Title: Sakwa by Musa Ibrahim Sakwa, (typescript, 1974)
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099263/00001
 Material Information
Title: Sakwa by Musa Ibrahim Sakwa, (typescript, 1974)
Physical Description: Archival
Language: English
Creator: Sakwa, Musa Ibrahim
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099263
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Special and Area Studies Collections
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Full Text

A 0 E w*49 bwE~a th o twomrr'l s O& ru" dUUl
mia ftut Wo 4o'U

03 -wio WA gieftnmm
OXUU -t osMau xno. (obw h41&).
gp Uat.Miit, lansa nir~jytg

LmesaW* Wi

Ole Owu w *Ad (NOY -4U*U 0* ot xwam


Aa W aws amss ho Aith Me hi Ie la Ida father hgoe
X1 .4Xwa W*ve' vmo m r ea aafrdlus to ta auabw thb aw
anotO, go ftot "tfe LA the ftrst to be aO antM

9 U rtats 4a W1d4ga's wae
Ea a tvpe1 4 bemo ow en a ed fM ta thMat whe are swea
ale bow sfn the l a.* &s hom e "tt a to teo A alA*'s
uLsrt ma thM "u two we am at hUw ta m1gewt Sa. In am *aw
trhea 0* te i big leue swves aS imiweaL e t othe siaUw howes
ot aLd*(Ma(tW) Ohidsao. ains aW ba* houses we aonaWy lA d that
tloe Is vo y little se* fto ra.* omr eois ae Wbuit ely te-
eaT a& al&os spa for aspradta f;g erwaslss an othwr Sthiaw Ah ow t'
at shlp's houses. We thrfore find a lot ot enMsestlua a typleallv
b hbowe thaw we fad La a asedima e all hu e.

ZMa t MMr MA..m .l U 2M5 XOBsktMM
Tes at wo* gemrt tanye Slaws la"ua s eane.s (aoita
sota) whSeh is tN staple ood toean ap a ise, iSee, gpr1udmta we eoria
Cotte, oeasava aA. esoeaama Thesh 0 eoropee a ette awl aouadnts
"n saatlaese rAl, 2o* is almo mrso to aguana or a as ftape fod rat eO
He mtaIs ar powa jst teblao tha bouse wr Ms ubbith Ia dpesAitol
Thio beeauas mai e va r aah par'w hmae theb is a let t bkhme
!as auaa o ma "As ma a)laot wrcayawe Ibt rtesrtoted h tste s
toeo auh slatan., oatusw to u a" soZ wa, rio*e eNaerm pI.e mse
tbme la loat of aiafuar to plaes at lew rale.. See of e wt beam.
nile.t, ge6teables are gaw a-sa so l pe m neAMC a mop fA~imtd.
ahbvo, sw~iw yeas a teo fa raers vet rv y far lat the b uh ftr
abut 10 t ilea to leek for fewalia buWt Ath tMh latiegatn ot at
*a8bhate temta w met of the fw taalania have bee dewwteA. oAet
at the tfavaaeta we elose-l4 withia a er1e at thMe aa riaml tae
veinao .


am st tahe filds -oe nmeal ant a thle paste of abittub
alttmtioa is d --saI-u drasti*ai., A Ct OwWnment l$aR Rmatma
vak a 0e toes "a in t ry Mnse*
Aretad aMISa a iteMe we swrt gaRdtenrea te lae seS bansaU,
mew ane asA oon ye waa are ronw. AUla tir plant. 2l4a soe#M eanua
miat OBa)e 4Xe Qame. Sr OaOnR aa hsntel& sllCet atrPW4ou t hts
lsle year reOnat
BautiS to virtuLg abseat sas tae vUlaagpe ArWa the hutwe
vwiaeP at the other villages rWeat ~m out saoidt MAI avA OwtF-
iea0s (rvers3) la peeat aaber to bat vthne or our tines &Wtqa the
try easn, Altou it ia water uis goa the uian foas, raflts Mil
deW ia t wevt ea1, the bantU is not doan We sti beenie wr-
boy ito berq a as ftl t. fhee are two objwctivw attaetiQ to baatla
in hie area. te of the objeetW a Is t$at it flWtoe mel to Oamn
Ma the awaa Jenoatw is l at it (beatl ) whlp to seIme maI la os
tet a1*s t to aarou a o 1 rf t te wt s eas. 4on e a t 3.
wtsteassnt batos but aoy swav Mating as asit 4e.
to r.p r n t sae toest w the vfgwn rawe$s tfn tho inal
hean to tir aWty en)ssn. A tW ftaMen hCp pet. IS the ary seas
- spet0 l a*tttas is pIt t tohe to asiUse beatne thb a all0astd
to a at eadt em ao the tildes. G e tNay, i the fastaw amoa
ostet i ttatins la pi to O a e t tt4r do not Ga out to t paso Isa
te ftolas. Sanry *attle are senm boeaue it ia safully heut
ettien foota ta sa fifty cattle a41. siu OMl.& maetues talo
oat shep to te ftuls. Oanto *asr an seaa tept boasIe dol fa t gBsa
mat w arVp ujpes teI.
Oheir pete srlataBaed by the flllgwn Iaupude ofats, ftp diahqs,
rabites OtewaX here paOty beMose famias. It sO a amOusW of wat
pOueuiaf wany hrs. jsMt a pesauesig maw wives sa n Bs state mt
Sasept the vllelrs. Paseewta the aim"al at *bUtAn' t* doae
ase a paea Ia r istotua. Orally peaw peopIe bep daws to btse
aeln a pSOSe9s ltube n*Men to he marwt tat thri ft" be
pit A

.*1. SAbA

The nature and pattern of settlement la the village folloW a
definite patter. One could find that people who belong to the saae lan
oeayw the ame plee to land and settle togete her. ept the off ie
orkbers M1e the teaoheras ad court members all the elans settle as
aentifred above. It i not however possible to know exactly the naber of
elas la the village. However, the major elaas are Swala, Malgew, Wahelia,
aheltanga (he ailtriet falea' elan) amd Nabeblakaha. he wars heads
eoe from the Bala a and aheakeha today.
Group hutang is one of the traditieal festivals of te people
around Saka. This festival omaes up mlediately after the harrovtiu
season, from Marth to Nay. This time of the year of ouaee has little work
lXft to be done. Ther are several plaese where MaNi (quarries) as
Imwn to exist la substantal mu bers. The places Iaeeaae 11id Ielasa,
Daksa, Bui and iwBaaguah.
If it is proposed that the ay PfAid festival would take piae on
d sanda mfle~ t day tha those people who are charge aO hunting would
travel frau maret to markt manmoaing the proposal. A llght hoe would
be blow atd eac and everybody will know that their would be a hunng
festival. Beore tat market day ar Av travima weald tsy to get these
who have nt heard know about the festival. By that day so my people
would be eagerly on the wait.
The maoMnin of festival would be introduced to the pablie also by
tblwing he is t ty hbora seoa after breakfast is ever both chid ren,
gyounaters a d adUlt would am themselves with bows and arrows and sticks
also to set out to the bush. Stailar thija would be happeoai in other
villages and a troop at hnaters wll enwerge to the peroped butexe. hat
is how the easival beias. Thee would be a mixed up of shootline auimda
sad shoubig to frighten the animals to come out of their hiding place.
Several m ianl likte dee r badfale, rabbits and iaea fowls ill be
captured on that day. Sota as someone eatehes a pWy aomebody else would
rush to hin and slughter the caught p a. his fell too walA be
tmastled It a pi*ee of the eaught pre. Norally the festival oassts of
man fights. People who feel likej fitiag go to the festival to look for

X.I. SAMA 12

a fight. They aeooed In fotag %s 7y 0o6sg to mrot *fc anmal agoght Vr
ao.maa and laiamiu that it is his. I the actual owaer of the a eaal
argus the olailaw voultd sp his and the~ fight beglas

Dog re &aso mprltped at the tstival as they are etesallt huatrsa
Thyz run fast and amell the bush astmalas wl",
faa timeas pole oa~e bask fe the t fstw al with f uew five
diUtfent animals,. This ia hj the goup huat take plaoe



(1) Te origin a f Sr.a was not kaora to him clearly. Be say hI
eanmot ay exactly ftre where thal ene but he Iwal able to Matitan oa
a few at the original at the elas. He alleged that Bwla x ga (Be atc
the alma elans) or tgiated from the south in a place eOalo MAb o alio
the Bem SIaver.
Tho Nalmgwf he sa eae fr the North but settle r n diftemnt
places. He says that Nalgi VWAla oas tra a village thy hwae liVed
la for long time alled SAIMAA or wAI AA. Thry ae setues
Oeausd ali Randaraka. e vwat an to sar that MaIgt WARUN aettled
la the WAAM villa a Me ac tINs age a esantly thep a norn as
alwhi WARKW. WARAW is an anoet settlmeaet Just at the bank of Lake

e a s aded that Xal t Taora eane fr PADAM I ere thf have
settled Og tia ago. adan is a village noer Narsa.* e satM that
possibly the giW people might have bea eenom u ng this area before the
B euas sae. He hewerv, reosetted that the oreigi of the Buras woo not
knoen to him.
e says although he cannot twrae the origi of the Bukas hrt kos
ery well that the Bras were oaeaugri taie lsan lm bet oe the acoin
of Xhe Pabirs. Te Pabia vere understood to have been led to this area
by their famous warrior TItera Wala (Tasta the great).
Although tis tie was not the begianig of the, history of the una
people, however it was the tim they gatd this great nae (ura). se
sq lhat, vhn the Pabir warriors eme they set the ura people fearless.
ety (Buras) put up meu resistamee that the Pabl wanreir bad to retreat
mnot fa the time. Be said, it was beeamse of the teugh time the Buas
ere pattiln up that made the Pabis to rfin a nsae for thee natives.
They oalle thn RMUA. o said Bura I a type of red Mate that fight
relentlessm2. They are tiece type of nts that usually invade at nalt.


Dwwg Avastia sHm do not gAve umw oar anmutta tbr tbt to fte.
It swiee ta %at Va g sa. ag2ateb3e to thV e active l a thy bsm blaCra
-s a uat s tahw htee astres of ibe ars bHK hwa a aaae
a- bara lratas *ulrotw a tahe Sdiba tst*bes (to bto um aItw r
as Paur). He a ttitaf of the lwa.tag trAbe w"a mtih t*at 0f a M"
CO t3es d4U* elia h*lok a*ts, = sa* f r. of a Mtsw tMA l fruit baft
tfee. Is* amap* 0e wfasfur dag4ewew a.y et dos a a ieSOw "47
W*r elomea ti*a )lrS t* fs W barttwo. A u *m &att4tae oa te swaMads
bbw me awnt Wsle that ao to aP*a (i tWas" e aalaSi bls arto),
iar (amt) aeal"mW then PA N. *At wa als4e hW thb a PAUWa Ur to
be. !4q Io Pab^ L hiietlT jSaauat Aidlhaitty 2 3nau
3ar*i a Ges 9 Me (ust that durgts k. .oursin or tnwAr oatgas (Iabs*)
Ua tim fawneis frh the Nath thqw iast met t natiTvoat au
diUnst (iea Iseafrdijaff to utr it 1he boe As PabIrs eallM MAn
td set Ia "T NeoXt ma U aomi aft *ae Ist the Samth sfrABBe Ow"A)t
dies hb afr e noar* biIs bait MEA tetm s ft Ieo of t I $ti W
k* io ^a-s t *oar ftre Ifths sw w to slasItad of powagMo ftd#w
b ura oRAYI am =BA onA a* so loasse la "se, 9taf Is Isti .l
r w hawe se that UA *e to appt ea3y at Ute tblf aot Bhe
|eodN of the PaU=,a* te as tves POasay 0 4 W d Uitf*at WaO bt he
saltit VaS not keS to blct

(2) AIn aM se tribe MA eaa aOflso a s% a my OtWew w* tiStp 1i0
ols a l lngM. In it bort th U o I. me b sm sviwtt =a# an la itsft

3185 is "ulMr liAiMi of th iOlg @tU .g ClA=na Of be
vasMw a i*n aut osf D Ae eamp" t ae oXsa AIs E 1a ,

I r
'. LtL;


The awe so mew oi as beoause at vwa peass at saes ela do sot
f git ea~ other Althoum& btal under a la 4as no"t aos. 4eAly
soa "Ilativs, it s mar a m tosm ar at thy Sha lm nt alt.
lasdaMep s ahtnbltab sM seM tie a 4a tmt Ielm Mant olata
ametr oem. e2aam 1t wamit e to 0aatu it to to wI tist homw
pow a the*w Is Mis oAl4da mart ates his as fatbw aia 0m *mot
ehobua bs a ta*tm
S3Bam. nfa m 4i the eleamgtAd was Jamm for its poat warwrie.
Kawlr ies aaso anas for it sI omrsahp at sapt. ms, of th aI et as0in
at tia aoa a Is tas Sabllty teo ]p aiala.. ne aomte at Wta olma
n brae for t te fe tt atig do not b9p Oastt~ bMause tg (oatte)
wilU efas ia of at a isesaw A w to at fto m Ob sat o olm 2u0p
gorats ebeep, aii obeh iae epia-l eooupmtiW Xto ttiea bpamtde
domp.* Sb**tpt ftt GPOO at fW3 POPSU 1444
baOinM asphA4 So tamwr#

(0) Oan Is not ae abL, ab sa de a c a mawba a mep
aWitM r vinM4Mas. So be (Qo0i) saed o oannot ohant tfw Oa elm to
aothew evwtaU* Ne lkNpO to t* elma 1 belOae tWOuefait his lif
tIe"* SamS We eas d) m iahwit It a4iM vr it eontimaB.
A elm ea disarar if alU its iSwerbx dA but tl elan aM i te2f
0naot 4t8k6, as posatit of wvoMa'a la tSea asol*ei y Is not Vy0
*aportan tbWeaws it to toi fate's aola tb&t his tdWEsw a A-l.fed
vith. er sample If A asbmw of the WetI mites a van ofat thbe WEalS
lm& t0ix eblrm ws hial br Mt2 iuN but not BSWla. Ia a u e0S the
hEottp*3S ean oamn wOtuaai r abe freoa B3amS Goai mai4A It to is to
apeaaibl to *loa another olam, newretaeo it ia not lass p3swBil*



Haptu is a supreme supernatural object just similar to
powers possessed by God. Haptu can be a siEnle or collection
of stones, trees, Rivers, mountains and different forms of it
made out of clay. It is next to God but has almost equal po-
wer as Him,. It h3s powers that could prevent any forms of
sickness; brings happiness and tragedies; causes rain during
drought periods| rakes sterile woien conceive; It prevents all
forms of evils, for instance, the evil doings of witches. It
has many other uses but some cannot be mentioned: Mr Gombi al-
He said Haptu can be obtained either by investing if from
ancestors or by going to look for them. One can make the Mil-
llm by just taking a plot of land where there is a lot of tall
trees and sometimes with thick bushes. The person then will
have no right of cutting down the bushes or even a tree because
as it was believed, the satans (spirits) of the forest would
be annoyed.
Haptu can be owned by a single person or by people of the
same Nyaanba or collectively by alllthe villagers. The Haptu
that is owned by all villagers is usually given the name Millim.
---__ _____I__ _7
Mil lia is always small piece of land/ given solely for tall

trees and bushes* Usually most of the oldest brees in the vici-

i nity of the village could be found among the old trees of the
S Millim. Inside the Millim there is no cutting of bushes neither
killing of any forms of life, It is also illegal to burn the
bushes of the Millim. Going against any of the Rules is a great

i' mte: The result of which would cause the a/tams of the forest

to go against the people of the village. In cases in which such
happens the satans (spirits) would decide to punish the villagers
by either causing drought or causing an epidemic disease to in-
fect the village. ,

CLvybWoTi) pLelflL&I\ lsL~& U ma cL(2s-u 4L i dis/' d7
C^fWiu f^im^s ^/u~lgydj b.o*rj Oi Cii & ^C k(c., Aaara.7


