

the data were adjusted to an age constant basis. However, the

maternal breed effect was not significant when the data were adjusted

for the effects of weight on carcass traits.









No maternal heterosis estimates were found for crossbreeding

systems using Angus and Brown Swiss.



Individual Components

In a study reported by Gregory et al. (1978a,b), steers of the

Red Poll, Brown Swiss, Angus and Hereford breeds and all 12

reciprocal two-breed crosses were produced in a four-breed diallele

crossing program. These steers were fed to an average age of 14

months. Average effects of heterosis for all breed crosses were

significant (P<.01) for weights at weaning (12.7 kg), 10 months of

age (15.6 kg), and slaughter (15.2 kg). The Brown Swiss x Angus

crosses expressed significant heterosis at weaning (12 kg), 10 months

of age (13 kg), and slaughter (24 kg). In all crosses except the

Brown Swiss x Angus, heterosis for average daily gain decreased with

increasing age of calf. However, the Brown Swiss x Angus crossbred

steers showed a large increase in heterotic effect on average daily

gain from 10 months of age to slaughter. The specific combining

ability for growth traits was highest in Brown Swiss, when compared

to Red Poll, Angus and Hereford in all possible two-breed crosses.

Hentges et al. (1973) reported significant heterosis for appetite

(intake) of Brown Swiss crossbred steers.

Gregory et al. (1978b) reported direct additive breed effects for

weaning weight, 10-month weight, and 14-month or slaughter weight,

respectively, of 12.3 kg, 21.9 kg, 36.9 kg for Brown Swiss and 3.5

kg, 8.2 kg, 7.5 kg for Angus. These authors reported average daily

gains during two time periods, 200 to 312 days of age and 312 to 424

days of age. The direct additive breed effects on average daily










gains during the two periods were 85 g and 134 g for Brown Swiss and

41 g and -6 g for Angus. The ranking of breeds for direct additive

breed effects for growth traits was, in descending order, Brown

Swiss, Angus, Hereford, and Red Poll.

Gregory et al. (1978a) evaluated carcass data on 537 steers from

a four-breed diallele crossing design that included the Red Poll,

Brown Swiss, Angus and Hereford breeds. They determined the effects

of heterosis and direct additive gene action on carcass

characteristics. The only significant heterotic effect observed for

the Brown Swiss x Angus crossbred steers was for carcass weight on an

age constant basis (13.1 kg). On a weight constant basis the Brown

Swiss x Angus crossbreds showed no significant heterosis for carcass

traits. On an age constant basis, these workers reported that

carcasses from the Brown Swiss breed differed significantly from

Angus, Hereford, and Red Poll in direct additive breed effects for

slaughter weight, carcass weight, FOE, REA, cutability, and retail

product. The additive breed effects of Brown Swiss on these traits

were 35.5 kg, 16.8 kg, -.53 cm, 11.8 cm2, 4%, and 4.8%,

respectively. When compared as a deviation from the average of all

purebreds, the additive breed effects for Angus were significantly

different from those for the Brown Swiss for fat related traits.

These deviations for Angus and Brown Swiss were 1.1 vs .2, -2.5 vs

4.0%, -3.2 vs 4.8%, and 7.0 vs -2.6 g, respectively, for quality

grade, cutability, retail product, and fat trim. Compared on a

weight constant basis, the results were very similar to those

reported for direct additive breed effects on an age constant basis.

The Brown Swiss exhibited a significantly different additive breed








effect for dressing percentage, FOE, REA, cutability, retail product,

and bone than did the Angus (-1.6 vs 0.3%, -.50 vs .36 cm, 8.4 vs

-2.3 cm2, 3.7 vs -2.4 %, 4.6 vs -3.1%, .6 vs -.8 kg for Brown Swiss

and Angus, respectively). The direct effects for the Angus breed on

marbling score and quality grade were significantly higher than were

those for the Brown Swiss.

Bertrand et al. (1983) evaluated carcass data on 371 steers,

produced in a four-breed diallel cross design (Angus, Hereford,

Holstein, and Brown Swiss). The steers were slaughtered at an

average age of 14 months. Significant heterosis effects were

exhibited in the Brown Swiss x Angus cross for slaughter weight (32.4

kg), carcass weight (21.6 kg), marbling score (1.7), quality grade

(.8), and REA (4.6 cm2).
















MATERIALS AND METHODS


One hundred and thirty-two steers, born in 1979 and 1980 from a

diallele crossing program involving Angus, Brown Swiss, and Angus x

Brown Swiss F1 crossbreds (table 1), were weaned at an average age

of 210 days and group fed by breed-type, to an estimated outside fat

thickness of 1 cm. The diets fed are shown in table 2. In year 1

(1979-80), steers were fed in covered feeding pens at the North

Florida Research and Education Center, Quincy, Florida, and in year

2, the steers were fed in open lots at the Beef Research Unit,

Gainesville, Florida. Steers had free access to water and a complete

mineral mix throughout the feeding period. Steers were injected with

12 ml Tramisol, 1.5 million IU Vitamin A, 225,000 IU Vitamin D, and

25 ml Terramycin at the beginning of the feeding period. At this

time, steers were implanted with 36 mg of Ralgro and implanted 62 and

98 days later, in the first and second years respectively, with

Synovex-S.

