• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Key to symbols and abbreviatio...
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Data acquisition
 Data reduction and analysis
 Field at 1h +6o
 Field at 13h +36o
 Conclusions
 Bibliography
 Biographical sketch














Title: Optical brightness variations in a sample of nineteen radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects /
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 Material Information
Title: Optical brightness variations in a sample of nineteen radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects /
Physical Description: xiv, 158 leaves : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Edwards, Patricia Louise, 1949-
Publication Date: 1981
Copyright Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Quasars   ( lcsh )
Radio sources (Astronomy)   ( lcsh )
Astronomy thesis Ph. D   ( lcsh )
Dissertations, Academic -- Astronomy -- UF   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Thesis: Thesis (Ph. D)--University of Florida, 1981.
Bibliography: Bibliography: leaves 155-157.
General Note: Typescript.
General Note: Vita.
Statement of Responsibility: by Patricia Louise Edwards.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099234
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: alephbibnum - 000294673
oclc - 07784424
notis - ABS1008

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Figures
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Key to symbols and abbreviations
        Page x
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Abstract
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Data acquisition
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Data reduction and analysis
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
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    Field at 1h +6o
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    Field at 13h +36o
        Page 75
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    Conclusions
        Page 134
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    Bibliography
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    Biographical sketch
        Page 158
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Full Text













OPTICAL BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS IN A SAMPLE OF
NINETEEN RADIO-QUIET QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS

















BY

PATRICIA LOUISE EDWARDS


A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL
OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


The author is grateful to her advisor, Dr. Alex G. Smith, without

whom the quasar monitoring program would not have existed, and to the

other members of her graduate committee: Drs. Thomas D. Carr, H. L.

Cohen, Guy C. Omer, Jr., Billy S. Thomas and Robert E. Wilson. Robert

Leacock, Richard and Karen Hackney, Roger Scott, Ben McGimsey, Joe

Pollock, and Andy Pica have contributed to the observations of quasars

or related objects which provide a basis for comparisons. The quasar

monitoring program has been supported by grants from the National

Science Foundation. The current grant number is AST8000246.

The author benefited greatly from improvement in photographic

procedures resulting from research by A. G. Smith, R. L. Scott, and Hans

Schrader, and from the development of a microcomputer data reduction

system by Joe Pollock and Larry Twigg. Drs. S. T. Gottesmann, H. L.

Cohen, and H. K. Eichhorn provided most helpful discussions of least

squares curve fitting. The use of a computer program written by Dr. H.

L. Cohen is greatly appreciated.

During her enrollment at the University of Florida, the author has

received support from the Graduate School, the Department of Physics and

Astronomy, and the National Science Foundation. The financial and moral

support of her parents, Dr. Leslie Edwards and Dr. Carolyn Edwards, and

her sister, Dr. Lucy Edwards, is greatly appreciated. The author also

wishes to thank Mrs. Jeanne Kerrick for her advice and encouragement and

Mrs. Edna Larrick for typing this manuscript.

ii














TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . .. . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . . . . .. . . v

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . vii

KEY TO SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . x

ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiii

CHAPTER

1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . .. 1

Quasars . . . . . . . . . . 1
RQQSOs . . . . . . . . . . 2
Characteristics . . . . . . . . 4
Questions . . . . . . . . . 5
Samples Chosen for the Present Study . . . 6

2 DATA ACQUISITION . . . . . . ... 11

Florida Monitoring Program . . . . . .. 11
Photographic Techniques . . . . . .. .12

3 DATA REDUCTION AND ANALYSIS . . . . .. 13

Comparison . . . . . . . . . . 13
Iris Photometry . . . . . . . . 14
Programs . . . . . . . . . .. . 14
Errors . . . . . . . . . . 15
Curve Fitting . . . . . . . .. 17

4 FIELD AT 1h +6 . . . . . . . .. 32

SA 94 . . . . . . . . ... . . 32
PHL 938 . . . . . . . . ... . 35
PHL 3375 . . . . . . . . ... .. . 40
PHL 1027 . . . . . . . . ... .. . 45
PHL 3632 . . . . . . . . .. .. . 45
PHL 1186 . . . . . . . . .. .. 54
PHL 1194 . . . . . . . . .. .. . 59
PHL 1222 . . . . . . . . .. .. . 64
PHL 1226 . . . . . . . . .. .. 64
Summary . . . . . . . . . . . 73












TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


CHAPTER

5 FIELD AT 13h +360


. . . . . . . 75


M 3
BSO 1
B 46 .
BSO 2
B 114
B 154
B 194
B 201
BSO 6
B 234
B 312
BSO 11
Summary


134


CONCLUSIONS . . . . . .

Florida RQQSO Results . . . .
Other Studies of RQQSOs . . .
Comparison with QSRS Variability .
Comparison with Quasar Models . .
Summary . . .


BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . .


. . 155


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH . . . . . . .


158











LIST OF TABLES




Table Page

1 Sample of Radio-Quiet Quasi-Stellar Objects . . . 8

2 Functional Forms Tested for Curve Fitting Procedure .27

3 Standard Stars in SA 94 . . . . . . . . 33

4 Comparison Stars for PHL 938 . . . . . ... .36

5 B Magnitudes of PHL 938 . . . . . . . .. 38

6 Comparison Stars for PHL 3375 . . . . . ... .41

7 B Magnitudes of PHL 3375 . . . . . . .. 43

8 Comparison Stars for PHL 1027 . . . . . ... 46

9 B Magnitudes of PHL 1027 . . . . . . ... .48

10 Comparison Stars for PHL 3632 . . . . . ... 50

11 B Magnitudes of PHL 3632 . . . . . . ... 52

12 Comparison Stars for PHL 1186 . . . . . ... 55

13 B Magnitudes of PHL 1186 . . . . . . ... .57

14 Comparison Stars for PHL 1194 . . . . . . 60

15 B Magnitudes of PHL 1194 . . . . . . ... .62

16 Comparison Stars for PHL 1222 . . . . . ... 65

17 B Magnitudes of PHL 1222 . . . . . . ... 67

18 Comparison Stars for PHL 1226 . . . . . ... .69

19 B Magnitudes of PHL 1226 . . . . . . ... .71

20 Standard Stars in M 3 . . . . . . . . 76

21 Comparison Stars for BSO 1 . . . . . ... 79

22 B Magnitudes of BSO 1 . . . ... .. . . . 81

23 Comparison Stars for B 46 ...... . . . . 84











LIST OF TABLES (continued)


Table

24


Quasi-Stellar Objects


. 132


44 Linear Correlation Coefficients . . . . .. 137


B Magnitudes of B 46 . . . . . . . ... 86

Comparison Stars for BSO 2 . . . . . ... .89

B Magnitudes for BSO 2 . . . . . . ... 91

Comparison Stars for B 114 . . . . . ... .94

B Magnitudes of B 114 . . . . . . ... 96

Comparison Stars for B 154 . . . . . .. 99

B Magnitudes of B 154 . . . . . . ... .101

Comparison Stars for B 194 . . . . . ... .103

B Magnitudes of B 194 . . . . . . . .. 105

Comparison Stars for B 201 . . . . . . .. 108

B Magnitudes of B 201 . . . . . . .110

Comparison Stars for BSO 6 . . . . . ... .113

B Magnitudes of BSO 6 . . . . . . ... .115

Comparison Stars for B 234 . . . . . ... .118

B Magnitudes of B 234 . . . . . . ... .120

Comparison Stars for B 312 . . . . . ... .123

B Magnitudes of B 312 . . . . . . ... .125

Comparison Stars for BSO 11 . . . . . ... .127

B Magnitudes of BSO 11 . . . . . . ... .129

Variability of the Sample of Radio-Quiet














LIST OF FIGURES


Color-Color Diagram for PHL, BSO, B Objects . . .


