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Fifty years after NASAs estab lishment of the spaceport that would launch men to the moon and probes to investigate the far reaches of our solar system, Kennedy Space Center is in a state of transition to include commercial utilization and deep space explora tion. At Launch Complex 39, no rockets downs echo through the launch pads. Change is on the way. The Greek philosopher Heraclitus proposed that change is central to the cosmos, that an ongoing process of change is the universal constant. And although change is exciting, it can be hard. Hard is a way of life, though, embraced by every director, engi neer, technician and support staff member employed at Kennedy. The drive to tackle any challenge on the horizon was implanted in the centers collective psyche 50 years ago by the president for whom the center is named. We choose to go to the moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but be cause they are hard, President John F. Kennedy told an audience at Rice University in Houston on Sept. 12, 1962, just weeks after the centers fore nine new astronauts were named to join the original seven Mercury astronauts in training for projects Gemini and Apollo. Those goals, Kennedy felt, will serve to organize and measure the best of our energies and skills, because that challenge is one that we are willing to accept, one we are unwilling to postpone, and one which we intend to win, and the others, too. Change was the guiding principle of NASAs decision-makers as Kennedys facilities and operations took shape. the concept for what is now known as Launch Complex 39, consider ation was given to designing it as a the then-known Apollo Program, at the American Astronautical Societys 13th annual meeting on the Com mercial Utilization of Space in 1967. It was apparent, however, that with the sums of money involved, it would be desirable to interpolate known trends and provide a facility Upon advisement, both Congres sional and NASA leaders agreed, and it (Kennedy Space Center) was developed as a national resource to meet the needs of known as well as potential requirements where it was economically feasible to do so. The result was the mobile launch concept. took over Kennedys helm in 1974 as NASAs focus turned to international cooperation in the Apollo/Soyuz Test Project. When asked what he thought about President Kennedys decision to send astronauts to the moon dur ing an interview for a NASA history project in 2002, Scherer said: At I realized he was a lot smarter than I started the whole space business for our country. He was right when he said were going not because its easy but be cause its hard, and it resulted in the development of things that we would never have dreamed of if we hadnt. And its scary to look back and say we wouldnt have done this or that or the other if the public wasnt fully behind it at that time. Kennedy, from its infancy was de signed with the capability to support the hard transition to commercial utilization and deep space explora tion at its core. Join the Spaceport News team as we recall the changes we have un and the preparations under way to face the future head-on and accom plish the other things on NASAs to-do list.Kennedy celebrates 50 years of successBy Kay Grinter Spaceport News Throughout the past 50 years, NASA's Kennedy Space Center has carried on America's legacy of processing, testing and launching a wide array of rockets and spacecraft to distant planets and other destinations in space. Launch vehicles, from left, include the Atlas V, the space shuttle, the Delta, the Titan, Apollo's Saturn V, Gemini's Atlas-Agena and Mercury's Redstone. In the foreground are human destinations the center helped NASA reach, including Earth's orbit and the International Space Station. At the top right is NASA's newest spacecraft, the Orion multi-purpose crew vehicle, which will help humans explore deeper into space than ever before. INSIDE . Page 2 -Center Director's Note Pages 3 and 4 -The 1960s Page 5 -The 1970s Pages 6 and 7 -The 1980s Pages 8 and 9 -Keepsake Poster Pages 10 and 11 -The 1990s Pages 12 and 13 -The 2000s Pages 14 and 15 -2010 and Beyond Page 16 -In Their Own Words


Page 2 SPACEPORT NEWS June 29, 2012 Commitment to excellence the foundation of Kennedy Space Center's 50th anniversary A s NASA's Kennedy Space Center celebrates its 50th anniversary, I want to thank each and every one of you for your hard work and dedication to our center, our agency and our country. Your commitment to excellence and safety, teamwork and integrity, continually give us reason to be proud. In 50 years, less than a lifetime, Americans strides onto the surface of another world and sent instrument-laden machines into the perilous reaches of space beyond the solar system. All those voyages began here, made possible in large measure by the professionalism, determination and boldness of the Kennedy team. Together, we've weathered some challenging times and charted through some Through it all, you have remained focused and diligent. I'm extremely proud to be part of this amazing team. This is a major anniversary for us, and a cel ebration of our abilities, but it really is just the starting point for a vibrant future. I invite you to take a look through this special edition of "Spaceport News," which commemorates the accomplishments of this great center. Keep Charging, Bob July 1, 1962 activates the Launch Operations Center at the seaside spaceport. Aug. 2, 1963 First pile for Vehicle Assembly Building driven into bedrock. VAB is completed in 1966. Nov. 29, 1963 The Launch Operations Center is renamed the John F. Kennedy Space Center. Early 1964 Construction starts on what is now known as the Operations and Checkout Building. March 23,1965 Gus Grissom and John Young make of the Gemini Program. Director's Note Bob Cabana BACKGROUND: The mobile launcher stands at Launch Pad 39B at NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida on Nov. 28, 2011.


