Spaceport news

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Spaceport news
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Dec. 16, 2013 Vol. 53, No. 23Spaceport NewsJohn F. Kennedy Space Center Americas gateway to the universe International Space Station15 years of science and cooperationNASA, SpaceX work toward Launch Complex 39A deal, Pages 2-3

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Page 2 Page 3 Negotiations to begin for SpaceX use of LC-39ANASA has selected Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX) of Hawthorne, Calif., to begin negotiations on a lease to use and operate historic Launch Complex (LC) 39A at Kennedy Space Center. Permitting use and operation of this valuable national asset by a privatesector, commercial space partner will ensure its continued viability and allow for its continued use in support of U.S. space activities. The reuse of LC-39A is part of NASAs work to transform Kennedy into a 21st century launch complex capable of supporting both govern cant private sector interest in its unique facilities. The center is hard at work assembling NASAs Orion spacecraft and preparing its infrastructure for the Space Launch System rocket, which will launch from LC-39B and take American astronauts into deep space, including to an asteroid and Mars. NASA made the selection decision Dec. 12 after the U.S. Government Blue Origin LLC on Sept. 13. In its protest, Blue Origin raised concerns about the competitive process NASA was using to try to secure a potential commercial partner or partners to lease and use LC-39A. Blue Origin had argued the language in the Announcement for Proposals (AFP) favored one proposed use of LC-39A over others. The GAO disagreed. While the GAO protest was underway, NASA was prohibited from selecting a commercial partner for LC-39A from among the proposals submitted in response to the agencys AFP that had been issued on May 23. However, while the GAO considered the protest, NASA continued evaluating the proposals in order to be prepared to make a selection when permitted to do so. After the GAO rendered its decision Thursday in NASAs favor, the agency completed its evaluation and selection process. ing LC-39A. Further details about NASAs decision will be provided to each proposer when NASA furnishes the source selection statement to the proposers. In addition, NASA will offer each the opportunity to meet NASA will release the source selection statement to the public once each proposer has been consulted to ensure that any proprietary information has been appropriately redacted. NASA will begin working with SpaceX to negotiate the terms of its lease for LC-39A. During those ongoing negotiations, NASA will not be able to discuss details of the pending lease agreement. Since the late 1960s, Kennedys launch pads 39 A and B have served endeavors -Apollo, Skylab, Apollo-Soyuz and all 135 space shuttle mission in 1981 and the last in 2011.NASA News Report More online For more information about Kennedys Launch Complex 39A and ongoing work to transform the center into a 21st century launch complex, visit: http://www.nasa.gov/kennedy.en For more information about NASAs missions and programs, visit: http://www.nasa.gov. This aerial view, taken March 1, 2006, during the Space Shuttle Program, shows Launch Pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center. NASA has selected SpaceX to begin negotiations on the use of the historic launch pad.