Since steers were group-fed by breed groups, individual feed

intake was not measurable. Therefore, total dry matter intake, daily

dry matter intake, and feed efficiency data obtained each year were

breed group averages. Initial and final feedlot weight were

calculated shrunk weights, obtained by decreasing the actual weights

by four percent.


1 ,










TABLE 1. MATING DESIGN AND NUMBER OF STEERS BY BREED TYPE


Breed of dam


Breed of sire Angus Brown Swiss F1(AxBS)a Total


Angus (A) 14 10 17 41

Brown Swiss (BS) 10 13 17 40

F1(AxBS)a 16 16 19 51


TOTAL 40 39 53 132


aReciprocal crosses combined.


TABLE 2. COMPOSITION OF DIETS AND INGREDIENT DRY MATTER


Composition, Ingredient
as fed basis dry matter
Ingredient (%) (%)

1979-80

Whole shelled corn (IFN 4-02-931) 70 88

Corn silage (IFN 3-08-153) 23 40

Protein supplement (50% protein equivalent) 7 90


1980-81

High moisture corn (IFN 4-20-770) 71 75

Corn silage (IFN 3-28-250) 23 32

Protein supplement (60% protein equivalent) 6 90



Steers were slaughtered and carcass data collected at the

University of Florida Meats Laboratory. Carcass data collected

included all USDA Quality and Yield Grade components. Warner-Bratzler









shear force was measured on 1.27 cm cores from steaks cut from the

short loin. Carcass weight per day of age and ribeye area per 100 kg

of carcass were calculated.

Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model Procedures

(SAS, 1979). The original mathematical model used included breed of

sire, breed of dam, year, and all 2- and 3-factor interactions. The

3-factor interactions were not significant sources of variation and

were removed from the final model. Fat over the ribeye was included

as a covariate in all models. Initial feedlot age was also used as a

covariate, because calves out of Brown Swiss cows were younger than

those from other dam breeds.

The procedure providing simultaneous estimates of additive and

heterosis effects for both individual and maternal components is

based on the assumption that individual and maternal components

combine additively, and that heterosis is linear with respect to the

percentage of loci where the alleles originate from different breeds

(table 3). The mathematical model used to estimate heterosis and

additive breed effects for all response variables was:

Yij = + Ti + AoX1 + AmX2 + HoX3 + HX4 + FOE + BAGE + eij

where,

Yij = observation of the jth steer or jth pen average

during the ith year

= population mean

Ti = effect due to ith year

Ao and Am = parital regression coefficients for additive breed

effects for offspring (o) and maternal (m)

components, respectively











Ho and H, = partial regression coefficients for heterosis

effects for offspring (o) and maternal (m)

components, respectively

X1 and X2 = measure of breed composition of the calf and its

dam, respectively (recorded as the proportion of

Angus breeding)

X3 and X4 = measure of breed heterozygosis for the calf and

its dam, respectively, with values for the F1 at

1, backcross at .5 and purebred at 0

BAGE = initial feedlot age (covariate)

FOE = fat over ribeye (covariate)

eij = random error associated with the measurement

of the jth calf or jth pen average during the ith

year









TABLE 3. COEFFICIENTS FOR INDIVIDUAL AND MATERNAL ADDITIVE EFFECTS, AND
HETEROZYGOTIC LOCI FOR VARIOUS BREED GROUPS


Additive


Individual Maternal Heterosis



Breed
groups Ab BS Ac BS Individuald Maternale
(Sire x Dam)


AxA 1 0 1 0 0 0

BS x BS 0 1 0 1 0 0

A x BS .5 .5 0 1 1 0

BS x A .5 .5 1 0 1 0

BS x ABS .25 .75 .5 .5 .5 1

A x ABS .75 .25 .5 .5 .5 1

ABS x ABS .5 .5 .5 .5 .5 1

ABS x A .75 .25 1 0 .5 0

ABS x BS .25 .75 0 1 .5 0


aA = Angus, BS = Brown Swiss, ABS = Angus x Brown Swiss F,
reciprocal crossbreds.
bRepresents X1 values in the model.
CRepresents X2 values in the model.
dRepresents X3 values in the model.
eRepresents X4 values in the model.
















RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Feedlot Performance



Crossbreeding of cattle for commercial beef production, as well

as for breed development and upgrading programs, has become

widespread in the past 20 years. Determination of genetic and

maternal effects attributable to each breed and breed combination

should provide producers added information to improve the efficacy of

crossbreeding systems.



Additive Breed Effects

The Angus and Brown Swiss breeds are very different in mature

size and milk production; therefore, significantly different maternal

additive effects for postweaning growth traits might be expected.

