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Feb. 24, 2012 Vol. 52, No. 4 NASA, Glenn mark 50 yearsJohn F. Kennedy Space Center Americas gateway to the universeSpaceport News Proposed budget for 2013 positive Inside this issue...PM Challenges Page3 Page 2 New CCP Initiative Page 3 NASA Hoops It Up Page 5 Engine RemovalThe Beatles were eight months away from single, "Love Me Do," when John Glenn rocketed into space on Feb. 20, 1962, to to orbit Earth. course to meet ever-more ambitious goals. Glenns and each one afterward further out from the cradle of Earth, ultimately leading to a series of landings on the moon from 1969 to 1972. "The whole program shifted rapidly from, 'Can we do this?' to basic research," Glenn told a packed press conference conducted among the displays and consoles that made up Cape Canaveral's Mercury control center. By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News Fifty years after the Glenn, 90, still draws a capacity crowd. He returned Center on Feb. 17 to begin a weekend of events celebrating the milestone. The events come a few days before the 50th anniversary, but that did not diminish the excitement of those on hand to see Glenn. Fellow Mercury astronaut as CapCom during Glenn's own mission three months later, also made the trip to "It is a special pleasure to go back to where the times were so magical," Carpenter said. Glenn orbited as a pivotal 1962, would also witness the Cuban Missile Crisis, a viet leaders that threatened nuclear war. nity was also substantially smaller then, with the nations population standing at 186 million people compared with some 300 average family made $6,000 Census Bureau, a little more than $4,000 per year for families living in Florida or On the other hand, things By Linda Herridge Spaceport News See BUDGET Page 5 See 50TH, Page 2 The news was positive trator Charles Bolden Director Bob Cabana shared the agencys proposed budget with the centers civil servant and contractor employees Feb. 17, during Bolden presented the agencys $17.7 billion budage of that amount, 45 percent, would fund Human Exploration and Operations programs, which make up the majority of programs Were an organization of people, not machines, Bolden said. Our budget continues to be what we consider an aggressive portfolio for exploration. Bolden said the 2013 budget would seem amazingly similar in many respects to the 2012 budget, under which the agency is now operating. Its a very stable budget, Bolden said. We went year 2011 to an operating estimate of $17.8 billion in Bolden said the three upon by the president and rocket and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle with technological development to support it; prolonged, enhanced, operation of the Internationby viable commercial crew and cargo programs; and the scope, scheduled to launch in 2018, as the premier scifor the nation and the world. Bolden also added, The thing that is most important or relevant to people on Earth is whats happening to the planet. We have a robust portfolio of Earth science missions. Cabana gave an overview of how the proposed budget Center.Mercury astronaut Sen. John Glenn and NASA Kennedy Space Center Director NASA/Cory Huston

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Page 2SPACEPORT NEWSFeb. 24, 2012 didnt cost as much as they do now. A gallon of gas ran 31 cents in 1962, and a house cost less than $19,000. The whole federal budget totaled $106 billion and the Dow Jones Industrials, the stock market, stood at slightly more than 700 points. Kennedy Space Center didn't even exist yet its 144,000 acres was still more citrus groves than launch site. Glenn climbed inside the Mercury capsule he had named Friendship 7 at Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station on Floridas Atlantic coast. The launch team worked inside a blockhouse near the launch pad. "It was not a solo effort," Carpenter said. "It took thousands of people to get him safely up there and back." At that point, two American astronauts made short trips into space, on the Redstone, a rocket that was extremely reliable, but not strong enough to send a person into orbit. That was the job of the Atlas, a missile whose strength was without question, but whose reliability left something to be desired. missile launch, it went up and blew up at 27,000 feet and that wasn't a laughing at the memory. They followed the Atlas development and when it was ready, Glenn said the astronauts didn't have a qualm about getting on it. "You became the besttrained person you could be and that's what we did." Glenn also dealt with a heat shield indicator that showed it might The heat shield remained in place and Glenn splashed down safely in the Atlantic Ocean and picked up by the destroyer USS Noa. Although the Soviets had already put two of their own cosmonauts in orbit by the time Glenn was catapulted into orbit, the American was treated on his return with the pomp and circumstance normally reserved for royalty. His tiny spacecraft has been displayed at the Smithsonian. course. A record-setting test pilot before he became one of Americas original astronauts, Glenn left NASA soon after the Mercury mission and entered the political world. He would serve in the United