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Page 4 Page 5 with the ground, the engineers, every body, he said. Permanent occupancy of the space station began with the Expedition 1 crew, launched Oct. 31, 2000, estab lishing a continuous human presence in space that endures today. While ISS expedition crews came and went, assembly continued through sion, STS-135, in July 2011. During that time the station grew from two modules to having more livable room than house, with two bathrooms, a gymnasium and a 360-degree bay window. It is truly incredible when you think about when Zarya where it is now, said current station resident Mike Hopkins, engineer. It is a testament to the work of people from all the participating countries, all shuttles to Soyuz to resupply vehicles. Cabana considers interna tional cooperation an essential element of space exploration going forward. I believe its the model for how we are going to explore beyond planet Earth, he said. Right now weve got the United States, Japan, Canada, Russia, ESA and all its partners working together as one up there. When we leave planet Earth, were not going to leave as any one nation, were going to leave as the people from planet Earth. The 11 members of ESA -the European Space Agency -include Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. More than 100,000 people in space agen cies and contractor facilities in 37 U.S. states and throughout the world are involved in this massive endeavor. Expedition 38 commander Oleg Kotov believes the space stations value goes well into the future as an inspiration to the next generation of space explorers. I want to show and tell children on Earth what life in space looks like, how space is wonderful, how our planet is wonderful, he said in a preKrikalev sees the station as part of a logical progression in explorations beyond Earth. Bringing our efforts to gether to build the International Space Station, I would say, is just the next step to joint explo ration of the universe, he said, Cabana agrees that the space station can be a stepping stone in venturing beyond human kinds current reach. We still have a lot to learn about human physiology in extended periods of time in mi crogravity, how to protect from radiation, he said. Weve been to the moon, we know how to operate in low-Earth orbit, now lets go to another planet. Our ultimate goal is to put boots on Mars and, one day, explore beyond our solar system.Space station: 15 years and countingT ternational Space Station now have been in orbit for 15 years. Assembly of the largest spacecraft ever built was a global, cooperative effort and began with the STS-88 space shuttle mission in December 1998. The orbiting outpost now serves as a unique laboratory where teams from around the research only possible in the microgravity environment of space. Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, a former space shuttle astronaut, com one of historys landmark engineering achievements. STS-88 was a phenomenal mission, said Cabana. It was set the tone for the whole space station assembly. orbit was the functional cargo block, named Zarya -Rus sian for dawn. It was built by Boeing and the Russian Federal Space Agency and launched by a Proton rocket from the Bai konur Cosmodrome in Kazakh stan on Nov. 20, 1998. Two weeks later, on Dec. 4, 1998, the space shuttle Endeav our lifted off from Kennedy with Cabana, pilot Rick Sturck ow, mission specialists Nancy Currie, Jerry Ross, Jim Newman and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev. They carried launched station element, node 1, called Unity. The 12-day lighted by connecting Unity to Zarya. We had to take Unity out of the payload bay and attach it to the orbiter docking station, Cabana said. Then, we had to rendezvous with the Russian functional cargo block. Next, came one of the most challenging portions of the operation. Mission specialist Currie used the remote ma nipulator system robotic arm to capture the Zarya module even though the view for Endeavours crew was partially obscured by the large Unity module. Heres this 45,000 pound mass (Zarya), and you cant see it out the window because Unity was there, Cabana said. Theres a point where you lose sight of it in the overhead win dows and youre relying on the centerline television cameras (in the payload bay) and on the end of the arm and two TV monitors to keep us precisely positioned. So when it is about three feet from the end of the arm, Nancy Currie can move in and grab it. Once Zarya and Unity were joined together, mission specialists Ross and Newman conducted three spacewalks to begin activation of systems between the two modules. The spacewalks were de signed to attach all the electri cal and data connectors before we went inside, said Cabana. Part of what they did was to ensure the pieces could never come apart. Flight day eight was a histor ic milestone as the International Space Station was opened for I think it was really special when we got to go inside the space station, Cabana said. When it came time to actually go through the hatch, I waved Sergei up and opened the hatch and the two of us went in side by side -a Russian and an American into a space station. It was an International Space Station and international crew. We were setting the tone for the future. It was one team working together. Together with other mem bers of the crew, they started unpacking gear to activate the station to prepare it for the inhabitants After 12 days in space, the STS-88 crew returned to Kennedy, landing Dec. 15, 1998. According to Cabana, teamwork was the key to the highly successful mission. It went so well because of the team -the crew working together By Bob Granath Spaceport News STS-88 commander Bob Cabana, left, and Russian cosmonaut Sergei Krikalev prepare to move from shuttle Endeavours airlock into the U.S.-built node 1, also known as the Unity module Dec. 10, 1998. Soon after, they entered the Russian-built Functional Cargo Block module, also known as Zarya.Once Unity and Zarya were docked, mission specialists Jerry Ross, left, and Jim Newman conducted three spacewalks to connect power and data cables between the two station elements. In this image they were photographed working together on the third spacewalk Dec. 12, 1998. Orbiting by Earths horizon and the blackness of space, the almost-complete International Space Station is featured in this image photographed May 29, 2011, by an STS-134 crew member on Endeavour. At 357 feet Aided by television monitors, mission specialist Nancy Currie operates the controls of Endeavours remote manipulator system arm to ease the Russian-built Zarya module onto the U.S.-built Unity connecting module in the shuttles cargo bay Dec. 6, 1998. Dr. Howard Levine, chief scientist in the International Space Station Ground Processing and Research Directorate, watches as Michele Koralewicz of QinetiQ North America assembles a Biological Research in Canisters, or BRIC, experi ment package. BRIC-17 was delivered to the space station on the SpaceX CRS-2 mission March 1, 2013. NASAIn this large-format IMAX camera view from the Space Shuttle Endeavours cargo bay, the crew of STS-88 began construction of the International Space Station. Mission specialist Nancy Currie used Endeavours Canadarm remote manipulator system to grapple Zarya and join it to the U.S.-built Unity node Dec. 6, 1008.