Expressed as a deviation from the Brown Swiss breed, the maternal

additive effects for the Angus breed on initial feedlot weight

(P<.001), final feedlot weight (P<.01), and weight per day of age

(P<.01) were negative (table 4). These results support those

reported by Gregory et al. (1978b). Although not significantly

different, the desirable maternal additive effect for the Angus breed

on feed efficiency may be sufficiently large to be of economic

importance (table 4). Had individual feed intake been measured,

adequate degrees of freedom would have existed to increase the


















TABLE 4. ESTIMATES FOR MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL ADDITIVE, AND MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL
HETEROSIS EFFECTS ON FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE


Initial Final Average Average
feedlot feedlot Slaughter Weight per Days on Total daily Feed per daily
Componentsa weight weight age day of age feed DM intake DM intake kg gain gain


Effects in units of measure

kg kg d kg d kg kg kg kg

Maternal additive -30.0"' -25.7+ 1.8 -.058+ 1.8 81 .09 -.51 .02

Individual additive -30.8* -128..0." -68.0." -.134" -68.0*" -1399" -2.12+ -1.88+ -.03

Maternal heterosia 18.7 4.6 -7.8+ .038 -7.8+ -12 .19 .17 -.01

Individual heterosis -11.2 .7 -.3 .010 -.3 -85 -.32 -.37 .07

Heterosis expressed as percent deviation from midparent mean

Maternal heterosia 7.7* .9 -1.7. 3.5 -5.9- -.7 2.2 2.7 -.7

Individual heterosis -4.6 .1 0 .9 -.2 -5.1 -3-7 -5.8 5.1


aAdditive effects are for Angus and are expressed as deviations from Brown Swiss.
+P<.1
-P<.05
..P<.01
"P(<.001









sensitivity of the model, and the observed effect might have been

significant. These data concur with those reported by Gregory et al.

(1978b), in that they did not show any significant difference in the

maternal additive effects of the Angus and Brown Swiss breeds on

average daily gain.

The individual component of the additive effect for the Angus

breed was negative for all feedlot traits, and significant for all

traits except average daily gain (table 4). These results were not

unexpected since the Angus are smaller-framed cattle and would be

expected to consume less feed and reach a specified outside fat

endpoint quicker than Brown Swiss steers. Gregory et al. (1978b)

reported significantly lower additive breed effects for initial

weight, slaughter weight, and average daily gain for the Angus than

for the Brown Swiss. Similar, but larger, differences were published

by Alenda et al. (1980) and Peacock et al. (1982), when comparing the

Angus and Charolais breeds.



Heterosis Effects

Traits, in crossbred calves produced by crossbred cows, that are

subject to maternal influence, such as weaning weight, are affected

by two components of heterosis. These are the individual and

maternal components. The crossbred dam contributes the effect due to

maternal heterosis. The significant, positive maternal heterosis for

initial feedlot weight that was found in this study (table 4) was not

unexpected, since the steers were placed in the feedlot a short time

after weaning. The only other significant maternal heterosis

estimates for feedlot performance traits were for slaughter age and









days on feed (table 4). Beginning age was included as a covariate in

the mathematical model used to analyze the data, therefore, these two

traits are really the same. The negative maternal heterosis

estimates for slaughter age (-7.8%) and days on feed (-7.8%) show

that the steers produced by Angus x Brown Swiss crossbred dams

reached 1 cm outside fat at an earlier average age and after fewer

days in the feedlot than the average of those produced by

straightbred dams. Olson et al. (1985), working with the same

breeding herds, reported that calves from Angus x Brown Swiss

crossbred dams were heavier and fatter at weaning than the average of

those from Angus and Brown Swiss dams. These steers entered the

feedlot immediately after weaning. The steers from crossbred dams,

therefore, required a shorter feeding period to reach 1 cm outside

fat than the average of the steers from straightbred dams. No

maternal heterosis estimates were found for crossbreeding systems

using Angus and Brown Swiss. However, Alenda et al. (1980) did not

find a significant maternal heterosis estimate for daily gain in

Angus and Charolais crosses.

Falconer (1981) stated that heterosis is the recovery from

inbreeding depression, and that the traits which suffer most from

inbreeding depression are reproduction and survivability. Therefore,

little or no heterosis due to the individual component would be

expected for most feedlot performance traits. In this study,

individual heterosis was not significant for any feedlot performance

trait (table 4). However, significant estimates of individual

heterosis for initial and slaughter weights were reported by Gregory

et al. (1978b) and Bertrand et al. (1983). These authors fed steers









from an Angus x Brown Swiss crossbreeding system to an age constant

endpoint, rather than a common fat endpoint. Therefore, comparisons

with data from this study are indirect and may actually involve the

measurements of slightly different traits.



