Title: Spaceport news
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099284/00014
 Material Information
Title: Spaceport news
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Kennedy Space Center
Publisher: External Relations, NASA at KSC
Place of Publication: Kennedy Space Center, FL
Publication Date: July 10, 2009
Copyright Date: 2009
Spatial Coverage: United States -- Florida -- Brevard -- Cape Canaveral -- John F. Kennedy Space Center
Coordinates: 28.524058 x -80.650849 ( Place of Publication )
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099284
Volume ID: VID00014
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.


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First steps planted moon foothold

By Kay Grinter
Reference Librarian
What a difference
a day makes!
The Apollo 11
astronauts' sojourn on the
lunar surface was a mere
21 hours, 36 minutes, but that
single day made a permanent
impact on the history of the
human race.
The lunar module Eagle
descended to the Sea of
Tranquility on July 20, 1969,
carrying Neil Armstrong and
Buzz Aldrin into the his-
tory books. Michael Collins
orbited above the moon's
surface in the command mod-
ule Columbia. The legs of the
lunar module made contact at
4:18 p.m. EDT.
Armstrong reported
to mission control, "Hous-
ton, Tranquility Base here
-- the Eagle has landed," and
received the reply, "Roger,
Tranquility. We copy you on
the ground. You got a bunch
of guys about to turn blue.
We are breathing again."
Armstrong took human-
ity's first step on the moon at
10:56 p.m. Some 600 million
viewers on Earth -- one-fifth
of the world population
-- watched the live televi-
sion transmission and heard

.f. -

^ _

In one of the most iconic images of the 20th century, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin explores
the surface of the moon during the Apollo 11 mission in July 1969

him describe the feat as "one
small step for a man, one gi-
ant leap for mankind."
Of course, the plan was
put in motion May 25, 1961,
by President John F. Kennedy
in an address to Congress.
However, Armstrong ac-
knowledged in an interview
for NASA's Johnson Space
Center Oral History Project,
the contribution made by
every worker in the interven-
ing eight years led to the
success of that first landing
and the reliable operation of
the hardware in the Apollo
"I can only attribute that
to the fact that every guy in

the project, every guy at the
bench building something,
every assembler, every
inspector, every guy that's
setting up the tests, cranking
the torque wrench, and so on,
is saying, man or woman, 'If
anything goes wrong here, it's
not going to be my fault, be-
cause my part is going to be
better than I have to make it.'
And when you have hundreds
of thousands of people all
doing their job a little better
than they have to, you get an
improvement in performance.
And that's the only reason we
could have pulled this whole
thing off," Armstrong said.
The Eagle lifted off the

moon at 1:54 p.m. July 21.
Now, -1 ,ins i later,
preparations are under way
for astronauts to return to the
moon. President George W.
Bush unveiled a new vision
for space exploration in Janu-
ary 2004, calling on NASA
to "gain a new foothold on
the moon and to prepare for
new journeys to the worlds
beyond our own." NASA's
new initiative to return to the
moon was named the Con-
stellation Program.
The designs of the
launch vehicles and crew
capsule envisioned for use
in the Constellation Program
are in progress. The Ares I
and Ares V rockets are slated
to carry future crews and
supplies to the International
Space Station and on to the
moon, much as the Saturn
I and Saturn V vehicles did
during Apollo.
The first crewed flight
of the Orion spacecraft to the
space station is targeted for
2015. Altair's first landing on
the moon with an astronaut
crew is planned for 2020.
The hope is that another
day will come when NASA
can say once more: "We
came in peace for all man-


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Ares rockets model Saturn V successful design

By Steve Siceloff
Spaceport News
Construction dust fell all
around the launch team,
a reporter fell out of his
chair on air and about everyone
gasped as the first Saturn V roared
to life and thundered off the launch
pad in November 1967.
No one rode inside the capsule
at the top of the massive rocket
during that first test. But less than

two years later, a booster just like
it would propel astronauts to the
surface of the moon.
For the first time since the
halcyon days of Apollo, designers
and technicians are engineering
the first line of rockets meant to
carry humanity back to the face of
another world.
"Anytime you go to a new
vehicle, it's exciting," said Jon
Cowart, deputy mission manager
for the first flight test of the Ares