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Did you know... The International Space Station has the support of 15 nations. almost4 timeslarger thanMIR 5 timeslarger thanSKYLAB The The ISS solar arrays generate between 75-90 kilowatts of electricity enough to power up to 40 homes. Page 6 Page 7

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Page 8 Celebration marks 15 years of space station era By Bob Granath Spaceport NewsOn Dec. 10, three of the six members of the space shut tle crew that began assembly of the International Space Station held a reunion at NASAs Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Launched 15 years ago aboard the space shuttle Endeavour, the crew of STS-88 carried to orbit element. Kennedys Director, Bob Ca bana, who commanded STS-88, welcomed mission specialists Nancy Currie and Jerry Ross to a celebration for space center employees in the Pavilion area of the Kennedy Athletic, Recre ational and Social Organization, or KARS, Park I. What we imagined 15 years ago is a reality today, he said. The space station is now a in orbit. The STS-88 crew members participated in a panel discus sion and were introduced by Josie Burnett, NASAs Inter national Space Station Ground Processing and Research director at Kennedy. She, too, on the ISS. Can you believe its been 15 years? she said. As many as community to improve human life back here on Earth. The Russian Space Agencys functional cargo block, named Zarya, was launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Ka zakhstan on Nov. 20, 1998. Two weeks later, on Dec. 4, Endeav our lifted off from Kennedy on STS-88 with node 1, called Unity. In addition to Cabana, Currie and Ross, the crew also included pilot Rick Sturckow, along with mission specialists Jim Newman and Sergei Krika lev, a Russian cosmonaut. was highlighted by connecting Unity to Zarya, three space walks to attach electrical and data connectors, and activa tion of systems inside the two modules. After 12 days in space, the STS-88 crew returned to Ken nedy, landing Dec. 15, 1998. Over the past 15 years, space station assembly has resulted in the largest spacecraft ever built, providing a global platform of unprecedented research in the microgravity environment of low-Earth orbit. Burnett praised those at Kennedy who helped make the orbiting laboratory possible. I want to thank all of you who were a part of making the International Space Station a success story, she said. Currie echoed that sentiment encouraging everyone to take the opportunity to watch the space station pass overhead. Take your family outside and point to the night sky and say, I had a part of that, she said. You guys have at least as big if not a bigger role than any crew member in building that space station and you should be proud of it. Ross noted that the ongoing research now is helping pave the way for future endeavors in space exploration. There is a crew of six up there working 365 days a year doing tremendous science, he said. Were going to continue to do that, pushing back the frontiers of knowledge. Were going to be learning what we need to know to go beyond low-Earth orbit and go on to Mars. Cabana explained that the space station and the team that made it possible gives him a positive view going forward. You guys are the most amazing team anywhere, he said. I know we are going to be successful. We are going to develop a vehicle that will eventually take us to Mars. We are going to have a commercial capability. We are going to continue to provide outstanding launch services for our NASA science mission. We are going to be successful because of you.On Dec. 10, three of the six members of the space shuttle crew that began assembly of the International Space Station held a reunion at NASAs Kennedy Space Center. Kennedys Director, Bob Cabana, right, who commanded STS-88, hosted the employee celebration at KARS Park 1. From the left are Nancy Currie, Jerry Ross and Cabana.The STS-88 crew poses on Endeavours middeck on Dec. 14, 1998. From the left, are Jerry Ross, Jim Newman, Bob Cabana, Rick tion. A banner representing the participating countries for space station is in the background. NASA