State Senate from his home state of Ohio and make a run for the White House. While it seemed for decades that Glenns space experience was limited to those three orbits in 1962, the 1998, this time aboard space shuttle Discovery. While the Mercury capsule was snug with just one person inside, the shuttle was comfortable with seven people inside. Glenn, then 77, conducted numerous experiments to see how his body had Now retired from space and politics, Glenn said the challenge today's designers and engineers to keep making strides. "These things depend on people," Glenn said. "Nothing's going to happen unless you have people to do it." From 50TH, Page 2 PM Challenges inspire employees, middle-school students By Brittney Longley Spaceport NewsNASA employees and Central Florida middle school stu dents took part in a two-day session in Orlando as part of the agency's Project Man agement (PM) Challenge. The event was conducted in two parts, one for managers and one for students to promote science, technology, engineering and mathematics careers, an initiative called "STEM." "Leaders are born with a backbone, they must grow a wishbone and a funny bone," said Robert Lightfoot, the Marshall Space Flight Center director who was just promoted to NASA associate administrator in Washington. A wishbone for the visionary you want to see for your team and a funny bone for a sense of humor. The challenges organizers focused the sessions around the event's theme, "Evolve and Excel." Managers of all levels showcased examples of the agency's determination and the strength to embrace change and move forward as a premier space agency. The lessons come as NASA stands at a crossroad after retiring the space shuttles and readying a network of commercial spacecraft builders, moving ahead with plans to build and launch a new heavy-lift rocket and missions, the Curiosity rover now on its way to Mars and the Hubble Space Telescope successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. Employees from each of NASA Headquarters in Washington took part in discussion panels, case studies, and presentations. Speakers included Mark Langley, president and chief executive agement Institute, and Dr. Patrick Simpkins, director of Kennedys Engineering and Technology Directorate. Choosing among sessions ranging from words of wisdom to risk, safety and mission assurance, participants could focus on areas of their particular interest. I learned a lot about leadership, management, and NASA in the past two days, said Kennedy student employee DeAntae Cooper. Four Orlando-area middle schools -Lockhart, Southwest, Meadowbrook, and Meadow Woods -par ticipated in the students' PM Challenge. Speakers included Heather Paul, a mechanical engineer from Johnson Space Center in Houston, and Ledlyne Heriscar, an electrical engineer from Kennedy. Handson activities were included to excite the students in learning more about STEM careers. I didnt know what it was I wanted to do, but this makes me want to learn more about math and science, said a seventh-grade student from Meadowbrook Middle School. The students were exlearned about what some of the jobs at NASA entail. We chose really inspirational speakers, people who could not only inspire the kids but could interact with them and keep them engaged, Kennedys Program Education Specialist Priscilla Moore said. During the PM Challenge, many leaders were rewarded for their hard work and dedication to the agency. NASA presented its Quality and Safety Achievement Recognition, or QASAR, award for 2011 during the PM Challenge. Recipients from Kennedy were Humberto "Bert" T. Garrido, Joseph B. Hamilton and Francis "Frank" Merceret. NASAs QASAR award recognizes individual government and contractor employees who have demonstrated exemplary performance in contributing to the quality or safety of products, services, processes, or management programs and activities.A Project Management (PM) Challenge Feb. 22-23 at the Caribe Royal Hotel and Convention Center in Orlando, aimed to teach NASA workers and contractors the basics of managing projects.NASA/Jim Grossmann A Project Management (PM) Challenge Feb. 22-23 at the Caribe Royal Hotel and Convention Center in Orlando, for middle school students promoted the importance of pursuing careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM).NASA/Jim Grossmann

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Feb. 24, 2012 Page 3SPACEPORT NEWS Commercial Crew Program introduces CCiCapNASA anticipates a bright culmination to the develop mental phase of its Com mercial Crew Program as it prepares to award funding to the makers of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The awards are expected to lead to activities aerospace engineers dream about, such as drop tests, engine test abort tests. On Feb. 7, the agency issued an Announcement for Proposals (AFP) for companies to submit their plans for the Commercial Crew Integrated Capability (CCiCap) initiative by March 23. During CCiCap, the program plans to award multiple Space Act Agreements, between $300 million and $500 million each, Ed Mango, program manager for NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP), talks to industry partners and stakeholders during a