I design. Called Ares I-X, the
mission is meant to evaluate the
first stage by launching an upper
stage and capsule simulator.
Instead of one large rocket
like the Saturn V, designers
want two new rockets a
small one called Ares I
to carry astronauts in
a spacecraft called
Orion into
Earth orbit,
and then



An artist's rendition
of Ares I, which is the
crew launch vehicle being
developed by NASA as a
component of Constellation

Apollo 11 lifts off Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39A at 9 37 a m July 16, 1969, with astronauts
Neil Armstrong, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins aboard

booster, the
Ares V, to lift a
moon lander called
Altair. Orion would meet
the lander and the upper
stage of the Ares V above Earth
and then the group would fly to the
It's a tall order during a time
that is far different from the 1960s,
when America and the Soviet
Union were in the Cold War,
and space was one of the most
competitive arenas.
"Everything we were doing
at that time was being done for
the first time," said Jack King, the
voice of Apollo Launch Control.
King, who is now a
communications consultant for
United Space Alliance, made a
special trip to see the Saturn V
early on launch morning, when
the towering rocket was bathed in
"There was nothing like it,"
King said. "I still remember it as
the most majestic thing we ever
The Saturn V is legendary for
carrying men to the moon, but it
is the gigantic rocket's reliability
that most impresses the engineers
designing NASA's next moon-
bound boosters.
There were 13 launches of
the moon rocket and no payload
was ever lost. Problems developed
on the second test flight with the
upper stages, but the command
module still came back as

planned. The booster even survived
lightning strikes in 1969 when
Apollo 12 lifted off.
"I would like to have their
safety record," Cowart said.
When it came time to design
new moon missions, Cowart said
the success of the Saturn V gave
engineers plenty of cues to work
from. Perhaps most dramatically,
NASA is moving back to a
spacecraft perched on top of the
rocket in a capsule design such as
"We wanted to go back to
clean, simple lines," Cowart said.
Cowart said that building
another Saturn V-class booster
to simply launch astronauts to
the International Space Station
would be a waste. By building a
smaller rocket for Orion, NASA
can send crews to the station while
developing the large Ares V and
lunar lander.
The Constellation Program
aims to send more astronauts to
the lunar surface than its Saturn
Apollo saw two astronauts at
a time bounce about on the moon,
but Constellation envisions up to
four people at a time visiting the
"We'll have twice as many to
the surface and staying for twice as
long," Cowart said.
King said a return to the
moon would be a victory for
Constellation just as the moon
landings made Apollo memorable.
His wish for Constellation: "That
they show us up and go to Mars."

Orion encapsulates some aspects of lunar module

By Linda Herridge
Spaceport News
Forty years ago this month,
three brave astronauts
strapped into their Apollo
capsule, dubbed "Columbia," sitting
atop the massive Saturn V rocket,
and began an incredible journey
to the moon from Kennedy Space
Center's Launch Pad 39A.
"It was exciting times," said
Terry Greenfield. "We were doing
something new and there were great
people leading the way."
Greenfield worked on the launch
vehicle boosters for Saturn I and
V, and is now chief engineer for
electrical systems with ASRC
Today, as NASA's Space Shuttle
Program closes in on its final
missions, the agency is ramping up
the first of its next-generation space
vehicles -- the Ares I rocket and
Orion crew exploration vehicle.
"Orion is very similar to Apollo,"
said Dick Lyon, vice president
and program manager for the
University-affiliated Spaceport
TecIiiin 'l, Development Contract
with ASRC Aerospace.
I wi, n h.II.'111. h

modules, as well as lunar surface experiments
for the Apollo Program.
Apollo and Orion share that distinctive
conical shape, but the Orion spacecraft
has an upper and lower level and
is more than twice the size of an
Apollo capsule. Orion also will
have more windows than
Apollo, but its ablative heat
shield for re-entry will be
While the Apollo
capsule could
accommodate only
three astronauts in a 0
very confined space,
Orion will carry four

