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Oct. 1, 2008 Vol. 48, No. 20 Oct. 1 marks the 50th Anniversary of NASA as it was on this date in 1958 that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration began operations. Over the past 50 years, the employees of Americas space program have been at the forefront of many incredible accomplishments. Kennedy Space Center has a rich history in the space program having been named an independent NASA installation in 1962. From the historic launch pads here in Florida, we have launched missions of discovery. Next year, we will celebrate the 40th anniversary of a human being setting foot on the moon. That mission, Apollo 11, launched right here from our center. Some of our employees today were working here at that time. I mention this historic date because once again we are preparing to go back to the moon. This time, we are going to stay. We will have a sustained human presence. NASA is a forward-looking agency, and this is our future. NASAs 50th Anniversary is a historic milestone that gives us an opportunity to re ect on past accomplishments, but we need to prepare for whats ahead. We need to stay focused on our mission. This month, we will launch space shuttle Atlantis for Directors NoteBy Bill ParsonsDirector, Kennedy Space CenterNASA celebrates 50th AnniversaryPage 2 Kurt Debus Mercury and Gemini The Apollo Program The Space Shuttle Program ELVs The Bumper Project Four Great Observatories VIPs at Kennedy Space Center the STS-125 Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission. Over Hubbles 18 year history, many extraordinary discoveries have been made by what this amazing instrument has captured. We also are preparing for the upcoming missions to the International Space Station and preparing for launches through the Launch Services Program. Our Constellation Program work is moving ahead, and we are preparing for the Ares I-X test ight next year. In the short history of NASA, numerous bene ts to society have come through the work of Americas space program. The scienti c discoveries and technological innovations that have been made through Americas space program give us reason to proud to be part of this legacy of space exploration.Space shuttle Atlantis lifts off Launch Pad 39B on its STS-115 mission on Sept. 9, 2006. The Space Shuttle Program has helped NASA reach many of its milestones throughout the past 50 years.NASA le/ 2006Inside this special editionPage 3 Page 4 Page 5 Page 8 Page 9 Pages 6-7 50 years of accomplishments Page 10 Page 11
Page 2 Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWSDebus a forefather of NASA, Kennedy Space CenterTo go to the moon is symbolic of mans leaving Earth, the opening of a vast new frontier. Twentyve years after his death, the words of Dr. Kurt H. Debus continue to challenge future generations to steadily travel down the path of progress he helped map out for space exploration. Before the creation of the National Aeronautics and Space Act in 1958, Debus and his colleagues already had taken the rst technical steps toward traveling to the moon. Their scienti c contributions to NASA helped turn President John F. Kennedys vision of landing man on the moon a reality. Throughout his time with the United States ballistic missile systems development program, Debus helped lay the groundwork for human space ight. He overcame problematic reentry heating challenges for long-range missiles and successfully launched the rst orbiting object, the Explorer I Earth satellite. With new aspirations, NASA turned to Debus and his team for help in the race to space. In 1959, Debus began converting old launch complexes into Launch Complex 56 to support the MercuryRedstone program for the rst suborbital missions. He contributed largely to the development of the complexs new abort scenarios and techniques for detecting and initiating emergency scenarios. Debus insistence on demonstrated reliability during the 1961 MercuryRedstone precursor ights helped NASA attain the condence to launch a manned spacecraft. He believed at least one unmanned shot must be obtained with awless performance before the ight of one of the Mercury Seven astronauts. NASA Headquarters of cials and the Space Task Group added an extra MR-Booster Development ight that ew with complete success on March 24, 1961. Less than two months later, NASA successfully launched Alan Shepherd into space a rst for American history books, and the beginning of President Kennedys manned lunar landing challenge. After 14 years as Kennedys center director, Debus retired in 1974 and completed his historical tenure with words of inspiration for the next generation of innovators: This is not an ending, but a point of departure. I dont fear overpopulation or that the Earth will poison itself with pollution. The Earth will nd ways to become that beautiful island that our astronauts saw when they viewed it from the moon and I can say, I told you so. By Kate Frakes Spaceport NewsDr. Kurt H. Debus was director of Kennedy Space Center from July 1962 until November 1974.NASA le Since its inception 50 years ago, NASAs scienti c and technological excellence has helped power the nation into the 21st century, shaping and improving life. As icons of human achievement, NASAs enduring accomplishments promise another era of discovery and innovation. Before NASA could stamp its permanent presence in history, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, or NACA, conducted the nations aeronautical research. In response to the advancing European aeronautical programs in 1915, President Woodrow Wilson created NACA to gain back the U.S. lead. Its rst center, known today as NASAs Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va., was the rst government facility to coordinate aeronautical research in the civil and military sectors. NACAs peace-oriented operations and signi cant contributions to