Breed of Sire Effects

Steers sired by Angus bulls had lighter initial (P<.01) and final

(P<.02) feedlot weights, and a lighter weight per day of age (P<.03)

than those sired by Brown Swiss bulls (table 5). The Angus-sired

steers were also younger at slaughter (P<.0001) and required

thirty-two fewer days (P<.0001) in the feedlot to reach 1 cm outside

fat. Steers sired by F1 Angus x Brown Swiss bulls were

intermediate to the parent breeds, and were significantly different

from the Brown Swiss-sired steers for all of the traits reported

above. The F1 Angus x Brown Swiss-sired steers were different from

the Angus-sired steers only for slaughter weight, days on feed, and

slaughter age. An advantage in weight at slaughter for the Brown

Swiss was also reported by Adams et al. (1973), Gregory et al.

(1978b), and Bertrand et al. (1983).

There was no breed of sire effect on average daily gain (table

5). These data concur with those reported by Adams et al. (1973),

who slaughtered steers at a constant quality grade. Gregory et al.

(1978b), using an age constant slaughter point, did report a

significant advantage in daily gain for Brown Swiss-sired steers over

those sired by Angus bulls. Since the steers were group-fed by

breed, the model for total dry matter intake, daily dry matter

intake, and feed to gain ratio had only 17 total degrees of freedom.

























TABLE 5. LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE BY BREED OF SIRE


Initial Final Average Average
feedlot feedlot Slaughter Weight per Days on Total daily Feed per daily
weight weight age day of age feed DM intake DM intake kg gain gain
freed of sire (kg) (kg) (d) (kg) (d) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg)


Angus (A) 231.4 4.4a 461.7 7.6a 436.6 + 1.5a 1.061 .017a 166.6 + 1.5a 1170 117a 8.15 .35 6.08 a .15 1.38 .03

Brown Swiss (BS) 246.1 + 4.4b 524.8 1 7.6c 469.0 m 1.5c 1.129 1 .017b 198.9 + 1.5c 1983 104C 9.15 + .31 6.41 .13 1.41 .03

FI (AxBS)d 236.6 3.6a 486.0 6.2b 452.4 1.3b 1.080 + .01Oa 182.3 1.3b 1567 41b 8.46 .12 6.16 .05 1.38 .02

Significance P<.1 P<.02 P<.0001 P<.03 P<.0001 P<.1 NS NS NS


a,b,cEstimates in same column with different letters differ at level of significance shoun.
dReciprocal crosses combined.










The only one of these traits affected by breed of sire was total dry

matter intake (P<.1). However, in all three traits, the Angus-sired

steers tended to be lower than those sired by F1 Angus x Brown

Swiss bulls, which, in turn, tended to be lower than those sired by

Brown Swiss bulls. There was a definite practical advantage for

Angus-sired steers in feed efficiency (8.15 versus 9.15 kg feed per

kilogram of gain, respectively, for Angus and Brown Swiss sired

steers). Conversely, Adams et al. (1973) showed a tendency for Brown

Swiss-sired steers to be more efficient feed converters than

Angus-sired steers.



Breed of Dam Effects

Breed of dam significantly affected (P<.05) all weight and time

related feedlot traits (table 6). The steers from Angus dams were

the lightest weight, spent the fewest days in the feedlot and were,

therefore, youngest at slaughter. The steers produced by F, Angus

x Brown Swiss crossbred dams were intermediate to those produced by

both straightbred groups of dam. These data concur with those of

Gregory et al. (1978b) and Bertrand et al. (1983), who reported

significant breed of dam effects for slaughter and initial weights

and for slaughter age.

There was no significant breed of dam effect on average daily

gain (table 6). This finding is supported by the results reported by

Gregory et al. (1978b). Steers from Angus dams consumed less feed

per day (P<.06) and less total feed during the feeding period (P<.07)

than those from Brown Swiss and F1 Angus x Brown Swiss dams.

Steers from Angus dams were also more efficient in feed utilization

























TABLE 6. LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR FEEDLOT PERFORMANCE BY BREED OF DAM


Initial Final Weight Days Average Average
feedlot feedlot Slaughter per day on Total daily Feed per daily
weight weight age of age feed DH intake DH intake kg gain gain
Breed of dam (kg) (kg) (d) (kg) (d) (kg) (kg) (kg) (kg)


Angus (A) 211.8 = 4.3a 415.2 7.4a 437.9 1.5a 1.021 .016a 167.9 1.5a 1286 53a 7.90 .15' 5.65 -07a 1.39 .02

Brown Swiss (ES) 257.8 4.50 535.0 a 7.70 469.4 1.60 1.148 .017c 199.4 1.60 1980 66C 9.12 .19b 6.65 .08b 1.39 .03

FI (AxBS)d 244.8 3.6b 492.1 6.1b 450.6 1.2b 1.101 .014b 180.6 : 1.2b 15114 44b 8.73 .13b 6.35 t .06b 1.38 .02

Significance P<.05 P<.0001 P<.0001 P<.05 P<.0001 P<,07 P<.06 P<.02 NS

a,b,cEstimates in the same column with different letters differ at level of significance shown.
dReciprocal crosses combined.