to the International Space "
Station and the moon.
The new returning capsule
will land and be retrieved in
the ocean like Apollo.
For Apollo 11, there
were four segments totaling
80 feet high and 12.8 feet
in diameter. The command
module housed the crew and propulsion,
equipment needed for re- electrical
entry and splashdown. The power and storage
service module provided for various consumables
required during the mission.
I lic miiiiidi e,cape system was located atop
ilic c, iini.id ni odule and the lunar module
I- I cl.%d in the spacecraft-lunar module
:,d.,p, bh low the service module.
CI -I ic command module measured
I let, 7 inches tall with a diameter
o[ 12 feet, 10 inches across the
h i se. The forward compartment
contained two reaction control
S engines, the docking tunnel
and the components of the
.- Earth landing system. Its 210-
cubic-feet interior housed
the main control panels,
crew seats, guidance and
navigation systems, food
and equipment lockers, and a
waste management system and
docking tunnel, which left very
little room for the astronauts to
mIove around.
-. _A- Apollo was equipped with a
is of switches, lights and gauges.
()i 1ii will have advanced electronics,
loliih scieens and
hll twih i ci1 iIs derived from space shuttle

Cumputnctil of Orion are the crew module,
service module, spacecraft adapter and launch

abort system. The spacecraft
will weigh 60,003 pounds when
docked to the space station.
During Apollo moon
missions, one astronaut
remained in the command
module orbiting the moon,
while two astronauts traveled to
the surface in a lunar module.
Orion astronauts will transfer
from the spacecraft to the Altair
lunar lander for a longer stay
on the lunar surface, leaving an
uncrewed, automated command
module orbiting the moon.
Kelvin Manning is the Orion
division chief in Kennedy's
Constellation Project Office.
He said there has to be a lot of
confidence in the design of the
crew module to allow it to orbit
unattended around the moon.
"It's a giant leap," Manning
"This is another primary
step to put us back at the top,"
Lyon said. "The moon is a
major step and a launching
platform to other places. It's
an opportunity to make great

Pads evolve as launching points to space

By Frank Ochoa-Gonzales
Spaceport News Editor
very journey starts from
a point A. In the case of
Apollo 11, that point was
39A, as in Launch Pad 39A at
NASA's Kennedy Space Center.
Some flights also started at point
39B, the twin launch pad to the
Although Apollo retired more
than three decades ago, the twin
launch pads have remained active to
serve as the starting line for space
shuttle flights. And on launch day,
there's no doubt that's where the
action is.
"When you'd get to the pads
right before a launch, you'd realize
it was an area of high concentra-
tion," said Guenther Wendt, who
was in charge of Kennedy launch
tower pad operations during the
Mercury and Apollo programs.
"When you got to it, you realized
there was a big monster living there.
You had to be prepared for anything
and everything."
During the Apollo era, key pad
service structures were mobile. Fol-
lowing the joint U.S.-Soviet Apollo-
Soyuz Test Project mission in July
1975. Following 12 Apollo Program
launches, the pads were modified
to support space shuttle operations.
For the first time, two permanent
service towers were installed at each
pad, the fixed service structure and
the rotating service structure.

On April 12, 1981, shuttle
operations commenced at pad A
with the launch of space shuttle
Columbia on the STS-1 mission.
After 23 more successful launches
from pad A, the first space shuttle to
lift off from pad B was Challenger's
final mission, STS-51L, in Janu-
ary 1986. Pad B was designated for
the resumption of shuttle flights in
September 1988, followed by the
reactivation of pad A in January
Space shuttle operations on
pad B ended when Endeavour rolled
over to pad A on May 31, and
pad B was turned over to the Con-
stellation Program. It is the next
step in preparing the first flight test
of the agency's next-generation
spacecraft and launch vehicle sys-
tem -- including the Ares I and Ares
V launch vehicles, the Orion crew
capsule and the Altair lunar lander.
The ground operations team
currently is modifying pad B for the
Ares I-X rocket launch.
"You have to take that first step
to start any journey. It is amazing
and humbling now that launch is
within our grasp. And realize, what
we are about to do as part of the
Ares I-X team, is the first step of
taking us beyond low Earth orbit
again and on our way to Mars for
the first time with humans," said
Billy Stover, ground systems inte-
grated product team lead.
The Ares I-X flight test is tar-
geted for no earlier than Aug. 30.