aeronautics, throughout its 43-year history, led Congress to organize a national program in space science formed around NACA. On April 2, 1958, the bill for establishing a National Aeronautics and Space Agency was submitted. It reinforced the belief that space should only be used for peaceful purposes and stated that NACA would be absorbed into the new agency with new development and ight operations responsibilities. On July 29, President Eisenhower signed into law the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958, establishing a broad charter for civilian aeronautical and space research. Two months later, on Oct. 1, the rst NASA personnel reported to work. After receiving control of the Armys Missile Firing Laboratory in 1960, NASA changed the name to the Launch Operations Directorate and formed NASAs Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. When the space competition rose with the Soviet Union, President John F. Kennedy proposed a lunar landing initiative to Congress that required a new launch facility capable of launching larger spacecraft. In 1962, NASA broke away from the Launch Operations Directorate in Huntsville and designated Merritt Island Launch Area an independent eld installation in Cape Canaveral, Fla., which became Kennedy Space Center in 1963.NACAs dreams turned into NASA realityBy Kate Frakes Spaceport NewsThis photo, taken May 26, 1958, shows members of NACAs Special Committee on Space Technology, from right, Wernher von Braun, Abe Silverstein, Dale Corson, Hugh Dryden, H. Guyford Stever, Carl Palmer, J.R. Dempsey, Rober Gilruth, H. Julian Allen, Milton Clauser, Samuel Hoffman, W. Randolph Lovelace, Hendrik Bode, left of Lovelace, Abraham Hyatt, Col. Norman Appold, with arm on table, and Edward Sharp. NASA le/1958
SPACEPORT NEWSPage 3Oct. 1, 2008In October 1958, just six days after NASA formally organized, Americas rst human spaceight program was born. Project Mercurys manned ights spanned just two years from May 1961 to May 1963 making history with its six missions launched from Cape Canaveral. The American public rst met the seven men chosen to be this countrys rst human space voyagers on April 9, 1959, at a press conference in Washington, D.C. The men were dubbed astronauts. The term was a cross between aeronauts, as ballooning pioneers were called, and Argonauts, the legendary Greeks in search of the Golden Fleece. These new explorers prepared to sail into the new, uncharted vastness of space. The Mercury 7 were: Walter M. Schirra Jr., Donald K. Deke Slayton, John H. Glenn Jr., Scott Carpenter, Alan B. Shepard Jr., Virgil I. Gus Grissom and L. Gordon Cooper. These seven adventurers and a quiet cape that juts out from Floridas east coast were destined to become the focus of the new Space Age in which the designation of rst was to become the norm. The rst U.S. spaceship was a cone-shaped, one-man capsule. The blunt end was covered with a heat shield to protect it against the 3,000 degree heat of re-entry into the atmosphere. Slowed by parachutes, the capsules were designed to splash down in the ocean allowing recovery of the astronaut and vehicle by ship. Each astronaut named his capsule and added the numeral to symbolize the team of seven astronauts. The program used two launch vehicles: a Redstone for suborbital ights and an Atlas for orbital ights. Unmanned tests of the booster and capsule preceded the rst human ight. Alan Shepard was chosen for the rst manned Mercury launch, becoming the rst American to y in space on May 5, 1961. His Freedom 7 capsule launched from Complex 5 at Cape Canaveral aboard a Redstone rocket. The capsule reached an altitude of 116 miles during his suborbital ight and splashed down 304 miles out into the Atlantic. The ight lasted a little more than 15 minutes. Another major rst was achieved during the third Mercury mission on February 20, 1962, when John Glenn became the rst Mercury 7 proved they had the right stuffExperiences from Gemini paved path for moon visits On May 5, 1961, Alan Shepards Mercury ight was inked in history books. Twenty days later, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to landing a man on the moon before the close of the decade Project Gemini was the training ground for the moon missions of Apollo. Although the Gemini program was based at NASAs Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, now the Johnson Space Center, each of the Gemini-Titan vehicles launched from Launch Complex 19 at the Launch Operations Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Astronauts Gus Grissom and John Young lifted off March 23, 1965 on Gemini 3, the rst human ight of the project. The nearly vehour mission demonstrated the new capsules maneuverability in orbit. On Gemini 4, astronaut Edward White became the rst American to venture out of the safe connes of a capsule and into the vacuum of space. The following missions continued the streak of rsts. Gemini 5 marked the rst time fuel cells were used to provide electrical power to a spacecraft, allowing an eight-day mission. Gemini 6 crew members Wally Schirra and Tom Stafford met up with Gemini 7 astronauts Frank Borman and Jim Lovell, and the two crews carried out the rst space rendezvous. The rst docking with another spacecraft an Agena rocket stage took place during Gemini 8. When a stuck capsule thruster caused the docked vehicles to begin spinning wildly, astronaut Neil Armstrong undocked and regained control. Gemini 9 rendezvoused with an unmanned Augmented Target Docking Adapter, but docking was impossible due to the failed jettison of the adapters docking shroud. The three-day mission featured a challenging two-hour spacewalk by astronaut Gene Cernan. NASA continued to accumulate extensive experience in rendezvous, docking, spacewalk and orbital maneuvering during the next two ights, Gemini 10 and Gemini 11. Gemini 12 brought the program to a close. During the nearly four-day