preproposal conference at the Courtyard Marriott in Cocoa Beach, Fla., on Feb. 14. At left, are Cheryl McPhillips, the NASA Participant Evaluation Panel PEP chair for the Commercial Crew Program CCP, and Lee Pagel, the NASA PEP deputy. For more information, click on the photo. CLICK ON PHOTOBy Rebecca Regan Spaceport News in the summer of 2012 toward the development of fully integrated commercial crew transportation systems. "We want to advance multiple integrated crew transportation systems with the path of getting to an orbital cade," said Ed Mango, CCP program manager. A fully integrated system would include a spacecraft and launch vehicle, as well as blueprints for mission control and ground operations. The announcement asked for proposals to include a base period of about 21 months, running from award through May 2014. Optional milestones beyond the base period also should be outlined leading to and culminating in a crewed orbital The goal of CCiCap is to continue to foster the development of a U.S. transportation system that can safely, Earth orbit for commercial and government markets. "Being a part of this program and this agency right now should give you chills," Mango said, "because this is the program that is going to take American astronauts back to space." By Frank Ochoa-GonzalesSpaceport NewsNASA spinoffs assist NBA players in making slam dunkNASA technologies will play a starring role this weekend when some of the best basketball players in the world take to the court in the NBA All-Star game in Orlando. Race car drivers at the Daytona 500, not far from Orlando, also will capitalize on innovations made with the help of the space agency in various forms. The same goes for the dozens of professional baseball teams that take Spring Training throughout Florida. A lot of attention will be on the NBA All-Star game, though, since it is played in the area about once every 10 years. NASA's Kennedy Space Center is taking advantage of the rare oppor tunity by taking part in the NBA All-Star Jam Session at the Orange County Convention Center. I enjoy going to an event such as this because it allows NASA to provide the connection with people to understand how NASA contributes to their day-to-day lives, said Andres Adorno, a NASA Public Affairs specialist. Its exciting to catch peoples reaction when NASA is at an event like this. Its great to see NASA click with them. NASA has incubated many of the technologies used on the basketball court and to watch the action on television. In addition to sharing spinoffs, NASA also is educating people about how physics and science play major roles in sports. Shock Absorbing Athletic Shoes cushioning in space boots now is used in an advanced athletic shoe to assist basketball players do their best to defy gravity. Not only does this fatigue-reducing shoe actually absorb energy, but it also redistributes that energy back into the athlete with every step, measurably increasing overall athletic Three of the biggest all-stars -LeBron James, Kobe Bryant and Kevin Durant -will wear Nike shoes designed after NASA spacesuits. The shoes feature a "mission patch" designed for each basketball player. But what would an NBA story be these days without mentioning Jeremy Lin, the point guard of the New York Knicks? Lin, whose mother, Shirley worked for McDonnell Douglas at Kennedy in the late s and early s, will make an appearance during the dunk contest in which Jeremy Lin will assist teammate Iman Shumpert. Heart Rate Monitors New heart-monitoring technology created to track the health of astronauts on deep-space missions was equipment. An infrared heartbeat transmitter worn under clothing uses the heart rate to act as an exercise intensity control. Those who accurately read their heart rate and work-intensity levels include cardiac rehabilitation patients, orthopedically impaired patients, and elite athletes training to reach the ultimate physical condition. Physical Rehabilitation A cardiovascular conditioner developed for astronauts in space led to the development of a physical therapy and athletic development machine used by football teams, sports clinics and medical rehabilitation centers. The SpiraFlex system, currently on the International Space Station, is used by the crew as a countermeasure against musculoskeletal degradation caused by microgravity. Uniforms To protect astronauts against the bitter cold and scorching heat encountered in space, NASA worked with private industry to create temperature-adaptive materials for use in spacesuits and gloves. The resulting phasechange material enhances the wearers comfort by moderating temperatures between the body and the environment, keeping things comfortable. More than 200 brands use this technology which also is used in athletic footwear to reduce the moisture of trapped heat and sweat by absorbing excess body heat and re-releasing it when needed. Plasma Displays By developing the right combination of phosphate and glass, NASA quickly provided a solution for adequate transparency in spheres needed to build the new larger and curvedformat displays. Did you know?Shirley Lin, the mother of the New York Knicks Jeremy Lin, worked for McDonnell Douglas at Kennedy Space Center in the late s and early s.