These two are among many of the punishments that a
village wo ;ld suffer if they annoy the eatana of the ~.
The elders of the village hold the responsibility
over the Millim and other Haptus owned by the whole vil-
lage. The village Head acts as a chairman to the Committee
of the elera who take oare of tho Millim and other Haptus.
Saorifiee are given to the Millim and Haptus anavally in the
form of animals and cro a. Animals ranging from chickens
to camels including cows are slaughtered after inaantations
are made. Normally the village head does the slaughtering
and the meat distributed to villagers as the meat roasted
and taken still outside.
When a Haptu is owned only by the people of the same
Nyarmba. the slaughtered meat should not be eaten by other
people outside the Nyarmba. People of same Nparmba are the
clesest relatives of the srae clan.
When people who are depressed visit the Millim, or
Haptus, they normally carry along with them goats or chickens
as gift to the Haptus, they would explains thier problems
4// to Millim or Haptu and then let go whatever animal she or he
i has brought. In many cases when one pays a visit to a
Millim, one would find wither a chicken or goat. It is
cz>- Mhowever not the same when a depressed person goes to Haptu
Y owned by a single person. It is the duty of the person who
v owns the Haptu to tell the depressed fellow how much she or he
would give the Haptu, This would be either five shillings
(fifty kobl) plus a chicken or a goat and that would be done
first as requested. Refund of what is given to Haptu is not
\- allowed eaen what is expected does not happen,
M4. Gombi gave an example of one type of Haptu owned col-
Si tJresyjohbe Bwalas of Nggiea, akwa and MereCia. This Haptu
is responsible for bri ginqg epidemic disease at the time of ware


to iafeot the enemies. In several caces he went on to Eay
that this Haptu had caused small-pox and measles, This Haptu
is a small hole found under a tree in Sakwa village. The
whole is always filled with water, When tho water dries up
it implies that the satans of the Haptu are annoyed and they
need sacrifice,
Mr. Gombi says that about 20 years back almost eve3y
woman possessed a small haptu called (BWAL) for every child
borned. The Bwal prevents a certain kind of children: siok-
nees called SURNK~R, It was believed that if a child posses-
sed the BEal he or she would not die of peoples' wickedness.
Only natural death would cause the loss of thfer lives. The
Bwal is kept close to the child's head by the bedside.
Lights during which a child ories the Bwal would be
given beniseed and small local loc beer called BTUJRiTUK. If the
child does not stop trying then a chicken would be slaughtered
the next morni-g to please the Bwal. Simple diagram of the
Bwal would serve to illustrate more clearly.

6&wS( aka7c( ^na^ m/fljL UiLdaMy ^bc^ CJy)
&. 56pQ 5~ /

O 11 30 3 an. 0A o

(~) Laaan says that long ago the present Bura land was eo-
eupied by a certain type of people called Ngvi, They had
settled in this area and been farmers. They were excellent
blacksmiths and farmers. Ladan says that they had filled
the soil and had arranged almost all the terraces found to-
day. Other stone walls fou d around villages were made by
i the Ngwisa Beeause this people did not like foreigners those
Swer wandering tribes in the past gave them a lot of headache,
' The Buras were one of the wandering tribes.
- The Buras he says were originally people of the North
who had been wandering in Bornm area. They later settled
at Ngasargamu before starting their later wondering lives.
From Ngazargamu they vamdered-south of Bornu and came to the
area we now call Biv Division. On their coming they drove
the Ngwi people away settled in their villages and cultivated
their farms.
The BABURS were different people who came later on. Be-
cause the BABURS were too few they eventually forgot their
language and began to speak Bura language.
When the Bura settled in this area they did not have
any objective in further wandering so they decided to own big
villages. This Tillages were then fortified. Villages like
Dikir, Sakwa, Merama, Tanga were all fortified by stone fence
called Michiba* Ladan went on to mention a few examples of
the people who made those Michibas, He said that at Sakwa
was made during the weign of Bilabiri and th t at Merama was
made by Kadala Bala Thlama. These two rulers were the
village Heads respectively.
He gave a good example of the beginni: g of settlements at
Ngwa and Sakwa, He said that two Brothers from laku a town
in the North in Bornu area came and settled at Whajang. From
there they advanced to Ngazargamu where generally the Bura
people are believed to have come from these two brothers, met

11.1. SAVWA

an Mbaya man and they advanced south untillthey reaches Ngwa
a village south of BIV town about 7 miles away from Biv town-
ship. The elder of these two brothers hanged his arrow case
called KOJA on a Bwala tree. Ngwa is a very beautiful round
plateaum with red soil. The acene of this area was so beauti-
ful that he decided to settle here. The younger brother
decided to continue southernly until he reached a place called
Sakwa. This place is also a fine scenery than he decided to
settle there. From thereon, all the descendants of these two
brothers have been known as Bwala because they first hmuned
their arrow ease onthe BWALA tree. The Ngva and Sakwa villages
are predominantly Bwalas today. This is an example of the
coming and settling of t-he Bura people as the Buraland.
2 tMalam Ladan said that long before coming of the Bura to
1 this area they were known as Bura. He said that since before
,a the Pabirs came the Bura people were called Bura.
2 Clan is the division of the Bura tribe into smaller fragw-
menta like Nalgwi, Bwala Mobelia, Mbaya, Melelisah and *,*
many others*
There are so many clans because during the coming of the
BURAS to the BURALAiD some groups settled under a tree and that
people were later identified with that tree they have settled
under. For example, during the coming of the two brothers,
two Ngwa they hunged their arr:ow-oase (KOJA) at a Bwala tree,
These two brothers Were then later identified as people of the
Bwala tree. So today we have a large clan called Swala*
Others who rested under Isah tree were known as Isah people.
They are addressed as M9 AH When prefix is used before
a clan's name it shows a sign of respect for that olan. Those
who settled under a Sura tree are called Sura. Those whe came
from Malguri but did not settle under any tree were identified
with the place they hav comee from. The Clan Malguri had come
from a town called Ialguri. Although the people were not called


Malgwi, this could be only due to power pronounoiation. Of
course during the process of calling Malgwi they called Mal-
gwiMahelia is another clan which did not settle under a tree
for identification, Mr. Ladan said that Lia is iron and so
the people are excellent smelters blacksmiths. For this
reason most blacksmiths are ashelia. Mbaya people came from
a town called AlALAZ fron the north They are called Mbaya
Membership in the clan is inheritable. Someone outside
a clan cannot gain membership of the elan. He (ladan) alle-
ged that only the elan of the father is inheritable because
the clan of mother is not recognizable in the society. Woman's
position in the society is always dependable on the husband*
Women are properties of their respective husbands and they are
therefore identified with their husbands rather than with their
fathers. Any child that is delivered is given the fathers elan.
Membership in a clan is not changeable. The clan to which one
is born remains forever the elan of that person and his children.
For all clans there are elan Head. These are always the eldest
of the remaining members of the clans. The Head of my elan today
fMy lan a well lmown for their great skills in hunting,
they were great warriors, well known at funerals when there is
death. They could remove roofs of huts. They were also known
as excellent cultivators. One of the greatest hunters was Chap-
wala Vima who settled at Jhlakwa. Example of the great warrior
in the lalgwi clan were Philaps and Ngwarkwnaksa. The best
farmer still in Ladans memory as he said was Ngulang. He said
also Malgwi dn was known for its expert Haptu keepers. Many

of the members of the clan kept Haptu.
3 Laden says that it is not possible for someone *0 claim
another elan. It is always a pride he says, to be identified
with ones own clan so nobody actually changes his clan.


He said he has never seen someone changing his clan neither
would such ever happening due course.
In normal oases, when people of different clans are
brought into say Malgwi clan, they retain their respective
clans. But in r oases when one or two people are bro-
ught into a large Malgwi family; they become adopted to this
large family. If the father decides to adopt this children
and call them sons then this children become actual members
of the household. In such cases if the children will tend
to forgot their fathers clan and doing much to the stepfathers
clan. When such happen, eventually the children will be
identified with the Malgwi clan. Therefore itia only .n
this ease that the adopted children would loose their paternal
clan and adopt the Step-fathers clan,
4 The informant alleged that the Malgwis are called so be-
oause they came from place they have settled in long time
ago called Ralguri. Perhaps it was because of poor pro-
nounoiationthat Malguri people wero called Malguri. Because
they settled together at Malguri, they also moved out together
and wandered together because of the com~nr~nal as sociation
between them they were grouped under one clan. The ralguri
onC-e into being for those reasons. It was at the same time
as the whole Dur (tribe) Bura were wandering that the
Nalguri also wandered. Infact that time it was not only the
Bura people that were wandering but also a core of other tribes
in the Kanem Bornu were doing so. As the Buz roved south
so also did a section of this Dur called Malguri. As the
informant said previously that the two Bwala brother settled
at Ngwa and Bakwa, the T-alguris settled at Jhlakwa and Bi2,
He alleged that Biv township belongs to the Malguri ,
The informant went on to say that some moved even further
south and then settled at I Aga Bura, Others settled at Dikir.
Those who settled at Agu Bura lost the ownership of the village
to a Zhimani (clan) man because they could not chose a leader


but resorted into a family dispute. He went on by giving an
example of an aged. lolguri that is still living at Aga Burg,
this he said is Bal-iar, Dika
The informant went on saying that some of those who set-
tled at Jhlakwa moved on to Puba, F rem Puba they migrated to
Yimisshika, Appreciable number of Malgwis are found today at
The informant alleged th- those at Dikir are of the same
Nyarmbwa. A few Nyarmbw;a could be found among those settling
at Jhlakwa, Those settling at Puba are having their own Nyar-
mbwa. Those at Yimisshika and Aga Bura also have their own
Nyarmbwas. Some of the Nyarmbwas are Malgwi Chsara MIagwi
TILIA or IWARAM; MAIGd I Tr TARIA and a few others he could net
The coming about of Nyarmbwa, he alleged t-at if a member
of the clan marries two wives and these wives give birth to a
son each. These brothers are called Half brothels. WJhen these
half brothers grow up successfully they willestablish two
Nyarmbwas althou( they have same father. If one of the two
brothers decides to migrate after getting a wife, and settles
somewhere then their brotherly relationship becomes loose and
if he gives birth to children and they grow up their children
will gradually forget thl*a paternal relationship (lineage)
with their fathers brothers children. Consequently the rela-
tionship will be forgotten and two district Nyarabwa's would
be found. The Head of my Nyarmba today is Yachike Buar thus
the head of MAIJI JHLIARJA. Some Nyarmbwas can die off. Nyarm-
ba which belonged to the Yachiwa lineage is today non-existing.
Yadiwa and Gaji Bura were half brothers. The Nyarmbwa whieh
belonged to Gaji Bura of course is still existing. There is

always a head of the Nyarmba (lineage) but it is always prefer-
able that the eldes-t person still living among the members of
that Nyarrbwa. The Head of my elan is Yadika Bura.

1 3/ 7/ 7 3

luV]LY2 i ^ LCatlS L DA" OCCLL
M.I. SAKWA iL 24


M. Ladan started by saying that Yamtarawala's father
settled in a place EAST of Bornu. The father had two wives.
By the time Yamtarawala's mother was present the other wive
had pregnant too. YamtaraWalas father wis the King of his
YamlaraWalAs mother gave birth to him and the other wife
/._ gave bith to a son. It was also understood that Yamtarawala
was not the actual son of the King bt wae a bastard; Ya=ta
(shorter) and the kings actual son grew up together because
S there was no slight discrimination between the two. It became
awfully hard to distinguish who was the Kingts actual son and
who was not,
Before the King died he decided to try these two young
men to see who was his own son such that after his death
would get on to the throne. The Kings House had two gates.
After the death of the king a cow was given to each of these
two youngmen to slaughter. They were given the cowe at the
aIae time and were required to slaughter the oows at the same
time too. It was done this way to avoid spying of other
fellows work. Yamta did not turn the Wow to eastwards. He did
not also ask the people around him to did a small hole where
I / the blood was going to collect. He did not either ask them
S to sharpen the knife which was to be needed. The King used to
perform all these rites when he was slaughtering. It implies
therefore the person who did it the kings may quite well, would
be regarded the King's son. The other boy sla ghtered his cow
just the same way as the kings so he was declared to be the
King's actual son and was to assume the throne henceforth.
Yamta, having performed his cutting wrongly, was rebuked
and got annoyed. He was also Surried in shame ard he then
decided to quit his home.


He decided going westerly until he reached Mirnga where he
settled for someti-,es. He was not however satisfied with
the conditions at Miruga and also because of the small size
of the village he decided advancing forward. He eventually
reached a place near MANDARA-GIRAU where the scenery was
quite beautiful and he built a mighty house.
One day he was walking in a path and suddenly he saw
some beautiful stones which he picked andJ decided to carry
home. As he was walking a stone kicked his toes and fell down
The stones too dropped an: he refused to pick them again,
The informant alleged that those stones could still b3 seen
where he fell. Another similar story is that one day when
he wa going a-long a certain path he saw soam beautiful grae
eal, "4do s/ 1Le6a az a5yCo C e'k6 7a&/ T ? c # dj t 6,a
and carry home. When a stone kicked his toes during the short

Sjourney he fell down again. The grass got scattered and he
promised not to carry any home. The informant went on to say

1 tht it was the soatering of the grass during Yamtas falling
th-'.t made that particular grass to reach every corner of the
Yamta was said to an excellent hunter. Therefore one day
when he went hunting he killed an elephant. le hunged the

elephant on his shoulder and started homewards. When he was
w' walking he &ame across a river called Tsirakumi. By the river

S aide, he met two girls and he asked them whether they could
bathe him. The girls agreed and they bathed him. After the
bathe, Yamta dashed the girls with the elephant. Yamta then
instructed them that anybody that comes to the River and wants
the water should give them an elephant likewise. Yamta then
proceeded on his hunting and then killed another elephant which
he carried home.
the girls went home and told their parents that a certain
man by name Yamta had given them an elephant an:K that they
should go and carry it for supper. The girls then related the
whole story of this noble hunter from when he reached them and




when he left them. The girls' parents went and fetched the
elephant and shared it amongst themselves.
Under normal cases Yamta always prepared is own form of
biscuits. These type of biscuits is a fried meat which vae
dried and hunged over a root. Tamta called this meat AGYARA
One day Tamta asked his many children to spend the day-
light threading cotton for him. As they were working Yamta
took several stones and put them inside a cooking pot and set
the pot on fire. As they continued to work he timely sent
each of his children to go and carry the Agyayaeyara None
of the children except Kari Viralyel could reach the agyara-
gyara hunged on the roof, Nart brought the Agyara-gyara and
,they out it ifor the lunch.
Th~ stones In the pot were on fire for several ho irs. He was
sending one of his children timely to go and check whether the
fire waa burning quite alright. He also asked them to taste
the stones wheheher they were cooked. When every child but
Maria Virahyel had a turn they found all th stone only hot but
not cooked.
Lastly it was Mari V1irhyes termn When he reached the
pot he took a small piece of fire and put aside and put off the
the remaining ide4 the pot. He then med some grass and with
small piece he has kept aside and made another f4&rwhich did
not take a second to make the stone oo k beyond the normal
(yoking point. Some of the stones had already gone into a
liquid form. Mar took one of the stones in th pot and started
oheaing it In his way to tell his father Yamta that the atones
were too cooked.