Average Rms of the Comparison Stars versus Magnitude.


Page


. . 10


. . 18


3 Second Order Polynomial Fit in Magnitude


. . . . . 21


4 Second Order Polynomial Fit in I


5 Third Order Polynomial Fit in Ir


6 Fourth Order Polynomial Fit in I


7 Fifth Order Polynomial Fit in Ir


8 Line Plus Hyperbola . . .

9 K and o Values for Curves . .


ris Reading . .


'is Reading .


ris Reading .


is Reading . .




. . . . . .


SA 94 Field . . . . . . . . . .


PHL 938 Field . . . . . . . . . .


Variation with Time of PHL 938 . . . . .


PHL 3375 Field . . . . . . . . .


Variation with Time of PHL 3375 . . . . .


PHL 1027 Field . . . . . . . . .


Variation with Time of PHL 1027 . . . . .


PHL 3632 Field . . . . . . . . .


Variation with Time of PHL 3632 . . . . .

PHL 1186 Field . . . . . . . . .


Variation with Time of PHL 1186 . . . . .


PHL 1194 Field . . . . . . . . .


Variation with Time of PHL 1194 . . . . .


PHL 1222 Field . . . . . . . . .


Figure


1


2


. . . 22


. . . 23


S. . 24


S. . 25


. . . 26

. . 29


. . 34


. . 37


. . 39


. . 42


. . 44


. . 47


. . 49


. . 51


. . 53


. . 56


. . 58


. . 61

.. . 63


. . 66














LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


F


Figure


24 Variation with Time of PHL 12


25 PHL 1226 Field . . . .


26 Variation with Time of PHL 12


27 M 3 Field . . . . .


28 BSO 1 Field . . . . .


29 Variation with Time of BSO 1


30 B 46 Field . . .


31 Variation with Time of B 46 .


32 BSO 2 Field . . . . .


33 Variation with Time of BSO 2


34 B 114 Field . . . . .


35 Variation with Time of B 114


36 B 154 Field . . . . .


37 Variation with Time of B 154


38 B 194 Field . . . . .


39 Variation with Time of B 194


40 B 201 Field . . . . .


41 Variation with Time of B 201


42 BSO 6 Field . . . . .


43 Variation with Time of BSO 6


44 B 234 Field . . . . .


45 Variation with Time of B 234


22 . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


26 . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


. . . . . . .


Page


. 68


. 70


. 72


. 78


. 80


. 82


. 85


. 87

. 90


. 92


. 95


. 97


.100


.102


.104


.106


.109


.111


.114


.116


.119


.121










LIST OF FIGURES (continued)


Page


Figure

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57


. . . 124

. . . 126

. . . . 128

. . . 130

. . . . 139

. . . 140

. . . . 141

. . . 142

. . . . 143

RQQSO Sample 144

ic Brightness 146

Ss and RQQSOs 150


B 312 Field . . . . . . . .

Variation with Time of B 312 . . .

BSO 11 Field . . . . . . .

Variation with Time of BSO 11 . . .

Variability Index versus U B . . .

Variability Index versus B V . . .

Variability Index versus U V . . .

Variability Index versus Iex . . .

Variability Index versus v i . . .

Variability Index versus Redshift for the

Variability Index versus Relative Intrins

Variability Index versus Redshift for QSR:

















KEY TO SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS


AB # Objects in the list of Bracessi et al.
(1970, 1973)

B Magnitude in the blue wavelength range

B # Object in the list of Bracessi et al. (1968)

BSO # Object in the list of Sandage and Veron (1965)

B V Color difference, blue magnitude minus visual
2
C.L. Confidence level of variability P(X )

cm centimeter

DEC Declination, angular position in the sky
measured north or south of the celestial
equator
2
df Degrees of freedom in the X test

fu Flux unit = jan = Watt/m2/cycle per second

f/4 Focal ratio of the Newtonian focus of the
76cm telescope at the Rosemary Hill
Observatory of the University of Florida

GHz Gigahertz = 109 cycles per second

Hz Hertz = cycle per second

lex Infrared excess as used by Braccesi et al. (1968)

IRIS Iris reading on the Cuffey iris astrophotometer

n 2
K lo. /(n N)
i=l1

Ly Lyman alpha, spectral line resulting from loss
of electron from the first shell of the hydrogen atom

m Meter











KEY TO SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued)


M 3 Third object 'n the Messier list, a globular
cluster at 13 40m +28.60

Mag. Magnitude
unt=1-3f
mfu Milliflux unit = 103fu

MHz Megahertz = 106 cycles per second

mm Millimeter = 10-3m = 10-1cm

MWP-2 Developer (Difley, 1968)

n Number of standard stars

N Number of unknowns in least squares curve fitting
procedure

OVV Optically Violent Variable, a subset of QSOs which show
variations in brightness greater than one magnitude on a
time scale of days

PET Microcomputer manufactured by Commodore

PHL # Object in the catalog of faint blue objects with small
proper motion

Quasar Acronym for "Quasi-Stellar Radio Source" now used for
quasi-stellar objects with or without radio emission

QSRS Quasi-Stellar Radio Source

QSO Quasi-Stellar Object, an object whose optical image is
"star-like" and whose redshift is extragalactic

R.I.B. Relative Intrinsic Brightness = B 5 log z

RA Right Ascension, angular position measured in hours,
minutes and seconds of time, measured eastward from the
Vernal Equinox

rms Root mean square, average deviation of the comparison
stars from the curve

RQQSO Radio-Quiet Quasi-Stellar Objects

SA 94 Mt. Wilson Selected Area number 94, at 2h53.3m +020'

xi











KEY TO SYMBOLS AND ABBREVIATIONS (continued)


U Magnitude in the ultraviolet wavelength range

U B Color difference, ultraviolet magnitude minus blue
magnitude

U V Color difference, ultraviolet magnitude minus visual
magnitude

V Magnitude in the visual wavelength range

V.I. Variability index = X 2/df normalized to 30 df

z Redshift = AX/ Ao

3C Third Cambridge catalog of radio sources

A Wavelength

A Difference in wavelength

X0 Wavelength measured in rest frame

0 Average deviation of the standard stars from the curve
2
X Chi Square












Abstract of Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Council
of the University of Florida in Partial Fulfillment of the
Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

OPTICAL BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS IN A SAMPLE OF
NINETEEN RADIO-QUIET QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS

By

Patricia Louise Edwards

March 1981

Chairman: Dr. Alex G. Smith
Major Department: Astronomy

A photographic program, monitoring changes in the optical

brightnesses of nineteen radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (RQQSOs), was

carried out at the Rosemary Hill Observatory of the University of

Florida. This study was done in conjunction with continuing variability

studies of quasi-stellar radio sources (QRSRs) and related objects. The

RQQSO observations cover the years 1974-1978.