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Page 9 research that has been ongoing for more than a decade. The following is a sampling of some of the results achieved by research in the time that the space station has been permanently staffed since November 2000.Research Achievements aboard the International Space Station Space to Ground series premieresThe Space to Ground web series, available every Friday, features a short wrap-up of the weeks activities aboard the International Space Station that showcases the diversity of activities taking place aboard the worlds only orbiting labora tory. If you have questions or comments, tweet #spacetoground to interact with video, click on the photo. Did you know?Space Station Live airs weekdays at 11 a.m. EST on NASA TV. It features live views from the International Space Station, updates on the crews daily activities, enhanced content and interviews on space station science and features on how that science Send a Holiday Tweet to a NASA Astronaut on ISSSend a holiday tweet to NASA astronauts Michael Hopkins (@AstroIllini) and Rick Mastracchio (@AstroRM), both of whom are living and working aboard the International Space Station throughout the holiday season. A novel air scrubber developed widespread use on Earth for food preservation, airborne pathogens that pass through it. Fluid Flow Models -on the International Space Station produced wicks used in electronics cooling. Planetary Contamination Monitoring -A handheld device used for rapid detection of biological and chemical substances on surfaces on the ISS has the potential to monitor the spread of Earthderived biological material on lunar and planetary surfaces after landings. Duchennes Muscular Dystrophy -Large, high quality crystals of the HQL-79 protein were grown on the space station, allowing researchers to more accurately determine its three-dimensional structure and develop a more potent form. This protein is part of a candidate treatment for inhibit ing the effects of Duchennes muscular dystrophy. Durability of Materials -The study of various materials and how they withstand the harsh space environment provide a better understanding of their durability, with important applications to future spacecraft design. The Naval Research Laboratory and Boeing have used the ISS materials test bed to shorten development time for satellite hardware components by as much as 50 percent. Cancer Treatment Delivery -The microgravity en vironment on the space station led the way for better methods of micro-encapsulation on Earth, which is a process of forming micro-balloons containing various drug solutions, providing better drug delivery for several diseases including cancer and diabetes. Ultrasound from a Distance -Training methods the American College of Surgeons to teach ultrasound to surgeons, and could be adapted for diagnosis of injuries and illnesses in remote locations on Earth, including rural areas, disaster Vaccine Development -Studies of Salmonella bacteria conducted on the space station have increased virulence in microgravity, resulting in the discovery of a candidate vaccine. Salmo nella is one of the most common forms of food poisoning and a major cause of childhood death worldwide.More online from the International Space Station: http:// www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/ research/index.html NASA astronaut Karen Nyberg works with a plant experi ment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station during Expedition 37 on Oct. 25, 2013. NASATake a tour of ISS with Suni WilliamsI ternational Space Station, Suni Williams recorded an extensive tour of the orbital laboratory. The tour includes scenes of each of the stations modules and research facili ties. To take the tour click on the photo. Application Development-Portable Test System during Expedition 14 on March 31, 2007. The test system is a handheld device for rapid detection of biological and chemi cal substances onboard the station. NASA