Yanta was terrified on seeing what his son Mari has deoae
Yamta became awfully upset because he thought Marl was more
enchanted than him (Yamta). Mari was the seventh child of
his father and he p.rovel: tougher than Yamta. Mari was again
sent to bring the agyara-gyars as all the six children had
failed. When Mari brought it, they took it but then it was
getting dark dOwn vwa approaching. Yamta then discussed/the
children after the heavy day's work.
After the evening relaxation all the six children and
Mari went in for the night sle p. When Mapi was fast asleep
his wicked and jealous father blocked his (Maris's) deer aad
set fire en his room. Yamta was after all happy again because
he thought he could do away with Mari successfully by that
means. Luckly Mapr however was not burnt in the fire but mana-
ged to escape by the roo. The next morning wicked Yamta de-
olared that Mari was burnt, when his room caught fire at night,
not knowing that Mari had escaped.
Mapi escaped and went to Virahyel. All surrounding vil-
lagere trooped to Mand.Lra--Gira for Marits funeral. AS the
villagers were walking by they set Mari but they did not knew
that he was the one. Mari then asked them where they were
going and they said they were going to Maadalrairaifte attend
MaPri funeral. He then asked them to deliver a message for
him to Yanta his fat' er, that he (Mari) Was at Virahyel seated,
that if Yamta was not a coward let him (Yamta) come so that
they could prepare milk and Tikire He (Mari) possessed milk
and that Yamta should bring the tikira.

(tikira is a type of feed made out of flour.)


They are made in a round form and is usually taken with milk.
The villagers were puzzled on hearing that Mari whomthey were
going for his funeral was still life and aenkd at Virahyel.
They were afraid to deliver such message to Yamta so they went
back without delivering it. Mari kept on waiting for his
Father (Yamta) to come but that never availed. He then con-
tinued to send the Illagers but still they were fearing to
tell Yamta the message. At last people from a certain vil-
lage were passing when Marli aught a glimpse of them. They
asked them where they were going. They said that they were
going to attend Mari funeral. Then Mari o&ld them that they
should tell Yamta his father that he (Mari) was seated at
Vilahyel munsss" Ad thb Yamta should come with Milk and he
(Mari) will provide Iaira so that they could prepare milk and
take together. e then added that if Mari had no milk h6 oould
brig either which was possible for him. Mari kept on
waiting for his fathers coming but he never did. The villagers
aeha reached Mandara and greeted Yamta and his wives then the
remaining six children. As they were just leaving one of the
villagers remade+ the message they were sent to deliver# to
Yamta. The villagers shouted our Lord bereaved, "of course
when we were coming we saw someone who called himself Mari
He said that thus, "he (Mari) seated at Virahyel was waiting for
you. H e (Mari) said that you should go with either milk or
tikira so that you should prepare milk and tkke together,
Mari said, that he was seated Nnesss at Virahyel and would con-
tinue to wait for your arrival. Of course Mari did not goe
On hearing the message Yamta began to wander whether the
message was a drQam. He became awfully annoyed and he told
the villagers who gave him the message that they should go
like ~ vrad and become vagabond. He also woed them. Tamta bored
with the news continued to wonder what type of day dream it


Because Mari stayed at Virahyel after his escape he was
later known as Mari Virarel.
The people Yamta wood were later called Shambar (wind)
people. Most of theeof course became wind people or hooligans.
When one of the Shambar people die outside Sheabar vil-
lages the village closest to where the death had taken place,
the people of that village would carry the corps to the
village next to theea The people of that village would also
carry it further to th~ village next to theirs. Until this
continued to the point where the coepa had gone too bad. When
it gets too bad to be carried further then it would be buried
in that village but one of his fingers must be out and sent
to the 8hambar village, he grave a should be roofed during a
every vet-season if not the consequence will result into too
much wind which of course would be very disastrous. The
wind could destroy a whole kllage in few hours.
As Tamta was temped by the message# he never a rest of
mind. One day after a days break Yamta vent in# put on his
best shirt and his shoes were on too. It was of course a
'iraeloe that Yamtats sleeping room had no entrancee, It was of
only that evening th he showed up that secret opeuo
Yamta then got a stool and sat down in the middle of the room.
Tamta's wife sent her daughter to go and call him for a
brief discussion. On the arrival she saw Tamta sitting and
she delivered the message* He agreed to go but never turnzrmp,
so his wife was oompe3ed to send the girl back with same mes-
sage. It was a miraolous thing when the girl met her father
this time sinking into the ground. She did as she was told and
delivered the message. YTeta still agreed to appear but never
did so. She went back to her mother and told her that father
said he would be coming but went on to say that she found him,
'? sinking into the ground. The mother flatly denied the truth
i, about Tamta slinking, and said that she has never seen a sink-
ing-man so her daughter should stop such Joke. The mother


sat her daughter again and she found lamta still sinking,
infant he was nearly sunk. The girl rushed immediately to
her mother and told her of what she had seen happening to
Tamta.. By that time only the last tip of his hair (ikewar)
was still visible. When his wife came, she shouted but :,
coul4 hear nothing from her husband. She took a knife and
the last hairs (Jikwar). She then covered the top of the
sinking whole with a calabash. That spot eventually became
grave of Yamta aa Vala. A fence was construated round the
grave and rooted. The hair could been seen even today at

The early mats of Siv were given the hairs when they
assume office. The hairs were first given to Yeataravalaae
children the eldest first and the youngest last, Mari
Virahyel got it last. Some of the early mais who got the
hairs ares-
Kuthli (mai) Pastor
All Gurgor
fathlt All Gurgur was the last to be given the hair.
After his it was not given to the succeeding maei because a
dispute arosed during the reign of Ali furgur. It was
s s aid that it was not Ali Gurgur who was supposed to reign
/'/ that 'time. At the time of the dispute the whitemen were
at Bi*tso they gave the chieftaincy to Ali Gurgur.
The people who belonged to the Zoaka clan held the res-
poneible for taking care of Tamtaravala's grave* The grave
today is surrounded by a stone building.

(The interview continued with the eeming of the white-


LADAN is still the informant.
Ladan started by saying that long time ago there lived
a King called Petera Ala. His kingdom covered a very great
mass of land that it was hard to tell the end of the kingdom
The kingdom was oentred around Bornu. Petera Ala, was known
for his great skills at war far beyond his kingdom. For
that reason, the vhi\temen came to know about him and they
decided that they must see this great warrior and fight their
way and his kingdom.
The whitemen came ani fought Petera Ala but they I)ae
enough for him* He killed one white warrior and that shook
the score of white warrior that made retreat. Before they
leave they built a concrete around their partnersgrave. The
whitemen thought the beat way to win this ar was to reinforce
with more sophisticated weapons so that was why the retreat.
Mbwarmi was a neighbourhood kingdom to that of Petera Ala.
At Mbarai there was also a well known warrior who became worried
over the progress Peters Ala was making. However, their was
an mnter-marriage between the twe royal families. The prince
at Mbarmi Mallam Dzki sen married Petera Ala's daughter
(princess). The princess was called Awa whose brotherwas given
the name Mammam Nyabi. The marriage between the two royal
families happened when the prince at Mbarmi paid a courtesy
call on Petera Ala. After the marriage Petera Ala gave a
portion of his kingdom to the Prince of Nbarmi so that they
could stay happily near with his wife. Although the prince
of 4barmi authkat had another objective of coming to stay with
Petera Ala. His motive was that if the whitemen succeed in
killing Petera Ala in the second encounter then he will try his
uttaost best to kill Mamman Nyabi his wife's brother so that
the kingdom would be his.


The second oenonter between Petera Ala and the whitemen
had apparently oame up when the white's having re-armed them-
selves found their way baek to Petera Ala's kingdom. They
sent a message to Petera Ala that the war was in eight so
that he should be prepared to receive them. After receiving
the message Petera Ala began to prepare. When he was through
with the preparations he told his son* Mamman Nyabi, that he
was going to war. Peter Ala gave this message to Mamman
Nyabi tnease I do not come back and supposing another breaks
after I have left use this ring in your gun and the war shall
be won b. you". He then took out a ring and gave it to
Mamman Nyabi. At the tib e of delivering the ring Mamman Nyabi s
sister (the sife of Mbarmi prince) was present, Petera Ala
instructed his son to keep the ring in the front at pocket of
his shirt. He also went further telling him to pin it so that
it could not drop out when he bends down. After giving the
instruction Petera Ala and his warriors left for the war*
Peter Ala and his company continued to advance as the
white warriors were approaching, The moment h the two enemies
met both raised their flags of war. Immediately after raising
the flags, exchange of shots fo.*llwed and there the war con-
tinued. Unfortunately at the war Petera Ala was shot dead.
The message of Petera Ala's death reached the ears of waaman
Nyabi and soon he took to preparing himself for the war. The
prince of Mbarami however, was pleased about Petera Ala's death
and he told his wife that they should go back to )barmi and
greet the king. The motives behind the Prince of Mbarnmis
going back was to go and prepare himself for a war with Mamman
Nyabi. Although, the prince of Mbarmi was going to prepare
for war, he still entered his war shirts and shields. Awa on
seeing her husband wearing his war clothes ant to tell her
brother what was apparently going to happen. she, Awa got
herself ready also for the war, She told iarmman Nyabi her


brother all that vwa happening and she asked him to get ready
for a war. Mamman Nyabi did not hesitate but went on straight
to have himself ready and his company too. The Prinoe of
Mbaui not knowing what was happening thought that his plan
was still undiscovered. He told his wife Awa that he was
ready therefore, they should leave immediately.
Mamman Nyabi bl the the brother inlaw of the Prince of
Mbarmi decided to give an escort to the Prince, Then they
all started off until they reached a place where Iamman had
to turn back and bid his bye-bye to the Prince.
Immediately Mamman Nyabi turned to go back he had a ter-
rieic shot from the prince s side. He (Mamman Nyabi) shot
back and they began even exchange. There was however, no
killing on either side until suddenly Awa told her brother not
to forget what their father had told him to do when war occur.
He soon recalled the fathers instruction and he removed from
the front pocket a ring which he inserted into his gun. Time
had come for the Prince of Mbarmi to take advantage of his
last breathe taxxi*ka for Pamman Nyabi's last shot was going
to finish him for ever. The last went and it got the Prince
right in the skulls and at last he played under his horse s
hopelessly breatheless. That was the end of Prince of Mbarmi
and his people. Ava the prince's wife followed her brother
back hore after driving the Prince war-men.
The whitemen- after defeating eetera Ala and his company
now, they took to other kingdoms. Their next target was Mbarmi.
At Mbarmi the whitemen faced the same bad luck as their first
encounter with the Petera Ala. One of the whitement was killed
and they buried him likewise ani built a concrete around his
grave then went back. On their return they found that Mba ai
township was well fortified. Not a single pefton could be
sighted going about. Infact all the people in the town were
kept inddors except one boy and a girl who went since quite


long to greet relatives in a village faraway. The villagers
sent bags to the Rivers to fetch water. As it was so, the
whitemen were compelled to burn the whole village to ashes.
Luokly it was that single girl and boy that escaped.
As the two strategic places were over-bn the whitemen
began to advance southerly until they came to BiDiarea The
informant said that this was the way in which the whitemen
found their way to this area. They fought their way by en-
countering heavy and light warse


Around him are three of his children.-
Mari, Buka and Haruna
Time 7.40 in the evening,
Place Infront of his Room

The informant says that the Malgwi clan lone time ag~
settled at OHARA, They later moved and settled at Viramta.
He said that it was their group of people who gtve rise
to the different Nyarmbfts (segments) of the Mvalgwi elan.

lawvi MandIaa Karva.
LOng time ago there lived a member of the Malgwi clan
around Garua inthe east. He had settled there for quite a
long time when his children began to di one after the other
until all of them had died. The next tragedy that followed
was the death of his wives until he was left lonely. Filled
up withesuh tragedies he decided to migrate to a far place
in case he might forgot about his short comings. The place
he had settled in during the period of tragedies was called
MANDARA from whibh he established his Nyarmba. His migration
however, took him westerly until he reached a place near Bi6
called VIRAITA. At Virainta he met the Malgwi's who had come
from CHARA. He then lodged with one of the Malgri elderese in
the village. He was serving as servant in the custody of his
master. He had to go to farm and out grass for the horse,
oats and sheep' Time was passing fast an he was getting aged.
Hie master was so pleased -rith him that he decided to
give hit" one of his daughters for marriage. They were married
happily and they continued to stay at Viramta. As time was
going bl the girl was oonoetved and later gave birth to a boy.
After another lapse of tame the man's wife gave birth to their
second child which was also a boy, They grew up into adults

and began to look for wives.
The first child got married and went to settle at BWALA
Near Ving. The second child also got married but settled
with his father for sometime before going to settle with Ms
brother at Bwala. At Bwala the elder boy'e wife gave birth
to two children. The younger brother's wife gave birth to
only a child.
The two children of the elder brother grew up and got
married, The eldest of the two went to KWAGU to settle there
with his wife. The youngest brother went to settle at PIBA
IKA BURA, The son of the younger brother also grew up and got
married. He too did not settle with his father but went to
settle at MWARAM with gis wife, This chap was to become the
stamina of one Nyam ba. The two sons of the Mder brother
gave rise to two different Nyaraba~.
At Mwaram his wife gave birth to a child of adtde a boy
who was called SARAIU. Sarau grew up and his father got a wife
for him. Like the others before him, he did not remain with
his father but moved to 2DAGINA near 3akwa where he settledwith
the newly wed. At Dangiss he built a mighty house. He also
had his second wife at Dangiss.
His first wife gave birth to a boy whom he called
YAKWARK4I. The second wife however had five children. All the
six children soon grew up and got married respectively.
Yakvarki settled with his wife at Dangisa for sometimes
then decided to move on to Sakwva At Sakwa he had his second
wife. Yakwarki however, did not settle long at Sakwa but moved
further to TANGA. But while sIl. at Dangisa his first wife gave
birth to his first child called MID&LA. BURASJIKA who was the
second child belonged to the second wife and he was born at



Mo.l 8AKWA

Takwarki'a third son was killed during war. The fourth son
was called ANJILLI. Yatoarki also had three daughters. Bach
of these daughters was called Madlabit Hohikiwuta and the
last Wandu. The eldest son got married to Awva
Yamidala the eldest son had six wives
1st wife called Awa
2nd Jinatuwa
3rd x forgotten
4th Jalan Kubuli Sakwa
5th Tsutiya.
6th K Ma Anjil Pindar
Among the five children belonging to Yamidala only one
was a boy. He is called Mari* The remaining five are females.
Mari's mother was called Tsutiya. The eldest among his ehild-
ren is Maravi Njamna who is how at Mangada, Mari is dwelled at
Sakwa with two wives and six children. His mother was called
Tsutiya. Mari Njamna's mother was araihx Midalds first wife and
she was called Ava. The second wife called Jinatuwa gave birth
to Sikta. The third wife whose nare was forgotten gave rise
to Jhlaa. The fourth wife of course gave rise to Yambikatava
who is married with children at Nduraku. Ma : Anyi I Pardar was
early divouced because she was a thief and she never bore any
child for Yamidala.
Mari migrated from Tanga to Tsahuyam where he had his first
two children who are still life. His first, is called Kwamting
and his second wife is called Thlama, The first two children
who are both female belong to Thlamas The first wife's child-
ren from first to fourth all died. The last two are still alive*
Two of Thlamas children also died but altogether she had two
girls and two boys.
The names of his children are:-
Mariyamu miyalada girl
Muasa Asugm -bof
Shatu Harmali Girl
Abu Mbami *
Bukar Kirwakari boy
Haruna Bata *
Mariamu is now married to a husband and they are now working
in Zaria (Institute of Eduoation ABI.U),


She has three children. The first child is about eiaht years
and he is called Peter. The second is about five years and
he is called Tusufu. The third child is about two years and
he is also called Ishaku.
Shatu is married to a husband and they are now staying
in Lagos, She has two children. The first child is Mariamu
and the second child is called Ibrahim. Sheries father is a
soldier. Musa, Abu, Bukar and Haruna are all attending schools
respectively, From Tsabuyam Mari moved to Mbirti and then
later to Barki Sakwa a where is now living.