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Page 4SPACEPORT NEWSFeb. 24, 2012 on the photo. RETIREMENT CEREMONIESScenes Around Kennedy Space Center NASA/Jim Grossmann NASA/Jim Grossmann CLICK ON PHOTO CLICK ON PHOTO

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SPACEPORT NEWSPage 5 Feb. 24, 2012 just over $2 billion and includes exploration, space operations, science, space technology, education and more. This budget takes all the hard work the center went through in the last couple years and puts in place our future path and now were executing that path, to actually get an increase of $323 million over last year is huge. It says that were on the right path. Cabana said that human exploration programs Commercial Crew Program increases from $406 million to $830 million, of which $367 million to 790 milfrom Exploration Ground year 2012 to $405 million essentially the same as last year, Cabana explained decrease from $308 milfrom $299 million to $160 million because the center is not scheduled to launch as many science missions in Technology and Education remain even at the center, while space shuttle funding decreases from $35 million this year to $21 million for shuttles are scheduled to all be delivered to their various public display sites by is the right thing for the future, Cabana said. This budget allows us to make that happen. The right thing here for that we support our exploration program, the big rocket and Orion, and also support commercial operations, Cabana said, The budget overall is great news for up to us. I want to make it happen. going to make it happen is if we continue to deliver on what we say were going to way, Cabana said. From BUDGET Page 1 Workers remove Apollo-era engines from crawler at VABFor more than 30 years, crawler-transporters car Challenger, Columbia, Discovery, Endeavour and Enterprise) atop mobile launcher platforms from the crawler-transporter 2 (CT-2), which weighs about six million pounds, will receive two new diesel engines and generators so it can be used under design, and new Orion spacecraft to the launch pad. Mary Hanna, the project manager for the crawler-transporters in ment and Operations Program, is overseeing the upgrade efforts. The crawler has to be ready for the new future programs, Hanna said. Its the only way to get launch vehicles out to the pads, and were taking time now to do the upgrades so that were ready. On Feb. 15, in high bay 2 inside and technicians prepared the obsolete diesel engines, generators and associated parts for removal. The old engines, which were built in 1964 and installed as original equipWork began to remove the masBy Linda Herridge Spaceport NewsCLICK ON PHOTO NASAsive engines in late January when the crawler was moved from the 20 technicians and engineers coordinated efforts to remove the old engines and generators using the lift them out. The new 1,500 kilowatt power diesel engines, built by Cummins Engines in Minnesota, arrived at being stored in the crawler maintenance yard. The new engines are more powerful but they have a smaller footprint, Hanna said. Hanna said, there is a lot of work required to connect the electrical, plumbing and mechanical lines, and installation will be completed by mid-June. The removed engines are being drained, cleaned and readied for Road where they will be resold or recycled. Hanna said CT-2 also is undergotions, including 16 new, higher capacity jacking cylinders; new roller bushings and roller shafts; upgraded electrical power system components; power, control and instrumentation cable replacement; and driver cab controls. Other upgrades include new electrical control systems and programmable logic controller modernization, new instrumentation systems, a new belt pin lubrication system, new hydraulic valves and hydraulic tubing replacement. tion and corrosion control are ongoing tasks, as well. have been completed, the crawler heavy-lift rocket and other future space program vehicles to Launch Complex 39 for their turn to make space program history.

