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Americas gateway to the universe. Leading the world in preparing and launching missions to Earth and beyond.June 19, 1998 John F. Kennedy Space CenterVol. 37, No. 12 Spaceport NewsA Future Venture with Star Appeal STS-91 a flight of firsts and farewells Discovery lifts off from Launch Pad 39A with the first new super lightweight external tank at 6:06 p.m. EDT June 2. Discovery spent four days docked to the Russian Space Station Mir for the final Mir docking mission. Discoverys crew included Commander Charles Precourt; Pilot Dominic Gorie; and Mission Specialists Wendy Lawrence, Franklin Chang-Diaz, Janet Kavandi and Valery Ryumin.From Mir to the International Space Station: From Mir to the International Space Station: From Mir to the International Space Station: From Mir to the International Space Station: From Mir to the International Space Station:Lessons learned link long-duration spaceflight legacy This year, the United States and its International Space Station (ISS) partners will embark upon a journey of historic proportions: the assembly and operation of the largest, most complex structure ever placed in orbit. Constructing the station will involve contributions from 16 countries, include four research laboratories of unprecedented capability, require 43 flights to fully (See ISS, Page 6) assemble, and operate on orbit for more than a decade. How does such an adventure begin? Years before the United States and its international partners agreed to construct an International Space Station, the Soviet Union launched the core module of Russias space station Mir (which means peace in Russian) on Feb. 20, 1986. The Soviet Union and later the Russian Federation continued to add capabilities and laboratory modules to Mir. In 1992, then U.S. President George Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed an agreement for peaceful cooperation in space. This historic agreement resulted in initial plans to fly an American astronaut on Mir and two Russian cosmonauts on the Space Shuttle. One year later, Vice President Al Gore and Russian Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin announced the NASA, the U.S. Air Force and Spaceport Florida partnered for a launch site selection visit to Kennedy Space Center by VentureStar team members on June 17. KSC payload representatives and Lockheed Martin VentureStar staff had already begun a dialogue to examine how KSCs payload infrastructure could be advantageous for the launch of this singlestage-to-orbit vehicle. At a technical interchange meeting and associated facilities tour May 12 through 14, KSC payload staff sought to understand how the VentureStar team plans to integrate payloads with the vehicle, while VentureStar personnel learned more about how payloads are currently processed, facilities available here and the expertise that KSC has to offer. During the three-day visit, the group also toured two commercial payload processing facilities outside KSC Astrotech in Titusville and Spacehab at Port Canaveral to learn more about their particular capabilities. (See Venture, Page 8) Artists concept of VentureStarThree years after the orbiter Atlantis accomplished the first docking to the Russian Space Station Mir, the STS-91 crew aboard Discovery concluded the ninth and final Shuttle-Mir mission. Joining the STS-91 crew for the trip home was NASA astronaut Andy Thomas, the seventh and final U.S. astronaut to serve as a Mir crew member, returning after four and a half months in space. Thomas return marks the end of 977 total days in space for all U.S. astronauts who were Mir crew members (exceeding the time spent in space by our Space Shuttle fleet in its 17 years of experience) and 812 consecutive days in space. The orbiter Discovery is seen here making a perfect landing on June 12 on Runway 15 at KSCs Shuttle Landing Facility, bringing Thomas home after 141 days in space. The 91st Shuttle mission was the 44th KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program and the 15th consecutive landing at KSC. Main gear touchdown was at 2:00:18 p.m. EDT. by George Diller


SPACEPORT NEWSJune 19, 1998 Page 2 Give your kids some space this summer! A new day camp program at KSCs Visitor Complex offers parents an opportunity to give their kids a little space this summer. Its the KSC Space Scholars program a week-long dropoff program for children eight to 12 years of age. Space scholars play and basically have a blast with kids their own age as they explore scientific principles, try on authentic Apollo spacesuits, visit KSC historical destinations and engage in a number of creative, interactive activities and art projects, said Billy Specht, manager of education at KSCs Visitor Complex. The Delaware North Park Services education department piloted the program in April and, due to its success, is offering it again in weekly sessions from June 8 through July 31. Each camp, led by a team of trained teachers and educators, includes five days of learning activities at KSCs Visitor Complex, hot lunches, afternoon snacks, building a rocket model, IMAX films, transportation to destinations around KSC, a personalized KSC Space Scholars certificate, an official KSC Space Scholars tee-shirt and a mission patch. In