Sarau was widely known during his life time and many years
later as a great warrior. The news about this great warrior
spread from Virahyel in the north-east of BI to the Heval
RAver in the south. He lived at the same time as Mari Virahyel
the youngest son of Yamtarawala. Pari Virahyel heard about this
great warrior at Virahyel and he decided to friend him for
Sarau was then settled at Dangiss and he was well known for
his bravery at ware. He was known to the e great because he
used to come back from ware with ma y war refuges (captors)*
Maria Virahyel was also engaged in the same activity at Virahyel
Mari began to fear that this warrior may one day come his way
and that could possibly result ihto a dangerous encounter, Mari
decided to get Sarau so that they cou.d plan and arrange a
treaty. Marri then started of from Virahyel to Dangies and he
met Mari where they discussed the issue. A treaty was signed
that they should never fight each and from that day they became
As the chieftaincy was t' en in the hands of Mari Virahyel,
he crowned Sarau with Yingship of Sakwa. Sarau then moved out
of Dangies and went to settle at Sakwa.


Before Sayau left Dangisa the informant says that

Dangisa used to be invisible during wars. When warriors
come to attack Dangisa before they could come close butter.
flies would fill the space between the warriors and Dangisa
village and that would render it invisible. Sarau used to
be a great slave dealer. After collecting the war refuges
he would call his representatives (Katealas) and distribute
the refugns to them. When all of thrnm have sold the slaves
they would bring the money back to him.
The informant says that the objectives behind Mari
Virahyel s appointment of Sarau as the king of Sakwa is that
he wanted him to leave Dangisa so that he could get him
easily. Sarau did so and was later over-ran by other warriors
because at Sakwa nothing could make the villa e invisible.



gl/ v A \0- 0 \ C A.L

Sa-TT PA\j

M r- o I j ry r. c.


, Y




- .. . ^

- 1

.. ,.
.* *" -'a

-; ,
- ;^

Moun -C~n~ Iltwc(Bs


"0 )\

ci nO

c,-eA K~O~A~~jubLi






Sorz~TYgoc Sr.CvI

~r C^+'44Al a.

---C3 r

- --/ ^ ~--~*^-- ... ....
- -- I ---- ,


vot-u foy

/( AR) R^-4V

Me R~t7I r;YJc~

jo,) ( I C (4- )


IBRAHIM MALGWI was the informant
Interview took place in his room.
Times- 7,40 AM on 25/7t73.
There was no one around.

The informant started b) saying that when there is a
place where a gathering ofipirites takes place we refer to
such places as Haptu illim.a Haptu in short is therefore,
a congregation of spirits. In such places where the con-
gregation of spirits are found the places are usually isolated
and feared. They are feared because they can oast evil things
on people. The informant went on to say that when a depressed
person goes to th haptu or Millim/ and explains his problems
the spirits of the Millim or haptu would do their best to see
that there are solutions to his problems. But after the person
is pleased and he forgets to thank the spirits by sacrificing
Something to them then they eventually get crossed with the
person and in turn would have the person punished for deceiving
them. They will therefore do evil unto him.
Normally the type of depressed person that go out to see the
Millims or Haptu are (a) those women who cannot give birth to
child (barren). (b) Those women whosechildren nanmally die during
infancy. (C) When a ypung man dies at the ar age of say twenty
to thirty then his parents would think that it must have been
somebody's evil-cast that has caused his death. (d) When some-
body is always hit by sickness and he is never well for long,

/((e) when someone's house gets burnt and the cause is not known
(fo Some people who see thin~ which others cannot see at night
or during day time but at wulsu)* Mostly it is young children
who are engaged in evil activities wulsu. There are others
scores of this type of people who goes to the Haptu when depressed
in one form or the other.
The ty#e of people who go to the Haptu for want of rAchness

CU~ti ouHCL^ /lai'l-UyC/^^ ^i^ ^^Uu^C^ (^~i.VC7


and end up badly if they fail to give thehaptu a human being.
A human being normally a person's child must be given to the
haptu or killed for it as an offer of sacrifice to console it.
If the person fails to offer the human being then if he is not
fortunate the haptu would kill him for having promised him
(haptu) in vain. Very few people therefore go to the haptus
for richness. On(of the examples of the haptue well known in
Bura lahd is Mar=au inthe Marama Hills.
When somebody doubts his sickness when he is not well,
that, his sickness is n6t a natural sickness caused by desease
then, he would go to a soothsayer. If the soothsayer says
that he has been tempered with, by someone's evil doings then
he would go to a haptu directed by the soothsayer. Normally
the soothsayer would give the person a clue of the person who
is doing the evils. So when he goes to a haptu he would explain
to the haptu his proble... He would at the same time promise
the haptu that he would give him (haptu) either a goat, sheep
or a chicken.
He would say then before so and so date "let me see some-
thing being done to the evil doer and let me get my normal
health. As the days go by, if it is true that his sickness
has been caused b someone's evil doing then she would be re-
covering. At the same time also the evil doer would be falling
sick. Soon he would collapse and die and the victim of the
evil doer would soon gain consciousness and in no time would
completely recover and the day of promise has comethen an pffer
of what was promised must be done. The evil doer by then would
have died. If the victim of the evil\ doe fails to offer
the sacrifice as planned would of course possess something
even less\ad give thehaptu to please him for sometime, but


if refuses to offer anything at all, he w uld then face the
consequences. The haptu would turn for him or her until she
rushes for a thing to be offered to the haptu. If the pro-
mised days go past and some maths go past still not done to
the haptu then the spirited would get crossed and would plan
evil again the victim of the evil doeri for having promised in
vain. The spirited of the haptu would either him or her or
kill one of his or her children. Another penalty oould take
shape intha form of fire accident in which all the properties
of the person would be burnt.
When villagers see a group of such spirites they the vil-
lagers woeld go out to the spirits andbeg for their associa-
tion. When they are associated with the villagers they would
render the.r guidance. The villagers would also make a promise
that they would be soaring for them spiritse) by offering them
sacrifices yearly or timely. Froa thereon they would stay as
two friendly nations. At times of trouble they would rush to
the Millim (we call such haptus owned by all villagers of a
village as Millim) to e9k for advice. When the time of sacri-
fice comes the whole villagers would go out to ofer the sacri-
fice* If the sacrifice is in a form of animals they would buy
.the animal collectively ad the village head who has closer
association with tie spirited will perform the slaughtering.
Normally before the slaughtering the village-head will
chat withe the spi6tts for say five minutes in which he will
ask them to continue to offer their guidance to the village
without hesitation. He would thank them and scatter beniseeds
and other special grains. During such occasions there would
be no work at all in that village to show that the villagers
respect the spirited.


Then, after the slaughtering the blood is only meant for the
spirits but the meat remains for the villagers. The meat is
shared by all the villagers small or big. The meat could be
distributed from house to house so that each family would get
a piece. On other occasions the whole meat is roasted by the
haptu or Millim side and tho whole village would troop out to
share the roasted meat. The elders believe that this form
Pleases the spirited more than sharing piece by each family.
. They always feel that when the spirits see the whole villagers
Coming out they spiritse) wo:ld be pleased,

One way in which sone people come to own their own haptu
is by going to the place where the person thinks or once
heard that spirits are living there. The person would then
explain his or her problems to the spirits and hence promise
them that if t ey could find a solution to the problema depres-
sing him or her, she/he would come immediately and collect
them spiritses. It is so happened that in due course the depres-
sed finds solution to his/her problems then she/he would tend
to believe so much that it was the work of the spirits of the
haptu that caused it. Shp/he would then go and collect the
haptu and find a place for it in the home, hence, owning thA
haptu. She/he would then be caring for it all the ti-.e until
his/her death. If the children of this person also bel lwe in
the haptu the eldest would adopt it after the death of the
previous owner. All the children would be adopting it awmIeity
successfully from the eldest to the youngest. The haptu would
then be continuously adopted by the children, grand-children
and those who would come next. This is how people come to
have their own haptus.
The informant also added that sometimes the spirits ofthe
haptus are below water. As he said, they dwell at the bottom
of the water but come out occasionally to view the outside to
see the worldly things.


When they understand that they are being watched then they
quickly disappear into the water and consequently reach their
dwelling places. When several of such observations are
approved that really such spirits are at the bottom of the
water then the people would start to believe that this water
must be haptu's. If on some occasions the water happens to
drown someone the people would begin to speculate that the
spirits of the water (haptu) must have been offended, that
is why the person was drowned. The people would start going
to bow before the water for the spirits. When someone falls
sick they the villagers would go and fetch the water and bathe
the siok person in it. For example ake Tila is one of the
few existing Lakes whose water is still used today for such
purposes. Sometimes the water would be used in cooking some
medicine for the diseases. Other times a chicken would be killed
and cooked only with euch water alone.
I had one time gone to well jib kwajama (Bwajama well) to
fetch such water when I never went to school. My mother had
one time also used the Tila (Lake) water to cook a chicken for
lost people who believe in haptu thinks that any stomach
disease that causes the stomach to grow and project out like
a pregnant woman must be the work of such water spirits.
They would think the disease must have annoyed the spirited,
or of any of his close relatives the. people in the same
Nyarmba or his ancestors must have annoyed the spirits of the
water and the spirits have taken revenge by causing such
disease to infect the person. They would say if it was n6t the
work of the spirits. How would water get into someone's
stomach to make him look like a pregnant woman.


They would simply say that the spirits used their power to
cause water enter into the stomach of the deceased and so
they have to rush to the water and offer sacrifice.
Every where stealing is regarded as a crime and when
there is eases of stealing, the victim of the theft normally
goes to a haptu and request the haptub assistance in tracing
the thief. It was also believed that when someone oommitt an
evil thing the punishment could be directly on him as on his
close relatives. It could also be on either his children or
the people of his Nyarmba. So everybody fears the danger that
could arise when someone in a certain Hyarmba does an evil
thing. As the haptu begins to trace the thief could punish
him in any form then, If anything happens oddly withinthat
time of theft people would assumethat it was the person who
did the stealing. If anybody is known in that persons Nyar-
ba to be a thief, the people will assume that it w .s that ,
that, person caused the death of his fellow man,
There is no special Nyarmbwa that own the haptu. Of
course any person can own it but the person must be extra-
ordinary careful not to offend the spirits of the haptu. Ahy
person can own it and it can be inherited under certain con-
ditions, People of same Nyarmbwa may collectively own a
single haptu then this haptu would continuously remain under
the care of this NiParmbwa. A child may inherit his father's
or mother's haptu only after the death of the father or mother.

The informant said that there is no clan that is specialized
for keeping haptu. It was also understood that if a haptu is
not inherited and great care taken overit the spirits would
be offended and they would attack the person who is supposed
to inherit them. So sons of people owning haptu adopt the
haptus for fear of evil doing by the spirited of the haptu,

... -/ ..-


2oday the two predominant religious have exerted muoh
influence on almost eveybody so most people are tending away
from practicing haptu. Those people who only go to haptu but
do not keep haptu are also discouraged none of the two re-
ligions allows the practice of haptu so any person who belongs
to one of the religious has to give up the practice. As the
two books each belonging to either religion are deemed Holy
persons belonging to any of the religion s oan take the holy
book in place of haptu, Because on several occasions when
there were oases of theft people are made to swear either the
Bible or the Quran just as the haptus are approached during
the eases of theft. The number of haptus have therefore been
on the decline since the coming of the two religions. Also the
coming and presence of the whitemen helped discourage those who
practice haptu. The introduction of schools in the local areas
had very much helped the decli e in practicing haptu.
From living memory the informant alleged that the number
of haptus in his olan hac' not increased, instead it has decreased
for obvious reasons mentioned above. The informant could not
tell exactly why t'ere ws no increase in the number before the
occurances of the reasons above.
The frequency of visit to the haptus depended largelyon how
after a person in diseased in a certain Nyarmbwa* One can go to
any haptu anytime the person is depressed, But the ordinary
visit for sacrifice is timely. Some haptus are worshiped -
that is when a sacrifice is offered to the haptu once a year.
Others could be either every two years or every three years up
to every seven years. Other haptus like the Bwal is worshiped
many times in a year. The Bwal is believed to cause eye diseases
if it is offended*


3o, anytime theft is eye trouble like the apolo a chicken must

be slaughtered for it. There are different forms of the Bwal

as can be seen below. The most usual ways in which haptu

owners consolethe haptus when they (haptus) are offended is

by supplying blood for them (haptu)

P I AG R AA 1 9

This is a type of Bwal

with two branches. Some

connecting strands can also

be seen. It is a man-made


' I This is similar to the

above one and it is the

most common of the BWALS

found in homes and at the

tip of the branches can be

seen two holes where blood

enters when chicken is saort-

fieea for it.



El, 3~AKVA

This is another form

of BWAL but there is no

long branch.




This figure above is another form of BV'AL. It has many

projeotiwns as shown in the diagram. It is next to be as

commonly found in the homes*




Diagram II

gi a T
(a) A widely grooved stone where a little of the blood
of the sacrificed animal is poured.
(b) A slender standing stone on which beer is poured*
(e) Some old trees surrounding the two stones.
All of these are collectively called k I L L I M


Some of the man-made haptus found in the homes.

Diagram III

(a) A piece of steel broken off from a much longer one
usual during something for lengthening steel.
(b) A steel in the form of a stunning fork.
(e) is an 3 shaped steel
All these steels are found together in the homes and such
collection is called haptu.


This haptu As sometimes found out in the country side
sometimes in the homes.

Diagram IT

It is one of the large haptue. It is surrounded by
(a) .. is a stone, narrowed towards the tip and broader
around three quarters length ofthe stone and the rear
end is a little narrow also*
(b) .. is a small broken calabash or pot where blood is
poured for the spirited of the haptu*
The lines on the stone shows where the wine poured on it -
has ran down.


The diagram below is another form of haptu. It con-
sists of several horns of a bull or buffalo. It is com-
bined with other man-made haptu to form a complete haptu.
It is kept inside room and sacrifice is given to it timely.

A pair of bull horns.

Purpose of thebull horns see page 173.



The present religious domination of the Dur (Malgwi)
and the Nyarmba (Mandaskarwa) is the Islamic religion. The
Islamic religion is dominant although substantial member of
the elan practice christianity. It is nearly half half the
number of people who worship in the two religious.
The practice started long ago by the members of the
Nyarmba about 50 year ago. It came from the kansm Bormn
areas and spread southwards to Biu and south to Sakwa. Chris-
tianity came during the coming of the astionaries. Christia-
nity was first established at Garkida and spread westerly to
Both the rellgioNa are not spreading today. Today the
vigour with which people aeeept the religious is declining.
Today therefore the two religions are not spreading neither
are spreading.

8,40 a.m. the interview ended.


9.30 a.m. interview taking place in Ibrahim MarIs
room. There was no one around.