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Page 6 Feb. 24, 2012SPACEPORT NEWS Launch abort system challenges rocket engineersWhile companies design and perfect spacecraft and rockets to take people engineers are deciphering what needs to happen if a launch goes wrong. In other words, what kind of ejection system will astronauts need to survive? "We're trying to give the crew that last option for when things go bad," said Brent Jett, deputy director of or CCP, and four-time space shuttle astronaut. needs to work at all points during ascent -from the launch pad, where the air is thick and the spacecraft is not moving at all, to more than 100 miles above Earth, where there is no discernable air and the spacecraft and crew are speeding along at 17,500 mph, or about 5 miles a second. can malfunction and even explode the ejection system needs to be able to spot a problem and get the spacecraft out of danger before it's too late. "Basically, you're separating from the rocket with a smaller rocket and it's a pretty extreme environment to put the crew into," said Chris Gerace, abort system and designing a reliable one are no afterthought for engineers. "This is one of the biggest emer gency systems in the overall architecture of the commercial transportation system," said Don Totton, a CCP systems engineer. my list in terms of making sure we got it right," Jett said. tion of spacecraft abort systems is programs. Instead of designing a the engineers are drawing objective requirements that private companies must meet to be considered for "We ask ourselves, is it necessary and is it achievable," Gerace said. "It's always important to look at what you want with those two questions in mind." The agency also is funding some of the design work for the companies while offering its own extensive expertise under other partnerships, "To me, these guys are being very innovative," Totton said. "They've all taken such different approaches and our requirements allow that. We've The criteria range from showing that the escaping spacecraft will not run into a tumbling or exploding rocket to proving that the escape will not put the astronauts through more than 15 g of force or pressure, or 15 times the force of gravity. The crew also has to have a chance to override an abort comcomputer doesn't sense a problem. The astronauts also will be able to after computers handle the initial separation from the rocket. That will navigate through the complex realm of entry. Whoever is at the controls, whether it is a person or a computer, has to position the heat shield properly in an abort and slow the craft down safely so its parachutes can be deployed or land on a runway. "Probably the only things we get in today that does not have a human being ready to step in and take control of that system is a monorail system at the airport or an elevator," Jett said. "Everything else we get into for transportation airplanes, trains the human always has the ability to insert themselves into the system." Finding the right requirements was neers said. "We're not designing a launch abort system. What we're doing is, we're saying, given the requirements and the goals that we're trying to achieve, what are the objectives that an abort system needs to achieve," Gerace said. "What we struggled in objective terms what it is we're trying to do?" Totton said the team focused on aborting safely from two failures: if the rocket's thrust is suddenly lost or the attitude vector veers off course. "If it's sized properly for those failure modes at all points in ascent, we're going to get a very robust system," Totton said. To meet those requirements, designers at individual companies are developing powerful rockets and computer networks that can sense trouble and then carry the whole spacecraft and crew away from the failing rocket to a safe landing. It they will work. "The type of abort system individual companies choose will depend on a variety of engineering design factors. Ultimately, it's about meet requirements for a safe abort for their integrated spacecraft and Ordway, CCP's associate director There have been at least three occasions when a launch abort system was or would have been triggered. two occasions and successfully rescued the crew, one of which was an explosion on the launch pad. In 1986, the space shuttle Challenger broke up during ascent when a joint on one of its solid rocket boosters failed to seal, and exhaust leaked out and ruptured the external fuel tank. The space shuttle did not use a dedicated launch abort system, but was programmed with abort modes that would allow it to return and land safely in certain scenarios. Each of those cases offer little to computer models, Totton said. In the By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News See ABORT Page 7