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The SPHERES robots will be attached to a metal frame at opposite ends. In the center of the frame is a clear plastic 18-inch by eight-inch high-resolution cameras will record the movement of the liquid inside the tank as the experiment is pushed around by the SPHERES robots. Several inertial measurement units will accurately record the position of the experiment as it moves within the space station. The SPHERES-Slosh experiment will be carried to the International Space Station aboard a Cygnus spacecraft like this one launched atop an Antares rocket Sept. 18, 2013. The Orbital 1 Commercial 18 from the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport at the Page 10 Slosh: designed to improve rocket safetyS of a liquid propellant rocket in 1926, experts have worked to perfect engine propulsion systems. As launch vehicles have grown in size, fuel and oxidizer tanks have become more com plex resulting in unexpected changes crews and mission success. A team of scientists and engineers at Kennedy Space Center is studying how to bet ter understand this phenomenon and safety. As the large Saturn V rockets were being tested for the Apollo Program in the late 1960s, up and down oscilla tions of the launch vehicle, called the pogo effect, sometimes resulted in potentially dangerous variations in engine performance. According to Paul Schallhorn, Ph.D., chief of NASAs Environments and Launch Approval Branch of Kennedys Launch Services Program, larger rockets now are expected to operate in more varied environments from high g loads to zero gravity. The issues we see now go well be yond the pogo effect, he said. Upper and operating in microgravity after reaching space. We need to have a bet ter understanding of how propellants slosh around in their tanks so we can compensate for changes in a rockets performance. could not only decrease this uncer costs and allow additional payloads to be launched. Schallhorn is serving as principal investigator for research to gain more reliable data on the slosh anomaly. To further understand liquid propel lant slosh, engineers with NASA have teamed up with researchers at the Florida Institute of Technology and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Slosh Project is funded by NASA Space Technology Mission Directorates Game Changing Devel opment (GCD) program. GCD is designed to investigate innovative ideas and approaches that have the potential to revolutionize future space missions national needs. I believe the results from this ex periment can help rocket launch com panies design better tanks and control impact, said Stephen Gaddis, director of the Game Changing Development Program. A key element of the teams studies will be an experiment involving the Synchronized Position Hold, Engage, Reorient, Experimental Satellites, or SPHERES, which already is opera tional on the space station. The Slosh experiment will be carried to the space station aboard a Cygnus spacecraft scheduled to lift off from NASAs Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia in December 2013. The hardware for the Slosh experi ment was developed by students at Florida Tech. Once aboard the space station, astronaut crew members will assemble the package. The SPHERES By Bob Granath Spaceport NewsNASA will be attached at opposite ends of a metal frame. In the center of the frame is a clear plastic 18-inch by water. The SPHERES are bowling-ball-sized robots that use small carbon dioxide gas thrusters to maneuver as maneuvers. Modern computer models try to predict how liquid moves inside a propellant tank, said NASAs Brandon Marsell, co-principal investigator on the Slosh Project. Now that rockets are bigger and go ing farther, we need more precise data. Most of the models we have were validated under 1 g conditions on Earth. None have been validated in the surface tension-dominated microgravity environment of space. Scientists have had success accurately validating how propellants perform on the ground. However, in the absence of gravity, the physics changes drasti cally and liquids behave differently. NASAs Jacob Roth, also a co-principal investiga be photographed by a pair of high-resolution cameras that will record the movement of the liquid inside the tank as the experiment is pushed around by the SPHERES robots. upper-stage vehicle maneuvers within the station, he said. The liquid will be photographed and measured with the data transmitted back to Earth for use in vali The data will be used to check computer simula tions currently predicting rocket performance, ulti mately leading to launch vehicles and spacecraft that are more reliable, cost effective and safer.