addition, kids touch real spacecraft artifacts and hardware, play interactive games under the giant Saturn V full-size moon rocket, explore space careers while sitting in the shadow of Space Shuttle Explorer, investigate modules of the International Space Station, perform handson experiments showcasing the science of spaceflight, attend daily mission briefings, and meet and learn from KSC space travel experts. The camp runs from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. and early drop-off is available for an additional fee of $25 a week. The cost of the camp is $230 per week, with a 10 percent discount for sibling enrollment as well as for KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Station employees (only one discount per camper). The camper to instructor ratio is 10-to-one or better, allowing campers to receive a lot of individual attention. For more information or if you have any questions about the Space Scholar program, contact Billy Specht or Katha Endress at 449-4360. You can also e-mail Billy Specht at kid deserves a little space of her own and the inspiration to get there at Kennedy Space Center. KSC Space Scholars pose between activities for a group photo in the Shuttle Plaza at KSCs Visitor Complex. Safety Day Draws Near Now less than a month away, KSCs July 16 Super Safety Day has an agenda highlighting a variety of activities throughout the day, including live panel discussions, question-andanswer periods, and displays ranging from the importance of personal protective equipment to stress management and school violence. Due to the importance of the event, Cape Canaveral Air Station will be participating in the Super Safety Day activities as well. Since the safety philosophy at KSC embraces the need for safe practices both on and off the job, a variety of topics are under consideration for discussions throughout the day. Opening the event at 8 a.m. will be Center Director Roy Bridges, followed by keynote speaker Gordon Fullerton, who piloted STS-3 (performing the only orbiter landing at White Sands, NM) and commanded the 19th mission STS-51F. A panel that includes NASA and contractor senior management will lead into an open, live 45-minute question-andanswer period. Also participating in the panel will be Brigadier General Randy Starbuck from Patrick Air Force Base. Questions will be solicited from all KSC employees starting on July 1. Members of the live audience in the Training Auditorium also can submit questions via microphone. An e-mail system also will accept questions from across the center via computer link-up. After the morning activities, various events will be scheduled centerwide at each companys or directorates discretion. Senior management will visit safety-related meetings throughout the afternoon, astronauts will visit employees, and vendors will have booths set up around KSC for informational purposes. Second-shift employees will have an opportunity to visit the vendor sites before receiving visits by astronauts and senior management. Then they will watch a rebroadcast of the first two hours of the safety program that morning. Third shift also will watch a rebroadcast. To receive more information on Super Safety Day activities and events, check out the Web site at http:// events/1998/Jul/safety.html


SPACEPORT NEWS June 19, 1998 Page 3 1997 Kennedy Space Center Honor AwardsThe Kennedy Space Center Honor Awards Ceremony was held June 17 in the Visitor Complex Imax II Theater. More than 200 employees were recognized for their efforts in 1997 that contributed significantly to helping achieve the Centers mission. Among the hon ors presented were the KSC Directors Award, the Equal Opportunity Award and Medal, two Presidential Rank Awards, the Secretary of the Year A ward, Outstanding Leadership Medals, and four Service Awards. Individual and group awards also recognized contributions centerwide. KSC Directors AwardSaul BartonIn December 1997, the Space Shuttle Endeavour rolled out to Launch Pad 39A in final preparation for liftoff of the STS-89 mission in January 1998. On this flight, Mission Specialist Andy Thomas succeeded David Wolf as the last NASA astronaut to stay aboard the Russian Space Station Mir.(Continued on next page) The Directors Award is the highest award that the Center confers upon an employee. The award honors the accomplishment of a job-related task of such magnitude and merit that it deserves special recognition. Saul Barton was recognized for his outstanding leadership and contribution during the formative and implementation stages of KSCs Implementation Plan and Roadmap. Bartons expertise, patience, persistence and collaborative skills contributed immeasurably to the success of KSCs strategic planning efforts. KSC Distinguished Service MedalJames Harrington III The Distinguished Service Medal is awarded to any person in the federal service who, by distinguished service, ability or courage, has personally made a contribution representing substantial progress to the NASA mission. The contribution must be so extraordinary that other forms of recognition by NASA would be inadequate. This is the highest honor that NASA confers. James Harrington III was honored for outstanding leadership in Shuttle processing and dedication to the Space Shuttle program.