June 29, 2012 Page 3 SPACEPORT NEWS Dreams became a reality in the 1960s "First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the Earth." T hat proclamation by President John F. Ken nedy before a joint session of Congress on May 25, 1961, set the stage for an astounding time in our nation's emerging space program. The goal -fueled by competition with the Soviet Union dubbed the "space race" -took what was to become Kennedy Space Center from a testing ground for new rockets to a center success ful at launching humans to the moon. Neil Armstrong's "one small step" on the lunar surface in 1969 achieved a goal that a few years earlier. As the decade dawned in 1960, gas cost 31 cents per gal lon, the No. 1 song of the year was the instrumental "Theme from a Summer Place" by Percy Faith, and the two-year-old space agency was launching rockets along the east coast of Florida. Project Mercury already was under way, having launched the -just a few weeks before the president's bold proclamation. On Feb. 20, 1962, John Glenn lifted off from Launch Complex 14 aboard an Atlas rocket to orbit Earth. America had a new set of heroes -the Mercury 7 astronauts. in Florida, under the leadership arm of the Marshall Space Flight Center in Alabama. On July 1, 1962, the launch facility was given full center status as the Launch Operations Center with Throughout the course of two years, Project Mercury had six successful launches of solo astronauts aboard Redstone and Atlas rockets. Following closely behind were Project Gemini's 10 missions, with crews of two, aboard Atlas and Titan launch aboard Gemini 3 on March 23, 1965, lifting off on a Titan rocket from Launch Complex 19. The Gemini missions estab lished their own astounding set ing spacewalks and spacecraft dockings -revolutionary new feats as astronauts were quickly learning to live and work, and even troubleshoot, in space. structure of the Launch Opera tions Center took shape as prepa rations for the lunar missions continued, but the name of the center changed after a tragic turn of events. On Nov. 29, 1963, tion of the president who set the moon as NASA's goal, the center was renamed the John F. Ken nedy Space Center in his honor. While Mercury and Gemini launches lifted off from pads on Cape Canaveral, NASA was building its own moon launch facility, Launch Complex 39, to support the mighty Saturn V rocket. The gigantic Vehicle As sembly Building began to take shape in 1962 and was complet ed in 1965. Launch pads A and B were constructed, with a crawlerway to serve as the highway between the VAB and the pads. A crawler-transporter was built to carry the towering moonbound rockets along the gravel path. Further south, the Manned Spacecraft Operations Building, now known as the Operations and Checkout Building, was con structed in 1964 in what became known as the Industrial Area. Kennedy's Headquarters and Central Instrumentation Facility were built nearby to house the growing workforce at the center. With the last Gemini mission in 1966, the stage was set for the Spaceport News President John F. Kennedy is welcomed by a color guard after arriving at the Cape Canaveral Missile Test Annex Skid Strip on Sept. 11, 1962, as Center Director Kurt Debus looks on. August 1965 Construction of the crawlerway, from the VAB to Launch Pad 39A is completed. Jan. 27, 1966 mobile launchers is moved into the Vehicle Assembly Building. May 25, 1966 Saturn V, a facilities test model, is rolled out of the Vehicle Assembly Building. Jan. 27, 1967 The three-man manned Apollo in an accident. Nov. 9, 1967 Launch Pad 39A time to launch the Apollo 4. Inside Mercury Mission Control launch controllers perform a Mercury-Atlas 8 prelaunch simulation Sept. 10, 1962. BACKGROUND: Construction progress of the Vehicle Assembly Building on Aug. 11, 1965.


Page 4 SPACEPORT NEWS June 29, 2012 P resident Kennedy said Americans should land on the moon before the end of the decade, and although he didn't live to see that the Apollo Program rap idly took shape. A bigger, more powerful rocket was needed to deliver astronauts beyond Earth orbit and propel them toward the moon, as well as two separate space craft -a command ser vice module and a lunar lander -to accomplish the task of reaching the surface. Both crew and spacecraft were coming when tragedy struck the bustling moonport. On Jan. 27, 1967, the the following month -Gus Grissom, Ed White Mankind took giant leap by decade's end and Roger Chaffee -lost that swept through their command module during a launch pad test at Com plex 34. The exhaustive and extensive rework ing of the Apollo com mand module postponed launches of astronauts cleared the module for scheduled for Grissom, White and Chaffee was Apollo 1 for the history powerful Saturn V with out a crew on board was Apollo 4 on Nov. 9, 1967. at the time: "The release is very slow and the rise along the umbilical tower is very slow. It takes a total of 19 seconds, which at that moment appeared to be minutes as it takes off," he said, "and as this rocket lifts off, the majestic way in which it performs is very impres sive, more impressive than anything I have ever seen." huge new Saturn rocket had the power to perform and that the team at Ken nedy was up to the task of successfully launching such a rocket. The maiden voyage of an Apollo crew came on Oct. 11, 1968, as Wally Walt Cunningham lifted off from Launch Com plex 34 aboard a SaturnIB for the Apollo 7 Earth orbital mission. Just two months later, the Apollo 8 astronauts mission after launching from Launch Pad 39A aboard a Saturn V on mission, Americans sat spellbound on Christ mas Eve watching a live broadcast by the astro nauts orbiting the moon, as they presented amaz ing, never-before-seen images like "Earthrise" over the lunar surface. The lunar orbital mis sions of Apollo 8 and 10 demonstrated that it was possible to reach the moon and return, but it was up to the Apollo 11 crew to prove that they could not only get there, but also land on the moon and return home. At Ken nedy, three astronauts -Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin -along with the Kennedy launch team, prepared for a test like no humans had ever faced before. The Apollo 11 launch from pad 39A came on July 16, 1969. The eightday mission took the crew on a 935,000-mile jour ney to another world. On July 20, an estimated 530 million people watched the televised image and heard Armstrong's words human to set foot on the Kennedy's challenge. By decade's end, the Apollo Program had completed two success ful moon landings, and Kennedy Space Center was the launch capital of the world. Against a backdrop of the decade's national trag edies and social changes, the exciting achievements in space gave Americans collective pride. Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong leads astronauts Michael Collins and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin Jr., from the then Manned Spacecraft Operations Building to the transfer van for the 8-mile trip to Launch Pad 39A on July 16, 1969. Spaceport News Oct. 11, 1968 crewed launch in the Apollo Program, is a "101 percent successful" mission. July 16, 1969 Apollo 11 launches, astronauts to the moon in the Eagle lunar module. Dec. 19, 1972 The Apollo 17 crew is picked up by the USS Ticonderoga as the lunar missions end. May 1973 U.S. space station, launches aboard an uncrewed Saturn V rocket. May 29, 1973 Florida Gov. Reuben Askew restores the name of Cape Canaveral from Cape Kennedy. Kennedy Space Center workers in the Launch Control Center Firing Room 1 watch Apollo 11 lift off on July 16, 1969. BACKGROUND: Apollo 11s Saturn V rocket sits on Launch Pad 39A on July 2, 1969.