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Page 7 Feb. 24, 2012SPACEPORT NEWS case of Challenger, the space shuttle is such a different design from the designs under consideration that it wouldn't be useful to compare them. rockets on a tower above the capsule solid-fueled rocket that, at 200,000 pounds thrust, was more powerful are generally known as "tractor rockets" because they pull the spacecraft away from the rocket. The rocket is jettisoned before the spacecraft reaches orbit. Designs with the rockets below the spacecraft are known as "pushers." Each system has advantages and disadvantages compared to the other. rocket mounted atop the capsule can allow more mass to be taken into or quickly and builds up its thrust very fast to escape danger. On the other hand, if there is not an abort, the tower is thrown away. weight of the spacecraft above it instead of below, can put more pressure on the computers controlling the or so when the spacecraft is getting away from the rocket. Think of balancing a baseball bat on the palm and how many adjustments it takes to keep it balanced. On the plus side, the engines and propellant not used in an abort can still be used by the spacecraft once it has expressed interest in using the engines at landing to make pinpoint returns to a pad on Earth after a mission. getic to the overall mission," Gerace said. Previously, liquid-fueled pusher engines were not practical for an abort system because they didn't build up thrust quickly enough. Jett said engine technology advances have closed that gap, though. Boeing and engine maker Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne successfully tested the Bantam abort engine that is the basis of a pusher escape performed well in a test of its escape system, a traditional tractor rocket tower. also anticipate using pusher systems. companies, including United Launch rocket acceptable to launch people. unfunded agreements. While deciding whether and how an abort would work during launch, designers also will examine the warning system in the rocket itself. "That design process is every bit as important as the launch abort system design," Gerace said. computers have the right informawrong, but not so much information abandoned. looked at between nine and 13 things during a launch to determine if the tle main engine computers looked at dozens of things several times a second and modern rocket computers can add more to that. "In selecting abort triggers, we have to balance the risk between per forming the abort and not aborting when we don't need to," Totton said. The next generation of spacecraft is not expected to venture into space with people on board until 2015 or so, but there is plenty of work for abort strategies. From ABORT Page 6 BEST hosts leadership panel discussion On the day he died, President John Leadership and learning are indispensable to each other. proven true the essential relationship between leadership had an opportunity to learn from their leaders as the ership panel in the mission tions and Checkout Building on Feb. 15. The panel included Hortense Blackwell Diggs, director of Education Program Manager of Chenof the Information Technology Directorates Business nior mission manager in the Tyrell Hawkins, the associate director of Management for Program (CCP). We were seeking across a section of disciplines, programs, and backgrounds to have the most perspective shared, said Lakeesha The goal of the event, Flowers said, was for employees to build lasting leadership team. It's a pretty attainable goal since many of the panelists have been for at least 10 years, and, combined, they posses plenty of experience to share with employees who are trying to build or maintain a successful career with the space agency. Youre going to be put into a lot of situations, but its nothing to be fearful of," ing what you can do." grandmother told me to always go the extra mile because no one will be there with you anyway and theres Employees asked the panel members a wide range of questions, from what it takes to become a leader and how failures can help shape our successes. Many of the panelists agreed that you have to follow and learn before you can successfully lead. The panelists shared more words of wisdom: comfort zone is what it sometimes takes to be successful, Hawkins said. Be a supporter, support the team no matter what the effort is, Diggs said. Many of the employees in attendance said they were inspired to take on a few extra miles, set achievable goals and continue to network with their leaders in order to become leaders themselves. By Brittney Longley Spaceport News

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Page 8 Feb. 24, 2012SPACEPORT NEWS Looking up and ahead . All times are Eastern 2012 John F. Kennedy Space Center Copy editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kay Grinter Spaceport News NASA Employees of the Month: February FROM THE VAULT In celebration of Kennedy Space Center's 50th anniversary, enjoy these vintage photos . .