(P<.02) than those from F1 Angus x Brown Swiss and Brown Swiss

dams. Steers from F1 Angus x Brown Swiss dams were intermediate to

those produced by the straightbred dams for both measures of dry

matter intake, but differed from the steers out of Brown Swiss dams

only for total dry matter intake (P<.07).



Breed of Sire by Breed of Dam Interactions

Breed of sire by breed of dam interactions significantly affected

days on feed, average daily gain, and slaughter age. Since initial

feedlot age was used as a covariate in all mathematical models, any

difference in days on feed would result in an equal change in

slaughter age (table 7). Within all breed of sire groups, steers

from Brown Swiss dams required more days on feed to reach 1 cm

outside fat than those from Angus and F1 Angus x Brown Swiss dams

(table 7). Likewise, within breed of dam groups, steers sired by

Brown Swiss bulls required a longer feeding period to reach the

designated 1 cm outside fat than did those sired by Angus and F1

Angus x Brown Swiss bulls. However, the variation among breed of dam

groups was not consistent among breed of sire groups. Within

Angus-sired steers, those from Angus and F1 Angus x Brown Swiss

dams were nearly identical for days on feed, and both groups required

about 31 days less time to reach 1 cm outside fat than did those from

Brown Swiss dams. Within Brown Swiss-sired steer groups, steers from

Angus dams finished after a shorter feeding period than those from

F1 Angus x Brown Swiss dams and the groups required about 20 and 13

days less, respectively, to reach 1 cm outside fat than did steers

from Brown Swiss dams.









TABLE 7. LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES SE FOR DAYS ON FEED,
FINAL FEEDLOT AGE, AND AVERAGE DAILY GAIN BY BREED
OF SIRE AND BREED OF DAM


Breed of sire


Breed of dam Angus (A) Brown Swiss (BS) F1 (AxBS)a


156.3 2

187.4 2

156.0 2



426.3 2

457.4 2

426.0 2



1.32 .01

1.39 .05

1.43 .04


Days on feed (d)

.6 190.0 + 2.9

.9 210.1 2.8

.2 196.6 2.2

Final feedlot weight (kg

.6 460.0 + 2.9

.9 480.2 + 2.8

.2 466.6 + 2.2

Average daily gain (kg)

4 1.39 .05

5 1.42 + .05

4 1.41 + .04


157.4

200.6

189.1

)

427.4

470.6

459.1



1.46

1.37

1.30


2.2

2.3

+ 2.1



+ 2.2

+ 2.3

+ 2.1



+ .04

.04

.03


crosses combined.


Angus

Brown Swiss

F1 (AxBS)a



Angus

Brown Swiss

F1 (AxBS)a



Angus

Brown Swiss

F1 (AxBS)a


aReciprocal









The significant breed of sire by breed of dam interaction effects

on average daily gain show that the straightbred Brown Swiss steers

gained faster than straightbred Angus steers, and that the F1 Angus

x Brown Swiss crossbreds were intermediate to the straightbreds

(table 7). The F2 Angus x Brown Swiss steers, however, had the

lowest average daily gain and the steers with one-fourth Brown Swiss

breeding had the highest average daily gain of all breed groups.



Carcass Characteristics

Carcass attributes, including meat palatability, of breeds and

breed crosses are becoming more important in determining the

potential of different crossbreeding systems. Additive effects of

the Brown Swiss breed and the heterosis effects obtained from using

the Brown Swiss in crossbreeding programs have not been evaluated

thoroughly under beef production systems.



Additive Breed Effects

Because of the lower milk production potential of the Angus

breed relative to the Brown Swiss, significantly different maternal

additive effects for growth related carcass traits would be

expected. The maternal additive effects of the Angus breed,

expressed as deviations from the Brown Swiss, were negative (P<.10)

for carcass weight and carcass weight per day of age, but were not

significant for any of the other carcass characteristics measured

(table 8). Supportive results were published by Gregory et al.

(1978a), who reported significant differences in maternal additive

effects for the Angus and Brown Swiss breeds on slaughter weight and















TABLE 8. ESTIMATES FOR MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL ADDITIVE, AND MATERNAL AND INDIVIDUAL HETEROSIS
EFFECTS ON CARCASS TRAITS


Hot Carcass
carcass weight per
weight day of age


Componenta


Ribeye area
Ribeye per 100 kg
area carcass


Yield
grade


Maturity Marbling


Effects in units of measure

kg kg % cm2 em2 grade score degree kg

Maternal additive -16.9+ -.037+ -.22 1.2 .8 .2 1.3 .38 ,7

Individual additive -76.5"'" -.080. .09 -18.6m" .6 .4* 8.8' 1.01* 1.6"

Maternal heterosis 5.9 .029 .02 2.6 .2 .1 1.2 .19 0

Individual heterosis .2 .006 .01 2.1 .4 .1 5.5" .95"' .1

Heterosis expressed as percent deviation from midparent mean

Maternal heterosis 2.0 4.4 .8 3.5 .8 3.5 2.2 -5.0 0

Individual heterosis 0 .9 .4 2.8 1.6 3.5 -12.41 24.9"'" 2.0

aAdditive effects are for Angus and are expressed as deviations from Brown Swiss
+P<.1
"P<.05
'"P<.001


Warner-Bratzler
shear force










carcass weight, when steers were slaughtered at an age constant

endpoint. These authors, however, found no difference in maternal

additive effects of the two breeds for any carcass characteristic

when the steers were slaughtered at a weight-constant endpoint.

The individual additive effects of the Angus breed, again

expressed as a deviation from the Brown Swiss, were significant for

all carcass traits except ribeye area per 100 kg carcass and

percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (table 8). These results

indicate that the use of the Angus breed would increase carcass

quality grade and tenderness, but would decrease the carcass weight,

ribeye area, and cutability if included in a crossbreeding system

with Brown Swiss. Results from this study are in agreement with

those published by Gregory et al. (1978a).



Heterosis Effects

Maternal heterosis did not significantly affect any carcass trait

(table 8). When cattle are slaughtered at a fat constant endpoint,

one would not expect carcass traits to be affected greatly by

maternal heterosis for two reasons; 1) carcass traits are not

normally associated with fitness and therefore would not respond to

increase in heterozygosity, and 2) residual effects from a maternal

influence should be small after a feeding period of over 150 days.

Also, maternal heterosis did not affect feedlot average daily gain or

final feedlot weight (table 4); therefore, maternal heterosis should

not have significantly affected growth-related carcass traits.

Individual heterosis was significant for only two carcass

characteristics, maturity (P<.05) and marbling (P<.001) (table 8).









The individual heterosis effect on carcass maturity may have little

economic importance, since all carcasses were A maturity and the

amount of variation was small. The 24.9% individual heterosis

estimated for marbling was larger than expected, and contrary to

results of Gregory et al. (1978a). However, Bertrand et al. (1983)

reported a significant effect of individual heterosis on marbling

(.57 of a degree). This was smaller than the .95 of a degree found

in this study. This positive effect of individual heterosis on

marbling score would be extremely important as long as the value of

beef carcasses is affected by marbling score. Individual heterosis

estimates for carcass traits related to growth rate were not

significant. In contrast, Gregory et al. (1978a) and Bertrand et al.

(1983) reported significant heterosis effects on carcass weight and

ribeye area in Angus x Brown Swiss crossbreds. However, steers in

their studies were compared on an age constant, rather than a fat

constant, basis.



Breed of Sire Effects

Breed of sire had a significant effect on all carcass traits

except percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart fat and ribeye area per

100 kg of carcass (table 9). When compared to Brown Swiss-sired

steers, the steers sired by Angus bulls were younger at slaughter

(P<.001), had smaller carcasses (P<.01), and had lighter carcass

weights per day of age (P<.01). Since there generally is a positive

correlation between ribeye area and carcass weight, the significant

advantage in ribeye area for the steers sired by Brown Swiss and F1

Angus x Brown Swiss crossbred bulls was to be expected. These




















TABLE 9. LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR CARCASS TRAITS BY BREED OF SIRE AND BREED OF DAM


Hot Carcass Ribeye area
carcass weight per KPH Hibeye per 100 kg Yield Warner-Bratzler
Breed group weight day of age fat area carcass grade Maturityd warblinge shear force


Breed of Sire kg kg % cm2 em2 grade score degree kg

Angus 289.7 4.7a .646 .010a 2.5 .1 70.1 1.2a 25.3 .4 3.0 .1a 40 1 4.29 .14a 4.3 .2a

Brown Swiss 318.3 4.7< .686 .010b 2.4 .1 79.1 1.2c 24.9 .4 2.7 .1 45 1b 3.76 .14b 5.1 .2b

F1 IlABS)f 297.9 3.9b .663 .009a 2.5 .1 75.3 1.0b 25. & .3 2.8 .1 42 t Iab 3.81 .11b 4.5 .2a

Significance P<.O0 P<.1 NS P<.02 NS P<.09 P<.03 P<.02 P<.02

Breed of Dam

Angus 270.0 4.6a .621 .010a 2.3 .1 68.7 1.2a 25.5 .4 2.8 .1 39 1a 4.05 .13 4.7 .2

Brown Swiss 326.1 4.8c .700 .011c 2.5 .1 79.7 1.3c 24.6 t .4 2.9 .1 45 1 Ib 4.00 .14 4.7 .2

F1 (IxBS)f 300.7 3.8b .673 .008b 2.5 .1 76.1 1.0b 25.4 .3 2.8 .1 43 1b 3.81 .11 4.6 .2

Significance P(.001 P<.06 NS P<.04 NS NS P<.02 NS NS



a,b,cEstimates in same column with different letters differ at level of significance shown.
dAll A maturity: 40 A40
e3 = slight, 4 = small
fReciprocal crosses combined.









results concur with those of Urick et al. (1974), Gregory et al.

(1978a), Koch et al. (1982), and Bertrand et al. (1983). When ribeye

area was expressed on a carcass weight basis, there was no

significant difference due to breed of sire. Adams et al. (1973)

reported similar results for ribeye area per 100 kg of carcass.