The informant started by saying that long ago there lived
a king who owned a large kingdom in the North-Bornm. This
king had two wives ho conceived at almost the same time.
The other wifefs pregnancy was not the king's but was someone
else. The two wives gave birth to a boy each. These boys
grew up together happily. It was hard to distinguish who was
the kings son and who was not. Yamts was known to be a bas-
tart but now it was hard to ten.
Time was egong by and the king died. The question of who
was to suseeed him because apparent. The king was buried in the
normal rites in which Kings are buried. The time to choose a
successor had also eane but the trouble was who possessed the
right to suoeeee k YTta or the actual Prinee. Since it was
hart to tell who was the kings and who was not, the elders tried
the two young men. They decided to give: them a cow each to
slaughter and the person who did in the ways the king slaughter
without folly would be considered the real son of the king.
A Qow was given to each boy. The king's house possessed
two gates and a boy was in each gate. The cow was made to face
westerly, ropes and knives were given them and they were asked
to do the slaughtering in the formal rites.
Yamta simply took the rope and tie the eow legs and
asked someone to lanA the cow. The cow was landed and Yamta
did a small hole and took his knife and out the cow's neck
while it was facing westerly,


It was considered wrong to slaughter any animal facing the west.
The other youngman then did it uniquely. He asked someone to
tie up the cow and later did a amall hole. He at the sametiae
asked someone to go and sharpen the knife but should not allow
the cow see it. When the sharpened knife was brought the aetu-
al prince asked those who were standing by to land the oow and
also they should make sure that it (cow) should face the east
directly. He also sent for water to be brought which he would
use after the slaughtering in washing the blood off the oew*'
seek and also washing the knife together with his hands When
all the necessary thi gs were bought he marohed to the cow fa-
oing the easterly and reeited a verse and then eautionly saau-
at$er the animal.
As the elders were watching they all became impressed with
the ways the prinee perform the slaughtering and so they rushed
to him and carried him on their shoulders shouting you are the
greatest and our king. On the other hand Yamta was bluffed and
was laughed at. He got annoyed for the teasing and having lost
the Kingahip of the kingdom decided to leave home finally and
naver aome baiE.
Yata was an excellent hunter and he managed his way by de-
tending himself away from wild life and he journeyed south-east-
erly until he reached some small kingdom. His rival, the
prince was happy on the throne and he was the master of his king
dos. In Yasla's journey towards Biu he had of a great kingdom
whith never at one time ever became a subject of defeat. He de-
eided to find solution to this obscure problem and decide to go
to the kingdom to find out things for himself. When he reached
MirUga which was the kingdom everybody had ta4d about, he met
the king'a daughter in the well. By the time Yamta entered the
village he was carrying an animal he had killed. He dashed this
animal to the girl (princess). The girl was fascinated but she
took the meat home.

ol.. SAVWA

The next day the same man (Yamta) appeared again to the girl
still at the same well and dashed her with another animal he
had killed this oontinued for several days until the girl
and the man became so acquainted and friendly. Yamta decided
to take the girl's hand in for marriage and the girl willingly
accepted him* The king was not however interested in giving
out his daughter to such an unnoble fellow a common hunter
But the girl was mad about this man who could produce meat
They became married and settled together happily. As
time went by the hunter continued to exploit the girl to find
out exactly why her father's kingdom was unconquerable, Until
it was one night that the ever hidden secret entered the hands
of a hunter who would later assume the kingship of the kingdom,
The girl revealed that in front of her father's (king's) house
there is a heap of rubbish under which a horn filled with
magic was planted. The hunter then went out seoretely in the
night, went to the Ring's house and dig out the horn* After
getting hold of the horn Yanta then began to gather followers,
He started recruiting men and training them to wage war against
the kingdom of Mirnga.
Yamta eventually conquered Mirnga and began to advance to-
wards Biu. He felt that Mirnga was too a small place to set-
tle in. He conquered Bin and moved Ito a place near mandaragirua
and settle there. When he was there he continued hunting,
One day Yamta asked his children to help thread cotton for
him. He dried a roasted meat and hung it on the top of a roof
and asked his seven children to go for the bag one after the
other. All of theet had a turn except small Mari. None of them
could reaeh the bag until Manr had a turn. He brought down
the bag and took it to father. They ate the meat and Mart was
sent to go and hung the bag in its place again. As the after-
noon process was progressing Yatsq was eonteapuloting on his....


youngest sons magical powers. He was fearing that Marl was
more enehated than him and decided trying him again.
Yeata filled a pot with stones and put it on fire and
called it a cooking mixture. He sent a child in turn to sheek
the fire and see whether the stones are eookedo He instrested
if they found the stones still uncooked they should put more
firewoolt on the fire. Consequently there was a great ftheap
of fire in the fire place that it became very hard to go even
within several fat of the radius. All the children had a
except Mar., Now it was Mar*'s turn since all the sij ehild-
ren had always brought the same moment that the stones were as
hard as if they were not put into thepot on the fire. They
would only add that the stones were tremendously hot. When
Mart reached the fire he did not even want to see what had
happened to the stones in the pot but went straight to push out
all the fire under the pot. He put out all the fire with water
except a small piece. He then brought some small grass and
light the fire under thepot* In just a fraction of a second
the pot was boiled and all the atones in the pot were looked
beyond the normal point of cooking. He took out a stone and
started showing it he was rushing to his father andhe was
calling out father, father - -. He reached his father and
his brothers with the cooked stone and all of them were rendered
amazed. The father was disappointed and he began to wonder.
Now Yamt, has believed that his smallest child was more en-
chanted and posssssed more magical powers than him. He had kt,
to get rid of him.
Marl was not safe in the hands of his father because the
father had planned to have him assassinated. The end of the
day long threading had come off in the evening, Mari and his
brothers had gone to their respective rooms to relax and later
the night sleep* When Mar 'was asleep his wicked father abloe-
ked the entrance into Mart's rooms. -He blocked the doer so ...

9,I1. SA17AN

heavily that it was very impossible to eome out of the room.
He simply set fire on to Mari o room and went back into his
sleeping room thinking that Marl would be burnt inside the
Maria with his ragieal powers managed to escape from the
ball fire by the root. He went straight to Virahel. At
Virahel the next morning he saw people going to Mandaragirac
to attend a funeral. He asked them where they were going and
they told him they were going to Mandaragiran to attend Mari's
funeral. He asked them to deliver a message to Yamta, Mari's
father that Mari whom they were going for his funeral was
seated in Virahel and that if Yamta is not a coward let him
bring either milk or tikisa, Mart will provide the other so
that they should prepare the milk and drink it together. The
villagers reached Mandaragiraetbut refused to deliver the
message after the funeral greeting, cause they were fearing
Several of asuh villagers were sent time after time but
anoof them possessed the vigour to tell the king-Yamta the
message. Lastly there eame a group of people from a certain
village. They cane past Mari and he noticed them. He called
them and asked where they were going. They told him they
were goint* h- ia oe to Mandaragiral*
for Mari's funeral. Uari then told them that he was the Mari
they were going for his funeral but asked them to deliver a
message to Yanta that:
that Mar was sitted at Virahel and that He (Yamta)
should either bring some milk or tilkis, he Mari would provide
which he (Yamta) cannot afford. The villagers then departed
and they reached Mandaragira$. On reaching Mandaragiroa they
greatest all the sorrowful people they were fast going out of
Yantaredala's house when one of them immediately reminded them
about the message which Mari asked them to deliver the Ki9g.


They said, you highneaa, when we #ere coming we met someone
who called himself Mar, he asked us to tell you that you
should t*ke either milk or tikira any that you can afford,
he will provide that which you cannot afford. They continued,
that he said he (Yamta) should meet him (Mari) at Virahel if
Yamta is brave enough.
Yamta on hearing this became so annoyed that he wood the
villagers and prayed that let the villagers go like, hurieane.
The villagers then left, but from that time the villagers were
known as Shamber People because of Yamta's woe on them.
Shambar ia Bara means wind or hooliganism. So the Shanbar
people are first hooligans.
Yamta, having failed to get rid of Mari wondered -hat to
do. Mari became aware of the message he had sent his father
and continued to wait for him at Virahel and he was eventually
known as Mari Virahel. After all wicked plans had failed
Yamta decided one day to show up the entrance (8dor) of his
room which had ever remained invisible. He put on his royal
clothers ani sat in the middle of his room and began to
meditate. In the course of the meditation he began to sink
into the ground with the stool he was sitting on.
Yamta's wife was grinning in the small room and she sent
her daughter to call Yamta for discussion. She went but
saw her father sinking into the ground. She then went back
and told her mother of what she had seen. The mother looked
at her and told her that she had never seen someone sinking
into the ground. She sent her (daughter) back to go and call
her 6b father again. The girl after seeing her father came
back with the same news but the mother refused to bee" believe
whVba what the girl said.


She was sent several times until in the last round. The
girl eame back almost in tears ard told mother that Utthep
was almost sink into the ground. The mother then rushed to
see ad approve whether her daughter was telling lles i r
serious about what she had said On reaching Yaata's rooM
she (wife) found only the last visible hairs on his
(Yanta's) head. She quickly ran for a knife and out the
hairs. The hairs are still in the custody of the royal
families. The spot where Yamta disappeared became his own
grave yard. That is how Yamtaradala disappeared from the
laIS surface and buried himself below the ground. The end
of Yasita

The aiterviS ended by 10.40.


11 The Changing pattern of Dressing 1rem Anoient to Pr'e-
sent Day.

Interview 7.30. p.m.
Infront of Malawi ibrshi~m'e Room. No one was around*
Informant Ibrahim Malgw
The informant stated that long ago both sexes were Ins
evolved in plaiting their hairs. The most aommn plaiting
which men like, was a type of shaving which was in rows.
Hairs are left inbetween the rows and plaited. Sometimes
the hairs are left wnmlatted. When the hairs are plaited
they are dyed in red-earth called ha. By the coming of
the whitemen the dying in Raha was dropped.

An example to illustrate the ways in which the ancient
people shave and plait and then dye the plaited hairs in red-
earth called Msha.
The ancient types of clothes used in those days are
"Nashi", "ambucka" "Suraya" and "gaen". Today only the gaen
is still in use. The Nashi was a kind of gown but made of
local cotton and used mostly by respectable elan heads or
village heads. The ambuka a small shirt was dropped and
have been replaced by a 3jama. All the aforementioned types
of clothing were used only by men.
Women used "gurjafbti", and "Dasbatir". Daambatx wase a
king of clothing used by women. The cloth had strips on it
normally black ones.


1 1 I--i ) !7i/ / / 7/ /// / / 7 / / //7//._/ ^ZZZ2Z?

\- --------------- -----.-. -_ -. ____ ___--

It is worne only by females.

Men also wore 'begteng' instead of shorts or troesa rs
Boys at the ages of 12 or above also wore the bengteng.
When there was ceremony the youngmen tie blankets, Small
kids below ten years used to go naked. They used to share
their father's or mothers blankets at night but had no clothes
of their own. The material from which all the clothing were
made is called Kuntu. This is a wrong material consisting
of many turns. The material is vry but is wound in round
form like a vespa tyre. It is then sewn in the form required.,

a KJmntu

The informant said that "fikofa" was worne by those 'ho
were newly married so that when they are playing with their
husbands at night the haubands would be stimulated (heated)

Older women wore "Shawa" in their neeks. Different
varieties of ear rings were worne in the ears. Around the
toot some wide and thicker rings are worne around the left
hand wrist-wings are worn also. The types worn by twins
were different. Those worne by the twins are sometimes single
twisted rings, others are double one twisted the other re-
natns untwisted.


Seoe very old women used to wake holes in their upper
lips. A slender corn-stalks were inserted into the holes.
During funerals, gunclan (a very long but narrow drum)
used to be played. Dang an instrument made from oorn-stalk
also used to be played,

As new varieties continued to be invented also styles
and qualities were subject to changes. Women began to wear
small shirts and tie wrapper. As time continued to change
the pattern of shirt (bloase) they wore also changed. The
blouse and using of wrapper were replaced by using a long
below-knee type of shirt.
Por men too the change was evident. The use of beng-
tong was replaced by a better quality materials. Shortsand
trousers were introduce4. The use of under wear were also
introduced. Contrary to the very few types of clothing used
in the ancient days today just very many different kinds of
clothing are in use: the style of shirting has changed tremen-
dously. In the old days no caps were used today different
kinds are in use e.g. the DipohariSa and Jakson-ftve.
Shoes were not wn in those days. Only a slipper type
of foot-wearing called 'warrango' were used. Today we have
at least three different types of foot wearing. Warranga can
still be seen with very few villagers. It does not cover the
whole foot but two or three aips pass saross the foot. Now
sandals have taken the place of warranga. But before the
introduction of shoes that cover the whole foot a type of rub-
be*r shoes normally black calledlKundira" were used.. Today all
those types of shoes are extinct. There was no transition in
the use of warranga for women and modern shoes as there was
the use of Kundira for men.


There was only a big jump from the use of Varranga to the use
of modern. Women too have many varieties of shoes. Leather
anf rubber shoes were common.
Today men do not plait their hairs, but either simply
shave it completely or bare it. Contrary to those of the old-
en days when men plait and use osha in their hairs the use of
masha has completely stored., many more varieties of hair plai-
ting had been introduced. Some are copy-rights of other tribeA
hair style like the Yoruba hair style. The most common hair
style of the past was the Takaba which is now extinct also.

a Taaba hair style
Another ancient hair style is the Zan, Hauwas It is not com-
pletely extinct because of few of the women in the villages
still have this hair style. In those days the plaited hair
used to be dyed in maha but today the use of asha has been stop-
ped, Pomade is used instead of the asha. Today contrary to the
ancient hair styles girls prefer barbing especially to plaiting
their hairs. The use of headtie is slowly disappearing also.
Modern necklaces (e.g. chains) have replaced the shows.
Wulu (a kind of string worn on the neck) was sometimes used
buttoday only very few of them can be traced. Today shinny rings
are worn by both sexes, In the olden daps only one kind of
ring was in use. The use of wire rings on the foot has stopped.
The use of Jikda (a type of waist chain) has also completely
stopped, On the whole very many varieties of clothing and
other things worn has increased in number, styles and forms and
have replaced the ancient ones.



An ancient dressing ana present day dressing oeepare. A, is
an ancient man wearing bengteng around the waist. B, is a
modern man wearing a cap and a kaftan, (watch) on his hand
and also in modern shoes contrasted with the Warranga of the
ancient man.


The mfodern2 man also has tr*OuserZ whsreas the ancient man

has only benoong. Without the bengteng It means the ancient
man Is aortpletely nakewd.

Interview ended. by 8.30.

Clothes of Ancient Day's and Today

014 df.ty8 s ZO."da --
3SrYS, ~t~Jakapiya

UaPi Ga1rJ.

Ambuka Turku



Informant Badawi Ngyesdu
In his house Intrant of his )oom in his parlour.
Sulemam MuKturpha was around. He is a student of Boraw
Teachers' College.

Time interview started 9.30. in the morning.
Badawi alleged that from the coming of the Whitemen to
the present day could amount to about 50 years. He said the
emir who was on 41b the throne then was Mai Ali Gargur. The
informant said that he could remember that they carried their
belongings on horse's back and rode horses after them. They
reached Bin and asked the emir of Bin whether they could be
allowed to settle at Biu. Mai Ali Dogo who was then on the
throne as the emir was happy with their coming but could not
allow them stay at Bin because of the D.,0(District Officea)
advice to the emir. The D.O. thought that the presence of the
Whitemen should they be allowed to stay might not be conclusive
to him because they might veto him. Be the D.O. then told the
emir, Mai Ali Dogo that the best place for them should be Gar-
kids which was then part of Bornu Province.
The whitemen then moved to Garkia and Lassa in Sardauna
province. The informant complained that he cannot remember the
names of the missionaries who settled at Garkida. He said all
those missionaries that settled at Marank, he could remember
their names because he had seen them in persons.
The informant added that the first missionary to settle at
Marama was Heckman. But he alleged that Mallam Asses who was
a buiLder found his way to Marama before Heckman. He however,
did not stay at Marama for a missionary work. The next missionary
that settled at Marama then second to Heckman was Mr. BitAger.
The missionary settlement at harama started roughly about 40
years back. The third missionary on the lot of those who set-
tied at Marama is Ruth Uta.

9 al a SAKVA

She Li now retired at Marama. The fourth missionary to set-
tle at Marama besides UtZ was Shinier. After Shisler ease
Mr. Keeney, And last on the least but not the least was Dr.
Fought. Today there is no missionary settled at Marama be-
sides a nursing sister and retired Miss Utzs
During the establishment of missionary station at Mara-
ma it was first thouEht that the station should be built at
Kwaya Bura. Sub-stations were opened at Ngwa, Puma, Bilatum
and Bila.