SPACEPORT NEWS Page 5 June 29, 2012 Handshake foretold of cooperation to come By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News mobile launcher can be seen in the background at right. K ennedy Space Center spent the 1970s bridging the achievements of the 1960s and the expecta tions of the 1980s. The center emerged from the decade as a place of adap tation and innovation. The 10-year span saw Kennedy help NASA reach farther into space than ever before. The cen ter launched men to the a crew during an emer space station into orbit and then lofted a pair of spacecraft on a rare jour ney to see the four outer planets up close. Even the missions that fell in between those The twin Viking landers, for example, set down softly on the Martian sur face and beamed back the colored soil that gives the Red Planet its nickname. There also was the 1975 that saw American astronauts and Russian cosmonauts shake hands a preview of the relation ship that now sustains the International Space Station. "Certainly in the manned program, it's the transition era between this kind of radical, exciting, somewhat crazy moon program of the '60s and this very stable, very useful shuttle program of the '80s," said Roger Launius, curator at the Smithsonian's National Air and Space Museum and NASA's former chief historian. The chances of NASA accomplishing such milestones looked distant when the decade began. A landing, the center saw layoff as Apollo's end was scheduled. Although the program's scale was diminished, Ken nedy workers still had a few Apollo missions to launch, including Apollo 13. Kennedy's team worked closely with centers through one dif the three astronauts back to Earth safely. The layoffs continued through the return of 1972, the last mission to carry astronauts to the lunar surface. Having landed on the moon six times, NASA set its sights on Earth orbit with the Skylab program in 1973. The Kennedy launch spacecraft into orbit in 1975, timing the liftoff perfectly to allow a dock ing with a Soyuz capsule launched from the Soviet Union. The successful an American astronaut ing the decade. Some of the greatest achievements of the 1970s belonged to the most sophisticated machines of the day: robotic probes with computer brains, cameras and instruments that would return a scien tist's delight of informa tion about distant worlds. "There was this trans formation in planetary sci ence that forced Kennedy to do payload processing it had never done before," Launius said. "It was critical to Viking. If they allowed any biological material on the spacecraft, they were going to get a false reading and fun damentally Viking was about biological experi ments." Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft rode powerful boosters from the coast of Florida to start journeys that would not end until they crossed outside the solar system. "It was a golden age of planetary science and Kennedy was the jump ing-off place to make it happen," Launius said. Following the wind down of the early 1970s, Kennedy's momentum started ramping up anew toward the end of the de cade when the infrastruc ture for the space shuttle some testing. in space, would provide milestones of the '70s when it arrived atop a Carrier Aircraft to begin what would be a ground breaking but arduous time of preparations for its mission would not begin until 1981, its successes were built on the agency's achievements throughout the decade before. "The whole idea of processing the shuttle, nobody had any idea what that was about until the 1970s," Launius said. "Somebody had to put in a process whereby you take an orbiter and you prepare all the checkouts and you stack it and you take it out and launch it, and all that is done at Kennedy and can be done nowhere else." This aerial shows the Vehicle Assembly Building, sporting the American Bicentennial logo, and the Bicentennial Exhibit domes. April 1, 1974 Ground is broken to begin the construction of the Shuttle Landing Facility runway. July 15, 1975 missions begin with launch of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project. March 24, 1979 shuttle orbiter, Columbia, arrives at Kennedy Space Center. April 12, 1981 The space shuttle becomes the world's spacecraft. Feb. 11, 1984 The space shuttle returns from orbit to the Shuttle Landing Facility for BACKGROUND: The Shuttle Landing Facility under construction Dec. 24, 1974.


Dec. 5, 1986 Construction of the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility is completed. Jan. 28, 1986 Shuttle Challenger and its sevenmember crew perish 73 seconds after launch. Sept. 29, 1988 Space shuttle an investigation into the Challenger accident. April 24, 1990 STS-31 mission features the deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope. March 1991 Construction begins of the Space Station Processing Facility in the Industrial Area. Page 6 SPACEPORT NEWS June 29, 2012 uring the 1980s, Kennedy Space Center made a critical shift in focus. In stead of moving relatively quickly from one human another, as in the fastpaced 1960s and 1970s, the spaceport's workforce and facilities now were geared toward preparing and launching a revolu tionary new spacecraft that would further ad vance our capabilities in orbit: the space shuttle. Kennedy was tasked with the vital role of maintaining the "process ing and preparing each launching it safely, ensur ing the safety of orbiter and crew after landing, and returning it to Ken nedy's orbiter processing facilities to begin the this decade, the Kennedy of the space shuttle, then known as the Space Transportation System (STS). Commander John Young and Pilot Bob Columbia on the Space mission, STS-1. "Before we did STS-1, there had been some, I guess, things going on in the (United) States that -the morale of the United States, I don't think, was very high," recalled Crip pen, who later served as director of Kennedy. "It was truly a morale booster for the United States, and I was pleas it was welcomed by what I would call our allies abroad. So it was obvious that it was a big deal," Crippen said. As 1980 began, work already was well under way readying Columbia for the STS-1 mission, still months away. But at the same time, teams at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station were preparing NASA launch of the decade. The Solar Maxi mum Mission, or "So larMax," was lofted into Feb. 14, 1980, embarking sun during the peak of the solar cycle. space shuttle on April 12, 1981, became an iconic moment for NASA and for the nation. Colum bia's launch plume was a welcome sight to the Kennedy workforce who had labored for years to reach this point. Liftoff came after a precise, onschedule countdown. "Everything was going good. The weather was looking good. About one minute to go, I turned to John. I said, 'I think we might really do it,' and about that time, my heart rate started to go up," Crippen said. "And sure enough, the count came on down, and the main engines started. The solid rockets went off, and away we went." Columbia stayed aloft for two days as Crippen and Young kept busy verifying the spacecraft's came April 14 when the orbiter and crew com deorbit burn, decelerated out of orbit and glided to a landing, kicking up dust as its main landing gear made contact with the dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base in California. garnered worldwide at tention, even intersecting with early-1980s pop cul ture. Canadian rock band Rush was so inspired by the group recounted the experience in "Count down," the closing track on the trio's "Signals" album. MTV kicked off its a.m. Aug. 1, 1981, with footage of Columbia's countdown and liftoff, the Apollo 11 launch, then the landing on the moon as an astronaut saluted the over announced, "Ladies and gentlemen: rock and roll." one after another as the Space Shuttle Program progressed. The STS-2 reuse of a space vehicle, as Columbia made its sec See 1980s Page 7 By Anna Heiney Spaceport News Astronauts Bob Crippen, left, and John Young board the emergency pad escape system known as the "slidewire" on Jan. 6, 1981. BACKGROUND: Space shuttle Columbias lift and mate to the external fuel tank in the Vehicle Assembly Building on Nov. 25, 1980.