The RQQSOs in this sample are located in two 60 fields, one

centered at lh 36m +60 and the other at 13h +360. They had optical

spectra and U B and B V colors similar to those of the QSRSs, but

had no radio flux above the detection limits of the early radio

surveys. One object, B 194, has subsequently been detected in the

radio. Another, B 234, was suggested as a possible detection.

Monitoring of the optical brightnesses was done to study the

characteristics of the variability of the RQQSOs for comparison with the

much larger sample of the QSRSs. A variability index (V.I.) was

computed to facilitate numerical comparisons and to check for

correlation between the extent of variability and other properties of

the quasi-stellar objects (QSOs).
xiii











Observations of each QSO and a sequence of nearby comparison stars

were taken on hypersensitized Kodak 103-a-0 photographic plates in

sealed cassettes with B filters at the f/4 Newtonian focus of the 76-cm

Tinsley reflector of the Rosemary Hill Observatory.

Of the nineteen RQQSOs studied, eight did not show evidence of

variability at a confidence level of at least 95 percent. Eight objects

(PHL 3632, PHL 1186, PHL 1226, BSO 1, B 154, B 234, B 312, and BSO 11)

were variable at a confidence level greater than 95 percent. An

additional three objects showed variability at a confidence level

greater than 99.9 percent. These strongly varying objects were

PHL 1194, B 46, and B 114. The proportion of RQQSOs which show

variability is similar to that of the QSRSs.

Sharp drops in magnitude seemed to be more common in RQQSOs than

were sudden brightenings. Such drops occur less frequently in QSRSs.

No correlation between variability indices and U B, B V, U V

or Iex colors was found. A slight correlation between variability and

the v i given by Braccesi et al. (1970) for the B, BSO sample may

suggest that variability is enhanced for objects which are brighter in

the infrared.

There is a correlation between V.I. and magnitude and between V.I.

and redshift, in the sense that fainter and closer objects are more

variable. These two properties are coupled through a selection effect

due to the cut-off in apparent B magnitude, since the fainter RQQSOs can

only be seen at low redshift. Thus, it is difficult to determine

whether the increased variability is due to greater age or lower

luminosity.














CHAPTER 1


INTRODUCTION



Quasars



In the 1950's, as radio telescopes became more sensitive, several

radio surveys were made of large areas of the sky. Positions of radio

sources were published in various lists, denoted as MSN, 3C, PKS, NRAO,

AO, Bl, CTA or CTD. Since radio telescopes operate at much longer

wavelengths than optical telescopes, their spatial resolution is much

less precise. Therefore, the radio position actually gives an area on

the sky, usually referred to as the "radio error box," in which the

source is located. Identifying the optical object corresponding to the

radio source can be quite difficult, since there may be many objects

within the radio error box. Many of the radio sources showed extended

distributions and corresponded to nebulae in our galaxy or to external

galaxies. However, some of the radio sources were "star-like,"

unresolved at radio wavelengths. These sources were called "quasi-

stellar radio sources," which was often shortened to "quasars."

In order to identify the optical image of the radio sources, much

more precise radio positions were needed. For some sources near the

ecliptic, this was accomplished by timing lunar occultations, which

gives very precise positions. In other cases, two radio telescopes were

used together as a radio interferometer. At some of the improved











positions the only optical object was a faint star-like object. One of

these radio sources, 3C48, was shown by Matthews and Sandage (1963) to

correspond to a 16th-magnitude object with a stellar appearance.

Spectra of this object showed that it did not have the spectrum of a

normal galactic star. At some wavelengths, there were broad emission

lines whose presence could not immediately be explained. A precise

position for 3C273 was obtained by Hazard et al. (1963) by means of

lunar occultation. At this position was a 13th-magnitude star-like

object, showing similar broad emission lines, some of which Schmidt

(1963) identified as the Balmer lines of hydrogen and a line due to

ionized magnesium, all redshifted by the factor z= AX/0o = 0.158. It

was then shown by Greenstein and Matthews (1963) that these same lines

appeared in 3C48 at a redshift of z = 0.367. Following this, many more

star-like objects were identified with radio sources. However, many

sources remained for which the radio error boxes were still quite large.



RQQSOs



By studying the photometric properties of the quasars, Sandage and

Veron (1965) hoped to learn to make better guesses at the optical

identifications, which would still have to be confirmed by obtaining

spectra. They realized that the quasars were bluer than most stars, and

in particular that they occupied an area of the U B, B V color-color

diagram near the black body line, and separated from the main-sequence

stars (Fig. 1). Sandage and Veron (1965) used a double-exposure, two-

filter photographic method, producing ultraviolet and blue images










separated by a small displacement. Any object with a brighter-than-

normal ultraviolet image would be noticeable and would be a good

candidate for spectral confirmation as the quasar. When they applied

this technique to several fields in which the quasar had not yet been

identified optically, they were surprised to find extra objects,

"interlopers," with ultraviolet excesses but not near the radio

position. Realizing that these objects were probably related to the

faint blue objects at high galactic latitudes found in earlier surveys

by Iriarte and Chavira (1957), Haro and Luyten (1962), Humason and

Zwicky (1947), and Feige (1958), Sandage (1965) studied the space

density of these objects with respect to their apparent magnitudes.

These results led him to suggest that while the brighter of these blue

objects were galactic stars, most of the fainter ones were extragalactic

and could be expected to show large redshifts. When spectra were taken

of several of these objects, three showed extragalactic redshifts

(Sandage, 1965). The spectrum of BSO 1 was indistinguishable from those

of the quasi-stellar radio sources (QSRSs) and had a redshift of

z = 1.241. These extragalactic objects not associated with radio

sources are usually referred to as radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects or

RQQSOs.