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Page 11 Emergency egress vehicles arrive at KSCWith crewed launches on NASAs Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft fast approaching, the Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) Program at Kennedy Space Center led the effort to select an emergency egress vehicle that future astronauts could quickly use to leave the Launch Complex 39 area in case of an refurbished Mine-Resistant Ambush-Protected (MRAP) vehicles was shipped from the U.S. Army Red River Depot in Texarkana, Texas, and arrived at the center Dec. 5. During crewed launches, the MRAP will be stationed by the slidewire termination area at the pad. In case of an emergency, the crew will ride a slidewire to the ground and immediately board the vehicle for safe egress from the pad. The existing bunkers around the pads would be used only if evacuation was not possible. All four vehicles were trans ferred from the army at no cost to NASA. As each one arrives, they will be processed in and then transported to the Rotation, Processing and Surge Facil ity near the Vehicle Assembly Building for temporary storage. The vehicles will undergo some emergency egress requirements. Danny Zeno, a GSDO operations integration engineer, led a two-year study of several emergency egress concepts with a team of people from NASA centers and programs. The team selected the slidewire system and the armys MRAP Caiman, a military vehicle that was used for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. The study team included representatives from Ken nedy, Johnson Space Centers Headquarters, Marshall Space Flight Center, NASA Protective Services, Engineering, Safety and Mission Assurance, Ground Processing, SLS, Orion, and several contractor organiza tions. from the space shuttle-era M-113 tank design, said Zeno. Working across agencies helped us to select the most versatile vehicle possible for NASAs purpose. The MRAPs have increased and capacity, and can travel at speeds up to 65 mph. They are driven like other common vehicles with a normal front view, except the windows are four inches thick. Inside, the closed and sealed environment contains fold-down chairs for up to eight passengers. The 40,000-pound, heavyduty vehicles will provide protection against chemicals and projectiles that could be carried through the air during a catastrophic event at the pad. Were in line with NASAs philosophy of saving money and acquiring a multiuse vehicle that also could be used by our Commercial Crew Program partners, said Tom Hoffmann, a GSDO operations integration engineer and mem ber of the study team. Currently, two URS Federal Services workers on the Institutional Services Contract have been trained to operate the MRAP. Zeno said there are plans to set up training scenari os for the SLS Program similar to those that were used to teach operators to handle the M-113.By Linda Herridge Spaceport News Center on Dec. 5, from the U.S. Army Red River Depot in Texarkana, Texas. Astronauts will be able to use the MRAP to quickly leave the Launch Complex 39 area in case of an emergency. Crew members of space shuttle Discoverys STS-133 mission go for a ride in an M-113 armored personnel carrier during the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test at Kennedy Space Center Oct. 13, 2010. The M-113 was available for emergency egress during NASAs Space Shuttle Program.

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Page 12 NASA, Industry Discuss Launching Astronauts T launch people into space from American soil may have been in the room Wednesday cussed an upcoming oppor tunity that culminates with operational missions carrying astronauts to the International Space Station. A pre-proposal conference by NASAs Commercial Crew Program (CCP) at Kennedy Space Center occurred about two weeks after CCP asked for proposals from aerospace companies that would lead to crewed missions to the station in 2017 or earlier. Proposals from commer cial companies will result in award of one or more con tracts for the development and Crew Transportation Capabil ity (CCtCap). CCtCap is the second phase of a two-phase mercially built and operated integrated crew transporta tion systems. One or more contracts may be awarded following an open competi tion; however, all companies interested in submitting proposals must be at a level Contract (CPC). Through its ensures that a commercial transportation system has met NASAs safety and perfor mance requirements. Kathy Lueders, acting pro gram manager of CCP, noted NASAs hope that CCtCap will allow commercial indus try to provide the agency with the most innovative solutions to a safe, cost-effective and reliable transportation capa bility. She also emphasized the need for the spacecraft to be able to serve as a lifeboat for the station, something that no other American spacecraft has done since the Skylab program in the early 1970s when an Apollo spacecraft re mained docked to the station for less than three months. A station lifeboat needs to stay in space for many months at a time. The conference took place within a month of the suc cessful conclusion of NASAs groundbreaking Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) effort to facilitate the development of privately operated cargo spacecraft that