The Apollo 11 Saturn V rocket lights up Launch Pad 39A right after rollout at Kennedy Space Center

NASA/Kim Slufflett
Three lighting towers currently surround Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39B, which was handed
over to NASA's Constellation Program from the Space Shuttle Program on May 31

UneILA! [l





1. A Kennedy Space Center technician works atop the White Room through which the Apollo 11 astronauts entered their spacecraft. 2. The Apollo 11 crew conducts a compart-
ment fit and functional check of the equipment and storage locations in their command module. 3. Lunar Module Pilot Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin salutes the U.S. flag July 20, 1969,
during humanity's first visit to the moon. 4. Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin is photographed by Commander Neil Armstrong during the first spacewalk on the
lunar surface July 20, 1969.5. Launch team members watch Apollo 11 lift off through the firing room windows at Kennedy Space Center on July 16, 1969.

6. Apollo 11 races to the moon July 16, 1969. Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Neil Armstrong walked on the moon's surface four days later. 7. The Apollo 11 crewmembers ride to
the launch pad in the astronaut transport van for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test on July 15, 1969. 8. President Richard Nixon welcomes the Apollo 11 astronauts
back to Earth aboard the USS Hornet recovery ship. Apollo 11 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. Background: Before Neil Armstrong and Edwin
"Buzz" Aldrin lifted off the moon's surface, Armstrong (shadow) takes a picture of the lunar module Eagle.




VAB always ready to stack, roll big rockets

By Anita Barrett
Spaceport News
The Kennedy Space
Center of the 21st
century began
taking shape in the early
1960s, when new facilities
were needed to assemble
the moon-bound Saturn
V rockets. The most
impressive in terms of size
was the Vertical Assembly
Building, known as the
VAB, standing 525 feet tall
and towering over the area's
The building was
renamed the Vehicle
Assembly Building in 1965.
After the Saturn V, its
use turned to shuttle and
soon will turn to preparing
the Ares I and Ares V rock-
ets for NASA's Constellation
The VAB is divided
into two main sections. For
the Apollo Program, eight
cells used for preparing and
checking out the second and
third stages of the Saturn V
were in the low bay sec-
tion. Each cell contained
work platforms that opened
to receive the stage and
then enclosed it. The cell's
mechanical and electrical
systems enabled simula-
tion of stage interfaces and
operations with other stages,
as well as with the instru-
ment unit.
The high bay section
contains four bays, each
large enough to accom-
modate a mobile launcher
carrying a fully assembled
space vehicle.
High bays 1, 2 and 3
were fully equipped for the
Saturn V vehicles, while the
fourth bay was reserved to
support a higher launch rate,
if required.
Five pairs of extensible
work platforms of varying
heights were installed on the
north and south sides of each
operational bay. The exten-
sible platforms encircled

The Ares I-X interstate 1 for the upper stage simulator is moved to the forward assembly in the Vehicle Asse
high bay at Kennedy Space Center The VAB is the fourth largest building in the world by volume and the lar
building in the world

the Saturn V stages during
checkout and preparation.
They then were retracted
against the walls before the
vehicle rolled out to the
launch pad.
Don Phillips was chief
test supervisor for the Apollo
Program. Like most people
who enter the VAB, he said
he was "awed" by the vol-
ume of space inside.
"I often took guests on
tours to the 34th level near
the top, where the highest
catwalk was located," said
Phillips. Ith \as always
impressive to look down
at operations on the lower
He added, "It also was
fascinating to watch the
250-ton crane in operation."
The crane was used to lift
spacecraft from the transfer
aisle into the high bays.
Much of the office
space in the VAB's upper
levels housed the check-
out instrumentation of the
stages. There also were
16 high-speed elevators to
serve the 3,000 employees
working in the VAB during
For the Space Shuttle
Program, a technological