In order to obtain a larger sample with which to study the space

density of these objects, Sandage and Luyten (1967) carried out

photometric studies on some of the blue objects found earlier in the

Palomar field at 1h36m +6 by Haro and Luyten (1962) using a U, V offset










method. These objects are referred to by their PHL numbers. Spectra by

Sandage and Luyten (1967), and by Burbidge (1968) confirmed many of

these as QSOs. Others proved to be galactic subdwarf stars. Braccesi

(1967) suggested that QSOs should also be brighter than the subdwarfs in

the infrared and that this could be used to weed the subdwarfs out of

the sample. The U, B offset plates taken of the field at 13h+360 by

Sandage and Veron (1965) were used to locate the objects which had

ultraviolet excess. This plate was then compared by Braccesi, Lynds and

Sandage (1968) with an infrared plate of the same field. Of those

objects with a strong ultraviolet image, those which also showed strong

infrared images were predominately QSOs, as confirmed by their

spectra. These objects were listed as BSO or B objects. The more

complete list, covering the same area, by Braccesi, Formiggini and

Gandolfi (1970) has later been referred to by AB numbers. These surveys

suggest that the RQQSOs are much more numerous than the QSRSs. Since

"radio quiet" simply means not yet detected in the radio, some of these

RQQSOs may be detected at radio frequencies as the sensitivity of radio

telescopes is increased.



Characteristics



As more and more QSOs were identified and studied, it became easier

to describe them as a class. They are star-like objects often

coincident with a radio source. The spectra show broad emission lines

redshifted by large amounts. Absorption lines may also be present.

These two properties are enough to identify a candidate as a QSO, but










there appear to be other common attributes. QSRSs are strong sources in

the ultraviolet (Sandage, 1965) and in the infrared (Braccesi et al.,

1968). These characteristics were useful in choosing candidates for

spectra to confirm their extragalactic nature.

A fourth property possessed by many of the quasars is a variability

in optical and/or radio output. This possibility was recognized when

the magnitude of 3C48 was found to be different on a subsequent

observation (Matthews and Sandage, 1963).



Questions



There are two different directions in which QSO studies have been

aimed, based on the second and fourth properties. Because of the large

redshifts, QSOs were suspected to be the most distant objects observable

at the time. Therefore, they might be used to extend our baseline for

the investigation of cosmology--for example, determination of the Hubble

constant and the age of the universe (Sandage, 1972).

In cosmological studies the variability of QSOs proved to be a

nuisance because of the resulting uncertainty in absolute magnitude and

energy output. In other researches variability provided valuable

information because the radius of the active region is limited to the

distance that light can travel during the time scale of the variation.

Results of variability investigations imply that these sources are quite

small by galactic standards, which makes their tremendous energy output

even harder to explain. In addition, their relative energy output

across a wide spectrum, and relative changes in this energy











distribution, should contain information on the energy generation and

transformation mechanisms in the immediate vicinity. In particular, two

classes which have very different spectral energy distribution might

show different types or degrees of variability. Quasars typically have

their energy peak in the short radio range while RQQSOs have no

detectable emission in this range. If the source of the QSRSs'

variability were in the radio range, with much of the energy then being

transferred to optical wavelengths through various physical processes,

it might be expected that RQQSOs having little or no radio output would

be less likely to vary.



Samples Chosen for the Present Study



In order to study the optical behavior of RQQSOs, one or more

consistent samples with well-defined optical properties were needed. A

spectrum showing the object to be a quasar was the second requirement.

The existence of readily available photographic finding charts was

another major consideration. Two groups of objects, conveniently 12

hours apart and accessible during different times of the year, fit these

criteria. Eight objects in the PHL field Ih +60 studied by Sandage and

Luyten (1967) had spectra and finders given by Kinman (1966), Burbidge

(1968), and Burbidge et al. (1968). Redshifts were available for 11 of

the objects in the 13h +360 field whose finders were published by

Braccesi et al. (1968).

In the first of these fields the selection was based on ultra-

violet excesses only. In the second field infrared excess was also




7




considered in choosing which spectra should be taken. There was

probably also a preference toward the brighter objects. The limiting

magnitude is approximately 1 mag. fainter for the objects in the second

field. Positions and colors are given in Table 1 for the RQQSO sample,

which includes objects from both fields. These objects occupy a region

in the U-B, B-V color-color diagram shown in Fig. 1.









TABLE 1


Sample of Radio-Quiet Quasi-Stellar Objects


Alternate

Object Designations RA (1950) DEC (1950)


PHL 938

PHL 3375

PHL 1027
PHL 3632

PHL 1186

PHL 1194

PHL 1222
PHL 1226

BSO 1

B 46

BSO 2
B 114

B 154

B 194

B 201
BSO 6
B 234

B 312

BSO 11


9

11

17, B 87
47
64

69

78

90, B 243

100

134

168, B 416


0h58ml2s0

1 28 24.0

1 30 30.0

1 39 54.0
1 47 36.0

1 48 42.0

1 51 12.0
1 51 48.0
12 46 28.7

12 46 29.6

12 48 17.7

12 52 57.9

12 55 2.1

12 56 7.8

12 57 26.7

12 59 30.9

13 0 42.5

13 4 52.1

13 11 19.5


1 56 00

7 28 00

3 22 00

6 10 00
9 01 00

9 02 00

4 48 00
4 34 00

37 46 50

34 40 49

33 47 11
35 55 24

35 21 21

35 44 54

34 39 31

34 27 19

36 07 34
37 28 38

36 15 40








TABLE 1 extended


V B-V U-B Z Refs.


17.16

18.02

17.04

18.15

17.4

17.50

17.63

17.5

16.98

17.83

18.64

17.92

18.56

17.96

16.79

17.67

17.52

19.08
18.41


0.32

0.29

-0.03

0.13

-0.02

-0.07

0.41

0.04

0.31

0.36

0.28

0.08

0.32

0.46

0.26

0.05

0.86

0.14

0.06


-0.88

-0.51

-0.77

-0.75

-0.83

-0.85

-0.78

-0.72

-0.78

-0.87

-0.98

-0.90

-0.70

-0.76

-0.82

-1.01

-0.43

-0.67

-0.85


1.930

0.390

0.363

1.479

0.270

0.298

1.910

0.404

1.241

0.271

0.186

0.221

0.183

1.864

1.374

1.956

0.060

0.450

2.084


c

c

c

d

c

d

d

f, g, h
h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h

h


a Kinman, 1966.
b Burbidge, 1968.
c Sandage and Luyten, 1967.
d Burbidge, 1967.
e Braccesi et al., 1968.
f Sandage and Veron, 1965.
g Sandage, 1965.
h Braccesi et al., 1970, 1973.







10

















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CHAPTER 2


DATA ACQUISITION



Florida Monitoring Program



A photographic program monitoring the optical brightness of quasars

and related objects has continued since 1968 at the University of

Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory located near Bronson, Florida.

Four-inch by five-inch photographic plates are exposed in a camera

located at the f/4 Newtonian focus of the 76-cm Tinsley reflecting

telescope. Summaries of the results of this monitoring program have

been published by Folsom et al. (1971), McGimsey et al. (1975), Scott

et al. (1976), Pollock et al. (1979), and Pica et al. (1980).