can ferry cargo to low-Earth orbit, including the station. COTS saw two American companies, Space Explora tion Technologies of Hawthorne, Calif., better known as SpaceX, and Orbital Sciences of Dulles, Va., design, build and launch a pair of new spacecraft on rockets that also were newly designed. Demonstration and resup ply missions began in 2012 and continued into 2013. NASA already has signed Commercial Resupply Servic es contracts with the compa nies to deliver more cargo and critical science experiments to the station. The space agency also has used the COTS model to facilitate U.S. companies development of their own human-rated commercial spacecraft. We want to keep the un derlying philosophy of a part nership, said Phil McAlister, NASAs director of Commer CCtCap will include at the commercial spacecraft can dock to the station and its sys tems perform as expected. At the successful conclusion of under CCtCap, commercial companies will be awarded a minimum of two and a maxi missions to provide NASA with commercial crew trans portation services to meet its station crew rotation require ments. The contract further em phasizes NASAs partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for commercial human space re-entry activities for postlicensed by the FAA under CCtCap. Pam Underwood in the Transportation said the agen cy worked closely with NASA and its partners in licensing all the commercial cargo missions under COTS to ensure public safety. The FAA has a similar partnership with CCP to achieve safe crew transportation missions under CCtCap. This partnership was formalized in a Memorandum of Understanding between the agencies for the achievement of mutual goals in human space transportation dated June 2012. This partnership seeks ments, multiple sets of stan dards, and to advance both public and crew safety, Underwood said. Collaboration and partnership between our agencies will further provide a stable framework for the U.S. space launch industry. There has been no short age of companies looking to work with NASA during this phase for crewed missions, including aerospace giants and several start-ups. NASA engineers continue to work closely with several commercial companies as plans and test new equip ment in increasingly realistic scenarios to develop safe hu capabilities.By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News NASAs Commercial Crew Program plans to safely launch astronauts using commercially developed space transportation capabilities by the end of 2017.

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Page 13 NASA commercial crew partner Blue Origin of Kent, Wash., announced it has tested a new, hydrogenand oxygenfueled engine designed to lift the companys crewed Space Vehicle on future missions out of Earths atmosphere. Blue Origin is one of the American companies develop ing next generation rockets and spacecraft capable of carrying humans to low-Earth orbit. Blue Origin conducted the test of its BE-3 rocket engine on a stand at the com panys West Texas facility near Van Horn on then paused for several minutes before re-igniting for a minute in a pattern that simulated a suborbital mission. NASAs Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been working with the company on several aspects of the engines develop ment. The program supported testing of the BE-3 under the agencys Commercial Crew Development Round 2 initiative and continues to offer technical support. NASA and Blue Origin also are partnered in review and tests of the companys Space Vehicle design. Blue Origin has made steady progress since the start of our partnership under round, said Phil McAlister, NASAs velopment. Were thrilled to see another During the test, the engine demonstrated a full mission duty cycle, mimicking the Shepard vehicle by thrusting at 110,000 pounds in a 145-second boost phase, shutting down to simulate coast through apogee. The engine then restarted and throttled down to 25,000 pounds thrust to simulate controlled vertical landing. Blue Origins Orbital Launch Vehicle will use the BE-3 engine to propel the companys Space Vehicle into orbit. Unlike other boosters that burn once and then fall away to never be used again, the Reusable Booster System is designed to send a crew into space and then make a soft landing on Earth before being refurbished for another mission. The Space Vehicle is envisioned to carry people into orbit and could potentially carry astronauts to the International Space Station. Working with NASA accelerated our BE-3 development by over a year in prepa suborbital system and ultimately on vehicles carrying humans to low-Earth orbit, said Rob Meyerson, president and program man ager of Blue Origin. The BE-3 is a versa tile, low-cost hydrogen engine applicable to NASA and commercial missions. after the BE-3s thrust chamber was tested at NASAs Stennis Space Center in Mississippi. Developing a new rocket engine is vehicle design because of the dynamics involved with creating a powerful machine that can safely operate in a range of -423 degrees Fahrenheit, the temperature of liquid hydrogen, to more than 6,000 degrees rocket engine built for production since the RS-68, which was developed more than a decade ago for the Delta IV rocket family.By Steven Siceloff Spaceport News Texas facility Nov. 20.