Angus-sired steers had carcasses with higher yield grades, indicating

lower cutability, than those sired by Brown Swiss bulls. The steers

sired by F1 Angus x Brown Swiss and Brown Swiss bulls did not

differ significantly in carcass yield grade. Had estimation of

subcutaneous fat thickness in the live animal been more precise in

this study (table 10), lower cutability of the carcass from

Angus-sired steers might not have been observed.


TABLE 10. LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES SE FOR FAT OVER THE RIBEYE
(CM) BY BREED OF SIRE AND BREED OF DAM


Breed of sire


Breed of dam Angus (A) Brown Swiss (BS) F1 (AxBS)a


Angus (A) 1.27 .09 .99 .10 1.04 + .08

Brown Swiss (BS) 1.22 .11 .68 .09 .89 .08

F1 (AxBS) 1.28 .08 .87 .08 1.18 .07

a Reciprocal crosses combined.


Carcasses from Angus-sired steers had a significantly lower

maturity score and a higher degree of marbling than those from steers

sired by Brown Swiss bulls. Carcasses from steers sired by F1

Angus x Brown Swiss bulls were intermediate to those sired by the

straightbred bulls for both traits, but were not significantly









different from those of either breed group for carcass maturity, or

from those of Brown Swiss-sired steers for marbling score. These

data differ from those reported by Willham et al. (1970), Adams et

al. (1973), and Hentges et al. (1973), but are in agreement with data

published by Gregory et al. (1978a), Koch et al. (1982), and Bertrand

et al. (1983). However, comparisons among this study and the other

studies cited are difficult because the cattle were slaughtered at

different endpoints.

The longissimus muscle from Angus-sired and F1 Angus x Brown

Swiss-sired steer carcasses was more tender (P<.02) than that from

Brown Swiss-sired steers. Urick et al. (1974) reported no

significant difference in tenderness from Angus and F1 Brown Swiss

x Angus steer carcasses, but they did show a tendency for the Angus

to be more tender.



Breed of Dam Effects

Only those carcass traits related to growth rate, size, and

maturity rate were affected by breed of dam (table 9). Steers from

Angus dams produced smaller carcasses (P<.001) and had less carcass

weight per day of age (P<.06) than those from Brown Swiss dams.

Steers from Angus dams also had a smaller average ribeye area (P<.04)

and lower maturity score (P<.02). Steers from the F1 Angus x Brown

Swiss crossbred dams were intermediate to and significantly different

from those from the two parent breeds for the traits listed above,

except that they did not differ significantly from those produced by

Brown Swiss dams for carcass maturity. Breed of dam had a greater

effect on carcass weight per day of age than did breed of sire (table










9). Brown Swiss cows weaned the heaviest calves, followed by the

F1 Angus x Brown Swiss crossbreds and the Angus (Olson et al.,

1985). Since preweaning gain contributes to carcass weight per day

of age, part of the breed of dam effect on carcass weight per day of

age was undoubtedly due to different preweaning daily gains resulting

from different levels of milk production by the three breed groups of

dam.



Breed of Sire by Breed of Dam Interactions

Breed of sire by breed of dam interactions significantly affected

marbling score and tenderness (table 11). The F1 steers nursing

Brown Swiss dams had the highest marbling score of all groups, while

the F1 steers nursing the Angus dams produced carcasses with nearly

one degree less marbling. Similarly, when steers of like breed

composition but nursing different breeds of dam were compared, the

more tender steaks were from those that nursed cows with a higher

percentage of Brown Swiss breeding. Since the Brown Swiss cows

produced more milk (Euclides et al., 1983), these data may suggest a

preweaning nutritional effect on marbling and meat tenderness.









TABLE 11. LEAST SQUARES ESTIMATES + SE FOR MARBLING SCORE AND
WARNER-BRATZLER SHEAR FORCE VALUE BY BREED OF SIRE AND
BREED OF DAM


Breed of sire


Breed of dam Angus (A) Brown Swiss (BS) F1 (AxBS)a


Marblingb

Angus 4.21 .23 4.06 + .25 3.88 .20

Brown Swiss 5.04 + .26 3.43 .25 3.53 .21

F1 (AxBS)a 3.62 + .20 3.80 + .20 4.01 .18

Warner-Bratzler shear force (kg)

Angus 4.3 .4 5.2 + .4 4.4 + .3

Brown Swiss 4.5 .4 5.5 + .4 4.0 .3

F1 (AxBS)a 4.1 + .3 4.7 .3 4.9 + .3


aReciprocal crosses combined.
b3=slight, 4=small
















SUMMARY


One hundred and thirty-two steers, born in 1979 and 1980, from

Angus (A), Brown Swiss (BS), and A x BS reciprocal crossbred cows

(FI) bred to A, BS, or F1 bulls were full-fed by breed groups

from weaning until they reached the slaughter endpoint of about 1 cm

outside fat. Steers were slaughtered at the University Meats

Laboratory, carcass quality and yield grade data were collected, and

Warner-Bratzler shear force values obtained on loin steaks. The

mathematical model used to determine main and interaction effects

included breed of sire, breed of dam, year, all two-way interactions,

plus initial age and fat over the ribeye as covariates. Maternal and

individual components of heterosis and additive breed effects were

estimated, based on the assumption that individual and maternal

components combine additively, and that heterosis is linear with

respect to the percentage of loci where alleles originate from

different breeds. Additive effects for the Angus breed were

expressed as deviations from the Brown Swiss.