9 RelisBion
The informant (Badawi) stated that Religion came to the
area during the reign of Ali Dogo.about 70 years ago. He
alleged that ehristianity eame earlier (about 10 years earlier)
than Islam. He however added that religion (christianity)
reached Garkida much earlier than else where in B4aland. So
much of the Christian religion eame along with the missionaries
around 50 years ago.
Islam however, found its way to the BAraland during the
reign of Ali Gurgur about 60 years ago. Islam was first che-
rished by the Pabirs at Biu. The Pabira also refused to
believe in the rights of the christian religion. The two
religions t ien started expanding. The christian religion
spread easily especially in the areas where there were mis-
sionary activities. The missionaries therefore helped greatly
in fostering the rights and spread of christianity.
Islam however took a different form. It followed a
completely different source. In the early days of the reli-
gion, it was a pride to become a muslim because finding 3ob
in the Native authorities were no problems if one was a ams-
ltm. So the Islamic religion followed almost the routes
where there was native authority activities. Now we have
seen two ehanaels by which the religions had spread. Chri*-
tianity by ways of the missionary activities and XYeaam by


ways of Native Authority establishment. As the authority
in the Native eahiUb authority was in the hands of the
Pabirs and as they were among the first people to cherish
the Islamic religion they deeeived any person not belong-
ing to Islam impure and filthy. Therefore they refused
giving offices to the christians and Pagans because they
(Pabirs) Called them ARNA, The christians were however,
very understanding and they kept following gently so that
no Religious crisis could happen.
So long so good there was never a religious otials
although the Muslims called the christians Ama. The Chris-
tians did not worry because they were called Arna. This
was because of the oppression they have suffered for a very
long time so they were used to the characters of the Pabirs.
In some places however there were sporadic disagreements but
no complete Orisis.
11 The quality and variety of dress worn in the bygone days
have changed very much from what is worn today. Today all
clothings are *ade from a materials referred to as yards but
those of olden days we had a material called Jintu from whieh
the yards (gabaka) are obtained.
In the olden days nen and women were engaged in spinning
cotton. Two types of thread were made. The very thim types,
were used in weaving fues shirts. The thicker threads were
used in wearing any coinron material made out of cotton. All
materials (clothes) were made from cotton alone. The pro-
eess of threading, weaVing, and s]pnning were all very slow,
Dying was also common. The already made clothes were sometimes
dyed, other times the thread were dyed before weaving starts.
Contrary to the different varieties of clothing we have
today those of the bygone days were only very few.


Not every worn clothes on the b4dy, only the elders could
afford shirts or wrapper. Men used be.BenDg which could
cover the private part and leave the rest of body revealed.
Women used to tie something they called patch-normally girls
worn this dress around their waist. The, kids and almost all
below the age of 13 wore nothing. They went naked even in
the cold but at night shared their fathers or mothers blan-
There were two types of clothing women commonly used.
They are the Jabta which has white and black strips. Jambi
another type of wrapper which was completely black was also
used* The jabta is completely extinct but the jambi could
be found one here and another in that village. Young men
used ogly gotan made out of the gabaka and used both at night
and in the day time. It used to be tied in the neck in the
day and used as a blanket at night.
Women used to pUhit their hairs in about five different
styles. Zakwantami was one of the most common hair style
people liked. Zame, another hair style was practiced. Men
also plaited their hairs. Men who did not like hair plaiting
shaved their hairs completely. There was no art of Barbing.
After plaiting of hair some redearth called msha vai~ used
to be applied. There :.o' no tying of the head with headties.
Men did not also use caps but some used hurts made from
Necklaces were not used by men but women used two types.
One type is called ashura which was made from hairs of horses
tail. The other type is called Yidolum and was made of steel
or bronze. On the vrist were also worn some bronze wares.
T1e wristwares were of many varied shapes. Some of the wrist-
wares were worn for specific believes. Others were worn only
for gaiety. Those worn for special believe were the twin


These were of two types, one a single and the other double
welded together.

a&b, are twin rings worn only by twins in the old

On the fingers bronze rings were also worn. Some of
the rings were twisted but the others were plain. The plain
ones could be made to shine bright by rubbing with braso

(a ppead kind of stone). There was a kind of lace worn on
the foot by the ancient people. Gonarauwa was one of the
laces worn on the foot and was made of bronze too, The
Gonaruwa was worn only by women especially very old ones.
Some women made holes in their lips and insert Piso. Some
women also made holes in theft nose and put Banjuwi into 66
Some few women may be seen still using the banjuwi today is
places lie Tanga, Aga Bura and Merams. The ancient people
knew nothing about watches (wrist) so they did not put on
watches Today people (both sexes) pra put on watches.
Awalewale has replaced the wristwares used by the ancient
women. Other wrist -aes have eame out and gone 6ut of use*
whose names cannot be remembered.

As the Kamins are identified to with the types of their
traditional masks. The Burs people were also identified with
their traditional masks* There were two places where the
masks were out. Women apart from the masks on the face
perform stomach outing. The stomachs were decorated by put-
ting down masks on them.


"Kirshimbup" Meotting is done below the abdomen and
does not come above it. The other cutting is also above
the abdomen.
The face traditional masks were characteristically of
three kinds. However, none of the three kinds of mark be-
longed to a particular elan. It was only once iiSeh to
choose the mark of his or her liking if it was not done
during childhood. If It was done during child hften
the person was not able to speak then it became the style
which suited the mother most.
The Kanuri style called N1wa nwa was common. Datigomi,

Nupe style was also very common. "Bwalang" style was not
so common as the other two mentioned above, however, still
few people usually men oan be seen today possessing it.

I \

Datigoni style

Nwa Nwa style

\ .3
Bwalang style

Today only the NwaNwo and Datigoni can be found only
among the vilagers. Traditional marks are almost absent
today compared to those found in the old days.


The coming of the ifitemen, religion and the ability to ia-
port various of kinds of styles most of the traditional acti-
vities were subject to variation. Some have completely gone
out of the Buraland, others on the other hand are establishing
themselves. Today many kinds of European styles have been
imported into the Buraland. Women had started using even
artificial hair (wig). The pattern of dress have changed and
are still subject to changes. The ona gowns worn in those
days and the wrapper used b people of the past are slowly
sipping away, The mini skirts (usually worn by students-
girls) the naxi, the gowns are becoming predominant.
Use of bell-bottomed trousers, the JamesBrown style and
the different kinds of shirts worn by our children today are
slowly replacing the Danehiki used about 10 years ago and
still being used by children from poor families. Eveh in
the market place very appreciable number of farmers besides
teachers and office worker san be seen tying watches on their
wrist. Only women who are in Paddab are responding slowly
towards the swinging changes going on today. The women still
use long dress as their religion requested. The moslems (typi-
eal) still shave their heads because the principles of Islam
forbids having much hair on the head.
Today almost everybody goes in shoes whether one is rich
or not, there are shoes whieh can well suit all categories
of people. Those who are poor can still have shoes to wear.
Using cap is also dropping out slowly from Ihe community.
Dressing today has completely changed from what it was
some seventy years ago. Today on special eves e.g. Christmas
day Sallah and the Independence day one finds that everybody
is almost gorgeouly dressed. The native dress are almost
eeppletely extinct except with very old women. As the Bursa
land Oontinues to open to the outside world more and more of
the foreign styles of dress and material will continue to flow
in and the pattern of dress will continue to be subject to
hangs 10.00 a.m. interview ended


Informant Ladan Merama.
In his bedroom. Sule Mustaphafs was around. Inter-
view started by 10.30. Ladan's wife was outside but
she was coming in ocassionally.

When the first District Head of Sakwa Gadima uiWliwa
Thiema Bats was reigning at Sakwa the first bunch of mis-
aionaries came to Biu Thlema Bata however did not stay long
at Sakwa but moved to Biran ?omn Birnm he was moved to Biu
by the then District Officer in Biu Mr. Egak,
The bunch of missionaries reached Biu on horse back.
They were altogether four in the group and they asked Gal-
dima Wullwas to assist them find a suitable to settle after
getting permaision from the emir, The emir was very happy
with the missionaries coming and akaed them to find a place
of their choice. The missionaries coming could date back to
50 years ago Mr. Ladan alleged. It was the emir who instruc-
ted Galdima Wuliwa to assist the missionaries find a place
of settlement. The District Officer (DO.) however was not
happy at all with their coming and so was not happy also about
theIr settlement near Bin and much less with their settlement
at Biu. iHe mounted on advising the emir that he should not
allow the missionaries to stay until they obtain permission
from Maiduguri. The missionaries were not however discouraged
they proceeded to Maiduguri and obtained a permission to set-
tle. Having come bake from Maiduguri. The missionaries were
eager to start building up a settlement. The D.0. was disap-
pointed in that the missionaries were granted the right to
settle many places of their choice. He became furious though
about the whole situation and refused the right of the mis-
sionaries to settle at Bin.
The missionaries and Galdias Wuliwa then walked down
southerly until they reached a place called Meram& about 10
miles away from Biu.


They found the place very suitable for a settlement because
the place is situated on a plateau and bounded by deep val-
leys on almost all atdes. They requested Ladan Merama's
pleasure to assist them set up some buildings and he willing-
ly accepted the request. The next morning the four missionaries
and Galdima Wuliwa ventt back to Biu to give a report of their
finding. They went to the emir and told him about Merama and
he allowed them go on with progress of setting up buildings.
When they told the D,0, he became displeased and asked them
to halt any move as trying to set up a settlement at Masmma
because Mee elMerama was too close to Biu. All that the D.0.
was fearing was perhaps the challenge these whitemen might
throw at him. He was afraid that they might veto him and so
might make things tense for him. The D .0, asked them to find
another place preferably Garkida which is very faraway from
Biu. The ever patent missionary missionaries were not annoyed
with the obstruct affairs being put to them by the D.O. but
willingly accepted the offer. Galdima Wuliwa and Ladan Merame
accompanied them to Garkida, Ladan set on raising buildings
for them and soon they had a settlement at Garkida, Until now
the missionaries since reaching Biu had no place to settle.
After three years of settlement at Garkida which then
part of Bornu Province they came back to Biu and asked for
another place to settle. They came down to Marama and found
the place very fine for settlement. They set on clearing the
bushes. They nicknamed the place Undlir Kuthli, They asked
the people around what the place was called and they said it
was called Dikir. Dilir is a tree which has a very bitter
balk and leaves. The whitemen had known of this tree since
they were at Garkida beasase the villagers used the bitter
bark in healing stomach disorder,


They refused to callithe place Dikir because of its bitter-
asne. They wanted to call it Merama with the name of the
place the D.O. has refused them settling in. They started
calling this new settlement Merama. The villagers could not
pronounce the word Merama eorreetly but Marama. That is how
Marama came into being.
Mr. Heekman was the first missionary to settle at larama.
Mr. Been came after r. Heeckman departure. Another missionary
came after Mr. Been had left for home. This missionary was
Mr. Labis, He built a school at Ngwa. The schools built by
the missionaries were very cheap indeed. It raised from six
pence at their early settlements to nearly 30 (S60.00) today.
The missionary continued to come one after the other. This
is all Mr, Ladan can remember about the missionaries.


During the time when Kingdom of Mbarmi was at its peak
religion began to flow southerly in to the Buraland. Pezeaps
it was the whitemen who conquered the kingdom of Mbarmi car-
ried along with them the christian religioner As time went
on and as these whitenen continued to advance gradually so
also was how the religion was advancing. Christianity there-
fore reached the B-raland before Islam. Islam came much later
on, still from the Norhtern, After christianity found its
way into this area it continued to spread much with the coming
of the missionaries. It followed the routes of the misaionaries
with more intensity.
The Pabirs cherished Islam earlier than the Buras. As the
missionaries were refused settlement at Biu, hardly did the
christian religion find a base in Biu, Even today only a very
few people inside Biu township are christian. Contrary, Biu
became a core of Islamic religion. Islam spread in all diree-
tion from e here to other places in the land. The exact time
Islam established itself in this area was when Galdima Wuliwa
was moved from Birni to Biu. Islam spread southwards until
it reached Sakwa area about 40 years ag. When Islam was just
touching the pagans of Sakwa Thlema Bate was the District Head
of Sakwa. Birni a village about 29 miles south of Biu produced
substantial muslims. It soon became known for its fanatic
Islamic followers and Mallams. As Ladan had motioned above
that Islam touched the people around Sakwa during the reign
of Thlema Bate some Mallams had to travel from Birni to Sakwa
to open up the heads of the people and enlighten them on the
Islamic principles. Soon a mosque was built at Sakwa and the
Mallams from Birmi came to lead the new convertees.



Although the Lords (those who worked in the offices)
had accepted the religion they never tive up the practices
forbidden by the Islamic law. They continued to drink beer#
asma tobaeeo, attend haptus to mention only a few* Moat
of those who cherished both the religious were not eireuasled.
they alsorarely practioed&the religion but merely called
themselves Muslims. Mallam Sanya came from Birni and mouated
on preaching the Islamie doctrine. He was so impressed with
the work because so many people were responding to the call
to accept God. To also believe in one and only one Allah and
say there was no God (hapta). One of the first pepple to rea-
pond to the teaching of Islas is a man called Ladan. He is
still living and possesses in his capacity as the r caller
of Sakwa o Meoae. He is the person that calls people to prayers.
He had fortunately lost both eyes due to old age. After
accepting the Islamic doctrine Ladan went forward to have hia-
self ciremuased. He did (not a' ) get involved into taking
beer; eating pok, rat; eating dead animals whose cause of
death was not known. He began to learn to recite the Quran.
He was doing it very wall that Saya plates produced an Allo
friin ,He (Ladan) was mocked and lsugiei*at by the pagans.
Most especially whswwas reading the Q an tey thought
he was a big fool to sing a song he never knew what words
I meant, But as time went on More and more of Ladans type became
common so the Islamic faith began to be firmaly established.
At Biu Mai Ali Gurgur gave the slamic Mallai* full ee-
operation. tntlike Ali Gurgris predeceasora who were not
interested in religion Ali Gurgur himself showed a great love.
T Islam then being free from all tortures was prospering. It
prospered well until the mansionn of missionary activities
hampered the spread of Islamic religion a little* However
there was no asute cotmliet between the ahristian and Islamie

ea4 e ~ ~ra s'L~k+a~~ C?)aray~ r~pL~L1a


Slistgons sathoug there wore few s~poredi diSagreemeat be.
twee the top religion mallems. Besoase misstoary int:lue
people theuat that wanthing in the thristian war wasa ag
and ways Of there religiOns were had. Because the misinary
setivities were Pflted-by whitemen both fear and the oeltni
Xed ways of the EUropean life made the people to belUeve so
much in the faith of Christianity.
Some of the reasons whibh ade the spxeat of Oftkatia-
X nitty so easily in ome peiees was the availability of thera

isVpeasa*ei. They treated the people (pagans) freely sat
asked them to om next stie they fall saio fthey nwr im-
pressed by the ways the misaonarOie treated them e s Iarig
Sthem into accepting the thrstian faith beceas m probale.
-/ A/' Aonog the early ehristians who accepted the faith awe
Mlla Hamnn Mhobbwal, Mallam Hasmmn Mbaya, I4kta M)adu,
Likte SikitWA a a~d a aore of othew the Ormaent cannot
remember. These early theriaeWr welrve mabiU"se int the
schools established by the U issiomares. These people later
helped in preaching the hriestian faith. The early hinstian
ahools were very eh i(eAly 6& was the school fees. It later
beesme 2/6. per pweson.
fe far there was no eonfaict between the two religions
except light disa~ esae ts. Quite different forces helped
spread the two arligion, The .s of Islam was geaero by
the NOative a ti y ftres he rlti was geared by the
missionary forces. AlaU the introduction of the Native antho-
rity seAools and the esOionary shoolsl.heled in gearing the
spread of both religions Later it be6m.e-e became a pride
to be identified with either of the eUglgioA* since eost pe
ae belonged to the religions. People hated being aled
Pa as( ))by those ho belonged to the reZUgions. Others
saim y proclaimed that they were wither ehristians or mslims
so that they should not be sealed Pagans.


These type of people nwver practiced any of the five pillars
of Ielam neither went to church or read the Bible. They
drink beer and never praCtieed any of the religious principles.
As etvilsation hit most of the people they tend away from
the religions. Tlhe so-ealtted Ahajia enjoyed being called
Alhajis but never turn their attentions towards their religions.