mission, astronaut Buzz Aldrin set a spacewalk record, spending more than ve hours outside the capsule while it was docked to an Agena booster. The Gemini missions gave the agency crucial experience in real-time troubleshooting and advanced space operations knowledge that paved the way to the moon. By Cheryl Mans eld Spaceport News By Anna Heiney Spaceport News American to orbit Earth. His Friendship 7 capsule launched aboard a Mercury-Atlas rocket, and during his almost vehour ight he circled Earth three times before splashing down in the Atlantic 800 miles southeast of Bermuda. Among the original Mercury 7 astronauts, only Slayton didnt make a Mercury ight, but he did go on to y in space as part of the ApolloSoyuz Test Project crew. Many of the physical reminders of the Project Mercury days have disappeared, and mission control was moved to Houston early in the Gemini program. But it was the pioneering legacy of Project Mercury and all those who worked on it that propelled Americas space program forward to the astounding feat of reaching the moon by the summer of 1969.This view of the orbiting Gemini 7 was taken from Gemini 6 during their rendezvous mission in space. NASA leMercury 7 astronauts, from left, are Scott Carpenter, L. Gordon Cooper Jr., John H. Glenn Jr., Virgil I. Grissom, Walter M. Schirra Jr., Alan B. Shepard Jr., and Donald K. Slayton. NASA le
Page 4Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWSMoon likely a hub for Mars, beyondWeve done it before, and were on the brink of doing it again. In 1961, President John F. Kennedy said, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth. Just ve months shy of the end of the 1960s, NASA rose to President Kennedys challenge. On July 16, 1969, a Saturn V blasted Apollo 11 through the blue sky above Kennedy Space Center. The crew traveled through space, looking back at Earth and arrived in lunar orbit on July 19. Angelo Taiani worked for Kennedys ground support operations during the Apollo era and recalls the long hours he put in to support the Apollo 11 mission. I worked 24 hours straight the day before liftoff, Taiani said. I had nothing to do once they got into transorbit, but I stayed up for another 17 hours waiting for the lunar landing to happen. I knew how much fuel they had, so I thought at any moment they were going to abort the mission. But there was a big sigh of relief for me, as well as mission control when we heard the words touchdown. The world watched as Neil Armstrong slowly climbed out of the lunar module, named Eagle, stepped out onto the moon and said, Thats one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind. While Command Module Pilot Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit, Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin spent 21 hours on the moon, posting the U.S. ag, taking notes and photographs, By Rebecca Sprague Spaceport News and drilling and gathering 46 pounds of moon rocks, which they brought back to Earth. I was so darn tired, but I stayed up anyway watching Armstrong and Aldrin take their rst steps on the moon, Taiani said. Then, I nally fell asleep. Taiani is now retired, but continues to volunteer at Kennedy. He, along with thousands of other NASA alumni, anxiously wait for the day we make history again. Its got to be different if were going to go to Mars. I was involved with plenty of studies that showed it would take six months to get to Mars and another six months to get back, but the moon is a great taxi hub for the mission, Taiani said. Today, John F. Kennedys words continue to inspire NASA employees: We choose to go to the moon. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do other things, not because they are easy, but because they are hard. In the next decade, NASA will go to the moon again, as well as travel to Mars and beyond with the Ares and Orion spacecraft. And its expected to be anything but easy.During the Apollo Program, which spanned from 1961 to 1975, NASA launched numerous test missions, as well as 11 crewed missions. The milestones reached by NASA during the program include two Earth orbiting missions, two lunar orbiting missions, a lunar swingby and six moon landing missions.Milestones set tempo for future NASA space ightAstronaut Buzz Aldrin, lunar module pilot, walks on the surface of the moon near the leg of the Lunar Module Eagle during the Apollo 11 mission. Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander, took this photograph. While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin explored the Sea of Tranquility region of the moon, astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Module Columbia in lunar orbit.NASA le/1969 The 363-foot-tall Apollo 11 space vehicle took off from Launch Pad 39A, at 9:37 a.m., July 16, 1969.NASA le/1969 NASA imageConcept image of NASAa next-generation spacecraft and launch vehicle system, Ares I crew launch vehicle, as it roars over Cape Canaveral. The Ares I-X test flight is scheduled to launch in 2009.
Page 5Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWSSpace shuttle shines as an American iconJohn Young and Robert Crippen rode the rst space shuttle, Columbia, into orbit on April 12, 1981, a few months before IBM introduced its rst home computer. It was the same year that MTV debuted, and the year the rst Indiana Jones movie, Raiders of the Lost Ark, premiered. Columbia ew months before Sandra Day OConnor was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to become the rst woman on the U.S. Supreme Court. Since that rst launch, the shuttle eet has become a picture of versatility and stunning longevity colored in by dazzling success during 27 years of service to Americas space agency. From performing experiments in state-of-the-art laboratories inside a shuttle cargo bay, to erecting a new constellation of communications satellites and building the largest space station, the space shuttle