"face-lift" was needed to
accommodate the shuttle
vehicles, which differed sig-
nificantly in size and shape
from previous human space
vehicles. Modifications in
the VAB included major
changes to high bays 1 and 3
to equip them for the assem-
bly and checkout of shuttles.
Work platforms also had to
be modified to fit the shuttle
High bays 2 and 4
required internal structural
changes to accommodate a
vertical storage cell and a
checkout cell. This also is
where the 154-foot shuttle
external tank waits to be
mated to the shuttle.
A portion of the low bay
checkout cell was converted
into an enclosed, environ-
mentally controlled work-
shop where orbiter main
engines are received and
inspected. As shuttle opera-
tions matured, the shop was
moved out of the VAB near
where Orbiter Processing
Facility-3 is located.
In addition, the north
door of the VAB was verti-
cally modified to accommo-
date the tail of the shuttle as
it rolls into the transfer isle

from a processing
Getting the
for the Constell
gram has requin
to rethink and re
The Ares I
mobile launcher
358 feet high, c
the approximate

tall shuttle stack.
According to Charles
Gambaro, Constellation
senior project manager for
VAB modifications, ad-
ditional platforms will be
needed at higher levels, con-
structed where major work
will be done. The highest
platform elevation will be at
about 360 feet.
"The design of the High
Bay 3 platforms is very close
to 100 percent complete and
the new platforms will look
and operate totally differ-
ent from existing shuttle
platforms," said Gambaro.
"Platforms currently used for
NASA Tim Jacobs shuttle will be removed after
embly Building's the high bay turnover. The
gest onesto new platforms to be installed
will conform to the shape of
ig facility, the Ares I vehicle. They will
VAB ready be designed for the work to
ition Pro- be done at each level."
ed engineers For now, shuttles and
measure the the Ares I-X flight test seg-
ments share the VAB. After
on top of the 2010, the facility will again
will reach be dedicated to preparing
compared to rockets for launches to the
ly 225-foot- moon and beyond.

Inside the Vehicle Assembly Building's High Bay 1, an overhead crane lifts the
Saturn V first stage for the Apollo 11 mission from the transfer aisle floor in prepa-
ration for stacking on a mobile launcher

Constellation chutes descend from Apollo

By Elaine Marconi
Spaceport News
he Apollo Program was
designed to land humans on
the moon and bring them
safely back to Earth. Six missions,
Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17,
achieved this goal.
The missions that landed on the
moon returned a wealth of scientific
data and hundreds of pounds of
lunar samples, but without a safe
way to return to Earth, none of these
missions would have been deemed
a success.
A little known, but enormously
significant component of the
brilliantly designed Apollo
command module was the Earth
landing system, or ELS -- basically
a set of parachutes.
The word "parachute" comes
from a French word with an ancient
Greek prefix: "para," meaning
against or counter, combined with
"chute," the French word for fall.
Parachute therefore means "against
the fall."
Apollo's ELS
consisted of
three main

The 1...1,
para,.:rn,1i-: i.:
Constellation Program
rockets are tested Nov 15, 2007,
over the U S Army's Yuma Proving
Ground near Yuma, Ariz They measure
150 feet in diameter and weigh 2,000 pounds

parachutes, three pilot
parachutes, two drogue
parachute motors, three upright
bags, a sea recovery cable, a
dye marker and a swimmer
Each part of the ELS
worked synergistically.
About 24,000 feet
after the command
module's forward
heat shield was
jettisoned, the
drogue parachutes
were released
slowing the
spacecraft to 125
At 10,700 feet,
the drogues were
jettisoned and the
pilot parachutes
were deployed, which
pulled out the main
chutes. These slowed the
command module to 22
mph for a soft splashdown in
the ocean.

chief logistics
engineer for United Space
Alliance, has been with
America's space program
since 1956, when NASA
was still named the
National Advisory
Committee for
/i Aeronautics, or
NACA. Presnell
...; ,. was the vehicle
project engineer of
S' ,, development for
,.. Apollo's first flight
Presnell was
/ present when the
Little Joe II rocket
launched the Apollo
test command module
and newly developed
Siiachutes May 13, 1964,
fioim the U.S. Army's White
S Sa nds N missile Range in New
N c\Ico
n\\ \Kc 1as, kcd how it felt to see his
team's project come to fruition for such
a prestigious cause Presnell said, "It was very
Parachutes still play a major role in human

Without them,
Safety of
returning astronauts
and the reusability of
important equipment would be
The Constellation Program has
developed a super-sized version
of the Apollo parachutes for the
Ares solid rocket booster recovery
system and Orion crew exploration
The booster parachute recovery
system consists of three enormous
parachutes, each weighing in at
one ton and measuring 150 feet in
diameter. They are the largest rocket
parachutes ever manufactured.
The successful recovery of the
Apollo astronauts plucked from
the ocean was a testament to the
capability of the parachutes to
perform nearly flawlessly. Today,
they continue to provide safe
landings for space shuttle solid
rocket boosters.
In the future, the Ares spent first-
stage motors and the Orion crew
exploration vehicle will land safely
on Earth, thus allowing them to be
reused for future flights. This will
be due to the exceptional capability
of their parachute landing systems,
born in the Apollo-era 40 years ago.