Photographic Techniques



Since the telescope is rather small for use on such faint objects,

special efforts are made to maintain the quality and improve the speed

of the photographic plates. The plates are exposed in sealed cassettes

filled with dry nitrogen gas to prevent differences in the plate

responses due to oxygen and excessive humidity in the Florida air. The

plates are hypersensitized to provide an increase in speed without an

unacceptable increase in background density. Scott and Smith (1976)

showed that baking Kodak 103a-0 plates in an atmosphere of dry nitrogen





12




increases their speed. Subsequent evacuation and soaking the plate in

hydrogen gives an additional gain in speed. The plates are then kept in

a dry nitrogen atmosphere during storage, use and exposure. The plates

are developed 9m in MWP-2 (Difley, 1968) with mechanical agitation to

insure evenness of development.

For the RQQSO monitoring program the Kodak 103a-0 plates were

exposed through a Schott GG 385 filter which restricted their

sensitivity to the blue (B) region of the spectrum. This helped to

minimize possible color effects due to atmospheric extinction. The

RQQSO and an approximately one-half-degree field of stars surrounding it

were recorded on the photographic plate.















CHAPTER 3


DATA REDUCTION AND ANALYSIS



Comparison



A preliminary estimate of the brightness of the RQQSO can be made

almost immediately by comparing the image with a pair of neighboring

stars of similar magnitude, one of which is usually slightly brighter

than the object and the other slightly dimmer. Pairs of plates

suspected of showing variation can be studied using a blink comparator.

For numerical comparison a group of twelve or more stars is chosen

near the RQQSO covering a range of 3-4 magnitudes around that of the

object. The magnitudes of these comparison stars are obtained by

photographic transfer (equal-length exposures of the two fields on

different areas of one plate) from a nearby area for which photographic

or photoelectric magnitude sequences have been published. Since the two

RQQSO fields are very far apart, two calibration fields were needed.

Photographic determinations for the stars in SA 94 (Purgathofer, 1969)

near the 1h +60 field and a photoelectric sequence of the stars in M 3

(Sandage, 1970) near the 13 +360 field were conveniently placed. The

transfer process involved at least one exposure of the calibration field

for each RQQSO in the nearby field. Since a number of exposures of

these fileds were made it was possible to smooth the published magnitude

sequences for each of the two calibration fields to correct for any

13











secular changes since publication for any field effects in the

telescope.


Iris Photometry


The prime reduction tool is the Astro-Mechanics Cuffey Iris

Astrophotometer, which measures how much light is blocked out by the

photographic image. An iris reading reflects the size of the iris

opening required so that the light passing through the iris and then

through the image on the plate is equal to that in a reference beam.

When these readings are made with the iris centered first on the object

and then on the stars of the comparison sequence, a curve is obtained

that represents the relation between iris readings and the magnitudes of

the comparison sequence. An example of such a curve is shown in

Fig. 3. The crosses represent the iris reading-magnitude points of the

standard stars in M 3 on a plate taken on June 6, 1977. The circles

show the parabolic curve fitted to the points using a least squares

routine.


Programs


A least squares program of Pollock et al. (1979) fitting a

parabola to the iris reading-magnitude curve is run on a Commodore PET

microcomputer. This program also displays the curve and the data points

on a screen to allow a visual check of the fit. The rms scatter of the

comparison star magnitudes is used as a measure of the precision of the

RQQSO magnitude determined. An expanded version of this program, run on

the Amdahl 470/V6 computer of the North East Regional Data Center











located on the University of Florida campus, provides cumulative data

reduction and allows for iterative smoothing of the comparison sequence.

Further statistical treatment of the first RQQSO magnitudes is done

on the PET, using a program which combines observations made during a

short interval on one night into a single magnitude, and then computes

the weighted Chi Square (see statistics texts such as Aitken, 1952, or

Brownlee, 1960). Chi Square tables then give a confidence level

reflecting how poorly the data fit an assumption that the object has no

intrinsic variation but only reflects the same plate scatter as the

comparison stars. In order to facilitate numerical comparisons between

strongly varying objects, the program uses a mathematical approximation

to Chi Square (X2) function for a given number of degrees of freedom

(df) to compute a variability index (V.I.), which is X2/df normalized to

30 degrees of freedom. A confidence level of 95 percent corresponds to

a V.I. of 1.46; 98 percent to a V.I. of 1.60; 99 percent to a V.I. of

1.70 and 99.9 percent to a V.I. of 2.00. Thus, variability indices

greater than 1.5 indicate real variability. Variability indices greater

than 2.0 reflect not only greater confidence but also greater variation

of the object.



Errors



Like any experimental or observational measurements, photographic

photometry is subject to error. There are three types, requiring

different treatments, involved in the data reduction described here.










The first type is a zero point shift occurring due to the

photographic transfer method of calibration. This error affects all of

the comparison stars in a field and so does not affect the variability

determination. It can be ignored except when comparing magnitudes with

those of other observers, measured photoelectrically or on a different

photographic system. No attempt is made at this time to convert the

photographic blue magnitudes of this photographic plate filter

combination to photoelectric magnitudes. A discussion of the relation

between these photographic blue magnitudes and the Johnson B

photoelectric magnitudes is given in Hackney (1973).

A second source of error, inherent in the photographic process, is

caused by granularity of the photographic emulsion and its response to

incident light. The size of these errors can be affected by observing

conditions (camera focus, atmospheric seeing and sky brightness) and by

the plate hypersensitization process. These random errors cannot be

removed, but it is very important to know the amplitude of the random

error since it is this with which the observed variation of the object

must be compared in order to evaluate whether the observed variation is

mainly inherent in the object or could have been entirely due to the

random errors. For this reason it is necessary to remove the third type

of error which, if allowed to remain, will increase the estimate of the

random error.

This third type of error acts like an error in magnitude of the

comparison stars. On the calibration plate, the effective magnitude of

the stars as seen by the plate may differ from the photoelectric

magnitude published, due to field effects in the telescope, adjacency










and sky background effects in the photographic emulsion and color terms

due to the difference in wavelength bandpass in the photoelectric and

photographic systems. Since each of the two calibration fields is used

for a number of sources, the constant terms can be separated from the

random terms and then smoothed out of the calibration sequence. An

iterative smoothing is also performed on the comparison stars in each

RQQSO field to prevent the random deviations in the calibration exposure

from contributing to each of the other observations. This also reduces

the effective weight of the calibration plate to its proper level.

The mean rms deviation of the comparison stars is used to

approximate the expected random error of the QSO in the X2 test. Since

the QSO may be somewhat brighter or fainter than the average comparison

star, this approximation might be expected to underestimate slightly or

to overestimate the random error of the QSO if the slope of the iris

reading-magnitude curve is not constant. The distribution of rms

deviation of the comparison stars in the combined RQQSO, quasar sample

was examined (see Fig. 2). The linear correlation coefficient is only

0.17, with a slope of 0.02 rms per one magnitude change in brightness,

which is equivalent to 0 09 over the range of magnitudes covered in this

sample; thus, this is not an important source of error in this

monitoring program.