in 1983; the next mission was the American astronaut, Guion "Guy" Bluford. Challenger was landing, touching down on Ken nedy's Shuttle Landing Facility in 1984 to conclude the STS-41B mission. STS-41C, when the crew of Challenger successfully captured, repaired and redeployed the SolarMax spacecraft, prolonging its life in orbit. NASA developed the Tracking in order to provide reliable com munications for the space shuttle and other spacecraft in low Earth orbit. Today, a total of nine in orbit, including six deployed during space shuttle missions and three carried aloft aboard Atlas IIA rockets. Kennedy kept pace as shuttle in 1981 to nine in 1985. Then, the nation received a never routine. Jan. 28, 1986, dawned bitterly cold. Temperatures hovered just a few degrees above freezing as space shuttle Challenger and its seven astronauts lifted off on ended just 73 seconds later when an O-ring in the right solid rocket that led to the loss of the vehicle and crew: Commander Francis Scobee, Pilot Michael Smith, Mission Specialists Judith Resn ik, Ellison Onizuka and Ronald McNair, and Payload Special ists Gregory Jarvis and Sharon Christa McAuliffe, a teacher. The Kennedy family grieved along with the nation. With a new center director, Forrest S. McCartney, at the helm, the workforce focused its efforts on ery for the next mission, STS-26. Brevard County roads were packed with spectators on the Challenger accident, return after a two-and-a-half-year gap. "It was a privilege and honor to have been a part of the Ken nedy Space Center team during the Return to Flight activities fol lowing the Challenger accident," McCartney said. "The KSC shuttle workforce was a world class group of professionals that history. I will always be grateful to them for letting me join their team." The space shuttle paved the a wide variety of disciplines, including biology and materials science. The reusable Spacelab research module, Spacelab pal let or Spacelab Multipurpose Experiment Support Structure expand the vehicle's capacity for in-orbit science. Kennedy closed out the 1980s missions launched in 1989. On deployed spacecraft that made a lasting impact on our understand ing of our planetary neighbors: the Magellan spacecraft to Venus and the Galileo probe to Jupiter. President Ronald Reagan set the stage for the future of U.S. of the Union address on Jan. 25, 1984, when he challenged NASA to develop an international, per manently crewed space station. "A space station will permit quantum leaps in our research in science, communications, and in metals and lifesaving medicines which could be manufactured only in space," Reagan said. "We want our friends to help us meet these challenges and share in other countries to participate so we can strengthen peace, build prosperity, and expand freedom for all who share our goals." The experiences and triumphs achieved at Kennedy during the 1980s helped put the agency on course to make Reagan's vision a reality in the decades to come. Decade set stage for space station April 11, 1991 STS-37 mission features the deployment of the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Sept. 3, 1991 The repurposed opens as the Orbiter Processing Facility-3. Sept. 22, 1993 Shuttle Discovery to land at night at Kennedy Space Center. June 23, 1994 The Space Station Processing Facility, a 457-square-foot opens. June 29, 1995 Space shuttle Atlantis docks with Space Station Mir about 218 nautical miles above Earth. SPACEPORT NEWS Page 7 June 29, 2012 From 1980s Page 6 Space shuttle Challenger makes a surrealistic impression as it moves through the fog on its way down the 3.5-mile crawlerway en route to Launch Pad 39A on Nov. 30, 1982. The STS-1 space shuttle team celebrates a successful liftoff of Columbia from Launch Pad 39A a few seconds past 7 a.m. on April 12, 1981. BACKGROUND: A Delta rocket launches Feb. 14, 1980, with the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft.