quickly became the starting point for almost everything NASA wanted to do. The spacecraft carried the renowned names of previous exploration ships: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. The shuttle is signi cantly larger than the capsule-sized spacecraft NASA cut its teeth on. One shuttle ight routinely carries seven astronauts into orbit at once, the size of NASAs whole class of original Mercury astronauts. Challenger set the singleight record in 1985 when it carried eight astronauts into space for a Spacelab mission. The spacecraft are instantly distinguished from every other crewed spacecraft because of their wings. Until the space shuttle, astronauts and Russian cosmonauts only returned to Earth under billowing parachutes. Shuttles introduced precise landings on a runway, just like an airplane. With a payload bay 60 feet long, a shuttle can carry an Apollo, Gemini and Mercury capsule with plenty of room to spare. Screaming off the launch pad and reaching Mach 25 in eight minutes, the shuttle acts like a precision sports car. In orbit, the shuttle takes on a delivery trucks role by deploying communications satellites and planetary probes. As the American pop culture and political scenes changed around them, the space shuttles went about their designed work. Columbia lofted its rst communications satellites into orbit in November 1982. Discovery launched three on one ight in 1984, and the crew still had enough equipment on board to practice space station construction techniques in the cargo bay. In November 1983, Columbia became a space laboratory for astronauts who were chosen for their research capacity and history rather than their pilot skills. Challenger proved in April 1984 that space shuttles made terri c service stations for orbiting satellites. A crew of ve astronauts used the shuttle and a jetpack to capture the malfunctioning Solar Maximum research satellite. Spacewalkers replaced faulty components and then returned the satellite to its sun studying mission. That experience and expertise was called on numerous times during the space shuttles history, including spectacular work performed on NASAs crown jewel, the Hubble Space Telescope. Discovery launched the observatory in April 1990. The Hubble Space Telescope, perched high above the distorting effects of Earths atmosphere, would go on to rewrite nearly everything astronomers thought about the universe. Hubble has required helping hands from several shuttle crews along the way. The upcoming mission by Atlantis, STS-125, is to be the last to the orbiting observatory. Shuttles placed the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Compton Gamma Ray Observatory into orbit where they pioneered studies on the dynamics and history of the universe. The Magellan probe to Venus and Galileo probe to Jupiter both began their successful missions inside a shuttle cargo bay. In 1998, the shuttles became the premier work site above the world as they took part in the groundbreaking construction of the International Space Station. Unlike any other spacecraft, the shuttle even brings its own By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News cherry picker in the form of the robotic arm that NASA calls the remote manipulator system. The success NASA enjoyed with its shuttles carried a price, though. The Challenger and Columbia accidents in 1986 and 2003, respectively, cost 14 astronauts their lives and sent the agency into a careful examination of itself. Each time, the shuttle eet returned to space and to its exploration work. NASAs currency throughout its 50 years has been progress, and in the 1970s, when the space shuttles were developed and built, progress meant reusable spacecraft designed for a multitude of orbital duties. Twenty-seven years ago Columbia ignited its engines for the rst space shuttle mission; since then NASA has spent more than half its lifetime ying shuttles and routinely marking progress along the way. Above, space shuttle Discovery rolls out to Launch Pad 39B on May 19, 2006 for its STS-121 mission. Top right, Atlantis returns from its STS-84 mission, to Kennedy Space Center with its drag chute deployed on May 24, 1987. Right, Columbia soared into space on the STS-1 mission at 7 a.m. April 12, 1981.NASA le photos
Page 6 Oct. 1, 2008 Page 7Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWS SPACEPORT NEWSA half-century of accomplishments 1. Shuttle astronaut Winston Scott conducts the second spacewalk during the STS-87 mission on Dec. 12, 1997. 2. on Endeavours middeck during the STS-99 mission in February 2000. 3. Kennedy Space Center technicians check out the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in 2003. 4. Space shuttle Atlantis lifts off from Launch Pad 39B at Kennedy Space Center on Oct. 23, 1989. 5. Missile Row at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in 1964. 6. Attached to the robotic arm, the Hubble Space Telescope is lifted up into the sunlight during the space shuttles second servicing mission in February 1997. 7. Against the blackness of space, shuttle astronaut Peter J.K. Wisoff, wearing an extravehicular mobility unit, stands on the robot arm during STS-61 mission in December 1993. 8. 9. Kennedy Space Centers Industrial Area in 1963. 10. Kennedy Space Centers Industrial Area in 1975. 11. Kennedy Space Centers Industrial Area in 1986. 12. The Vehicle Assembly Building site as seen from across the Launch Complex 39 Turning Basin in January 1963. 13. The Vehicle Assembly Building under construction with the Launch Control Center and service towers as seen from across the Launch Complex 39 Turning Basin in January 1965. 14. The Vehicle Assembly Building with the Launch Control Center and service towers as seen from across the Launch Complex 39 Turning Basin in January 1965. Background. Space shuttle Atlantis as seen from the Russian Mir space station during the STS-71 mission in June 1995.
Page 8 Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWSELV launches remain Kennedys backboneFor the past 50 years, NASA has relied on the Space Coast and a eet of expendable launch vehicles to carry the agencys multitude of scienti c, Earth-observing and interplanetary missions into space. In the late 1950s, shortly after NASA was established, the original Vanguard Naval Research Laboratory team became the Launch Operations Branch of NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. In 1965, the team merged with Kennedy Space Center. From the earliest Vanguard launch in the 1950s to the powerful Atlas V launch in 2006 carrying New Horizons to explore Pluto, NASAs requirements for expendable launch vehicles continues to evolve. Explorer spacecraft launched primarily aboard Delta vehicles from Launch Complex 17 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The Atlas-Centaur was the launch vehicle for Surveyor I, the rst U.S. spacecraft to soft land on the moon. It, along with several other Surveyors, launched from Complex 36. Two Viking missions to Mars and two Voyager missions to outer planets launched aboard Titan III-Centaur launch vehicles from Launch Complex 41. Complex 41 later became the launch site for the most powerful uncrewed U.S. rocket at the time, the Titan IV, developed by Martin Marietta for the U.S. Air Force. A Titan IV launched the Cassini spacecraft to Saturn in 1997. In the 1970s, the TitanCentaur became the most powerful vehicle available in the United States unmanned space program. The vehicle was a combination of the Air Forces Titan IIIC and the more powerful Centaur upper stage of the Atlas-Centaur. NASA used this vehicle to launch missions to study Mars, Jupiter, Saturn and the sun. NASA used the Titan II to launch several National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA, weather satellites. A Titan III sent NASAs Mars Observer on its journey in 1992. The Atlas-Agena and Thor-Agena launched a series of Orbiting Geophysical Observatories in the 1960s, and the Atlas-Centaur launched a series of Orbiting Astronomical Observatories in the 1960s and 70s. The powerful Atlas-Centaur sent High Energy Astronomy Observatories into space in the late 1970s. The Atlas-Agena, a much more powerful vehicle than the Thor-Agena, could place spacecraft in lunar or interplanetary trajectories. The Atlas-Agena sent four Rangers to the moon, ve Lunar Orbiters, and the rst Mariner spacecraft to Venus and Mars. The Delta launch vehicle, produced by Boeing, is referred to as the workhorse of NASAs expendable launch vehicle family. It has carried more than 200 NASA scienti c, wind and communications payloads into orbit and on to other planets. Delta vehicles launched a series of Orbiting Solar Observatories in the 1960s and 70s from Launch Complex 17. By the 1990s, NASAs Expendable Launch Vehicle Program was established to oversee the expendable launch vehicle eet. In 1997, Kennedy Space Center became the programs lead center for NASAs acquisition and program management of expendable launch vehicle missions. The program later realigned and was renamed the Launch Services Program. NASAs rst successful return to Mars after the Viking mission was the launch of the Mars Global Surveyor atop a Delta II in November 1996. The Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, launched aboard Delta II rockets in 2003. In 2005, a Delta II carried NASAs Deep Impact mission bound for the comet Tempel 1. Today, the majority of NASA missions are launched aboard Delta II, Atlas V or Pegasus XL expendable launch vehicles. The Delta IV and Atlas V are evolved expendable launch vehicles. The Pegasus XL, produced by Orbital Sciences, is the only expendable launch vehicle carried aloft, attached beneath an Orbital Sciences carrier aircraft, and then released for launch. Fifty years of rocket launches produced data about the universe that researchers only dreamed of, and future missions will do the same. The rst map of the boundary between the solar system and interstellar space will be created by NASAs Interstellar Boundary Explorer, or IBEX, spacecraft, aboard a Pegasus XL. The launch is scheduled for later this year from the Reagan Test Site on Kwajalein Atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. NASAs Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, is targeted for launch in 2009, aboard an Atlas V from Launch Complex 41. LRO will identify safe landing zones that are free of large boulders and craters for future lunar missions. Kennedys Launch Services Program is the backbone of the space program in Florida and will continue its essential role in the oversight of rocket launches throughout NASAs next 50 years. By Linda Herridge Spaceport NewsAn Atlas-Centaur rocket carrying the Mariner I took off from Launch Pad 36B on May 30, 1971. NASA le/1971 Voyager 1 sat atop a Titan Centaur as it soared from Launch Complex 41 on Sept. 5, 1977. NASA le/1977 An Echo I satellite launched atop a Thor-Delta from Launch Complex 17A on Aug. 12, 1960.NASA le/1960 A Titan III-Centaur 4 rocket carrying Viking I took off from Launch Complex 36B on Aug. 20, 1975.NASA le/1975 A Delta II carrying the Mars Global Surveyor took off from Launch Complex 17A on Nov. 7, 1996.NASA le/1996 An Atlas V carrying the New Horizons Deep Space Probe shot from Launch Complex 41 on Jan. 19, 2006.NASA le/1996
Page 9Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWSBumper Project led to birth of a moonportEmergence of a Marsport the next logical stepBrevard Countys introduction to the Space Age came in October 1949, when President Harry S. Truman established the Joint Long Range Proving Grounds from Cape Canaveral to Ascension Island in the South Atlantic. Kennedy Space Centers origins reach back to the Army Ballistic Missile Agencys Missile Firing Laboratory in Alabama, headed by Dr. Kurt Debus, a key member of Wernher von Brauns renowned rocket team. The rst launch by the team from Cape Canaveral was of a modi ed German V-2 on July 24, 1950. The rocket reached an altitude of 10 miles. After NASA was established, the launch team became the Launch Operations Directorate of the Marshall Space Flight Center. Planning got under way for what was called the Merritt Island Launch Area, or MILA. At that time, what became Launch Complex 39 and Industrial Area were undeveloped and overgrown with reeds and palmettos. In May of 1961, when President John F. Kennedy challenged America to land men on the moon, the launch facilities and ight hardware needed, existed only in the imaginations of their creators. In September, NASA asked Congress to authorize the acquisition of a tract of land on Merritt Island to build a moonport. While space center planners drew up the requirements, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers created a new management of ce the Canaveral District to supervise construction contracts for NASA. Clearing of the land and dredging for a barge canal and turn basin began in 1962. The independent Launch Operations Center, or LOC, was established on July 1, with Debus as its rst director. The LOCs name was changed to the John F. Kennedy Space Center by an Executive Order signed by President Lyndon B. Johnson on November 29, 1963, ve days after the death of President Kennedy. The launch pads at Complex 39, designed to support the Saturn V rockets, saw the Apollo Program through to its end in 1972. The Skylab and Apollo Soyuz Test Project missions also lifted off from these pads. After modi cations, these stalwart facilities launched 124 space shuttle missions and will be transformed, once more, to support the Ares rockets for the Constellation Program, re-establishing Kennedy Space Center as the preeminent moonport. By Kay Grinter Reference Librarian By Kay Grinter Reference LibrarianExcitement is in the air at Kennedy Space Center as planning gets under way to support NASAs new Constellation Program, the space transportation system for the next generation of explorers. Kennedy will take the lead in ground operations, as well as launch and recovery operations for the initiative. Kennedys focus for its next 50 years is to establish a program to develop a sustained human presence on the moon, including a robust precursor program to promote exploration, science, commerce and U.S. preeminence in space, and as a stepping stone to future exploration of Mars and other destinations, as described in the NASA Authorization Act of 2005. Elements of the project will undergo processing at Kennedy, including the Ares I crew launch vehicle, the Ares V heavy-lift launch vehicle, the Orion crew exploration vehicle and the Altair lunar lander. Apollo and shuttle heritage facilities and hardware will provide the foundation. NASAs goal is to develop and y Orion by 2015 and return to the moon by 2020. A sustained human presence on the moon eventually will lead to a lunar outpost and pave the way for future human and robotic missions to Mars and other destinations. I am 100 percent convinced that we will go to Mars some day, said Shawn Quinn, future elements manager for the Constellation Project Of ce at Kennedy. We are already developing detailed ight and ground operations concepts to support the lunar phase of the Constellation Program. While the initial focus for this effort is focused on lunar missions, applicability to future Mars missions is considered in the evaluation of different architectures. Eventually, what we are doing to return humans to the moon will be used for the rst human missions to Mars. The Space Station Processing Facility will be called into service for offline processing of Altair. The Vehicle Assembly Building high bays will support mating of Orion to the Ares I rocket, as well as integration of Altair onto the Ares V. New mobile launchers will be built for the Ares I, but the existing shuttle launch platforms the same Concept image of the Altair lunar lander undergoing ground processing. ones used during the Apollo Program may be modi ed to support the Ares V. Changes to Launch Pad 39B have already begun to support the test of the Ares I-X in 2009. Pad 39A will go through a metamorphosis of its own to support Ares V launch operations after the last shuttle liftoff. Modi cations to Pad A will include demolition of the existing shuttle xed and rotating service structures, as well as adding additional cryogenic storage capacity required by the Ares V. A new ame de ector also is planned to be built. As the rst steps are taken to transform Kennedy into a true Marsport to support NASAs next 50 years, Grif n expressed the dreams of employees across the agency, I believe that we will, one day, nd a civilization on Mars. Ours. The Bumper V-2 was the rst missile launched from Cape Canaveral on July 24, 1950.NASA le/1950 NASA image
Page 10 Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWSWant to know what youre made of? Look into space. Focus on that nebula where an opaque disk of cosmic dust points to a brilliant light. That light is a young star, and its birth has lled space with atoms that make up the fundamental elements of planets, stars, galaxies and even people on Earth. Carbon-based life, which is what all of us are, began as atoms created in the gravity and re of a stars birth. We can look back to see where we came from, said Jonathan McDowell, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, which operates the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Its giving us evidence of where we came from. It explains why iron is common and gold is rare. You can trace it directly back. We didnt know that with certainty until NASA launched four specialized telescopes called the Great Observatories. Three rode into orbit aboard space shuttles from Kennedy Space Center, and one was lofted on the top of a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Each was designed to look at a different kind of light, much of which is invisible to the human eye, but critical in explaining why the universe acts as it does and how it got there in the rst place. Theres all this important stuff going on that is completely invisible, McDowell said. The Hubble Space Telescope was the rst, launched in 1990. Hubble sees the universe much as the human eye does, looking at the same light we can see, plus portions of the ultraviolet spectrum. Its images revealed galaxies as they were created some 13 billion years ago, when the universe was relatively young. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory came next in 1991 to evaluate pulsars, quasars and neutron stars, the sources of the strongest energies found in the universe. Chandra launched in 1999, to focus on the beams of X-rays produced throughout space. Its observations proved that black holes not only exist, but are plentiful. Many of them are so large they require two adjectives to explain them: super-massive black holes. The Spitzer Space Telescope, which looks for infrared light, completed the suite of space-borne observatories in 2003. It found that the materials which are basic ingredients for human life are sprinkled throughout areas where planets and comets are thought to be forming. Although each observatory has made signi cant ndings on its own, the real strength of the program is the ability to use the facilities together to study a single part of the sky in detail and see all that is going on there. Its not just that we see a different set of stars, were seeing fundamentally different faces of the universe, McDowell said. For example, the Compton could pick up signs of intense energy on its own and make groundbreaking discoveries. But adding a Hubble observation to the mix gave astronomers the chance to turn Hubbles lens on the place the energy came from so astronomers could nd out what caused the energy. Imagine that you could only see yellow, said Mario Livio of the Space Telescope Science Institute, which runs the Hubble observations. Then you get to extend (your vision) to the rest of the visible spectrum. You would see a lot more in the world. Dark energy was discovered in much the same manner, by focusing multiple instruments on the same part of space at about the same time. The discovery has been arguably the most dramatic nd of the Great Observatories program. It has answered some questions while leading to profound new ones. Nobody really expected dark energy to be discovered, Livio said. When I studied astrophysics, nobody studied dark energy because nobody expected it to be there. Now, everybody studies dark energy. Before the Great Observatories, McDowell said the prevailing theory among astronomers was that nuclear fusion, which makes the sun burn, was the chief powerhouse for the universe. Now, they have found that gravity is every bit as important as fusion. In terms of miles per gallon, so to speak, you get much more from gravity than from fusion, McDowell said. All the discoveries are ones that will be studied by astronomers who have not yet been born. If you open any new book on astronomy, it is basically full of Hubble images, Livio said. The images Hubble creates are not limited to astronomy. They also are used as album covers and hung in art museums. Hubble has taken this beauty of the cosmos and brought it in the homes of people, Livio said. This has been a complete shift in the way non-scientists see the universe. The observations by the four telescopes are being stored in large digital libraries that researchers are expected to consult for decades to come. This is due in part to the precise instruments that produce exquisite images which hold more information than even their users can explain. Future astronomers can look again and again at the images and make new discoveries. These studies will keep going on long after the observatories have shut down, McDowell said.Great Observatories view light as time By Steven Siceloff Spaceport NewsNASA le/2003This picture, often called the Eye of God, is a blend of NASA Hubble Space Telescope images and the wide view of the Mosaic camera at Kitt Peak National Observatory near Tucson, Ariz. Astronomers call the trillion-mile-long tunnel of glowing gasses the Helix Nebula. The Hubble Space Telescope launched in 1990 aboard shuttle Discovery on the STS-31 mission. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory launched in 1991 aboard shuttle Atlantis on the STS-37 mission. The Chandra X-ray Observatory launched in 1999 aboard shuttle Columbia on the STS-93 mission. The Spitzer Space Telescope launched in 2003 aboard a Delta II rocket from CCAFS.
Page 11Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWSKennedy has hosted VIPs since inceptionKings, queens, presidents, politicians, movie stars, musicians and tens-of-millions of everyday people from all over the world have ocked to NASAs Kennedy Space Center to experience Americas space program. President John F. Kennedy, for whom the center was later named, was the rst American president to visit in 1962. Through the years, royalty including Prince Philip of England, Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands and former Prime Minister of Great Britain Margaret Thatcher, just to name a few, toured the center. The lming of spacerelated movies like Apollo 13, Contact, Space Cowboys, Armageddon and The Right Stuff brought movie stars, directors and producers such as Tom Hanks, Bruce Willis, Ron Howard, Steven Spielberg and George Lucas to the center for authentic scene shoots. Television journalists and lm crews from TV series such as Modern Marvels, Dirty Jobs, and the History and Discovery Channels are a few that have come to Kennedy to cover space shuttle launches, landings and to lm documentaries. First lady Laura Bush, only the third rst lady to attend a launch, watched the liftoff of space shuttle Discovery on its historic Return to Flight mission, STS-114, in July 2005. In February 2006, pilot Steve Fossett soared into record books when he took off from Kennedys Shuttle Landing Facility in a Virgin Atlantics single seat, Global Flyer aircraft. Establishing a new aviation non-stop ying record of more than 25,000 miles, Fossett endured 76 hours and 45 minutes in By Elaine M. MarconiSpaceport News the cramped cabin sitting atop hundreds of gallons of fuel. Although suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrigs disease, physicist Dr. Stephen Hawking traveled to Kennedy in April 2007 to realize a long-lived dream to experience weightlessness. Hawking boarded a modi ed Boeing 727, managed by the Zero Gravity Corp. at the centers Shuttle Landing Facility. In ight, Hawking was able, with the support of his team, to oat around the cabin for a few brief minutes, releasing him from the bonds of gravity. Kennedy Space Center, through NASAs rst 50 years, not only has served as a launch platform to the universe, but has brought the universe closer to Earth for all to appreciate, study and enjoy. The cast of Armageddon, from left, Ben Af eck, Liv Tyler, Ken Hudson Campbell, Billy Bob Thornton, Bruce Willis and Steve Buscemi, lmed at Kennedy Space Center in late 1997. Laura Bush, the third rst lady to visit Kennedy Space Center, and former Florida Governor Jeb Bush watched as shuttle Discovery launched in the Space Shuttle Programs Return to Flight on July 26, 2005. President John F. Kennedy inspects the interior of the Friendship 7 Mercury capsule with astronaut Col. John Glenn, Jr. while touring Cape Canaveral in February 1962. Director Ron Howard, wearing head phones, and actor Tom Hanks lmed scenes at Kennedy Space Center for the movie Apollo 13 in 1994.NASA le/1997 NASA le/1994 In 2006, Steve Fossett, right, ew a record 25,766 miles after taking off from Kennedy Space Center.NASA le/2006 NASA le/2005Physicist Stephen Hawking enjoys zero gravity during a ight aboard a modi ed Boeing 727 aircraft April 26, 2007. Hawking suffers from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrigs disease.NASA le/2007 NASA le/1962Margaret Thatcher, former Prime Minister of Great Britain, visited Kennedy Space Center in 2001.NASA le/2001
Page 12 Oct. 1, 2008SPACEPORT NEWS John F. Kennedy Space CenterManaging editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Candrea Thomas Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frank Ochoa-Gonzales Copy editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rebecca Sprague Graphic design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chris Chamberland Library technician . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barbara GreenEditorial support provided by InDyne, Inc. Writers Group.Spaceport News is on the internet at www.nasa.gov/centers/kennedy/news/snews/spnews_toc.htmlUSGPO: 733-049/600142Spaceport News Spaceport News is an of cial publication of the Kennedy Space Center and is published on alternate Fridays by External Relations in the interest of KSC civil service and contractor employees. Contributions are welcome and should be submitted three weeks before publication to the Media Services Branch, IDI-011. E-mail submissions can be sent to KSC-Spaceport-News@mail.nasa.gov Diverse work force brings success to KSCBy Anita Barrett Spaceport NewsThe House Committee on Science and Technology in Washington, D.C., held a hearing July 30 to celebrate NASAs 50th Anniversary by reviewing its accomplishments and examining its future opportunities and challenges. Space and Aeronautics Subcommittee Chairman Mark Udall said, I think we owe a debt of appreciation to all the men and women of NASA, its contractors, and the universities and research institutions that have made it all possible. Achievements at Kennedy Space Center happen because of a superior work force characterized by its diversity. The diversity of Kennedys work force includes job titles, culture, ethnicity, gender and disabilities. As Kennedys Space Shuttle Program and Launch Services Program matured, its work force expanded. In 1968, Kennedy had more than 25,000 employees, 2,921 of which were NASA civil servants. Kennedys work force now numbers around 14,950. That includes 2,197 civil servants and students, and 10,937 contractor employees. Ten years ago, there were 1,985 civil servants at Kennedy: 61 percent in scienti c and engineering positions, 21 percent in professional administration, nearly 10 percent in technical support and eight percent in clerical. Of the 2,197 civil servants in 2007, 62 percent were scienti c and engineering, 27 percent administration, 7 percent technical and 4 percent clerical. In 1983, minorities made up less than 10 percent of the civil servant work force. That increased to more than 17 percent between 1995 and 1996. In 2007, minorities made up 23 percent of NASAs civil servants. Reinforcing Kennedys diversity goals are more than eight af nity groups and professional organizations that seek to improve working conditions and opportunities at the center. They provide networking and mentoring opportunities for career development and also seek to diminish any barriers that might prohibit that development. The Black Employee Strategy Team, or BEST, is an organization of the centers African-American employees. Wanda Harding, mission manager of the Flight Projects Of ce of the Launch Services Program, said, BEST represents a voice of conscience that the opportunities for African-Americans to serve across all levels of responsibility and leadership at KSC remain uncompromised. BEST is therefore not only interested in keeping the pipeline populated, but in the growth and development of those employees to remain competitive and ready to serve at the highest levels. Harding is a member of the BEST Steering Committee. In 1989, the National Society of Women Engineers or SWE, chartered the Space Coast Section in Florida for women engineers in the Brevard, Indian River and Volusia Counties. Kennedy provided 25 of the charter Former Center Director Roy Bridges stops to pet one of the dogs that serves with Canine Companions for Independence, a vendor displaying its capabilities at the Disability Awareness and Action Working Groups 1999 Technology Fair at Kennedy Space Center. members for Floridas Space Coast Section. SWEs mission is to inform the community of opportunities open to women in engineering and encourage women to enter and grow in engineering and the sciences. Of the 143 members in the section, 58 are from Kennedy. Seven of the charter members remain active: Kathleen F. Harer, Judith A. Kersey, Merri Anne Stowe, Charlotte L. Ort, Joan M. Wenaas, Katherine M. Gay and Monique P. Butler. SWE gives awards to deserving women engineers annually, such as Outstanding Woman Engineer of the Year, the Distinguished New Engineer of the Year and Woman Engineer Technical Achievement. Since 2003, the society has recognized 18 women, eight awards going to Kennedy employees. Susan Floyd, a senior manager in Systems Engineering with Florida Space Shuttle Operations, has been a member of SWE for 10 years. Inspired by a joint SWE-University of Central Florida conference in Orlando to bring awareness of career choices in math and science to high school girls, Floyd decided to work in SWE to bring similar exposure to Brevard County and include girls in third through ninth grades. Floyd says a bene t of SWE involvement is how management looked at me differently they considered it important to work in SWE and appreciated how active I was at both the local and national level. She adds, I enjoy the ability to network with other women in SWE for personal and professional reasons. The Disability Awareness and Action Working Group, known as DAAWG, is an advocate for hiring individuals with disabilities and disabled veterans. DAAWG enhances awareness of their capabilities and value throughout the center, removing barriers that hinder employees from working at their full potential, and providing a forum for discussion and resolution of issues concerning people with disabilities. The group hosts a special event annually, frequently including vendors demonstrating mobility, hearing, vision and silent disability assistive technology that assist people with various disabilities in the workplace.At Kennedy Space Centers annual Black Employee Strategy Teams African-American History Month luncheon, Erin Parrish, left, displays a plaque she received from Elaine Johnson that names her the recipient of the Evelyn Johnson Scholarship in 2006. NASA le NASA le