Curve Fitting


Since the form of the mathematical equation used in the least

squares curve fitted to the iris reading magnitude points may have an

effect on the magnitudes and associated error so determined, an













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investigation was made of the various forms and methods used for curve

fitting in iris astrophotometry programs.

In order to derive a magnitude from the iris reading of the object,

a curve is fitted to the iris reading magnitude points for the

comparison stars using a least squares procedure. A variety of systems

have been used. When the magnitudes of the comparison stars are not

known, a scale in terms of average iris reading is often used. Such a

procedure is described in Penston and Cannon (1970). It is difficult to

compare the amplitude of variability expressed in this way with results

of any other studies. In addition, variability thus determined is

suspect unless plate exposure, treatment, and sky conditions are

sufficiently uniform that the slope of the iris curve is essentially the

same on all plates.

Even when the magnitudes of the comparison stars are known or can

be determined, many different forms and methods have been used to fit

the iris curve, including a line fitted graphically by eye, a least

squares line, a smooth curve of unspecified shape fitted by eye, and

polynomials of varying degrees fitted by computer least squares

programs, some of which use iris reading as the independent variable and

some using magnitude. The RQQSO observations were reduced using the

same program as the Rosemary Hill Observatory quasar observations to

facilitate comparison between these two classes of object. The computer

program used in the data reduction to fit a parabola to the magnitudes

and iris readings of the comparison stars (for an example see Fig. 3)

assumes that all random errors occur in iris readings. The smoothing










technique assumes that constant terms are errors in magnitude and

smooths them out iteratively.

The analytical form of the iris reading-magnitude relation produced

by the Cuffey Iris Astrophotometer is not known. Empirically the curve

is essentially linear over most of the range of interest, but the

magnitude should increase asymptotically as the sky background makes an

increasing contribution to the photographic image.

In order to compare the different curve fitting methods and to

investigate the possible effects on variability determinations, a

calibration plate of the M 3 field taken on the night of June 6, 1977,

was reduced using a variety of analytical forms for the iris reading-

magnitude relation. A least squares curve fitting computer program

written by Dr. H. L. Cohen (1980) was used for polynomial forms and a

modified version to fit a line plus hyperbola. The resulting curves are

shown in Figs. 3 8. Results and comments are given in Table 2. In

these figures crosses represent the iris reading-magnitude point of the

standard stars in M 3. The circles show the least squares curve fitted

to the crosses in each case.

In Fig. 3 it is assumed that all of the random errors are in iris

reading and that iris reading may be expressed as a second order

polynomial in magnitude. This is the form used in the RQQSO and quasar

studies done at the Rosemary Hill Observatory of the University of

Florida. Three unknown coefficients are determined in the least squares

procedure. In order to determine the magnitude of the QSO from a known

iris reading, this form must be inverted and the correct root chosen.


















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Higher order polynomials of this type become quite difficult to invert

to determine the magnitude of the QSO.

Other observers, Penston and Cannon (1970), Braccesi et al. (1970),

Burkhead and Seeds (1971) and Bonoli et al. (1979) use computer least

squares fits expressing magnitude as a polynomial in iris reading. This

form does not require inversion to determine the magnitude of the QSO,

but this form assumes that all of the random errors occur in

magnitude. This seems unrealistic since the magnitudes of the standard

stars are usually determined photoelectrically with quite high

precision while the iris reading is subject to the noise in the

photographic emulsion. Figures 3 6 show magnitude expressed as second

through fifth order polynomials in iris reading (3 6 unknowns).

Penston and Cannon (1970) use a second order polynomial in iris

reading and many observers have followed their method. Burkhead and

Seeds (1971) investigated computer fitted polynomials in iris reading

for a field with more than one hundred stars. They found the best
n 2
computer fit (minimum K = Zoi/(n-N)) with a fifth order polynomial, but
i=1
they usually used a third order polynomial for cases with a small number

of stars or fit a smooth curve by eye. Braccesi et al. (1970), also

with a very large number of standard stars, found a minimum at third

order although the third order terms were small. The M 3 field studied

here had minimum K at first order (a line). A linear form does not fit

near the sky background causing the magnitude to be underestimated.

With only 15 standard stars, high order terms are susceptible to

unreasonable curvature in the range where the curve should be linear.















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@ RHO


I











In a search for a relatively simple mathematical form which would be

linear over most of the range but would increase asymptotically as the

sky background was reached, one such form was found: a line plus

hyperbola (Fig. 8, L + H in Fig. 9). It has three unknown coefficients

and an equation: M = A(1) + A(2)x(IR SKY) + A(3)/(IR -SKY). It fits

slightly better than the second order polynomial curves and has the

proper behavior at the sky background. It does not require inversion to

determine the object magnitude. It does have two disadvantages. The

iris reading of the sky background must be known. This quantity was not

measured on many of the old plates. Also, the line plus hyperbola has

magnitude as a function of iris reading. In a linear least squares

curve fitting program, this assumes that the random errors are in

magnitude. The line plus hyperbola may be promising for future data

reduction of the total RQQSO and quasar samples if combined with a curve

fitting program which will minimize residuals in both variables

simultaneously.

Numerical comparison of the goodness of fit of the various

mathematical forms tested on the M 3 field is shown in Table 2 and

Fig. 9. Two quantities are calculated C, the average rms scatter of the

points about the curve (expressed in magnitude units), and K, which is
n 2
ZEC/(n-N), where N is the number of unknown coefficients and n is the
i=1
number of standard stars (in this case n = 15).

Where the minimum K value occurs seems to depend on the particular

field and on how many comparison stars there are. A linear form is too

simple and has the wrong behavior at the sky limit. A parabola in iris

reading also does not approach the sky background properly. Most quasar










monitoring fields have only 10-15 comparison stars, in which case high

order polynomials allow too much curvature in the middle range. The

line plus hyperbola would allow a better shape than a parabola in

magnitude, but requires a more complex least squares curve fitting

procedure.

All of the RQQSO data described in the following chapters were

reduced using a parabola in iris reading, in order to be consistent with

the reduction of the larger sample of quasars observed at Rosemary Hill

Observatory and given in Pollock et al. (1979) and Pica et al. (1980).

Use of the line plus hyperbola form will require re-reading of many

older plates and development of a new curve-fitting program which will

minimize the residuals in both variables simultaneously.