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Page 14 Skip Mackey remembered by colleaguesArthur J. Skip Mackey Jr. was the Voice of NASA in the 1960s and 70s during countdown broadcasts for NASAs rocket launches from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. Mackey, who was branch chief for Telemetry and Communications in the agencys Expendable Launch Vehicle Program and then the Launch Services Program (LSP) for 39 years, passed away in Fort Lauderdale on Nov. 19. Eric Anderson, chief of the Ground Systems Integration Branch for LSP, worked with Mackey from 1993 to 1996. When I started at Ken nedy, I originally worked for the Space Shuttle Program, Anderson said. During a tour of Hangar AE, I heard Skip give a talk about the rocket industry and what role communications and telemetry played in the launches. His passion and energy for the work and the people inspired me like no one else had before or since. When a I jumped at the opportunity to work for him and I have worked Anderson said. When NASA began to broadcast launch countdowns to the Mackeys voice that was heard during the launch vehicles ascent into space. He worked on all of the uncrewed vehicle pro grams up to and including the Delta program, which was the last one he worked on before he retired. Andersons position is the same one that Mackey held, but it was consolidated into the program in 1998 when Kennedy began to manage LSP for NASA. Mackey had a talent for launches. Anderson said the job required the technical ability to read telemetry data from the launch vehicle and recognize what was going on and then be able to improvise the commen George Looschen, an engi neering scientist with QinetiQ on the ELVIS-2 contract in Denver, Colo., started his career with NASA in 1964 at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md. When I arrived, Skip was already there. He ran the telemetry station and also was instrumental in building the telemetry station at Vandenberg Air Force Station in California, Looschen said. He also man aged the contractor support for the stations. Looschen said Mackey was a true gentlemen and a friend. It would be hard to put a contributions to the U.S. space programs, Looschen said. His Charlie Thompson worked for various contractors from 1985 to 2009 as a communica tions engineer. He recalled that the telemetry lab and followed Mackey around during his launch countdown commentary for commercial launches. Skip was a gentleman. He allowed people to be creative and try new ideas, Thompson said. Looking back, Skip held together a diverse and highly dedicated group of people with very different personalities. He realized the value of each one of his employees. Claire Neptune served as recollects what a hard worker Mackey was. He expected that from all of us and kept everything running smoothly, Neptune said. In a Florida Today feature dated Nov. 8, 1992, former NASA Expendable Launch Ve hicle Program Director Robert Gray was quoted as saying, I suspect that Skip Mackey has directly supported more space launches than anyone else in the world. Its probably in the hun dreds. And once a rocket lifts off, everyone turns on Skips channel because they want to know what is going on with the vehicle.By Linda Herridge Spaceport News Skip Mackey received an Exceptional Service Medal from NASA in 1988. Mackey is seen here at one of the telemetry consoles May 19, 1989. Arthur J. Skip Mackey attended the 50th Anniversary celebration of the Hangar AE Mission Directors Center at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., on Sept. 24, 2013.NASA

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Page 15 Scenes Around Kennedy Space Center Crawler-transporter 1 (CT-1) approaches the top of Launch Pad 39A after traveling along the crawlerway Dec. 3. New jacking, equalizing and leveling, or JEL, hydraulic cylinders were installed on the crawler and are undergoing a leveling and turning test as CT-1 travels along the slope. Guppy aircraft at the Shuttle Landing Facility at Kennedy Space Center Dec. 5. The largest of its kind ever built, the heat shield will be installed on the Orion crew module in March 2014. Orion is scheduled to make its Engineers remove a protective covering from around the TDRS-L satellite inside the high bay at the Astrotech payload processing facility in Titusville Dec. 6.

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Page 16 John F. Kennedy Space CenterSpaceport News welcome and should be submitted three weeks before publication to Public Affairs, IMCS-440. Email submissions can be sent to SP-2013-11-266-KSC NASA Kennedy Space Center Public Affairshttp://www.nasa.gov/kennedy KSC-Spaceport-News@mail.nasa.gov.Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frank Ochoa-Gonzales Assistant editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Linda Herridge Copy editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kay Grinter Managing editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chris Hummel Happy Holidays!