Lunar experiments map out pivotal steps

By Rebecca Sprague
Spaceport News

Apollo-era scientists
and physicists on
Earth were excited
that their experiments were
going to the moon, even
if they weren't. During a
breath-taking lunar descent
by the Apollo 11 astronauts,
they feared their projects
might not even make it to
the surface.
"The lunar module was
running out of gas and in the
blink of an eye the mission
was going to abort," said
Lee Scherer, former Ken-
nedy Space Center director.
"But Jack Garman, a com-
puter expert in Houston, said
he had seen the computer
glitch during simulations,
and Apollo 11 was told to
continue the approach."
The Apollo Lunar Ex-
ploration Office, along with
many others, breathed a sigh
of relief. Scherer, who led
the office at NASA Head-
quarters in Washington,
D.C., at the time, said he
helped pick out landing sites
and exploration opportuni-
ties, along with acting as a
liaison between NASA and
"We watched the first
man step down onto the
moon on a vague, rough
television picture. It was
breathtaking for everyone in
the program," Scherer said.
"The principal investi-
gators were in the operations
center at Johnson Space
Center, just in case we were
needed for troubleshooting,"
said Carroll Alley, a physi-
cist whose prime experiment
was packed inside the Eagle.
Alley was the principal
investigator for a device
called the Laser Rang-
ing Retroreflector that the
astronauts were to place on
the moon.
About 100 feet away
from the Sea of Tranquility

Astronaut Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin deploys the Passive Seismic Experiment Package on the moon's surface near the Sea of Tranquility The sensitive instrument remained
on the lunar surface to radio back information about moonquakes, landslides and meteorite impacts The Apollo 11 instrument returned data for only three weeks More
advanced seismometers were deployed at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites and transmitted data to Earth until September 1977

NASA/Jack Pfaller
NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, or LRO, and the Lunar Crater Observation
and Sensing Satellite, or LCROSS, include instruments to help map the moon's
surface and search for signs of ice The spacecraft launched June 18 to pave the
way for future robotic and human missions to the moon

landing site, moonwalkers
Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and
Neil Armstrong talked about
where to place that first
Aldrin: OK, have you
got us a good area picked
Armstrong: Well, I
think right out on that rise
out there is probably as good
as any.

Turns out the site Arm-
strong picked was perfect
-- today, physicists around
the world use the retroreflec-
tors deployed on Apollos
11, 14 and 15 to measure
the precise Earth-to-moon
distance and to test theories
of gravity.
"The retroreflectors are
accessed nearly continu-
ously, and have been for the

past 40 years," Alley said.
"They should last essen-
tially forever. We worried
that very fine, powder-like
particles on the moon
would coat the surfaces, but
they continue to send back
Perhaps just as impor-
tant as what Apollo astro-
nauts left behind, though, is
what they brought back.
"There was a fear of
not knowing what micro-
meteorites would do to an
astronaut's protective space-
suit," Scherer said. "Apollo
12 landed beside Surveyor 3
so Pete Conrad could gather
parts from the lander to be
examined for micrometeor-
ite damage after five years
of exposure. The suits were
determined to be sufficiently
There also were the
all-important moon samples
that geologists turn to rou-
tinely for studies.
Johnson's Lunar
Sample Laboratory Facility

has a vault with hundreds of
pounds of lunar rocks, core
samples, pebbles, and sand
and dust collected from the
lunar surface.
"Scientists continue to
study lunar samples and are
developing a new theory for
the origin of the moon not
considered before Apollo
went to the moon," said
Gary Lofgren, lunar curator
at Johnson.
In an effort to expand
our knowledge of the moon,
build an outpost and journey
on to Mars, NASA's Explo-
ration Science Mission Di-
rectorate recently launched
the Lunar Reconnaissance
Orbiter and Lunar Crater
Observation and Sensing
Satellite. LRO is set to ac-
curately map the moon's
surface and LCROSS is
designed to check for ice.
"These missions will
provide information that will
greatly improve the next
generation of lunar science,"
Lofgren said.

Community feeds off Kennedy's endeavors

By Rebecca Sprague
Spaceport News
Life in the 1960s ...
bell-bottom jeans
and tie-dye shirts,
rock and soul, muscle cars,
the beach, the moon, and a
whole lot of free peace and
Don Phillips, chief test
supervisor on Launch Com-
plex 39 during the Apollo
era, said "life was quite a
bit different back then," es-
pecially on the Space Coast
where the race to the moon
was heating up.
At the height of NASA's
Apollo Program, Kennedy
Space Center employed
about 26,000 people, includ-
ing tenants and supporting
"When I first started at
Kennedy, the average age
was 30 or below," Phillips
said. "It was a very youth-
ful group that worked well
together and didn't try to
protect turf."
That large, youthful
work force brought thou-
sands of growing families
to Kennedy's surrounding
areas, fueling the local com-
munity and economy.
"Titusville was called the
miracle city because it was
growing so fast," Phillips
said. "That's why we've
got Miracle City Mall and
Miracle Photo today.
"On Fridays, everyone
would head to the bank on
U.S. 1, which was two lanes
back then, to cash their
paychecks. It was so busy,
police had to direct traffic.
Then we'd go to Lums for a
foot-long hot dog steamed
in beer."
"Don went to Lums.
I went to the Mousetrap in
Cocoa Beach," said Bob
Buckley, first a system
engineer integration man-
ager and then the contract
technical manager for the
Rockwell command and
service module during

Thousands of people camped on beaches and roads adjacent to Kennedy Space Center to watch Apollo 11 launch An estimat-
ed one million people visited the Spaceport area to see the historic flight, the nation's first attempt to land on the lunar surface

a .... ...

Reader-submitted photo
Francine's restaurant in Titusville, Fla, changed its name to Moonlight Drive-in
during the Apollo Program The restaurant on U S 1 still is popular among Ken-
nedy Space Center workers

Apollo. "Rubbing elbows
with fellow workers and
astronauts was something I
looked forward to. We could
unwind and relax because
we knew we were among
fellow Apollo team mem-
Buckley added, "Ber-
nard Surf in Cocoa Beach
was nothing but 'pure high
octane' and a hot spot for
astronauts, launch teams, ce-
lebrities and the press. The
camaraderie was unbeliev-
"Another good place
was Harold's on the river
in Titusville" said Gene

Sestile, one of the lead test
conductors for the Saturn IB
and V launch vehicles dur-
ing Apollo. "They had these
big, big juicy wine burgers."
Today, a more modern
restaurant by the name of
New York, New York is in
that same location across
from the Vehicle Assem-
bly Building on the Indian
River, with a wine burger on
their menu.
Business on the Space
Coast was booming back in
the Apollo glory days. So
much so, that the original
Tarzan, Johnny Weissmuller,
opened up a theme park

called Tropical Wonderland
in Titusville. But as the
Apollo Program wound
down in the 1970s, so did
the local economy.
"When Apollo ended and
people started leaving, the
guy across the street tried
to sell me his house for one
dollar," Phillips said. "Of
course, a dollar was a lot of
money back then."
Most business owners
packed up, called it a day
and tried to make a profit
elsewhere. But there's at
least one restaurant that has
survived all these years:
Moonlight Drive-in on
U.S. 1 in Titusville.
"We started off as
Francine's in about 1963
and changed the name dur-
ing the moon missions,"
said Susan Hamed, owner
of the retro restaurant. "My
husband and I bought the
place from his parents,
and now three of our four
children work here. The
third generation will be here
when NASA goes back to
the moon."

Most everyone agrees
that the success of Ken-
nedy directly affects the
success of the Space Coast.
And there is one thing most

ago they worked hard and
played hard.
"No exaggeration,
most people really did work
long hours," Sestile said.
"Apollo was new and excit-
ing, something we were all
proud of. Just to participate
was a once-in-a-lifetime

Kennedy work force evolves with each program

By Linda Herridge
Spaceport News

K ennedy Space
Center relies
n a unique
and diverse NASA
and contractor work
force to accomplish
the agency's missions.
The diversity of the
work force has evolved
throughout the last 40
years with a wide range
of occupations, ages,
cultures, ethnicities,
gender and disabilities.
At the onset of the
Apollo Program, the
work force at Ken-
nedy was mostly male
Caucasians in science,
engineering, trade
and labor, and techni-
cal support. Women
accounted for a very
small percentage of the
work force and were
more often in clerical
and secretarial roles.
Kennedy employ-
ment peaked at 26,000
during Apollo 7 op-
erations in 1968. When
Apollo 11 launched
to the moon, there
were about 25,000
employees at Kennedy.
Of these, 3,058 were
NASA civil servants.
By June 1970, Ken-
nedy's work force had
fallen to 16,235.
In 1970, Kennedy
employed 55 minority
civil servants. Since
then, the numbers have
steadily increased. By
1985, minorities made
up almost 10 percent of
the civil servant work
force. Between 1995
and 1996, minority
civil servant employees
increased to 375, or
more than 17 percent.
By 2007, minorities
accounted for 23 per-
cent of NASA's civil
Agency records

NASA/Tim Jacobs NASAfile/1970
Technicians look closely as the Ares I-X forward skirt is mated to the forward skirt extension in the As- Apollo 14 crew members and Kennedy Space Center officials
sembly and Refurbishment Facility at Kennedy Space Center on May 17, 2009 Today, Kennedy's total attend the rollout of the Saturn V on Nov 9, 1970 Kennedy's work
work force is about 14,864, including 2,171 NASA civil servants force totaled about 16,235 at that time

reflect a total of 427
permanent female
employees at NASA
centers in 1972. That
number fluctuated up
and down through the
1970s. In 1978, of
the 4,400 permanent
female civil servant
employees, 435 were
at Kennedy. By 1995,
there were 678 women
civil servants employed
at the center.
At the end of the
Apollo Program in
1972, Kennedy's work
force included 2,463
NASA civil servants
and 10,456 contractor
employees. In 1980, at
the onset of the Space
Shuttle Program, there
were 2,201 NASA civil
servants and 8,528 con-
tractor employees. By
1994, there were 2,498
civil service workers
with an average age of
In 2000, the Ken-

nedy work force was
1,739 NASA civil ser-
vants and 11,484 con-
tractor employees. The
NASA skill mix was
60.5 percent scientific
and engineering; 23
percent administrative;
9 percent technical; and
7.5 percent clerical.
Today, Kennedy's
total work force is
about 14,864. This
includes 2,171 NASA
civil servants, with an
average age of 43.8,
and about 10,888 con-
tractor employees.
Of the civil ser-
vants 7.7 percent are
7.4 percent are His-
panic or Latino;
4.1 percent are Asian or
Pacific Islander;
3.3 percent are multi-
racial; .8 percent are
Native American; and
6 percent are em-
ployees with declared
disabilities. The civil

servant skill mix is
63 percent scientific
and engineering; 27
percent administrative;
6 percent technical; and
3 percent clerical.
Throughout the
years, several profes-
sional organizations
developed at the center
with goals to improve
working conditions,

opportunities and rec-
ognition for minority
Those include
the Black Employee
Strategy Team, or
BEST, an organization
of the center's African-
American employees;
The National Society
of Women Engineers,
or SWE, chartered the

Space Coast section
in 1989, to represent
women engineers in
Brevard, Indian River
and Volusia counties;
and the Disability
Awareness and Action
Working Group, or
DAAWG, is an advo-
cate for hiring indi-
viduals with disabilities
and disabled veterans.

John F Kennedy Space Center

Spaceport News

Spaceport News is an official publication of the Kennedy Space Center and
is published on alternate Fridays by External Relations in the interest of KSC civil
service and contractor employees.
Contributions are welcome and should be submitted threeweeks before publication
to the Media Services Branch, IMCS-440. E-mail submissions can be sent to

Managing editor . . . ........ .................... Candrea Thomas
Editor . . . . ....... ........................ Frank Ochoa-Gonzales
Copy editor . . . . ....... ........................ Rebecca Sprague

Editorial support provided by Abacus Technology Corp Writers Group
NASA at KSC is on the Internet at www nasa gov/kennedy
USGPO 733-049/600142

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