CHAPTER 4


FIELD AT 1h +60



SA 94



The comparison stars for the RQQSOs in the PHL field at 1h +60 were

calibrated using stars in SA 94 centered at 2h 53.3m +00 20'. A

photoelectric sequence giving V magnitudes and B V colors for 54 stars

in SA 94 was published by Purgathofer in 1969. This information allows

calculation of the B magnitudes of these stars. Eight observations of

this field were made in calibrating the PHL objects. A sequence of 15

stars was used in each case. The magnitudes of these stars were

iteratively smoothed to accommodate the field response of the

telescope. The stars are identified in Fig. 10 Their designations and

old and new magnitudes are listed in Table 3. Some random zero-point

offset in the magnitudes in a RQQSO field may occur in the photographic

transfer method, but this should be small and has no effect on the

amount of variability measured. It would be relevant only when

comparing particular Rosemary Hill Observatory magnitudes with

magnitudes measured elsewhere. A photographic B magnitude is not

exactly the same as a photoelectric Johnson B magnitude, but it is the

same for most photographic observers (Hackney, 1973).




















































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PHL 938



PHL 938 is a blue star-like object found at Oh 58m 12s and +10 56

by Haro and Luyten (1962). Spectra (Kinman, 1966) based on oxygen,

carbon and hydrogen lines gave a redshift of 1.93 with some absorption

lines suggested. Kinman photographically determined a visual

(V) magnitude of 17"16, B V color of 0'32 and U B = -088. Since no

radio source was known at this position, a special search was made by

Bolton (Kinman, 1966), who could not find any radio emission at 11 cm

down to a detection limit of 0.1 fu. Because of the absorption lines,

Burbidge et al. (1968) took more spectra, finding an emission redshift

of 1.955, an absorption in the Lyman alpha (Ly ) hydrogen line at 1.906

and a series of absorption lines due to iron and magnesium at a redshift

of 0.613.

The comparison stars for the PHL 938 field were calibrated by

photographic transfer from the sequence in SA 94 on a plate taken the

night of January 4, 1976. These stars are identified in Fig. 11 and

their magnitudes are given in Table 4. The Florida results were based

on 13 observations, which include two pairs of exposures taken close

together in time. The magnitudes of PHL 938 are given in Table 5 and

plotted versus time in Fig. 12. They do not show any evidence of

variability. The mean magnitude is B = 16.85 with a range of 0.25

compared to an rms scatter of the comparison stars of 0o08 (Table 43).


















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PHL 3375



PHL 3375 is a blue star-like object located at Ih 28m 24s and

+70 28' in the Palomar survey field of Haro and Luyten (1962). It was

suggested as a QSO candidate by Sandage and Luyten (1967), who measured

its magnitude (V = 18"02) and colors (B V = 029, U B = -0T51).

Spectra by Burbidge (1968) showed emission lines of oxygen, magnesium

and hydrogen at a redshift of 0.390. A radio survey by Fanti et al.

(1977) found no radio emission at 1.4 GHz to the limit of the survey

(10 mfu).

The comparison stars in the PHL 3375 field were calibrated by

photographic transfer from SA 94 using an exposure of each field on a

single plate taken on the night of December 31, 1975. These stars are

identified in Fig. 13 and their magnitudes are listed in Table 6.

Eleven observations of PHL 3375, including one pair taken one after the

other, were made at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The coverage was

somewhat hampered by Jupiter's passage through the field during August

and September of 1975. The resulting magnitudes are displayed in

Table 7. The variation of the object with time is shown in Fig. 14

PHL 3375 was slightly brighter in 1975 and 04 dimmer in 1978.

Statistics show that this object is probably variable (C.L. = 92%). It

has a mean magnitude of 17T94 with a range of 0"66. The average rms

scatter of the comparison stars was 011 (Table 43).


















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PHL 1027



Located at Ih 30m 30s and +30 22', PHL 1027 was a blue object on

the Palomar survey plate studied by Haro and Luyten (1962). Photometry

by Sandage and Luyten (1967) found colors suggestive of a QSO;

V = 17?04, B V = -0"03 and U B = -0"77. An emisson line redshift of

z = 0.363 based on neon, oxygen and hydrogen lines was determined by

Burbidge (1968).

The comparison stars for PHL 1027 were calibrated by photographic

transfer from SA 94, using a plate taken on the night of November 21,

1976. These stars are identified in Fig. 15 and their magnitudes are

given in Table 8. The magnitudes from 13 observations of PHL 1027,

including 2 pairs, are given in Table 9 and are plotted according to the

date of observation in Fig. 16. The points scatter about a line and

show no evidence of variation. The mean magnitude of PHL 1027 is 16 83,

with a range of 0?22 compared with the average rms scatter of the

comparison stars of 0'09 (see Table 43).



PHL 3632



PHL 3632 is listed at Ih 39m 54s and +60 10' by Haro and Luyten

(1962). Sandage and Luyten (1967) obtained the following magnitude and

colors: V = 18T15, B V = 0"13 and U B = -0'75. Since its colors

were in the QSO region of the color-color diagram (see Fig. 1), Burbidge

(1968) took a spectrum of PHL 3632. Lines due to carbon implied a
















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redshift of approximately 1.5. The object was definitely a QSO but the

redshift was not as precisely measured as most of the others.

Comparison stars for PHL 3632 were calibrated by photographic

transfer from SA 94, using a plate taken on the night of December 24,

1975. These stars are identified in Fig. 17 and the magnitudes are

given in Table 10. The Florida results contain 11 observations of

PHL 3632, including two pairs. These magnitudes are given in Table 11

and are plotted in Fig. 18. The object appeared brighter in 1975 and

had faded in 1978. PHL 3632 has a mean magnitude of 17"59, with a range

of 0P57 and an average scatter of the comparison stars of 008. X2

statistics give a 98 percent confidence of variation (Table 43).



PHL 1186



PHL 1186 was a stellar object found in the Haro and Luyten (1962)

survey because of its ultraviolet excess. Its position is 1h 47" 36s

and +90 1'. Burbidge (1967) gives its magnitude and colors as

V = 174, B V = 0 02 and U B = -083. Emission lines of neon,

oxygen and hydrogen show a redshift of z = 0.270 (Burbidge, 1968).

The comparison stars for PHL 1186 were calibrated by photographic

transfer from SA 94, using a plate taken on the night of December 24,

1975. They are identified on Fig. 19 and their magnitudes are given in

Table 12. Sixteen observations, including 4 pairs, were made at

Rosemary Hill Observatory. The resulting magnitudes are given in

Table 13. PHL 1186's variation with time is shown in Fig. 20. The

object brightened between 1974 and 1975 and remained at the higher


















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level. The mean magnitude was 17m51, with a range of 054 as compared

to an average rms scatter of the comparison stars of 0&09. The

confidence level for variability is 98 percent (Table 43).



PHL 1194



Haro and Luyten (1962) list PHL 1194 at 1h 48m 42s and +90 2'.

This field and that of PHL 1186 overlap partially. The objects are

17 minutes of arc apart. Sandage and Luyten (1967) give V = 17m5,

B V = -0o07, U B = -0'85 and z = 0.298. Spectra by Burbidge (1968)

show emission lines of neon, oxygen and hydrogen at a redshift of

z = 0.299 and an absorption line which is probably Ly. but might be due

to magnesium. A radio search by Fanti et al. (1977) at 1.4 GHz failed

to detect a radio source at this position with a detection limit of

15 mfu.