SPACEPORT NEWSJune 19, 1998 Page 4 Presidential Executive Rank Award Loren ShriverJames Jennings Presidential Rank awards recognize federal senior executives who have demonstrated exceptional performance over an extended period of time. The Meritorious Executive Rank award received by KSC Deputy Director for Launch and Payload Processing Loren Shriver and Deputy Director for Business Operations James Jennings is awarded to the top five percent of sustained accomplishment performers. Criteria include career achievements that are acknowledged on a national or international level; achieve significant cost reduction; and demonstrate personal initiative and innovation in meeting goals and policies. Equal Opportunity AwardThis award is granted to a KSC employee or supervisor for outstanding contributions to equal opportunity. Examples of the types of contributions for which the award might be granted include encouraging selfdevelopment and training among minorities and women and assigning these employees to organizational tasks that broaden their experience. Talone was recognized for advancing cultural diversity in the Space Station Hardware Integration Office. John Tip TaloneEqual Opportunity MedalThis award is for outstanding achievement and material contribution to the goals of NASAs Equal Employment Opportunity programs either within government or within community organizations or groups. J. Albert Jay Diggs Jr. Secretary of the YearMary Joy Colston This award is granted to a KSC secretary who has demonstrated exemplary performance over time, characterized by a high degree of personal integrity, judgment and responsibility. Colston demonstrated outstanding professionalism, dedication and exceptional contributions to the successful operations of the Procurement Office.40-Year Service AwardsThis award is given in grateful recognition of 40 years of faithful service to NASA and the U.S. government. Photos were not available for James Belote and W. Paula Williams. James Deshotel Jimmie Dyer


SPACEPORT NEWS June 19, 1998 Page 5 Outstanding Leadership Medal The NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal is awarded for notably outstanding leadership that has had a pronounced effect upon the technical or administrative programs of NASA. The award may be given for an act of leadership or for sustained contributions based on an individuals effectiveness as a leader, the productivity of an individuals program or demonstrated ability to develop the administrative or technical talents of other employees. Retha Hart Joel Reynolds Ralph Roe Jr. John Tip TaloneExceptional Service MedalThe Exceptional Service Medal is awarded for significant performance characterized by unusual initiative or creative ability that clearly demonstrates substantial improvements or contributions in engineering, aeronautics, space flight, administration, support or space-related endeavors that contribute to the mission of NASA. Louise Boyd W. Wesley Branning Thomas Clarke Jr. David Dibler Bobby Goforth John Guidi Robert Johnson Julian King Daniel Lewis Feng-Nan Gary Lin Maria Littlefield Michael ONeal Burt Summerfield Beth Vrioni Timmy WilsonExceptional Achievement MedalThe Exceptional Achievement Medal is awarded for a specific accomplishment or contribution clearly characterized by a substantial and significant improvement in operations, efficiency, service, financial savings, science or technology that contributes to NASAs mission. Deborah Bayline Lori Cernell James Dumoulin Constance Gary Ronald Gillett George Marmaro James Meyer Shawn Quinn Francis VillalpandoGroup Achievement AwardThe Group Achievement Award is given in recognition of an outstanding accomplishment made through the coordination of many individual efforts that has contributed substantially to NASAs mission. This award recognizes the accomplishments of either a group comprised of all government employees or a group of both government and non-government personnel. Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment Mission Mgt. Team Dual Source Liquid Hydrogen Procurement Team Flight 2A NASA Team Front End Processor Development and Production Team Orbiter Fuel Cell Monitoring System Implementation Team Personal Computer/Ground Operations Aeronautical Language/Checkout and Launch Control Systems External Tank Surface Ice Prediction Program Team Public Communications Cassini Team Space Shuttle Main Engine Integrated Quality System Development and Implementation Team Payload and Expendable Launch Vehicle Team, NASA KSC Mars Pathfinder Support Team KSCGroup Achievement Award Special Mention Mars Pathfinder(Continued on next page)Public Service Group Achievement AwardAutomated Checkout Systems Software Configuration Management Team Cassini Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators/Radioisotope Heater Units Processing Health Physics Support Team Change Paper Tracking Development Team I-Net, Inc., Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance Team Launch Complex 39 Fiber Optic Cable Replacement Team Microgravity Science Laboratory Payload Mission Processing Team NASA Payload Logistics Depot Certification Team Orbiter Vehicle-105 Liquid Oxygen Disconnect Changeout Team Russian Electrical, Electro-Mechanical and Electronic Parts Buy Team Wang Government Service Customer Services Operations


SPACEPORT NEWSJune 19, 1998 Page 6 ISS ...(Continued from Page 1)expansion of joint activities in human space flight. Taking advantage of Russias unique set of experiences and capabilities in long-duration human space flight, NASA then initiated a three-phase ISS development process with Russia as an integral partner. Phase 1 was designed to decrease the risks associated with assembling, operating and conducting research on the ISS. It consisted of a series of Space Shuttle-Mir rendezvous flights and long-duration stays of seven NASA astronauts on Mir. The program also provided for nine Russian cosmonauts to fly on the Space Shuttle. Now drawing to a close after four-and-a-half years, Phase 1 has proven to be an unprecedented learning opportunity for living, working and conducting research together in space. When Mission Specialist Andy Thomas returned to Earth on June 12 as a member of the STS-91 crew, AmericansKSC Award Special MentionDelaware North Park Services of Spaceport, Inc. Marketing Dept.Public Service MedalThis award is granted for exceptional contributions to the mission of NASA. The award may be given to any individual who was not a government employee during the period in which the service was performed. John Elbon Benjamin Glenn Richard Harvey Jerry Moyer Jack Nichols J. Michael Orr Ronald Wetmore James Wilder Jr.Certificate of CommendationThis award recognizes exceptional individual accomplishments or outstanding management of a program that affects the entire center or contributes signficantly to the centers mission. Linda Ackroyd Clifton Arnold Jr. Angela Balles Joseph Beardall Robert Beil Michael Bolger Josephine Burnett Henry Bursian Ernesto Camacho Kimberly Cochrane Scott Colloredo Alvardo Diaz Charles Dovale Sandra Eastman Chris Forney Darrell Foster William Franklin Sheree Gillard William Glover Charles Grove Cristina Guidi Billy Haynes Barbara Jean Henderson Darleen Hunt Karen Iftikhar Charles Jenkins Wendy Johnson James Jones John Kehoe Hae Soo Kim Jodi Levesque John Manning George Martin, M.D. Cheryl McPhillips Jim Medina Paul Mogan Ross Nordeen Gary Olson Catherine Parker R. Albert Parrish G. Thomas Pentrack Jimmie Rogers William Roy Roger Rudig Eric Schafer Dawn Schaible Julie Schneringer Daniel Shafer Glenn Snyder David Spacek Connie Stallings Geoffrey Swanson Rayelle Thomas Randall Tilley Manuel Virata Laurie Walls Mark Woloshin Tracy Young Ping Yu Edgar Zapata For seeking out opportunities to create awareness of the KSC Visitor Complex and telling the NASA story past, present and future. who flew on Mir logged: s 977 total days in space (exceeding the time spent in space by our Space Shuttle fleet in its 17 years of experience), of which 907 were as Mir crew members; and s 812 consecutive days in space from Shannon Lucid to Andrew Thomas, of which 802 were as Mir crew members. As part of the Phase 1 program, the United States helped equip the last two Mir modules, Spektr and Priroda, with scientific instruments. Spektr was outfitted to support a variety of life In many ways, it was a dress rehearsal for the more complex tasks of ISS assembly, logistics, maintenance and research. (See ISS, Page 7)The Goals Phase 1 facilitated ISS development through fulfillment of four primary Mir Speculationsciences experiments and Priroda with microgravity research facilities. The U.S. also funded the construction and delivery of additional solar arrays to supply more power for experiments.Initial ISS plans called for the use of duplicate back-up systems in the event of failure. However, our experience on Mir has taught us that it can be practical and economical to use back-ups that work in an entirely different manner than their primary system. For example, the Russian station has three completely different ways to generate oxygen, a capability that the ISS will now match.


SPACEPORT NEWS June 19, 1998 Page 7 Phase 1 was a very worthwhile investment, said ISS Program Manager Randy Brinkley. Its clearly allowed us to reduce our technical risk during the development phase for the last five years, and I believe it will ensure safe operations on the ISS. Problems on Mir have led to a number of hardware, software and procedural changes for the ISS. A February 1997 fire aboard Mir caused NASA to reevaluate ISS fire control options. Monitors on the outside of the Russian station found the Mirs surface was being contaminated by its own attitude control propellant. To avoid the same pitfall, ISS propellant venting procedures have been changed. The depressurization of the Spektr module after a collision with a Russian Progress vehicle in June 1997 validated the U.S. design (no cables running through open hatches) and demonstrated the importance of maintaining clear station passageways. Weve benefitted from problems probably more than we have from our successes, Brinkley noted, so those lessons learned will change our procedures so that we have less chance of having those same kinds of problems. One of the most valuable lessons learned, according to Culbertson, is that you have to expect the unexpected. He noted that even though we didnt plan some of the more difficult problems we had, we dealt with them successfully with our Russian partners. Garner Operational Experience All Earth-bound creatures, especially humans, are accustomed to a 24-hour daynight cycle. Although most people can adjust to jet lag, the experience was intensified for Mir crew members, who had to interact with two ground control centers with a ninehour time difference. Culbertson pointed out that in reflecting on the lessons of our experience on Mir, we need to remember our goals of sending manned missions back to the Moon and possibly to Mars. When you think about a fourto six-month flight on board Mir, thats not unlike a fourto sixmonth flight to Mars, he noted. Youre going to be just as isolated and reliant on communication and on what you brought along, both in your brain and in the closet. So these are all valuable lessons learned for generations to come. Precursor Scientific Research Researchers used the Mir opportunity to familiarize themselves with operational protocols and techniques, to ISS ...(Continued from Page 6)goals: t Reduce the risks associated with developing and deploying the ISS; t Garner operational experience for NASA on longduration orbital missions; t Conduct peer-reviewed, precursor scientific research in preparation for the ISS; and t Learn how to work with our international partners. According to Frank Culbertson, Phase 1 ShuttleMir program director, NASA has accomplished all of these goals. Every single one of these [goals] will carry over into the next phase, noted Culbertson during a press conference June 1 at KSC, because everything weve learned working with each other about how to conduct science will need to be continuously perfected in order to operate for long periods of time in space.The ResultsReduce the Risks NASA has garnered practical experience on Mir to resolve a variety of space station problems, such as dealing with loss of electrical power, a fire resulting in temporary atmospheric contamination, and a cabin pressure leak. In all instances, the problems were resolved to permit the continuation of the mission. test equipment, and to conduct experiments as precursors to ISS research. Experiments on Mir successfully verified that a wireless computer network can be used on the ISS to enhance communication among investigators on the ground, crew members, and station research payloads. Wireless communications will eliminate the restrictions on movement associated with cable connections. Working with the Russians Coordinating and integrating two robust space programs and their supporting infrastructures that have operated independently for decades was a formidable task. NASA concluded Phase 1 with a very thorough understanding of how the Russians plan and train for a flight after four years of working with them shoulder to shoulder. The Americans and the Russians learned how to interpret each others standard documentation and decided how to allocate and track responsibilities between the two different space organizations. All told, both NASA and the Russian Space Agency agree that the experience was invaluable. Were looking forward to working together for a long and prosperous future in space, Culbertson noted. Miami/Dade Countys Science Teacher of the Year Mark Tohulka, far right, discusses experiments with students from his Advanced Placement Biology class at Homestead Senior High School. The students, seen here in Hangar L at Cape Canaveral Air Station with Tohulka, designed the experiments as part of NASAs Mission to Americas Remarkable Students (MARS) educational outreach program. These will be part of MARS first experiments flown in space in an effort to teach students how to conduct scientific experiments. The experiments are scheduled to fly in a Get-Away Special (GAS) canister on STS-96.Florida students prepare the first MARS payload


John F. Kennedy Space Center Managing editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bruce Buckingham Editor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Susan Maurer Editorial support provided by Sherikon Space Systems Inc. Writers Group. Photographic support primarily provided by The Bionetics Corp. NASA at KSC is on the Internet at USGPO: 633-112/80008Spaceport News Spaceport News is an official publication of the Kennedy Space Center and is published on alternate Fridays by the Public Affairs Office in the interest of KSC civil service and contractor employees. Contributions are welcome and should be submitted two weeks before publication to the Media Services Branch, AB-F1. E-mail submissions can be sent to SPACEPORT NEWSJune 19, 1998 Page 8 Which is the real McCoy? Or Spock rather...Venture ...(Continued from Page 1) A launch site for VentureStar has not yet been selected and several sites are under consideration based on who the customers for the new launch vehicle will be and what payload requirements they are likely to have. On their recent visit to KSC, Lockheed Martin representatives from Palmdale and Sunnyvale, Calif., saw first-hand our payload processing facilities. These included the Operations & Checkout (O&C) Building, Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-2 (SAEF2), the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), the Vertical Processing Facility, the MultiPayload Processing Facility, Payload Changeout Room and Orbiter Processing Facility bays. The payload-specific facilities are all Class 100,000 clean rooms, and some have unique capabilities such as the PHSF, which is designed for hazardous spacecraft processing, SAEF-2 with its spin balance machine and the O&C and SSPF with numerous offline laboratories and unique test equipment. While VentureStar plans include integration of payloads with the new launch vehicle in a horizontal position, the attributes of vertical payload integration and the likely competition from the Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) are of significant interest to VentureStar. Most customers identified for the next generation of launch vehicles have stated a preference to have dual vehicle compatibility for their payloads. This dual compatibility assures the launch of a payload even if one launch vehicle system has a problem that grounds the fleet. KSC payload managers pointed out compatibility issues to the Venture Star team in fueling spacecraft collectively within the mission module. They also pointed out that there are challenges of multipayload manifesting where each spacecraft has its own unique requirements. We want to offer to them our payload expertise as an asset for the launch of VentureStar at KSC, said Bill Fletcher, deputy director of the NASA-KSC Customer Support Directorate. The infrastructure necessary to process payloads was of particular interest to the VentureStar team. A facility like the Hangar L Life Sciences Facility, for example, may be very important to them since about 30 percent of the requirements for the International Space Station will be Life Sciences payloads for NASA, said Fletcher. Hangar L has animal labs, aquatic labs, and specialized science labs and data collection facilities. To date, more than 300 science experiments have been processed for flight at KSC, including life sciences, microgravity science, space science and commercial experiments. Most flights with NASA payloads are likely to be dedicated missions, particularly to the International Space Station, said Fletcher, for a combination of practical as well as scientific reasons. During the dialogue between the two organizations, NASA demonstrated to the VentureStar team what it might mean in terms of requirements to have NASA onboard as a partner. KSC showed what its payload infrastructure will contribute to the site selection process noting that KSC already has much of that infrastructure in place. It was also pointed out that payload carriers from existing hardware, such as Spacelab and International Space Station pallets, could be customized for use on the VentureStar. Throughout the visit, KSC demonstrated its value as the logical partner and launch site location for this fully reuseable launch vehicle of the future.This comparison of X-33 (left), VentureStar (middle), and the Space Shuttle (right) demonstrates the size difference among the three vehicles. The VentureStar potentially represents the future of U.S. spaceflight. A Hire Form of ExpressionMission Specialist Kay Hire, signing autographs at left, recently returned to KSC with the crew of the STS-90 mission to personally thank KSC workers. Also signing autographs are Mission Specialist Daffyd Dave Williams, far right, and Pilot Scott Altman. Hire is the first KSC employee to join the astronaut corps. She began working here in 1989 and was later certified as a Space Shuttle test project engineer (TPE). From the TPE computer console position in the Launch Control Center, she integrated all technical aspects of Shuttle turnaround maintenance from landing to launch. During STS-90, the seven-person crew served as both experiment subjects and operators for 26 individual life science experiments focusing on the effects of microgravity on the brain and nervous system. Hire has now logged more than 381 hours in space.