Page 10 June 29, 2012 SPACEPORT NEWS Shuttle Columbia's payload bay doors close around the Chandra X-ray Observatory at Launch Pad 39B on July 17, 1999. I n the 1990s, the num ber of space shuttle missions doubled that of the 80s, enabling everyday wonder, rather The shuttle program was in full-swing and proved to be Earths bridge to space, serv ing the U.S., Russia and our other international partners. Throughout the s, the agency enhanced our knowledge of the world around us through the Observatories, proved that man could handle through the Shuttle-Mir Program, began to as semble the International Space Station (ISS) and launched additional plan etary missions, allowing us to explore further. shuttle program, we had a well-oiled machine with sion, and it was our job to Jay Honeycutt, Kennedy center director from Janu ary 1995 to March 1997. When people look back at that time, I hope they see an era of high per formance in a challeng ing environment, safely executed by a motivated workforce who really enjoyed doing what they were doing. Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, was processed at Kennedy and launched April 24, covery. Hubble has been attributed with expand ing our understanding of star birth and death, and has transitioned black holes from scien Hubble launched, it has gone through numerous maintenance and servic ing missions, including the replacement of its optic lens. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, a 17-ton satellite, was the heaviest payload to have time of its launch April 5, 1991, aboard shuttle Atlantis. This mission collected data on high-radiation sources called gamma rays, characterized by their extremely high energies. The third was the Chandra X-ray Observa tory, launched into a high Earth orbit aboard shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. Chandra was designed to study black holes, supernovas and dark matter in greater detail than previously possible to increase our understanding of the ori gin, evolution and destiny of the universe. It wasnt until the s that the shuttle was used for the primary mission for which it was designed, ting of a space station. The construction of Kennedy's Space Sta tion Processing Facility (SSPF) began in April 1991. One of the special attributes of the SSPF was the ability to perform multi-element integrated testing, saving the agency billions of dollars that would have been spent transporting hardware. On June 17, 1992, U.S. President George H.W. Bush and Russian Presi dent Boris Yeltsin signed an agreement allowing the U.S. to use the Rus sian space station, Mir, to enhance our knowledge of long-duration missions. The agreement, which became known as the Shuttle-Mir Program, was later expanded to include with extended stays on the station by U.S. astro nauts. In fall 1994, the Russian-built Mir-2 be processed through the SSPF. program, the shuttle docked with Mir nine times. It was a good pre cursor to the assembly of the ISS because it intro duced NASA astronauts to living and working in space on long-duration missions. piece of hardware to be December 1996 Saturn V Center opens with a huge Saturn V moon rocket inside. June 23, 1997 Unity arrives and piece of station hardware to be Oct. 24, 1997 The expendable launch vehicle Launch Services Program makes Kennedy its home. August 1998 The NASA insignia is painted on the VAB in celebration of NASA's 40th anniversary. Oct./Nov. 1998 John Glenn, then 77, becomes oldest astronaut to travel to space during the STS-95 mission. By Stephanie Covey Spaceport News Shuttle Atlantis departs the Russian space station Mir on July 4, 1995. This image was taken during the STS-71 mission by cosmonauts aboard their Soyuz transport vehicle. See 1990s Page 11 BACKGROUND: Space shuttle Discovery rolls out of the Vehicle Assembly Building for the STS-60 mission Jan. 10, 1994.


Page 11 June 29, 2012 SPACEPORT NEWS Solar system piqued our interest Dec. 4, 1998 dedicated to the assembly of the International Space Station launches. May 29, 1999 Shuttle Discovery orbiter to dock with the International Space Station. July 23, 1999 Eileen Collins female shuttle commander on the STS-93 mission. July 23, 1999 The STS-93 mission features the deployment of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Feb. 8, 2001 The groundbreaking takes place for what is known as the Space Life Sciences Laboratory. Employees work on the Titan Cassini Remote Sensing Platform installation in Kennedy's Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility on May 22, 1997. Workers at Launch Complex 17B on Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fla., get From 1990s Page 10 processed through the facility was the Unity module in June 1997. Since then, all payloads sent to the station aboard the space shuttle were processed in the SSPF. By the end of the s, a Russian Proton rocket and two shuttle missions assembled the core of with necessary supplies. mission began Nov. 20, 1998, with the launch of the Zarya control module atop a Russian rocket. Zarya provided the sta tion battery power and fuel storage. The launch of shuttle Endeavour liver the Unity node. The STS-88 crew captured Zarya and mated it with Unity, and a new station emerged. launched May 27, 1999, with the STS-96 crew the logistics and sup plies necessary to give the international research laboratory a strong begin ning. Although the Space Shuttle Program and the ISS were the pri mary focus of human two important planetary missions were launched on expendable launch ve hicles from neighboring Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The Mars Path micro-rover launched the Martian surface July 4, 1997. Sojourner, the surface of the Red Planet, lasted 12 times its life expectancy of seven days and returned 550 images of the surrounding area. Cassini, a joint venture between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Italian Space Agency, advanced our knowledge of Saturn, its rings, moons and magnetic environment. Cassini launched Oct. 15, 1997, on a seven-year journey to the ringed planet. One of the pri mary targets was Titan, Saturns largest moon. A probe provided by ESA descended to Titan's surface to directly sample the atmosphere and pro surface. The Launch Services Program (LSP), originally known as Unmanned Launch Operations and then Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) Opera program at Kennedy in October 1998. LSP took the separate and distinct work of three NASA centers and combined it under one cohesive organization that serves the agency by procuring, managing and launching missions. The s were a very dynamic time at Kennedy. Three center directors saw Kennedy through numerous programs of national and international importance. Though the Kennedy team had a variety of missions and focuses, one theme was constant: Each of the center directors proudly proclaims that Kennedy had and still has the best team around. ing environment, the Ken nedy team delivered ex cellent results, said Roy Bridges, Kennedy center director from March 1997 to August 2003. We successfully built the ISS, prepared and launched the shuttle on many amazing missions, had an excellent track record with ELV launches, and ramped up our concept of spaceport and range technology development. BACKGROUND: Space shuttle Atlantis launches on the STS-43 mission Aug. 2, 1991.


Page 12 June 29, 2012 SPACEPORT NEWS B uilding on the ac complishments of the previous decade, Kennedy Space Center entered the 2000s with some challenging goals to achieve. Not the least of these was processing and launching NASAs space shuttles and completing construc tion of the International Space Station, as well as managing the agencys Launch Service Program and its many Earthinterplanetary missions. Kennedy processed and launched 33 successful space shuttle missions, most of these to the space station, and oversaw a record-setting 53 ex pendable launch vehicle missions. director from 1997 to 2003, said despite the challenging environment, the Kennedy team deliv ered excellent results. In October 2000, the covery marked the 100th space shuttle mission and also included the 100th spacewalk for the U.S. space program. crew, Expedition 1, to the International Space Station on Nov. 2, 2000, aboard a Soyuz rocket, marked the beginning of an uninterrupted human presence on the orbit ing laboratory. A month solar arrays, the P6 truss, was delivered aboard Endeavour on the STS-97 mission and immediately increased the stations capabilities. What followed was more than 10 years of U.S. and international partner element process ing in Kennedy's Space Station Processing Facil ity (SSPF) and delivery to the station aboard space shuttles. Russell Romanella was a director of ISS and Payload Processing in the 2000s. It was an amazing time with the SSPF high bay so full of elements that we had to start using the high bay of the Operations and Checkout Building empty out at least three different times. What was most memorable about this time, especially in 2007 and 2008, was the wave of international participation. It wasnt unusual to have 100 international partners here on any given day. Space shuttles delivered Lab, the Quest airlock, the Tranquility node, the cupola, the stations robotic arm and mobile base system, and all of the starboard and port truss segments and solar arrays. Also, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agencys Kibo Laboratory and the European Space Agencys Columbus module were processed in the SSPF and carried to the station aboard space shuttles. purpose logistics modules (MPLMs) built by the Ital ian Space Agency, Leon ardo, was processed and delivered to the station in February 2001 aboard Atlantis on the STS-98 mission. NASAs Spitzer Telescope was launched Aug. 25, 2003, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Sta tion (CCAFS) in Florida. Spitzer is the largest infrared telescope ever launched into space and the last of four missions in NASAs Great Observato ries Program. Tragedy struck the Space Shuttle Program for the second time when Columbia and its sevenmember crew were lost during re-entry on Feb. 1, 2003, on the STS-107 mission. Lost were Com mander Rick Husband; Pilot William "Willie" Mc Cool; Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, Laurel Payload Specialist Ilan Station elements came together in 2000s March 5, 2001 Two ferried shuttles return to Kennedy Space Center on the same day. Feb. 1, 2003 Space Shuttle Columbia and its seven-member crew are lost over east Texas. June/July 2003 NASA launches a pair of Mars rovers called Opportunity and Spirit, from Cape Canaveral. July 26, 2005 The STS-114 mission returns the shuttle to active duty with docking to the space station. Aug. 12, 2005 NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter launches in search of water on the Red Planet. Spaceport News Billows of smoke and steam surround space shuttle Discovery as it lifts off Oct. 11, 2000, from Launch Pad 39A on STS-92, the 100th launch in the history of the Space Shuttle Program. The Spitzer Space Telescope, formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, is lifted for installation of the fairing at Launch Complex 17B, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., on April 10, 2003. See 2000s Page 13 BACKGROUND: The International Space Station as viewed by the STS-132 crew aboard space shuttle Atlantis.


Page 13 June 29, 2012 SPACEPORT NEWS Ramon, of Israel; and Payload Commander Michael Anderson. Kennedy helped the agency in vestigate and determine the cause and made upgrades to the shuttle and external fuel tank so that shuttle launches could resume. They did so July 26, 2005, a seven-member crew on Return to Flight mission STS-114 to the space station. The payload included the MPLM Raffaello, the Orbiter Boom Sensor System (OBSS), and tile and Reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) sample materials. Jim Kennedy was center direc tor from August 2003 to January 2007. He said the center and the agency were focused on seeing the space shuttle safety return to While this was a great chal lenge, fraught with problems, the fact that we shared mutual objec tives with common goals made it a very doable task, Kennedy and women of Kennedy Space Center. specialists demonstrated inspec tion and repair techniques using the samples. Prior to docking to the station, the crew used the OBSS to inspect and take pictures of the shuttle tiles and RCC pan els for analysis back on Earth. this decade was the ability of the shuttle processing team to work across the program to overcome adversity, including resolution of various ground umbilical hydrogen leaks, external fuel tank stringer crack repairs, engine cutoff sensor resolution, and ing the Columbia tragedy, said Nickolenko. In 2004, prior to Return to Flight, then President George W. Bush announced the Space Shuttle Program would end in 2010 and the nations Vision for Space Exploration would be the next step in U.S. space explora tion. A new program, Constella tion, would include the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles and Orion crew exploration vehicle (CEV). NASAs Hubble Space Telescope underwent a fourth servicing mission in March 2002, during Columbias STS-109 servicing mission in May 2009 during Atlantis STS-125 mission. All of the new components were processed through Kennedy. The last mission was a phenomenal success," said Bob Cabana, Kennedy center direc tor since 2008. No robots could have done what the astronauts did to upgrade Hubble during the STS-125 mission. In November 2008, the Launch Services Program celebrated its 10-year anniversary at Kennedy, with 55 successful missions under its belt. Among the most celebrated missions was the Mars Phoenix Lander, which launched Aug. 4, Launch Complex 17A at CCAFS. It descended to Mars on May 25, 2008. Another of NASAs planetary missions sent two exploration rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, on II rockets, from CCAFS, June 10, 2003, and July 7, 2003, respec tively. Both rovers descended through the Martian atmosphere in January 2004 and began send ing back images of the planets surface. of LSP, has spent all but two of his 30-year career in the program. The Mars landers still capture the imagination like no other. Its been extremely gratifying to witness the evolution from So journer to Spirit and Opportunity said. To have a hand in process ing and launching them on their quests has been a career highlight for me and Im sure for everyone in LSP. Another LSP mission was a pair of spacecraft called Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS). They launched atop an Atlas V rocket from CCAFS on June 18, to the moon in 10 years. My hope is that LSP remains an integral part of the agencys plan to build and launch one-of-aus increase our knowledge about the world and the galaxy in which Bill Parsons, who was center director from January 2007 to October 2008, said he would like hardware and launching multiple vehicles in the future. On Oct. 28, 2009, the Ares I-X rocket soared into the sky from test. The program was subse quently canceled in 2010, allow ing NASA to work with commer cial companies for transport to low Earth orbit. rated from the simulated upper stage, and then slowly splashed down in the Atlantic Ocean for recovery. As the Space Shuttle Programs end drew near, the center faced challenging times with the begin ning of workforce reductions and a repurposing of facilities and infrastructure to support NASAs Space Launch System and a vari ety of commercial launch vehicles into the next decade. We are a leader in space exploration," Cabana said. "We want to maintain our leadership in the world. Jan. 19, 2006 New Horizons launches to study Pluto, the last unvisited planet in the solar system. July 4, 2006 STS-121 mission shuttle launch to take place on Independence Day. June 8, 2007 STS-117 mission liftoff from Launch Pad 39A in more than four years. Nov. 14, 2008 STS-126 carries the most supplies and equipment ever to International Space Station. Nov. 26, 2008 NASAs Mars Science Laboratory, including the car-sized rover Curiosity, lifts off. From 2000s Page 12 On April 29, 2009, technicians in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at Kennedy Space Center help with the installation of the Science Instrument Command and Data Handling Unit, which was installed on NASA's Hubble Space Telescope during the STS-125 mission. NASA launches its second Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, aboard a Delta II expend able launch vehicle July 7, 2003. BACKGROUND: An Atlas V rocket stands ready for launch with NASA's Mars Science Laboratory on Nov. 26, 2011.


Page 14 June 29, 2012 SPACEPORT NEWS March 15, 2009 Space shuttle Discovery delivers solar array wings to space station. April 17, 2009 Shuttles Atlantis and Endeavour stand poised on both launch pads April 17, 2009 Shuttles Atlantis and Endeavour stand poised on both launch pads June 18, 2009 LCROSS mission aboard an Atlas V launch in 10 years. Nov. 19, 2009 NASA and Florida Power & Light commission a one-megawatt solar power facility. Page 15 June 29, 2012 SPACEPORT NEWS and Orion spacecraft, which will expand human presence beyond low Earth orbit and enable new missions of exploration across the solar system. "We're taking the agency's launch and processing capabili ties to the next level," said Pep per Phillips, program manager decades of experience and plan ning to support future rockets and spacecraft, Kennedy will be the bedrock to launching NASA's exploration goals for decades to come." In 2011, the Propellants North Administration and Maintenance Facility opened its doors with the highest rating in green building standards -Leadership in Energy num rating. Propellants North is a "net-zero" facility, which means it generates more energy on a yearly basis than it requires to operate. One directorate that has remained constant for nearly 15 years is NASA's Launch Ser vices Program (LSP). The LSP team successfully managed and robotic missions to Jupiter, the moon and Mars in this decade. It sent a mission to study oceans and another to study the sun. "The Launch Services Program will be bustling for the foresee LSP's deputy director. "We're already preparing for missions that will continue to expand our knowledge of our home planet and beyond." to inspire a new generation of pioneers through innovative programs, such as the Lunabo tics Mining Competition, which gives college students the op portunity to design and develop excavators much like they would if they were designing a machine bound for another planet. "It's these kinds of programs that are helping our future engineers and scientists develop ideas and solutions which could be used in the not-too-distant future," said Hortense Kennedy's Engineering and Technology dirt for future missions. NASAs Regolith and Environment Sci ence and Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction, or RE SOLVE, has been tested several times across the globe in Hilo, Hawaii, where the soil resembles the lunar surface. milestone in this decade oc curred on May 22, 2012, Space Exploration Technologies, better known as SpaceX, launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on a resupply mission to the International Space Station. Three days later, the company's privately launched spacecraft to berth with the station, validating the agency's decision to rely on commercial partners to re-supply the orbiting outpost. with life support systems and a launch abort system that could make it ready to transport astronaut crews for CCP around the middle of the decade. Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under including Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK), Boeing, Blue Origin, Excalibur Almaz Inc., Sierra Nevada Corp. (SNC) and United Launch Alliance (ULA). "There is a real need to have some redundancy in our ca pability up and down to the International Space Station and the Commercial Crew Program is going to provide that redun dancy," said Ed Mango, CCP manager. "The next time you see an American rocket lifting off with NASA astronauts on board will most likely be through this program." The resounding theme of this decade and of the coming decades is that Kennedy, even at 50 years old, still is in its infancy and its list of extraordi nary accomplishments will only continue to grow as it transitions into the worlds most affordable, sustainable and premier launch site of the future. "I know we will challenges in the years ahead," Ca bana said, "but we have faced them before, and we will rise above them as we have in the past." Oct. 28, 2009 NASA's Ares I-X rocket lifts off Launch Pad 39B for a six-minute July 2011 Shuttle Atlantis completes the the Space Shuttle Program, STS-135. Oct. 21, 2011 The Boeing Co.'s CST-100 spacecraft is unveiled at a ceremony in OPF-3. April 17, 2012 Shuttle Discovery is ferried to Washington, D.C., en route to the Smithsonian. May 2012 SpaceX becomes owned company to deliver supplies to the space station. Solving today's challenges . N ASAs Kennedy Space Center is transition ing from doing things that are extraordinary to doing extraordinary things regularly. In 2010, President Barack Obama set the agency on a course to provide new avenues into space for its astronauts without giving up on ambitious desires to explore the reaches of the solar system. From today's robotic probes to Mars and Jupi ter to the future's heavy launchers designed to take humanity to deep space, the spaceport at Ken nedy is gearing up for a remark able future. At the time, NASA Adminis trator Charlie Bolden said, "We have been given a new path in space that will enable our coun try to develop greater capabili ties, transforming the state of the art in aerospace technologies. We will continue to maintain and expand vital partnerships around the world. It will help us retool for the industries and jobs of the future that will be vital for long-term economic growth and national security." The center faced some chal lenges early in the decade with the cancelation of NASA's Con stellation Program, which saw a I-X a year earlier. The work on Constellation was not lost, though, and as programs such as the Space Launch System (SLS), Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and velopment and Opera there became new uses for its hardware, data and workforce. Change brings with it oppor Cabana. We dont back away from something just because its hard. We decide what needs to get done and we go make it happen." One by one, the Kennedy team methodically processed and launched the space shuttles on Station residents with a new module for research; Endeavour on STS-134, a complex mis sion to deliver to the station, the Alpha-Magnetic Spectrometer which relays cosmic particle data to Earth; and Atlantis on STSshuttle's 30-year era, delivered a stockpile of supplies and parts to the station. A team of shuttle workers cur rently is ensuring that the shuttles and other artifacts are safely prepared for their new homes and the lessons learned through the program's history are gathered for future generations. "This truly is a team that can take on any challenge and make it happen, Cabana said. "I can't say enough about their profes sionalism and dedication during these transitional times." In order to make the space station the research hub it was intended to be, the group that supported its assembly here on focus. "We reorganized in order to better support the full utiliza tion of the ISS and to increase our fundamental research," said the International Space Station Ground Processing and Research laboratory, the ISS provides a microgravity test bed to conduct innovative science. Plus, as a human-tended low Earth orbit outpost, critical systems required for humans to explore into deep space can be validated in the relative safety of the station, close to home." researchers expect a wealth of research to return from the space station, resulting in new vac cines, medicines and a number of commercial applications that are currently unanticipated. A realignment of Kennedy's other core programs also was in order to support the agency's new direction. The center's Engineering and Technology directorates merged to provide a matrix of services to a multi tude of programs and partners, from research and technology development to design, develop ment and implementation of hardware and software. Meanwhile, the Center Planning new partnerships and position the spaceport to become a multiuser space launch complex. The of from clean energy and research tenants to new uses for the pads in Kennedy's Launch Complex 39. Some of those new uses could come from partners of NASAs Commercial Crew Program, which was established at Kennedy in 2011 to acceler ate the development of astronaut transportation capabilities to and from low Earth orbit, and is the for NASA. One facility already seeing Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway, where the performance, suspension and aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft and cars are being tested by commercial entities. This year, the relatively runway will become a rockand NASAs Morpheus lander to negotiate through, simulating what a spacecraft might encoun ter while landing on another terrestrial surface. ing Kennedy's launch pads, Launch Control Center and Ve hicle Assembly Building. It also is modifying and strengthening the new mobile launcher and old crawler-transporters to support the new heavy-lift rocket, SLS, Spaceport News BACKGROUND: Kennedy Space Center celebrates 50 years and looks forward to uncovering new discoveries with government and commercial launches. BACKGROUND: Space shuttle Atlantis lands after the STS-135 mission, marking the end of NASA's Space Shuttle Program.


Page 16 June 29, 2012SPACEPORT NEWSLong-time workers share memories, thoughts about spaceport's futureHerbert Rice NASA Aerospace Engineer Ground Systems Development and Operations 44 years at KSCThe past . When I started working at KSC, I was part of the networks group. At that time, we only had a small number of computers . and networks consisted of thousands of relays and DC analog signals. But I would say the biggest change was when we transitioned from a purely technical center without Rice within budgetary constraints . that was a right angle change. The future . The important thing to remember is to remain forces are constantly changing and the only way we survive is to change along with them. Apply the lessons you've learned from the past, but always look at new requirements with a fresh perspective. The past . During my time at KSC, the most center to accommodate the ability to launch all of the unique U.S. space missions. In my time, there were all of the manned missions, missions going on at the same time. In the only advanced the progress for an orderly George Looschen Delta Avionics Systems Engineer Analex Corp. 50 years at KSC universe, it made advancements to the private sector's use of space spinoffs. The future . Every day at KSC, I have been able to witness and participate in the leading edge of tech one I will participate in, it gives me the same John F. Kennedy Space Center Editorial support provided by Abacus Technology Corp. Writers Group. SP-2012-06-110-KSCSpaceport News of KSC civil service and contractor employees. Rodney Olson Payloads Consultant 50 years at KSC The past . I watched the Vehicle Assembly Build ing go up and that was one great project Apollo launches was great, too. But the most dramatic point in my life was supporting meeting him and supporting him the second ing and so intense in what he did . to me, The future . and achieved what they set out to do. I hope this generation will continue to do what they set out to do with the same intensity and desire that my generation possessed. There are a lot of challenges to overcome . so keep pressing on because there are many Roy Tharpe President Space Gateway Support 49 years at KSCThe past . Most people don't realize the magnitude of what we accomplished . 10 launches in 20 months for Gemini, processing three worked day and night, creating a great team with lifelong friendships and a work ethic that carried through to the shuttle program and beyond. The future . We are always in transition and folks need to embrace that and realize that transition brings opportunities since programs come and go. KSC will always process, test and launch something. That's what we do. Embrace the transitions and carry forth the traditional processes that have made KSC great. Fifty years ago we were known as the and shuttle programs and 50 years from now we'll still be a launch operations center, but will we be ready for greatness again? I think Tharpe Olson with John Glenn Helen Allen NASA Secretary Communications 47 years at KSCThe past . was when women were able to begin wearing slacks to work. When I started at KSC, women had to dress up and were not allowed to wear slacks occasionally if they had the opportunity to go to the launch pad. The future . Remember to always work as a team and a lot can be accomplished. Allen Managing Editor Candrea Thomas Copy Editor Kay Grinter Graphic Design Lynda Brammer Editor Assistant Editor Rebecca Regan SPECIAL EDITION STAFF Writers Steven Siceloff, Rebecca Regan, Stephanie Covey Support Looschen