The maternal additive effects of the Angus breed were significant

only for traits related to weight, and were negative for initial

feedlot weight, final feedlot weight, weight per day of age, carcass

weight, and carcass weight per day of age. The individual additive

effects of the Angus were significant and negative for all feedlot

traits except average daily gain. The individual additive effects










of the Angus significantly decreased weight-related traits, but

improved marbling and tenderness. Maternal heterosis was of

significant magnitude only for initial feedlot weight, slaughter age,

and days on feed, all of which were in the desirable direction.

Individual heterosis was significant only for carcass maturity and

marbling.

Breed of sire significantly affected all growth parameters of

postweaning performance, days on feed, and slaughter age. Likewise,

breed of sire affected all carcass characteristics except ribeye area

per 100 kg of carcass and percentage of kidney, pelvic and heart

fat. When compared to Brown Swiss, Angus bulls caused a decrease in

initial feedlot weight, final feedlot weight, weight per day of age,

days on feed, dry matter intake, carcass weight, carcass weight per

day of age, cutability, ribeye area and maturity, and an increase in

marbling and tenderness. The F1 Angus x Brown Swiss-sired steers

were intermediate to the steers from Angus and Brown Swiss sires for

all of these traits. However, they did not differ significantly from

the Angus-sired steers for initial feedlot weight, live and carcass

weight per day of age, and tenderness, or from Brown Swiss-sired

steers for yield grade and marbling.

Breed of dam significantly affected all postweaning performance

traits except average daily gain, and also affected carcass weight,

carcass weight per day of age, carcass maturity and ribeye area.

Steers from Angus dams, when compared with those from Brown Swiss

dams, had a decrease in initial feedlot weight, final feedlot weight

and slaughter age, live and carcass weight per day of age, days on

feed, total and daily dry matter intake, feed to gain ratio, carcass












weight, ribeye area, and carcass maturity. Steers from F1 Angus x

Brown Swiss dams were intermediate to those from Angus and Brown

Swiss dams for all of the above traits, and were significantly

different than both for all traits except daily dry matter intake,

feed to gain ratio, and carcass maturity, where they differed only

from the steers from Angus dams.

Breed of sire by breed of dam interactions were significant for

days on feed, slaughter age, average daily gain, marbling, and

tenderness. The fastest gaining breed type was the three-fourths

Angus steers. Breed of sire by breed of dam interactions for

tenderness were due to the fact that, within breed of sire, increases

in Brown Swiss breeding in the dam caused an increase in meat

tenderness, suggesting a preweaning nutritional effect on tenderness.
















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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH


Timothy Thad Marshall was born November 8, 1957, in Bangor,

Maine. He graduated from the public school system of Cook County,

Georgia, in June, 1975. During his high school years, he was active

in 4-H and FFA clubs, and was elected local president of both

organizations. He entered Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College in

September, 1975, and was awarded the Associate of Science degree in

agriculture in June, 1977. In September, 1977, he entered the

University of Georgia and was awarded the degree of Bachelor of

Science in agriculture in June, 1979, with a major in animal

science. At the University of Georgia, the author was president of

the Block and Bridle Club and received the Outstanding Senior in

Animal Science Award from the faculty. He was a member of the 1978

University of Georgia Livestock Judging Team.

In September, 1979, the author was granted a graduate assistant-

ship at the University of Florida and received a Master of Science

degree in August, 1981. He pursued a degree of Doctor of Philosophy

in animal science until March, 1982 when he accepted the position of

Livestock Extension Agent for Alachua County, Florida. He re-entered

his graduate program during May, 1985 and has pursued the degree of

Doctor of Philosophy since then.

He is married to the former Robin Rene Marks and is the father of

two children, Rene and Glen.









I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




Don D. Hargrove, Chairma
Associate Professor of Animal Science



I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




D. L. Wakeman
Professor of Animal Science



I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




W. E. Kunkle
Associate Professor of Animal Science



I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




G. Chee
P ofessor o Agricultural & Extension
ucation









I certify that I have read this study and that in my opinion it
conforms to acceptable standards of scholarly presentation and is
fully adequate, in scope and quality, as a dissertation for the
degree of Doctor of Philosophy.




D. D. Johnson
Assistant Professor of Animal Science



This dissertation was submitted to the Graduate Faculty of the
College of Agriculture and to the Graduate School, and was accepted
as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor
of Philosophy.

May 1986


Dean, Co ege of Agricukure


Dean, Graduate School




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