The Pastor understand nd o some are still understanding the
meaning of groove they are being addicted to beer and smoking.
The only common Muslims and christians are forgetting whether
the mosques/ehurehes should be visited daily or monthly. Most
learned people do not seem to be responiag well to the reli-
gions. On the whole, the iSformant alleged that too many peo-
ple are tending away from religion and going back to paganism.



11 The people who lived long before e~ our forefathers
engaged in the same activities with women. They did not 1
leave the hair plaiting to women alone but also plaited theirs.
They had also used msha (red earth) as the women did and shave
ows between the plaited rows. They had also used Kwatau
(made out of steel) to tie up the plaited hairs. Women did
and applied msha tLe ways the men did so. Takaba (hair style)
was the commonest style. Girls preferred their own hair style
called Bari-Bar (Bare-Bare or Kanuri hair style).
Traditional marks were also essential during the olden
days in identifying what type of person one was. The Bura
people out the faces to put dow marks. There were three dif-
ferent styles of the mlaring. One waiah seems to diverge from
both the corners of the mouth are called Datigora- other peo-
ple called it Mya BdukaLm Those mast linearly, vertically
downwards on the cheeks called Nwa Nwa was also called by others
Mya Neha. The last style not mentioned is the Bwalang style
which runs down from the forehead to the nostrils. For dia-
grams see pages 102 and 103.

Mya in Bura is mouth Mye could also mean l e.g.
Kua in Bura is meat by the riverside.
Bda in Bura is chew In Sura we sayt Mys airku.
Neha in Bura is eye Zirku River.
Although the necklaces common today were not found in the
olden days still our fore-fore fathers used necklaces. Shuwa
(made from 664& horse's tail hairs) was tied in the neak to
make them appear gorgeous* The tips of the shuwa shrma were
leathered in such away that it was not possible for the two
ends to go apart and give way.


SShuwa. (Iecklaee).

The shuws is black but sometimes it wV is white. Mostly it
was worn by elderly %omen.
Some other necklaces made of bronze were also worn.
Wrist laces of different varieties were worn. The laces worn
by twins alone have been mentioned in early part of this book.
There was something called gayagaya which was worn on the head.
Shaving of the head completely was a religiously assisted
concept. The first to start shaving completely was a man cal-
led Bihiya Diyama. The first person however to start shaving
particularly leaving a portion of hair on the center, we Jilkwar
was Hyelma Buba. The second person to have a complete shaving
we* Ladan Mera- the informant.
Stomach decoration was common aluast everywhere south of
Biu, Women decorated theft stomach by cutting marks on them
for gaiety and partly for brevity. A woman was distinguishable
from her own society she had her stomach out. There were two
styles of stomach cutting. One below the abdomen and the other
above it* The one below the abdomen is called Uishimtui and
the above is called Dawlang.

Vis I rivel.
) Vishimauyri mark.


Vi in Bura means place. Shimuui in Bura means tears.
Vishimuui also means a type of sickness caused by too much
sugar in the blood system.

\ Bawlang mark.

There were two types of babamniga (gown) one called
Kwari and the other called amakdi. They were dyed in dyes so
that the white colour should turn black. These types of $hirts
were worn only by elders who were heads or rishmen. Lima
which is a blanket had some leathers tied on to them in such
a way that when the user ties it he could use the strips of
leather to tie them up. Bengteng (see page 93 diagram a) was
mostly used by poormen and children above twelve. The coming
of the whitemen however made the pattern of clothing ohasge.
This is because they brought machines which could make materials
faster than the local looms. The looms could produce only a
single type of material but the whitemen's machine apart from
its fastness could produce many varieties of materials. The
gabaka was eventually replaced with yards.
Women never used same wares with men. They used different
materials one of which was called Jambi. Women carried their
children when going out in Pishi. Pishi is a tanned leather
sewed with strips which could )h a baby tightly to the mother.
It was sometimes decorated with many hanging strips. The baby
had an advantage when carried in the Pishi in that it was Il-.
ways warm. When there was rain the child would be also free
from it. The Pizhi was sometimes dyed in the red earth C&lled
Asha. Today the Pishl is totally *xtinst but in few houses


it could still be found hanging on the walls, The Pizhi was
sometimes decorated with bottona and eowries.
When there was an occasion like installing a Diw head
people (men) earry their bows and arpoi eases after having
dressed axcellently. They would itt one aprow in the bew
and begainig to jii~ up and down. Most of them would tie
their wait with strings or leather. The bows UlaU) were
decorated with leather of varying olours. It would be ds-
eorated well that it would be much adored. The arsew. ae
(kwaja) would be decorated also beautifully with leather.

anewa sb~i


a = Bow (Lali)
b Arrow ase (Kwaja)
ca Ar row case head,


4th AugUBt, 73.

Refer to your comments on page 56 more about the
Relationships between Mandaragitaxand old Sakwa

The foPer iformiant added that the relationship between
Mandaragiaii and old Sakwa began soon after Mari Virshyel at
Mandara Giran heard of the famaou Kigaaa Saran then at Dangioa.
Kigama Saran was widely known to all warriors south of Manda-
ragian for his skiUs in wars. Virahyel too was not left
out amongst these vho Seard of Kigama Saraeut skill. He
then decided to send delegates down old Salwa, to contact this
famous warrior. He wanted to have Kiga Sarau to sign a treaty
with him that they would never fight one another at wars. The
delegates reached old Sakwa and delivered the message to Kiga
Saran. The message is that bhe he Mari Virahyel who was then
a partial emir of Biu did not know very mouh about the southern
part of Biu especially south of Sakwa. Therefore he wanted
Kigama Sarau to help him exploit the south. Thus by signing a
seaty that whenever there is any war pr olashes they should
not fight one another. Kigama Sarau, because of the fame he
gained from the St number of slaves he gathered or return with
at ware Virahyel envied him thus led him into wanting to sign
the treaty. He also promised Sarau that he would never fight
him nor do any harm to him. He then promised him (Sarau) that
all the laa south of Sakwa would be under his (Saran' ) contal.
To crown the treaty signed, Virahyel appointed Sarau the
Kateale of Sakwa and its jurisdiction. Anyone who is Katsale
is called Kigama. That is how Sarau eame to be known as
Kigama Sara.u



Interview took place in Ibrahim Malgwi's room
He was the Informont. Time 7.00. Shatu
Yaktbu was oroundm

The Major Ceremoniaes
(1) Annual ")it = (Dance) Waksha I
(2) Kukulur (Tilling) Mbal (Wing) Bsibsi.
(3) Kukul Bakftap

Kukul Baktap
(Tilling a field for a mother inlaw)
When there is Kukul (tilling) for a mother inlaw what
is done at the prlimAnary stages before the actual Kuul
Baktap is the tilling around the inlaws field. The tilling
around the farm is not a grend one but a light one. Only
a few selected ones are asked to d9 the tilling. In this
tilling cooked food porridge and mbla (wine) are cooked and
sent to the farm.l Those who earry all the food to the farm
to those doing the farming are given half of a goat killed.
The other half of the goat is given to those tilling.
After sometimes they would come back to the field and
how it for the second time. The next grand tilling is the
Kukul Baktrp.

Kukul Baktap is a grand festival in which there is a
big gathering. It is the actual tilling of a vast field for
the mother-inlaw. As all the preliminaries are over, a spe-
cial day will be appointed for the Festival. Before the day
runs in the bridegroom will take the responsibility of telling
all villagers about the festival. Mbal (wine) would be pre-
pared on a very large scale. All types of food will be pre-
pared including Kunu (porridge). Many rasa and goats will be
slaughtered also for the festival.


Girls who are outstandingly distinguished as excellent pre-
parers of dishes would be invited to do the cooking. All
local bands would be invited to entertain the workers* Among
those to be invited are those who play drum well, Tsin-Ndsa
players, Gunaar, players and Aligater players.
On the day of the festival everything would be set and
all the big crowd would move to the farm. Several pots of
beer will be provided at the farm. The same thing would hap-
pen to porridges to those who cannot take beer, The rest of
the food would be kept at home until after the work the peo-
ple would then allow to sit, eat and relax and rejoice too.
On the field girls will stand behind their boyfriends
and clap. The normal thing is that when ones girl friend is
behind him cheering and clapping for him he would tend to work
harder so that he would impress the girl friend and those
around. So the presence of ladies on the field is very essen-
tial. They would work for four hours without knowing that
they have worked for hours but only minutes. Sound from all
corners of the field. Some excellent services would be pro-
vided by acute ladies. In only several houses would a vast
field be turned into a farmland.
After the heavy days work the workers and all the people
on the field would converge to the house of the brides mother
(the mother inlaw). There, food would be served also. Beer
will be in abundance, Another heavy meal will therefore be
taken, After everyone had his /her stomach full then the
drummers would begin to bit. People will begin to dance.
Others would be watching those who cannot dance and normally
the shy ones. Those who are already intoxicated with the drinks
would behave oddly as it is natural. The Saldskwl (Youth-
leader or secretary to the village) would be around to ensure
peaee. The dance would then continue till daybreak*


Before the dancers leave their hoes would be siezed by
the ladies. Those of known friends would be hidden so that
the friends pay special dues before the hoes are released.
The hoes of the other farmers would be released only shortly
after the bridegroohE same special dues (not much) to the La-
dies. The normal due for the exchange of hoes in those days
(dating about 50 years ago) was 2/-. When all the rites have
been followed according to tradition then the ceremony comes
to an end.


Kukulur Mbal Bsibsi was not common in those days. This
is because only very richmen could afford the due for such a
heavy ceremony. The festival is likened to the Kukular Bak-
tap but the difference is only that At is not compulsory,
Others regard it to be only a slow of wealth.
The rich man to whom the ceremony is being performed goes
out to each villager to inform the Saldakwis to inform their
respective youths and ladies about his grand festival. The
Saldakwis would then assume the responsibility of all informa-
tion in the villages before the scheduled day. The master of
the ceremony would go and invite various local bands to come
with their instruments e.g,, garaya, ganga and tsindza just
as done in the Kukulur Baktap. He would also prepare various
kinds of food. Mbal would be provided in Muds quantity. Many
animals would be slaughtered like rams, cows/bulls and goats.
Also ladies who have been known for their skills in preparing
dishes would be invited to come and prepare dishes on the day
of the festival.
When the scheduled day had arrived the informed villages
(ladies and youths) would come and converge to the field to
be tilled. The local bands would also move to the fields to
produce music,


Some wine (burucutu) will also be conveyed to the field but
the rest of the food would be prepared and kept in the home
to be taken at the eid of the days work.
On the field girls will line up behind their respective
boyfriends who would be tilling retlessly. They would clap
and sing songs to cheer up their friends. They would alia tie
the waist of their friends with their wrappers and headties.
During the tilling those who take wine (mbal) would be served
and porridge would be given those who do not. The wine acti-
vates them and keeps them tireless. When it is getting dwn
they would be prepring to leave because by them they would
all be worne out. A very vast endless field would be left
sympathisingly with green grasses uprooted during the days
The crowdd uld also eeve converge to the resident;of
the master of ceremony where the second presession of rejoic-
ing and drinking would take place The local bands would play
their instruments to entertain the audience. All sorts of
style of dances would be displayed. The entertainment would
continue beyond 4we 2.00 a.m. ea but falls off anytime after
the stated time. In this kind of Kukula the hoes are not col-
lected by the ladies. The ladies would only eoort their friends
and the crowd breaks everybody tkkes to his or her own way
and that ends the festival. On speeiall occasions when the
master of ceremony is very rich he would request the pleasure
of people under one lawan. Over hundred villages would be
grouped under one lawn. For example in Sakwa distclete there
are 19 lawans in the district. So that those who are very
rich may request the pleasure of people under two lawans even.
An example of some one who asked the pleasure of people under
his lawans was Yankwas Pukuma at Kirdidang. He was of the elan
Malgwi and Nyarmbar belonged to the Nyarmbwa Mandarakariwa.
The festival took two days.


In harvesting, the master of ceremony goes to the vil-
lages to invite then again for carrying the produce home,
This time it would be only the people of one lawan. That
means all ladies and youths under a lawan. Similar types
of food would be prepared as done in the grand festivals.
This tive not all the local bands would be invited. They
(local bands) would follow the people carrying the produce,
they would be on the supply of music. The lot of produce
would also be carried home. This is how the complex and
sessional grand festival goes to an end.


Bath waksha was an annual festival normally celebrated
in August of each yeaor. This festival was always, chair
manned by the village head. In those days the festival used
to be celebrated by all villages. The whole villagers con-
tributes immensely towards the success of the festival. If
there was any mighty tree infront of the village Head's house
then the villagers will collectively clear the underneath and
prepare it for the foatival. But if there was no suah tree
mighty tree in the village could be cleared where $9e was
no crop growing.
It was customary that each house prepare Mbal. The vil-
lagebeing an important fellow in the village would prodaee
a fat ram. The other elders of the village would however pro-
duces a goat each. The Saldakwi too would provide a goat
because he was an office holder. His assistant the Jhledima
will also provide a goat. All this animals would be 9949
slaughtered in the respective houses buteach person must send
a piece to the village head to assist him in providing much
food to the strangers, Besides sending the picees to the vil-
lage head the villagers would prepare food. Some of the food
will be taken to the village heads also to help him in keeping
the crowd fed* BATH in Bura means dance
Waksha in Bura means a type of dance.


Those who do not take mbal will prepare Kunu (porridge) tn
stead. A lot of the mbal produced would be taken to field
under the big tree awhre the festival was to take place
Those people who were not aeustomed to entering people's houses
would drink in the field during the festival.
It was the duty of the Saldakwi and Thledima\ to get every-
body informed about this great festival. They would go out
to every village to inform the SaldakwAs of the respective
villages that they should help them inform people about the
grand festival. The respective Salkwis would then assume the
responsibilities and get their people know ab ut the festival.
It was feared by the elders that some wieked magicians
might plant something evil in the field where the gathering
was scheduled. In such cases the elders of the village would
select some enchanted people to be on the watch out. These
people would cater for ever y body safety

(1) Thledima is t-o e-son who helps the Saldakwi-in short he
is the Saldakwi's zasistance.
(2) Saldakwi is t,:o personn who acts as the secretary to the
Village Youths. He collects ladies and youths of the
Village at tho time of the festivals. He is also respon-
sible for information.
On the day of the eve, the village head would open the
ceremony. The instrumentalist would get onto business and pro-
duce sound and masic. People from all walk's of life under
different categories would be found on the fields dance of all
sorts would be observed in progress. The Bathi1 Waksha would
be performed first by all experts in the dance. The best per-
son would be chosen. Prices would be given to the winners.
There people would gain fame and they would be repeated through-
out the villages. Girls to would be seen digging the dance,

The dance was normally divided into sections. The first section
was for the youths and the second for the middle aged. The
last section told be for all aged. SmlU kids foma tail of
the dancing erws and they belong to all sections.
The variety of food would be on the tables served 1 for peo-
ple throughout the day. those who take abal would be drinking
until they drink out their conseltouness. All sorts of sharae-
ters would show themselves, A combined drinking and dancing
would continue throughout the day and might until everybody
was dead tired.
The wrice distribution would be finished by daytime* The
village would Aeliver his closing speech. Still in the day-
time to give time to dancers and drtakereda to get on to busi-
ness. The danoe may sewn to an end sometimes after 4 or 5oclock
in the morning of the next day. Sometimes it last till sunrise
of the next morning.
Today the Bath wakoha is completely extinct. People are
not co-operative as in those days. Most of the elders believe
that today paying of school fees is depriving them of leisure.
They claimed that they cannot afford for both school fees and
money for pleasure. On the other hand the coming of religions
both Islam and christianity had discouraged any gathering of
this nature where beer is fully taken on a large scale.
The festivals of KuAulur Baktap is also extinct in the areas
around Sakwa.Only the festival of Kukulur Baibsi can still be
found occasionally in some few places. Recently there was a
festival of Kutlur Bsibsi for the District Head of Sakwa, All
these festivals have been substituted by the Religions festivals
as the Sasah, Christmas and others. The itaporant also alleged
that the festivals are not performed today because many people
felt that it is too extravagant.
Now, these are the only known festivals performed by the
Our yarxibwa was well known for their brevity at wars.
They were known for the number of slaves they capture at wars.