Comparison stars for PHL 1194 were calibrated by photographic

transfer from SA 94, using a plate taken on the night of December 9,

1974. These stars are identified in Fig. 21 and their magnitudes are

given in Table 14. Results from 13 observations, including 3 pairs, are

tabulated in Table 15. Variation is evident in Fig. 22. The graph

shows PHL 1194 brightening over the period 1974 to 1977 and much fainter

in 1978. The mean magnitude is 17 47, with a range of 0.65 and an

average rms scatter of the comparison stars of OT10 (see Table 43).

Statistics give a confidence level greater than 99.9 percent that this

object is variable.




















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PHL 1222



PHL 1222, located at ih 51m 12s and +40 48', was one of the blue

objects found by Haro and Luyten (1962). Photometry by Sandage and

Luyten (1967) gives a V magnitude of 17 63, B V = 0T41 and

U B = 078. Burbidge (1968) determined the emission line redshift to

be 1.910. An absorption line, probably Ly is also present. Fanti

et al. (1977) detected no radio emission at 1.4 GHz greater than 20

mfu. The detection level here is somewhat larger due to the presence of

a nearby radio source.

Comparison stars for PHL 1222 were calibrated by photographic

transfer from SA 94, using a plate taken on the night of December 24,

1975. These stars are identified in Fig. 23 and their magnitudes are

recorded in Table 16. Thirteen observations of PHL 1222, including 3

pairs, were made at Rosemary Hill Observatory. The resulting magnitudes

are given in Table 17 and they are plotted against time in Fig. 24. The

brightness of the object appears to be steady with a possible slight

decline in 1978. No convincing evidence of variation is seen. The mean

magnitude is 17 72, with a range of 0 29 and an rms scatter of the

comparison stars of 007 (Table 43).



PIIL 1226



One of the objects found by the Haro and Luyten (1962) survey,

PHL 1226 at Ih 51m 48s and +4 34', aroused extra interest due to its

close proximity to a galaxy, IC 1746. Photometry by Sandage and Luyten


















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(1967) gave its magnitude at 17"5 and its colors as B V = 0O04 and

U B = -0?72. Burbidge (1968) measured its redshift as z = 0.404.

Burbidge et al. (1971) reported the existence of a faint 19th-magnitude

object between the QSO amd the galaxy. This object proved to be

transitory. A radio search by Fanti et al. (1977) at 1.4 GHz failed to

detect any radio emission to the detections limit of 20 mfu.

The comparison stars for the PHL 1226 field were calibrated by

photographic transfer from SA 94, using a plate taken on the night of

January 11, 1976. These stars are identified in Fig. 25 and their

magnitudes are given in Table 18. Twelve observations were made of PHL

1226, including 2 pairs. The resulting magnitudes are given in

Table 19. Figure 26 shows the behavior of PHL 1226 with time. The

object brightened in 1974 and declined from 1975 to 1977, possibly

rising again in 1978., The mean magnitude is 17"12, with a range of

0.36 and an average rms scatter of the comparison stars of 0O08.

Statistics show a 98 percent confidence of variation.

On the night of November 7, 1977, a strange, possibly non-stellar

object of approximately 18T7 appeared near the QSO on the side opposite

the galaxy. This object appeared only on this exposure and possibly, on

the same night, at the edge of the field of PHL 1222, which overlaps

PHL 1226.



Summary



This sample contains 7 objects from the Sandage and Luyten (1967)

field at Ih +60 and one nearby object, PHL 938, with the same colors












(Table 1). These 8 objects have a spread in V magnitude from 17 04 to

18M15. Their B V colors range from -0"07 to +0m41 and their U B

colors from -0m51 to -0O88. There are redshifts from z = 0.27 to

z = 1.93.

Variability results are shown in Table 43. Three objects (PHL 938,

PHL 1027 and PHL 1222) have shown no real evidence of variation during

this time period. One object (PHL 3375) whose variability has a

confidence level (C.L.) greater than 90 percent is probably variable,

but variability is not usually considered established unless the

confidence level exceeds 95 percent. Three objects (PIL 3632, PHL 1186

and PHL 1226) are variable (C.L. >95%) and one (PHL 1194) is strongly

variable (C.L. >99%). No relation between variability and magnitude,

color or redshift is apparent in this sample.















CHAPTER 5


FIELD AT 13h +36



M 3



The comparison stars for the RQQSOs in the Braccesi field at 13h

+360 were calibrated using stars in M 3 located at 13h 40m +28.60. A

photoelectric sequence of outer stars in M 3 was published by Sandage

(1970), giving V magnitudes and B V and U B colors. This allows

calculation of B magnitudes for these stars. Eleven observations were

made of the area of M 3. A sequence of 14 stars was read on each plate

and the magnitudes were iteratively smoothed to give the best fit for

this photographic system. These 14 stars are identified in Fig. 27.

Their designation and magnitudes are listed in Table 20.



BSO 1



BSO 1 was one of the original blue "interlopers" found by Sandage

(1965) and Sandage and Veron (1965). They reported a redshift of

1.241. Braccesi et al. (1968) measured its magnitude and colors,

finding V = 16"98, B V = 0'31, U B = -0'78, and infrared excess

(Iex) of -0T30. Absorption lines were also visible in the spectrum.

Further photometry of this field was done by Braccesi et al. (1970). It

is number 9 on that list. A more precise optical position is given by

75










































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Braccesi et al. (1973) as 12h 46m 28.7s and +370 46' 50". It was not

detected in the radio by Katgert et al. (1973) with a detection limit of

10 mfu at 1.4 GHz.

Comparison stars for BSO 1 were calibrated by photographic transfer

from M 3, using a plate taken on the night of January 25, 1977. The

magnitudes of these comparison stars are given in Table 21 and they are

identified in Fig. 28. Resulting magnitudes of 17 observations,

including 2 pairs, are given in Table 22 and plotted in Fig. 29. BSO 1

has shown a slow, steady increase in magnitude over this 4-year

period. The mean magnitude is 17m80, with a range of 0m56 compared to

an rms scatter of the comparison stars of 013. (Since plate effects

become more important for the fainter images, the average rms scatter of

the comparison stars is expected to be greater in the fields of the

fainter objects.) Statistics show BSO 1 to be variable at the 99

percent confidence level (Table 43).



B 46



Found by Braccesi et al. (1968), B 46 has a V magnitude of 17m83,

B V of 0'36, U B of -0'87 and lex of -1m3. Its redshift is 0.271.

It is object AB 11 in the listing of Braccesi et al. (1970). A refined

optical position of 12h 46m 29.6s and +340 40' 49" is given by Braccesi

et al. (1973). It was not detected in the radio by Katgert et al.

(1973) with a detection limit of 10 mfu at 1.4 GHz, or by Colla et al.

(1970) with a limit of 20 mfu at 408 MHz.

Comparison stars for B 46 were calibrated by photographic transfer

from M 3 using a plate taken on the night of July 25, 1976. These stars
















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