They never brought less than 10 slaves when they go to wars.
People who are great warriors are called Kadales, So my
Nyarmbwa have been known for the great number of Katsales there
are are in the Nyarabwa. An excellent example of a Katsala
in the close Nyertbwa was Kateala Saran. Anybody that is having
the title Kataaa is referred to as Kigasa. So Sarau was called
Kigama Sarau for being a eatsala. He was appointed Katsala by
Mari Virahyel. Kats-las duty is to collect youths to go to
Mari Virahyel then a man alleged that when he goes to war
south of Bin he did not know the warriors in the south so that
would be dangerous, Having known or heard of Saran at Dangisa
for his brevity at works, he decided to contact him, He wanted
Sarauto help him exploit the south. This time was the time
when slave trade was at its highest peak. As they (warriors)
brought along home some slaves, Sarau was known to be the
greatest south of Bin. Marl too was known for this at Manda-
raginau. Maria was afraid of being one day Savau's captive so
he wanted to have a bond of friendship between them so a treaty
governing this was signed. Mari being an office (owner of the
land of Bin) holder decided to crown arau willingness to lign
a treaty. He gave him the Title of Katsala. Saran being a
Katsala was called Kigama Sarau. Kalsa was Aving at Dengies
until his death. 'hen he died Mart removed the so-called head
quarters of the south to Sakwa from Dangles It could be remem-
bered that after SRraus death the inevitable Dangisa was eon-
quered by the white oolonialists. They did not however stop at
Dangisa but went southerly to Nindi and burnt it* Pama a very
large settlement in the brim of Dirangudiki was also burnt
by the White colonialists. At Pama they also killed a widely
known warrior called Kwapala.
Little Suppliment on Bats Halla
BATA HADIA was the commandant of the coloialtist army that
burnt Dangias,

Muhi, Pama and Bilagwi. When they burnt Pama they tied ropes
on Kwapalas legs and drug him to Biu. This was to be a typical
punishment for warriors of Kwapalaas kind not to put up any
such resistances
After burning these villages Bata eadsa and his warriors
went back to a place not known to the informant. They did not
stay long when they appeared again. When they eane back they
ordered that all bows (lali) arrows (afa) and arrow cases
(kwaja) to be burnt. (see page 119Jjr diagrams of instruments
mentioned above). When they saw that all they ordered to be
burnt were burnt they settled on collecting tax. At the early
stages only men paid taxed for their hoes. It was not mush
as what is paid today only I/- per family. Either kuntu or
the 1/- is paid because the I/- was the cost of a kuntu. Some
brave men (Buras) followed and directed the whitemen in collee-
ting the tax* Although, most of the Buras were tearing the
white they later became acquanted, Those people who directed
the white men later became the ruling groups called Lawans.
The Lawans were given some portions of the land containing at
least hundred villa es. They would be responaibel fap collect-
ing the tax in their areas. After every collection of tax they
were given some tips. It was of course the early division of
the land to the Lawans by Bata Hadla that brought about 19
LawanAs in Sakwa districts. By introducing the Lawans tax
collection was made easier. It was easier because it was the
Buras who went to the Buras to explain the purpose of the tax
collection in the Bura language so that they became aware of it.
The early pattern of tax paying as it continued to rie were
as folloWe.
At the beginning tax on the following articles were as
Goats .. .. 3d each Servants *. ,* 3d each
women .. ,. 3d each Maigida .. ., 1/- each


Later the used to
Goatsa .. 6d each S94p Servants 1/- each
Womi .. .* I/- Maigida ,. ..* /each
Coming back to question 14 on the office hollers,
EASAA was a title in the Dur. Kateala's duty was to oollest
youths (warriors ) to go to warsr An example of Katsala was
Kigama Sarau who was appointed by Mari Virahyel, (see genealogy)
Aaegram for S fau's position) Katsala was normally an active
SAA. I is another title in the Dun. This man is usually
a young person. He acts as the secretary to the village youths.
He collects youths and ladies at festivalsa1
+Sal in Bura means mans husband; brave.
+Dakvi in Bura means, youth; handsome.
Theldima is also a title in the Dur, He is the Saldskwis
A known Sal Dakwi in my Nyarabwa was Biradau Bata who
settled at Kubutku
Biljy is the na e given to the head of the village in my
Nyaimbwa Malgwi Mandaralkrwa a few of the Bilamas are still
giving Bilameship is inheritable* Bilama Gombi inherited the
Bilamaship from Bilama Yazhami was the Bilama of MIbirhi
Yakwarks was the Bilama Bilama of Birni until his death. He
was the founder of B3iri, The duties of Bilaia was to keep
peace in the village. He is the supreme Head of the village*
Normally he has his courcillors who are the Sal2Aakwi Thiedima
and Magira and all the rest of the Title holders. The Bilaaa
gives one orders to start planting at the beginning of the
planting season* He gives order that all animals should be
kept in the house or cared for to avoid destruction of crojs.
He gives orders when he hears orders from the Leew Lawan. He
is responsible for directing tax collection in his village,
Moseat of all it is not the duties of the Bilama that is important
but it is the pride one has 4a being a Bilama, Another important


duties of the Bilama is that he is responsible for the annual
festivals (Bath Waksha another minor festivals. He settles
disputes between husbands and wives and other disagreements
on land matters and other matters,
IKaUngwa is another title connected in the Dur. The
MaiUngwa can be a Bilama. In some cases when there is no Bilama
over a certain vfSage the village may be classified under
several zaras (wards) and each persons that that heads a section
of the classified zras is reffered to as MaiUngwa for example
at Sakwa there is only a Lewan and the District Head. The vil-
tage is too big to be under one Bilama so it has been Uivided
into two* The first half belongs to YaMusa and the seeondhhalf
belongs to Dakwall Gaskiya, There two heads eaters for only
thq areas under these jurisdiction. They have the same duties
as the village heads. When some one gets married in a village
the MaiUngwa or the Bilanm gets 5/- from the bridegroomabr his
reward for soaring for him.
Magira is another title foP an office holder in the Nyarsabwa,
Magira is a female normally an elderly but very active woman.
She is sparllel to the Bilama. In each village their is Magira*
The eldest of my fathers wife bearing the name of Hauwa Kwamting
is the Magira of the village, (Barti Sakwa). She is the head
of the women in the village. She has similar duties as the
Bilama but she has no autonomous powers as the Bilama, She
leads women to attend festivals. She advices women on social
matters. She settles disputes between women of the village.
The Magira too gets five shillings (5/-) when someone in the
village gets married. There is an assistant Magira too. She
assumes office of Magira *hen she is away or sick.


An Installation Ceremony of an Office Holder

Installing A Katsala By Mai Marl Vifahyel

There are two categories of Katsala one iL self appointed
and then the one appointed by the authority. Kigama Sarau
appointment as Katsala was self appointed but authoritative.
The Mai's at Mandaragirau then heard of Sarau great skill in
wars decided to crown him as the Katsala of the land south of
Before the day of installation the Sarau took the respb n
sibility of informing his relatives about this great occasion.
Sarau felt it was not a pride informing his relatives just by
mouth. He wanted his information to be a special one. He
then took two Kuntus and a bull to his relatives at Iwaram he
took two Kuntus and a bull to tell his relatives at Kirkidang.
He also took two kuntus and a bull to Piba, Two Kuntus and a
bull were sent to Kwagu Thiota. Same amount of the materials
were sent to Pirkisu and Pwarsa. The ali Ungwas and Bialamas
were not left out. Two kuntus were sent to all Mai Ungwas he
knew. The Kaialas who were iieAidly also got two kuntus each*
On the day of the occasion Kigama Sarau had to provide a
lot of food and wine. To provide enough food two cows were
killed. Unsountable Uumrber of wine pots were wantable on the
day of the occasion, The relatives and friends did not forget
they should brought nothing but bromht Kuntus and rams/goats.
The rams were converted into meat for the big meal* Only the
Katsales brought empty hands. Other common people common ae-
quaintants brought gifts in differentforas of materials. All
this time thousands and thousands of people were gathering for
the grand occasion. Strangers from all corners of the land
were at Dangisa for this festival,
The Mai Mari Virahyel was also sent invitation to attend
this grant festival, But as his office duties could not allow



his pose for the festivals he found necessary to provide dele-
gates who could represent him. He sent several delegates J6
deliver his speech and congratulations to Sarau. The places
of the festival should not be mistaken to be Dangisa but Biu.
Marl was then at Mandaarsagira and the throne was still at
It was not only relations and office holders that were
invited to attend the festival. All people from all walks of
life were at the ceremony at Biu. He did not forget about
the entertainers instrumentalists. Sound could be heard from
all corners of the land. All varieties of sound producing
could be found on that day.
The arrival of Mari Virshyels representatives marked the
beginning of the installation. All the traditional rites of
swearing and promises were performed. His Head was turbanned
and a stick for the Kataslaship was put into his hands. After
all the traditional rites had been performed the Mari's dele-
gates and the sound makers and the extra crowd escort new Katsa-
la Sarau to Dangisa, At Dangala food was on the wait for thea.
Mbal was still fermenting itself in the course of waiting for
them. Small kid who could not go to Bin was all waiting for
their arrival. As soon as they touched ground at Dangisa as
they disembarked fr~om oorse's backs. The sound makers had
soon started producing sound. Other weal bands were all round
to perofrm also* The occasion lasted for two complete days.
Sound booming in the air. Wine drinkers were all busy doing
their own things in the calabashes. There were all sorts of
dances ranging from the simple traditional dance to the comple-
to acrobatic shows.
After the ceremony all the crowd disappeared. The Mat's
delegates went back home to tell Mari Virahyel that they had
escorted the Katsala sucoeMtfully. This is how the ownership

of Katsala came to be the property of the &gw Malgwi Mandaes-
karwa elan (Hyaeabwa).



After Sarauas death, Yakwarki his son took over the throne
and became the next Katsala. The headquarters s w removed
frme Dangis to Sakwa4 It was after the removal of the
Head quarters from Dangies that the whitemOn easm anm oo0.
quewed it. Mar Virahye~ played a double game to Sarau be*
cause ofter his death he ease back and conquered Sakwa,
That was the last thing heard about the old relationship
existing between Sakwa and Mandaragifra. The Katsalaship
however it's still exiting. The present mesber of the elan
who is the Katsala is Bilinam Kigama Gombi the current village
Head of Mbiprti

?u r ~a.,..^^,:~it :~i*4c cL _

4oid'X ,: i-u? iju,., (A ( -) (adt^^
^~ ~ *WU f1 WlfctkI



THE BURIAL CP KIGAVA SARAU* A typical example.

The bt rial ceremony of Katsala or village head is quite
different from that of an ordinary man. Their funeral cere-
mony is quite different from that of common man beosuse ofthe
procedures observed in their burrial is hot observed in that
of the ordinary.
When a Katsaal dies, immediately his life goes out a ehie-
ken would be slaughtered and roasted and that given out for
Sadaquat. The elders would go out to find a place for his
grave, After all these rites are performed then the news of
his death would be announced to the public. It was wrong, the
informant alleged tbht if the news of his death became known
before given out the SADA.E at and before getting the grave
place for him (dead).
The next thing that happens is sending some delegates to
the emir (Mai) to inform him about the tragedy. The delegates
would not go empty handed to the emir but would carry some gifts
to him (Mal) from the people of the dead; Nyarmbwa, The nor-
mal thing they use to carry to the mai is Matram. Matram is a
kind of big gown worn only by important persons. The mai would
in turn ask the delegates to take back a ram and a matram to the
bereaved the children of the dead and his relatives, He
would also ask them to deliver his condolence to them. For the
sadaqat th mir (mai) would get a cow as his share.
Before the deleontes comes back the elders and only elders
of the village would go out to the grave yeard to begin work on
the.grave The kind of grave such important people as Lawan,
Bilama and Katsal arei buried in is quite different from that
of the ordinary an. The grave would be dug very much deeper
than that of an ordinary man. After all having to do with the
grave is completed they would go back to the house and inform



the elders who are keeping watch on the corpse that the grave
is ready.
The elders would then bath the dead body and then dress

him beautifully They would prepare a comfortable chair be-
fore the crowd which would be dancing before 1# (dead) house.
After dressing him they would take him (dead) ort and place
him dead in the chain as though he (dead) is not dead. They
would then perofrm all traditional dances for him (dead).
There is also a special kind of dance for elders alone would
be performed before by the elders. When all the special dan-
ces have been performed he would be returned into the house.
Some other special rites would also be performed on the dead
and his children.
After the special rites here been performed the dead body
would be carried to the grave by elders of the village. They
would be followed by a very large crowd of elders. If he is a
Muslim then the normal Islamic rites would be observed He
would be honoured by a last prayer by a special Mallam just by
the grave side. 3omae respectable elders would then go into
the grave to bury him. His burial is special because he is
not Lien F at on one side but is made to sit in the normal way*
As if he is not dead. The elders would then burry him and then
return with the crowd back to the village. A continuous drum-
ming and sound production would be on the supply.
Reason for not laying the Katsa flat is that the people
have believe* which say that if leaders of Katsalas calibre
should die and brried in the normal vay of burrials he (dead)
wouU die on the souls of the people under his jurisdiction.
Therefore they deemed it bad to burry them in the normal way
people are birried. In order to safeguard the danger that
made to sit as if he is not dead. Bilamas, Lawans, and chiefs
\are burned in the same way ----
On the day of 3adaqual whieh is in about twenty daps-eP-



times from day of death some delegates would be sent to the
emir (Mal) to inform his higthnes about it. In Kigama Sarau's
ease the delegates were sent to maeS Mari Virshyel then at
Mandagiran. When the delegates were coming back Mari Virahyel
gave them another ram to assist them in the Sagduat, In re-
turn to the ram given by the Mai; a cow would be given to him
(Mai) as his own share of the sadaquat. For the people
attending the sadaqcuat ceremony a cow and several rams and
goats would b laughtered as another of Sadaquat for the common
men. Some part of the meat might beused in preparing food
for all strangers which the other part would be distributed.
The end of the sadaquat culminates the activities of the spe-
cial burial ceremony of the Katsala or Lawan or a village




The informant says that there is no Bj46r" spe6tal ways
in which members of this Nyaraba or Dur get wives. It istthe
sank way as other clans. Anyway marriage does t take place
between a couple from the same Nyarabwa. It is strictly for-
bidden. Because they believe It retains genetieal diseases
within the Nyarmbwa and if the disease is a dangerous one it
would wipe out all members of the Nyarmbwa. It therefore ta-
peies not only to Malgwi Mandarakwa elan but also other etans
in the Dr*B ura.
All preliminaries of marriage start when a Woug man sees
a girl of his choice. He would then/approaching the girlsso
that they became acquainted. He would then be paying constant
visit to the girl so that they learn about one another very
much. The boy would one day call the girl and forward his fe-
elings to the her about marriage. If the girl agrees to take
his precious hands in marriage then they would put up time in
which he would go to the girl's village, He would lodge with
a friend then he would send for the girl to come. When the
girl is coming she would be accompanied by his best friend,
On their arrival the two girl friends woulA welcome their guests.
The proposed husband will mount on reviewing what was discussed
on the previous day. The review is to make the proposed girVb
ft girl friend to witness the discussion. It the two friendss
(girls) agree on the conditions of marriage tad down by the
proposed husband then they would be required to take what they
have brought for yea ya 2 shillings two jabi (kird of wrap-
per), two wrappers and gelle.
At first the girls would tend to refuse the offers but
after several minutes of persuasion they would shyingly take
the offer home*
Now it remains the duty of the girls to inform their parents
about the offering, They would relate all thlt has so far hap-
pened between the girl and the proposed husband


University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs