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Caribbean Quarterly
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page 1
        Title Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
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Full Text



Vo L U I


ICI72.,. 9OQ5



Vol. 1


Reprinted from a copy in the collections of the
University of Florida Librairies

c* 0'h

Reprinted by permission of
A Division of
Nendeln/Liech tenstein

Printed in Germany
Lessingdruckerei Wiesbaden

VOL. I No. 3




Sim6n Bolivar. W. Adolphe Roberts 4



Poem. Madonna and Child. M. G. Smith 32


THIS IS THE EVANS REPORT. George Cumper, B.A. 39

November in the Mountain. Vic Stafford Reid 45



PHILIP SHERLOCK, University College, Jamaica, B.W.I.
ANDREW PEARSE, Gordon Street, St. Augustine, Trinidad, B.W.I.

COVER ILLUSTRATION by Marjorie Loy Chin (II years) of Jamaica

MSS. AND COMMUNICATIONS TO THE EDITOR should be addressed to the Editor of the
Caribbean Quarterly, and not to an individual. Unsolicited MSS. which are not accepted
for publication will be returned if accompanied by a stamped addressed envelope.
Subscription rates are 30c. or 1/3 per copy 36c. or I/6 post free. $i (W.I.) or
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I. The journal will be available from certain booksellers at 3oc. or I/3d. per copy.
2. If you order the journal through the Resident Tutor in your area, and call for
it, the annual subscription is $i or 4/2d., to be paid to your Resident Tutor.
3. If you wish to have the journal sent to you regularly by post, you should send
an annual subscription of $I.20 or 5/- to your local Resident Tutor, or to the
Editor in Trinidad, according to the information given below



British Honduras

Leeward Islands

Windward Islands

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Trinidad and Tobago
Subscribers in United
Kingdom or Abroad

...Mrs. G. Cumper, Extra Mural Dept., University
College of the West Indies.
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...F. W. Case, Esq., Extra Mural Dept., St. John's,
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St. Lucia.
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Village, Georgetown.
...Douglas Smith, Esq., c/o Education Office, Bridge-
town, Barbados.
A. C. Pearse, Esq., Gordon Street, St. Joseph,


IN THIS our third publication of Caribbean Quarterly we welcome amongst our
contributors several new names. Two Jamaicans, Mr. Victor Reid and Mr. M. G.
Smith, represent the imaginative writers, with a prose excerpt and a poem
respectively. Mr. George Cumper, now attached to the Institute of Social and
Economic Research, presents a precis of the Evans Commission Report on Land
Settlement in British Guiana and British Honduras. Mr. John Harrison, Art Officer
to the British Council, is known to many of us as a devoted helper and inspire
of artists and art teachers, and we hope readers will welcome his refreshing article
on "Art for West Indian Children" as well as the reproductions, to which we
are indebted not only to the West Indian Children who painted the originals, but
also to the British Council, for financial assistance in enabling us to print them.
The appearance of Dr. Hartog's notes from Curacao show our desire not only to
bring the British West Indies closer together, but also to make closer acquaintance
with our neighbours in the Caribbean area.
Finally we should like to express our thanks to the publishers of the Year Book
of Education for permission to reprint Mr. Philip Sherlock's article on "Education
in the Caribbean Area"


In Dr. Taylor's article "The Milky Way" in Vol. I. No. 2, of Caribbean
Quarterly, the text should read Page 4r, line 20. "If we know the actual
brightness and observe the apparent brightness, we can calculate the distance ; if
we know the distance and the apparent brightness, we can calculate the actual or
absolute brightness"
Page 42, line 19. "We are in a rather flat collection of stars so that if we look
along directions which lie in the collection, there arc many stars. If look
along any other direction, there are fewer stars".

Great Men of the Caribbean

2. Simdn Bolivar


How DIFFERENT FROM the personality of Toussaint was that of Sim6n Bolivar !
How different, too, from that of Jos6 Marti, to whom I shall come presently!
They were all liberators. But if Toussaint was a healer with a touch of divine
inspiration-if Marti was an apostle of freedom and a noble moral thinker-Sim6n
Bolivar looms in more tremendous proportions. He was an archangel among the
leaders of men, with the magnetic power of commanding devotion, and with gifts
so versatile that many authorities regard him as the master genius of American
independence, greater certainly than Washington with whom it is most obvious to
compare him.
He was born in Caracas, Venezuela, in 1783, a son of one of the oldest, richest
and most influential families in the country. The Bolivars owned great landed
estates and a silver mine, and they had been granted a colonial title of nobility.
This was not the background from which to expect a liberator, for although the
Spaniards behaved insufferably even towards such families, it is axiomatic that the
well-to-do in an oppressed colony dread a political change. They are favoured
materially under the system as it is. They cannot tell what a new order will do to
property. It was one of Sim6n Bolivar's merits that he rose above all that and
carried a majority of his generation with him.
He received a peculiar education, his chief tutor, Rodriguez, being an
impassioned disciple of Rousseau and eager to mould the brilliant young pupil as
the "unspoiled child of nature" idealized by Rousseau. Bolivar at thirteen was
adept at horsemanship and all the activities of the outdoors, but his book learning
consisted of desultory reading from the philosophers and poets. At sixteen he was
a second lieutenant in the colonial militia, of which his father had been colonel.
His family sent him to Spain, where he engaged in more formal studies, and where
he was received at court as a favourite. He played the vigorous game of jai-alai,
or pelota, a sort of wall tennis, with Ferdinand, the heir to the throne, and did
not hesitate to strike the boy prince with his heavy glove or racket because he had
broken the rules. The Queen, who adored Bolivar, upheld him when Ferdinand
complained. On another occasion Bolivar drew his sword upon the police when
they attempted to search him in connection with an ordinance against the wearing
of diamonds. It is doubtful whether any other colonial youth could have
committed such acts with impunity, but Bolivar's personality was already imposing
Before he was eighteen he fell violently in love with the beautiful Teresa del
Toro, aged seventeen, a granddaughter of the Marquis del Toro, who lived in
Caracas. Both families insisted up3n a year's delay. At nineteen Sim6n Bolivar
was married in Madrid and took his wife back to one of his plantations in the
lovely valley of Aragua near the Venezuelan capital. He thought that his life was

to be passed as a country gentleman, and he said afterward that if his wife had
not died he would probably have had no public career. To my mind that is
inconceivable. A man of Bolivar's gifts and temperament could not have stood
aloof from his country's cause.
At all events, Teresa succumbed to a malignant fever only ten months alter
the wedding. Bolivar was broken-hearted. He swore romantically never to marry
again, and that vow he kept, though his liaisons with women were an important
factor to the end of his days. He enjoyed the companionship of women and
frankly admitted that the inspiration he derived from them was a necessity to him.
Upon the death of his wife he returned to Europe and passed through a period
of Byronic extravagance, seeking to forget his loss by means of dissipation and
the reckless spending of money. But more serious matters soon aroused his
interest. Napoleon's act in assuming an imperial crown moved him to scorn. He
said that the Corsican had lost much by becoming Caesar, yet Napoleon's grip
upon the multitude fascinated him. At about this time Bolivar met in Paris Baron
Alexander von Humboldt, the German scientist, who had travelled in South
America. He spoke of the indignity of life in a colony to Humboldt, and the latter
replied "I believe that your country is ripe for emancipation. But who will be
the man to undertake so vast an enterprise ?"
Bolivar was deeply impressed by this statement. Note the parallel with
Toussaint's reading of the Abb6 Raynal's book, in which the same question had
been posed "Where is the great man ?"
Shortly afterward the eccentric old tutor, Rodriguez, appeared in Paris and
persuaded Bolivar to join him on a walking trip to Rome. They overtook
Napoleon conducting a huge military review on the plain of Montechiaro, near
Milan. Bolivar stared down the Emperor, who looked at him carefully through a
small telescope and is believed to have taken him for a spy Bolivar went on to
Rome where the Spanish ambassador procured for him an audience with the Pope.
But he flatly refused to kiss the Holy Father's shoe, saying afterward that he
considered the shoe a poor place to wear the symbol of the Christian religion. The
ambassador apologized, but Pius VII murmured, "Let the Indian youth do as he
pleases !" and offered his ring, which was duly kissed.
On a certain afternoon of glittering sunshine, Bolivar and Rodriguez climbed
the Aventine Hill, the sacred mount on which the ancient Romans were wont to
reaffirm solemnly their right of freedom. Bolivar sent a sweeping glance about
him at the monuments of the Eternal City spread below. He plunged into an
impromptu oration on Roman History. Suddenly he looked Rodriguez in the eyes,
raised his right hand above his head and said this
"I swear before you, I swear by the God of my fathers by my forefathers
themselves, by my honour and my country, that I shall never allow my hands to
be idle or my soul to rest until I have broken the shackles which bind us to Spain!"
The tutor was besides himself with joy. He had always believed that Sim6n
Bolivar was destined for greatness. Now he felt that the scene marked the end
of the young man's futile mourning for his dead wife and that the vow just taken
was sincere. He was right.
I have stressed these early phases because I want to leave you in no doubt
that it was a flaming sword that returned to Venezuela in 1807. Bolivar was then
twenty-four years old. He found that a fillibustering expedition that had sailed


from the United States, under the famous General Miranda, had just been repulsed
by the Spanish authorities at the port of Coro. Miranda was a Venezuelan who
had served in the French republican armies after the great revolution, but his
attempt in his native country was ill-timed. He is known as the Precursor. The
following year Napoleon forced the King of Spain to abdicate and placed his
brother Joseph on the throne in Madrid. This threw the colonies in the Western
Hemisphere into confusion. Some recognized the Bonaparte monarch. Others,
including Venezuela, took the stand that Prince Ferdinand was the legitimate king
and formed committees to govern in his name. To Bolivar neither of these
compromises was rational. He stood up at a meeting of the Patriotic Society in
Caracas and shouted
"They are discussing what course should be taken. And what do they say
That we should weigh the results of Spanish policy What does it matter to us
whether Spain sells her slaves colonies to Bonaparte or keeps them herself, if
we are resolved to be free ? These doubts are the sad effects of our ancient chains.
They say that we should prepare for great projects with calm-are not three
hundred years of calm sufficient Without fear, let us lay the cornerstone of
South American independence.
The country declared itself free shortly afterward. A mission was sent to
London to seek recognition and aid if possible. It was headed by Bolivar, who
paid all the expenses out of his own pocket. He did not convince the British that
they should help, but he resurrected General Miranda from exile in London, brought
him back to Venezuela and had him made commander-in-chief of the patriot
armies. The Precursor proved to be in his dotage as a military leader and unable
to adapt himself to guerilla warfare. He bungled the campaign, accepted terms
from the Spanish commander, and then prepared to flee the country. Bolivar had
him arrested as a traitor and thrown into prison at the port of La Guayra, with
the intention of courtmartialing and shooting him. The delay caused the capture
of all the high revolutionary officers. The Spaniards sent Miranda to Europe
where he died in chains. They allowed Bolivar to go aboard a ship for Curavao,
but his baggage with all his money had been seized and his estates were confiscated.
He was destitute when he left Venezuela. Nor did he ever regain his private
fortune. He was the most unmercenary of patriots and cared nothing about money,
though often in days to come he was to be in desperate straits for need of it. He
once refused a gift of a million pesos from Europe
From Curacao he went to Cartagena, in which was then the colony of Nueva
Granada, now the republic of Colombia. Here he wrote and published one of the
three key documents of his career, the Cartagena manifesto, in which he explained
the defeat in Venezuela and called on Nueva Granada to help reverse it. He laid
down on the broadest lines the necessty for co-operation among all the American
states and prepared the way for the confederation he later headed. The immediate
result was a commission as a general in the Nueva Granadan army and in time he
got permission to invade Venezuela.
Marching up the valley of the Magdalena River and then eastward, he scored
incredible victories. Everv time he captured a Spanish garrison, he would address
the townspeople. Men flocked to him, and he would leave with his force in many
cases doubled. He traversed the entire width of Venezuela without losing a battle,
and a few days less than a year after the failure of the previous revolution he

entered Caracas in triumph. He was given a Roman ovation. Twelve girls of the
best families met him at the south gate with a chariot and drew him to the palace.
He was officially named The Liberator, the title he most valued to the end of his
life, and a few weeks later he accepted the supreme dictatorship.
Yet this Second Republic of Venezuela was not sufficiently grounded to
survive. In 1814 it was overthrown by the Spaniards, and Bolivar again had to
flee the country. Ten years of warfare lay ahead of him. He went again" to Nueva
Granada, where he was given a command and performed brilliantly. But
dissensions in connection with the siege of Cartagena by the Spaniards decided
him to withdraw for the time being, and he went to Jamaica, a penniless exile.
The Duke of Manchester was then governor there. Bolivar hoped for his help in
equipping an expedition. Manchester entertained him, but refused assistance. His
best Jamaican friend was Maxwell Hyslop, then city treasurer of Kingston. To him
Bolivar addressed the so-called Jamaica Letter, the second of his key documents.
It is a masterly analysis of political conditions in Spanish-America, and an exact
prediction of how many republics would come into being and how they would
conduct themselves. Bolivar was well aware that his own ideals of union would
not be immediately attained.
While in Jamaica, he lived in a lodging house at the comer of Princess and
Tower Streets. A secretary had accompanied him into exile and shared his
lodgings. One night, while Bolivar was out visiting a woman, two Spanish
assassins crept up on the hammock where he usually slept and stabbed to death the
man lying there. It was the unlucky secretary. The murderers were arrested and
hanged in the parade gardens.
At the end of eight months Bolivar went on to Haiti, where the mulatto
president P6tion gave him the help that Manchester had denied. P6tion told him
that he asked only one thing in return, and that was that he should free the slaves
in Venezuela. Bolivar replied that it was an easy promise to make, since he
already intended to do so at the first opportunity. Needless to say, he carried out
his pledge. He had insisted from the beginning that the Negro must be accepted
as a citizen with equal rights. He detested race prejudice, and when in supreme
power later he overruled members of his family who had objected to one of his
own sisters marrying a man of negro blood.
Bolivar established himself at the city of Angostura on the Orinoco River.
There he assembled a Venezuelan Congress to which he addressed the third of his
great pronouncements, the Angostura Declaration. It was a masterly presentation
of political ideals. From Angostura, in 1819, when it was the last thing expected
of him, he led an army from the lowlands into the Andes, crossed the Paramo de
Pisva at an elevation of 13,ooo feet where his men endured hardships without
parallel, fell upon the Spaniards in Nueva Granada and freed the province in a
series of brilliant actions. When he entered Bogota he received a triumph as great
as that of his earlier one at Caracas. Women threw themselves at his feet. They
lapsed his knees and called him by adoring names, including that of "fantasma"
meaning vision.
Nueva Granadans wanted to make him dictator, but he replied that his plan
was to unite their country with his own and Ecuador in a confederation to be called
Gran Colombia, and that before that could be accomplished he must free Venezuela.
He returned to Angostura, strengthened his political and military lines, marched

against the Spaniaids and overthrew them at the Battle of Carabobo in 1821. He
formed his Gran Colombia even before Ecuador had been liberated, but with the
help of General Sucre he rapidly achieved the final act. He pressed on to Peru,
assumed the task that General San Martin had laid down and drove the last
Spaniards from the vice-royalty in 1824. He created Bolivia, which named itself
after him, from the province of Upper Peru. Single-handed, he wrote an
experimental constitution for Bolivia which some authorities regard as a fourth
major document to be added to the Cartagena Manifesto, the Jamaica Letter and
the Angostura Declaration.
After reaching the apex of his glory in Peru and Bolivia, his fortunes began
slowly to decline. The conference of all American republics, anticipating the
present Pan American Union, which he called to meet at Panama, was not well
attended and accomplished nothing. Prominent supporters importuned him to be
emperor, a temptation which he scornfully declined. He pointed out that, his
democratic beliefs apart, there was no basis for royalty in the incohate societies
of America. Everything that constituted the reality of a state had to be organized
out of the void, and in bringing this about he proposed to serve the cause of
liberty, not that of despotism. Ironically enough, the men who said they wanted
to be ruled by him as emperor were not willing to support him as chief of a
federated republic. Little by little they undermined the structure of Gran
Colombia until it fell to pieces in I830. Bolivar, suffering from tuberculosis, started
for the coast where he intended to sail for Jamaica. He became desperately ill
in a friend's house at Santa Marta and died in such poverty that he was buried
in a borrowed shirt. Twelve years later a repentant Venezuelan removed his body
to Caracas, where it rests in a Pantheon, surrounded by the bones of his generals.
General Daniel Florence O'Leary, an Irishman, who served on his staff, wrote
of Bolivar : "He was a creative genius par excellence. Always great, he was yet
greater in adversity. Reverses lifted him above himself."
His capacity for work was boundless. He could pass days on horseback and
had an iron physique until affected in his middle forties by the inroads of tuber-
culosis. He could dictate to three secretaries at a time ; no letter addressed to him
was left unanswered, no matter how obscure the correspondent might be. His
powers of oratory and his gift for the written word complemented his vigor in
action. He was a poet, too. In bidding farewell to Lima, he said "I have been
the soldier of beauty, because I have fought for liberty, which is beautiful."
As the nations founded by Bolivar matured they turned slowly back to him.
They made a cult of his memory and began to test their democracy by his ideals.
Today all of the eighteen Spanish-speaking republics venerate him. Indeed he has
been praised by their modern historians almost in the terms of idolatry. Jose
Enrique Rod6, the Uruguayan, writes, "In all the records of glory none is greater
than Bolivar." And Garcia Calder6n, the Peruvian, says "In his acts and his
speeches, in his dignity and his faith, there was a notable grandeur. He worked
for eternity, accumulating dreams and Utopias, dominating the hostile earth and
censorious man. He was the Superman of Neitzche, the representative man of


Education in the Caribbean Area


I. THE CARIBBEAN is the Mediterranean of the New World. During the four and
a half centuries that have passed since its discovery, five imperial powers have
striven for its mastery, and peoples from four continents have established them-
selves around its shores. Few areas of comparable size in the Americas possess
so varied a history or exhibit more diverse social and political conditions.
The territories with which this article deals are the islands that hem in the
Caribbean on the north and east. Their total area is comparatively small, being
about go,ooo square miles (approximately the area of Great Britain), but the
islands are strung out in a great arc z,ooo miles in length. In addition there are
the two mainland colonies of British Guiana and British Honduras. This wide
geographical separation makes difficult the growth of a feeling of common identity
amongst the Caribbean people.
Some 15 million people live in the islands and in the two mainland territories.
Of these approximately io million are subjects of the three independent republics
of Cuba, Haiti, and Santo Domingo. The remaining 5 million live in the territories
of four great powers Britain, the United States of America, France, and Holland.
The barriers which divide Spain, France, Holland, and Britain are reproduced in
the West Indies, from language and religion to currency and the minute details
of customs regulations. In the Caribbean there is no common land, no common
language, no common tradition.
The social origins of the population are diverse. Three main streams
of people have poured into the Caribbean-from Europe, from India, and
from Africa, and each territory possesses in varying degree a society that
is multi-racial in character. At one end of the scale is Puerto Rico, where
about two-thirds of the population are white, mostly of Spanish descent at the
other end is Haiti, where there are few white people. With the exception of
Puerto Rico more than go per cent. of the total population of the islands is black
or coloured. There is no one race and no common history.


Caribbean society has been profoundly affected by sugar and slavery, the two
central facts in its history, but this does not make it unique. In the preface to the
first Brazilian edition of The Masters and the Slaves, Gilberto Freyre points out
"The same influences deriving from the technique of production and of
labour-that is to say, the one crop system and slavery-have combined
here in this English-settled portion of North America (i.e. the Deep South
of the United States) as in the Antilles and Jamaica, to produce social
results similar to those that are to be observed in our country," and he goes
on to refer to "a monoculture that absorbed other forms of production" and
"a semi-feudal society, with a minority of whites and light-skinned mulattoes
dominating, patriarchally and polygamously, from their Big House of
stone and mortar." (I)
Sugar and Negro slavery meant the development of a caste structure. This
rigid social structure was based on a one-crop economy that was, and is, subject
to frequent violent fluctuations because of its dependence on world markets. The
result has been economic insecurity and a sense of instability.
Sugar is still supreme in the Caribbean. In the phrase of Dr. Eric Williams
it is the spinal cord of Caribbean economy. Before the last war sugar was
responsible for 60 per cent. of all exports from the Caribbean and for 68 per cent.
from the British Caribbean. The West Indies Royal Commission of 1929 found
that the proportion of the population directly employed in the sugar industry was
20 per cent. in Barbados, 33 per cent. in St. Kitts, 31 per cent. in Antigua,
12 per cent. in St. Lucia, 16 per cent. in British Guiana, Io per cent. in Trinidad,
and 5 per cent. in Jamaica. (2) The proportion has increased in Jamaica, where
the 1943 census showed that 13 per cent. of the total number of wage and salary
earners in the island were connected with the industry. (3)
Like sugar, slavery also is still a central factor in the Caribbean.
Emancipation struck the bonds from the body, but Caribbean society still bears
the marks of a system whose dividing effects may be seen in race-feeling in
hidden antagonisms and resentments in a perverted work-standard that puts a
premium on indolence and display and despises manual industry and, as
Professor Simey observes, in "profound feelings of inferiority, which stand out as
the most powerful single factor in moulding the personality of the individual, and
in shaping the patterns of social intercourse. A society cannot be a healthy one
in which so many people suffer from a constant regret that they are what they
are, and do their best to give their children characteristics commonly supposed to
be better than their own." (4)
The most important of all the effects of slavery, however, is the weakness in
family and social organisation. This is true in spite of the strength of the kinship
structure noted in Haiti, for instance, by Dr. George Simpson. (5) The figures for
the British territories are revealing. The Jamaica census of 1943 showed
272 persons per thousand married as compared with 645 per thousand in
Britain in 1931. (6) The corresponding illegitimacy rate in Jamaica is
approximately 70 per cent., and the illegitimacy rate in the other British Caribbean
colonies is in the neighbourhood of 50 to 70 per cent. "Even after giving full weight
to the existence of 'common law marriages' the position is still grave. The Chief
Registrar's figures show that over the period since 1881 for which records exist, the

illegitimacy rate in Jamaica has actually worsened by as much as o1 per cent.
Such statistics show a really serious disorder, arising from the fact that the people
of these territories are without a clear pattern of human relationships which is
accepted by all classes. (7) It is further to be observed that the lack of the
father in the home compels the mother to work. This frequently means insufficient
supervision and little, if any, schooling for the child.
The basic problems of the area may be thrown into relief by a brief comparison
of the independent republics of Cuba and of Haiti. The former is the largest,
most prosperous, and most powerful of the islands, with approximately 5 million
people to its 44,ooo square miles. It has a population density of 52 to the square
mile, and a comparatively high proportion of its land is cultivable. Low as the
standard of living of the Cuban peasant may be, Cuba can address itself with
energy to its educational and social problems. In sharp contrast is Haiti, with
over 3 million people to 10,200 square miles, with a population density of 295 to the
square mile, and with only one-third of its area productive. Leyburn in his Haitian
People points out that
"Haiti's density per square mile is therefore greater than that of China
or India-two world examples of over-populationand even greater than
that of New York State with its enormous city areas. Besides the figures
given must be set those of the Government budget which is annually in the
neighbourhood of $7,000,000, and of its annual imports and exports, neither
of which generally exceeds $i',ooo,ooo a year. Chicago with its population
of 3 million has an annual budget of about $275,000,000 apart from state
and federal services." (8)

II. Such is the background. Recent years have seen remarkable developments
throughout the area. New integrating factors are at work. The radio and the
aeroplane are breaking down insularity and isolation. Significant social changes are
taking place. The problems and educational plans of Cuba, Haiti, and Santo
Domingo will be discussed elsewhere. The observations that follow apply more
particularly to the colonial territories. It should be remembered that in character
and outlook Puerto Rico belongs to the independent territories, being more advanced
politically, and having a more articulate and sophisticated national movement.
Between the years 1935 and 1939 there were ten outbreaks of violence in
seven British West Indian territories. The sustained and widespread nature of this
agitation points to a growth of political consciousness and to a demand for
increased political responsibility. Political agitation has produced constitutional
changes, one of the most dramatic being in Jamaica where, before the introduction
of adult suffrage in 1944, more than 95 per cent. of the people were excluded from
voting by property qualifications. In an unpublished paper on "The Caribbean
in a Changing Economy", by Dr. Dudley Huggins, now Director of the Institute
of Social and Economic Research at the University College, has commented on
the fact that the development of political consciousness and the increase in political
responsibility have been accompanied by rapid development in the organisation
of labour, and of governmental machinery for the regulation of industrial relations.
The Report of the Royal Commission of 1938 showed that this essential machinery
was almost non-existent. Since then it has been created and is functioning.
Labour itself is learning how to make use of the modern techniques of labour

power. In Antigua, trade unions now claim a membership of 12,ooo out of a total
population of 40,778. In Jamaica, trade union membership has increased from I,o8o
in 1938 to 57,700 in 1946, and the assets have risen from 150 in 1938 to 18,500 in
1947. As remarkable has been the growth of Labour as a political power.
Dr. Huggins writes,
"In Jamaica the election was vigorously contested and it is
probably right to say that no member was returned who was not regarded
as pro-Labour in sympathy. In Barbados in the election in 1946, the
Electors' Association secured 8 seats, Labour 16. In Trinidad all of the
newly elected members have been associated with Labour advocacy. The
British Guiana elections, the first after the new constitution, were held in
1947. Of the 14 elected seats on the Legislative Council, Labour secured
7 and Independents 7. The Antigua Trade and Labour Union secured all
the elected seats on the Legislative Council in the recent elections."
The strength of these integrating forces and their rapid development were
manifested at the "Conference on Closer Union" held in Jamaica under the
chairmanship of the Secretary of State for the Colonies in 1947.
While these changes were taking place in the British territories, the relation-
ships between the Great Powers and their colonies were being profoundly modified.
The Mandates system of the League of Nations helped to encourage the idea of
"trusteeship" and of responsibility for the welfare and progress of dependent
territories. The Popular Front Government*which came into power in France in
1936, for instance, aimed at the reformation of French colonial policy, and when
the French Governors-General met in Paris in that year a committee was appointed
whose terms of reference included "a vast renovation of the French Colonial
System." The new and more liberal attitude helped to prepare the way for the
Colonial Development and Welfare Act in Britain in 1940, and for the establishment
of the Caribbean Commission which has been termed "a major experiment in
American foreign policy, and a new mechanism in international colonial adminis-
tration." (9) The Second World War gave stimulus and force to the new
conception by making liberty a slogan of the Allied armies, by demonstrating that
the Caribbean must be treated as a single unit economically and strategically in
spite of all existing divisions, and by creating a new attitude towards money, since
spending was for results and not for profits. The change was reflected in the
constitutional reforms that were made, in the financial aid given, and in the
emphasis on a regional approach to what are essentially regional problems.

III. Education in the Caribbean cannot seize present opportunities or meet the
challenge of the future because it is inadequate in quantity and lacking in purpose.
Mr. S. A. Hammond, Educational Adviser to the Comptroller for Development
and Welfare in the British West Indies, outlined the position clearly in his article
on "Education in the British West Indies" in the Journal of Negro Education.
He shows that in 1944 a total population of 2,881,631, with a total revenue from
taxation of 13,756,444, spent the sum of 1,345,341 from public funds on
education, or approximately Io per cent. In the same year the estimated total
population of school age was 624,665. Of these, 439,326 were enrolled in
elementary schools, and 13,751 in secondary schools. This gives a total school
enrollment of approximately 72 per cent. (Io)

School enrolment does not mean school attendance or a long school life.
Barbados is an honourable exception since, as the memorandum on educational
policy in Barbados points out, the system of education in that island "may be
said to compare more than favourably with the educational progress of other
West Indian islands, and in one respect-the comprehensiveness of its elementary
provision-it is probably outstanding. (II) On the other hand Jamaica, which
contains about one-half of the population of the British territories, had in 1943 a
total of 924,278 persons of Io years of age and over, and of these 218,127 had
never attended school. Compulsory education exists in a few areas of the island,
but is not enforced. It is estimated that one child in every six receives no
education of any kind, and that, by reason of irregular attendance and absorption
into the wage-earning section of the family at the age of 12 or 13 years, not more
than eight in every hundred complete the elementary school course.
"Similar conditions exist in many of the other Caribbean colonies. In Antigua,
which is about the size of the Isle of Wight, and in which the number of children
of school age is estimated at io,5oo, there is an average attendance of only 5,000,
this low figure being due mainly to unsatisfactory home conditions and lack of
parental control." (12)
The quality of the education given in the primary and secondary schools is
usually high, because of the magnificent efforts of the teachers and of the local
departments of education, but, as the figures show, there is far too little primary
education. One result is that a grave threat to the future of the Caribbean society
lies in the untold thousands of children who are without homes, education, or
Another significant fact revealed by Mr. Hammond's analysis is the extremely
small number-less than 2 per cent. of the total school enrolment-receiving
secondary education. (13) This limitation of educational opportunity means a
high wastage of ability. It is all the more serious, and becomes a dividing social
force, because educational opportunity is often gained by money rather than by
The French West Indies have a total area of about I,ooo square miles and a
total population of about half a million. Here primary education appears to be
more adequate in quantity. Charton, in a report of UNESCO, states that in the
French islands primary education has been greatly developed and he represents
Guadeloupe as having a school attendance of about 89 per cent. of the children
of school age. (14) In Puerto Rico, on the other hand, the problems are more
difficult. Dr. Lloyd E. Blauch, in his article on "Education in the Territories and
Outlying Possessions of the United States" in the Journal of Negro Education,
gives figures showing that in Puerto Rico, during 1944-5 "only 66 per cent. of
the children from 6 to 12 years of age, and only 53 per cent. of the total school
population (those between the ages of 6 and 18 years) attended any public or
private school. The great majority of the pupils attended school only part of the
day-in 1943-4, 44 per cent. of the urban enrolment and 78 per cent. of the rural
enrolment. This low record of attendance is due to the fact that there are not
sufficient schools to accommodate the children. The Commissioner of Education
reported for 1943-4 that only 9.75 per cent. of the total tax collections in Puerto
Rico were spent in elementary education." (15) He goes on to state that the
general conclusion expressed by the Commissioner of Education in his report for

1943-4 was "that the Puerto Rican school system is failing to provide educational
opportunity for its potential citizens. The Puerto Rican Government is attacking
the problem with energy and initiative. In 1941 its education budget was 7 million
dollars and in 1946-7 it was 23 million dollars, a larger per capital expenditure on
education than in any other Caribbean territory.
Technical and vocational education have been treated as the poor relations
of the education system. This is in contrast to a situation often found in the
United States in the "Deep South." Hortense Powdermaker found in the State of
Mississippi a stress on vocational training which was more readily supported than
the academic school work because it seemed safer and its value was more
apparent. (16) In the West Indies there was too great a swing away from technical
and vocational education. Yet the facilities for further academic education remained
inadequate, except in Puerto Rico and Barbados, where centres of higher education
have been in existence. Rapid progress is now being made in establishing a
University College of the West Indies, the capital funds being provided by the
British Government.
The tale of inadequacy extends to adult education, in spite of the valuable
pioneer work done by the Church. Generally it is true to say that if the child
has been neglected the adult has been forgotten.
Lacking technical education, Caribbean society has grown up with its hands
untrained. Lacking adequate facilities for higher education it has grown up
without a cerebral centre. It has kept its eyes averted from its origins and
circumstances and has fixed them in the ends of the earth.
Puerto Rico has made a valuable contribution to the development of education
in the Caribbean in its second-unit schools, but it remains true that in general the
curriculum of the schools throughout the area is not sufficiently closely related to the
life of the community. Thus, in the French West Indies, where the policy has
been one of assimilation and where "the establishment and the extension
of the French primary school constitute one of the elements and one
of the consequences of this political assimilation, it recently appeared to be
necessary to direct the primary school system more towards meeting the needs of
the country and fitting into its economy. (17) The same necessity exists in the
Dutch West Indies and in the British West Indies. In 1943 a Committee, under
the chairmanship of Dr. I. L. Kandel, was appointed to inquire into secondary
education in Jamaica. It reported that a system of education had been borrowed
from abroad without such modifications as were needed to give it meaning in its
new setting.
"In a country in which it is difficult to distinguish between the people
of the town and the people of the country the chief result of secondary
education is to help boys and girls to turn their backs on its agricultural
life. Jamaica is kept as far removed from the interest and attention of
Jamaican boys and girls as it is indeed from the interest and attention
of boys and girls for whom the examination syllabus was originally
prepared. (18)
The result may be seen in this account of a visit by a Jamaican artist to an
exhibition of the work of some rural primary schools early in the 1930's :

"Years ago I remember judging a large collection of drawings and
paintings, not one single work of which portrayed the features or the
characteristics of a Jamaican face.
Even worse, there was one little study or sketch of a Jamaican market
scene, and believe it or not, the market women under their scarlet bandanas
had yellow hair, pink faces, and even blue eyes we had become deaf
and blind to the land and people that were Jamaica.
These problems are grave. When the economic resources of the areas are
considered they may even appear to be insoluble. No time can be lost, however,
in attempting to find a solution, since another Jamaican is born every half an hour
and another Puerto Rican every ten minutes.

IV Tomorrow is not without hope. Dynamic forces are at work in the Caribbean.
Attitudes are changing. There are signs of a changing attitude in education, and
there are in progress experiments modest in scale but charged with potency. This
final section refers to some of these significant developments.
There is growing recognition of the fact that economic development and
educational reform are bound together. In an area where there is widespread
ignorance and widespread distress the two immediate needs are food and education.
For the first time in Caribbean history, planned development is being undertaken-
in Puerto Rico by the Puerto Rican Government and in the British West Indies
with the help of the Comptroller for Development and Welfare. This planning
involves assistance in the international field. As the Comptroller's report says
"The British West Indian region produces barely 2 per cent. of the
world's total supply of sugar-yet this industry is responsible for fully half
of its agricultural wealth. The Colonies are thus faced with a basic
dilemma-the way out from which, it now seems clear, lies in the field of
international economic relations. In this field itself the outlook is still
uncertain. On the one hand, the forthcoming Conference on International
Trade and Employment proposes to deal with the question of international
commodity agreements as part of a general programme of freeing trade from
restrictions on the other hand, the drift of opinion crystallising in such
bodies as the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United States is
towards raising the returns to primary producers and stabilising prices,
paying special attention to the position of regions closely committed to the
production of a single commodity. Meanwhile, externally, the future of the
West Indian sugar industry appears as a side issue in the reconstruction of
world trade internally it must remain the major economic problem of the
area for a generation." (19)
It involves also the immediate development of the resources of the area and
it is a hopeful sign that in this planning there is active participation by the people
themselves. For the first time in Caribbean history the regional aspects of
economic development can be considered because of the creation of the Caribbean
Commission. The British and United States Governments are giving substantial
financial aid to the West Indies and to Puerto Rico respectively. The subsidies are
not inconsistent with the growth of political responsibility if the objectives are clear
and if the methods permit both parties to become partners in a great programme
of social engineering.

The international, regional, and local aspects of planning for economic
development are, therefore, receiving attention and this itself becomes effective
political education in proportion as the peoples concerned partake in it. An
increase in the national income, however, does not by itself lead to educational
reform. Trevelyan has pointed out that "in 1899 the amount of public money
spent per head on secondary education was only three farthings in England, as
compared with one shilling and a penny three farthings in Switzerland. (20)
Social awareness is essential, and there is good ground for hope in the fact that
the Caribbean people themselves are becoming increasingly aware of the need for
more education, and, even more important, of the need for the rethinking of
educational policy. Thus Dr. Jaime Benitez, Chancellor of the University of Puerto
Rico, has emphasised that "the key educational problem in Puerto Rico is not that
we need more schools-which we do or more teachers-which we do or that
our students should be willing and able to stay longer with us-which they should.
I believe that it is far more important to give the whole educational system a
sense and purpose in terms of the realities and potentialities of our life." (21)
This involves the deliberate use of education as a powerful social force to
bridge the divisions in Caribbean society, to encourage the feeling of community,
to break down false attitudes, and to equip children to become good individuals,
good citizens, good partners in human relationships. It involves the recasting of
the curriculum in primary and post-primary education and in the institutions for
teacher-training. It involves the use of new methods and techniques.
Two illustrations will indicate what can be done.
The attitude towards agriculture and the land is being changed by education,
by using the occupational club as a means of giving vocational training, by
improving the agricultural extension services for adults, and by demonstrating
that results come from putting brains into the land. "It will take time to reach
the desired levels of efficiency in agriculture in the West Indies, but marked
changes are already taking place in the general outlook. There is, in
fact, a growing concern among all classes about the soil and its wastage.
The second illustration is drawn from "Deep South, where Powdermaker
notes how, in some of the Negro schools, the study of Negro achievement increased
the student's self-respect and gave him a respect for his race beyond anything his
parents or grandparents ever had. (22) In the same way the study of Caribbean
history may exercise a liberating influence by setting slavery in its setting as an
economic system that was contemporaneous with serfdom in Europe and with child-
enslavement in Britain by telling the vivid story of the settlement of the Caribbean
and by recognizing the contribution made by the coloured peoples to its develop-
ment ; above all, by giving a sense of the past and by helping to build a tradition
of achievement.
Further reason for hope lies in the general desire for more education. The
Education Officer for Grenada, describing an experiment in adult education in that
island, writes that "numbers became the first problem." The same result has
attended recent attempts to provide facilities for adult education in Trinidad, in
British Honduras, and in Jamaica.
Much more than response has, indeed, been forthcoming. There have been
constructive attempts at relating the school more closely to problems of living and to
the work of the community in the second-unit school of Puerto Rico, in the

Practical Training Centres in Jamaica, and in the Grand Roy School in Grenada.
There have been important experiments in adult education, and invaluable pioneer
work has been done by organizations like Jamaica Welfare Limited, which has aimed
at assisting rural communities to meet economic needs and to strengthen social
organisation. One of the latest efforts of this organisation illustrates the line of
approach. A project in mass education was undertaken, and the subject "Better
Nutrition" was chosen because it involves so many related aspects of rural life, and
is itself so vital among Jamaica's pressing problems. Agriculture and the right use
of land, the home, and the care of children and health as an aspect of correct living,
are all embraced in some measure in the variety of topics that at once arise when
food is treated as a serious matter. The practical work of the campaign has been
based on a systematic attempt to train the required local leaders and to rely on
them to build up the community spirit which is essential for success.
The aims were to stimulate a community to take action under its own leadership
to improve conditions ; to instruct a community by devising a programme of adult
education closely linked to daily life, easily understood, easily communicated ; and
to undertake through individual and group action the projects which form an
essential part of the educational programme. A method of organisation was sought
which would engender the dynamic, which would spread the services of trained
officers as widely as possible, and which would develop and use voluntary
leadership. The campaign showed that theory by itself was largely a waste of time,
but that theory became effective when rooted in practical activities like the making
of compost heaps that voluntary leadership was available and could be increased
in effectiveness rapidly through carefully planned training programmes based on
"study and action"; that interest in literacy developed when villagers saw that it
was related to their daily needs.
These experiments in education "at the grass roots" and the growing demand
for more and better education have themselves been stimulated and strengthened
by the valuable work of the British Council and of the Carnegie and Rockefeller
Foundations. It will be further strengthened by the University College of the West
Indies, which admitted its first students in October, 1948. The establishment of
the University will lead to the lifting of cultural standards, to the encouragement
of objective thinking, and to teaching the lesson that one of the first duties of the
educated is to lift the standards of life and of thought in the community. By
providing a focal point for contact with other lands the University should also help
to break down the superstition that Caribbean problems are unique when, in fact,
the society of the area bears many resemblances to regions like the "Deep South"
and when the economic problems are repeated in many parts of the world. This
will lead to the fuller use of the results of research done elsewhere, the widening
of intellectual horizons, and a contribution to the economic development of
the area.
The creation of the University College, and the work of the Caribbean
Commission, the British Council, the Carnegie Foundation, and the Rockefeller
Foundation all exemplify the type of international co-operation that is helping the
Caribbean people to solve their problems. The proposal for a UNESCO project
in Fundamental Education in Haiti is to be welcomed as another example of
international co-operation that will have significant results for the whole area.

These are signs of promise. Promise can become reality only if there is the
widest possible expansion of compulsory primary education with the stretching of
limited resources by bold experiments in method, the development of higher
education, and the use of adult education as a democratic method of lifting
community standards by stimulating interest in the arts and sciences and in their
practical application to everyday life, and by finding methods of releasing the
creative energies of the community for actively seeking its own betterment. Schools
and fundamental education of this type are not a luxury. They are a means of
survival. The words penned by Trevelyan in his English Social History with
reference to the last war are relevant "If we win this war it will have been won
in the primary and secondary schools."


(i) The Masters and the Slaves, Gilberto Freyre (Knopf, New York).
(2) West Indian Royal Commission, 1929, Report (London, 1930).
(3) Census of Jamaica and Dependencies. Population, Housing, and Agriculture
(Central Bureau of Statistics, Kingston, Jamaica).
(4) Planning and Welfare in the West Indies, Simey (Oxford University Press, 1947).
(5) "Sexual and Familial Institutions in Northern Haiti" (American Anthropologist,
Vol. 44, No. 4, October-December, 1942).
(6) Census of Jamaica and Dependencies, 1943.
(7) Development and Welfare in the West Indies, 1945-46, Report by Sir John
MacPherson (Colonial No. 212, page 129, paras 8, 9) (London, H.M.S.O. 1947).
(8) Haitian People, Leyburn (Yale University Press).
(9) American Perspective, Vol. I, No. 3, June 1947, page 160 (Foundation for Foreign
Affairs, Washington).
(lo) Journal of Negro Education, Vol. xv, No. 3, 1946, pages 427-9 (Howard University
Press, Washington).
(11) A Policy for Education, pages 3-4 (Department of Education, Barbados, 1945).
(12) Times Educational Supplement, October 14th, 1946, page 504.
(13) Journal of Negro Education, supra.
(14) Fundamental Education, pages 37-8 (UNESCO. Paris, 1947).
(15) Journal of Negro Education, supra, pages 469-74.
(16) After Freedom, Powdermaker, page 316 (Viking Press, New York. 1939).
(17) Fundamental Education, supra, page 38.
(18) Report of the Committee Appointed to Enquire into the System of Secondary
Education in Jamaica, para. 91 (Government Printing Office, Kingston. 1943).
(iT) Development and Welfare in the West Indies, 1943-44, page 63 (H.M.S.O. London).
(20) English Social History, Trevelyan, page 581 (Longmans, London).
(21) Education and Democracy in Puerto Rico, Benitez, page 13 (Office of Puerto Rico,
(22) After Freedom. Powdermaker (Viking Press New York).

Art for West Indian Children


"It could not be that the mere ability to copy crab's claws, bathroom taps,
umbrellas, ivy leaves, or even casts from the antique to which these elementary
things were the prelude constituted art I used to ask the children what it was
that made a picture. "When everything rhymes" was one answer, and one that
I shall never forget."
Marion Richardson

THE GREAT revolution in Art Teaching to children has won the day in England,
and the ideas evolved and put into practice by such pioneers as Marion Richardson
a-e gradually penetrating even into the backwoods of civilisation, bringing light
and hope and understanding with them, enthusiastically welcomed by children,
and by their teachers once the latter begin to grasp what it is all about. The
crab's claws, the broom and upturned pail, the careful exercises in perspective and
flower drawing are at last, even in the West Indies, being put into their place,
that is to say, not as the object, the be-all-and-end-all, of "Art" in schools, but
as only one, and a minor, method by which the child's sense of observation and
design can be trained.
There has been, and perhaps still is, in many people's mind an uncertainty
as to why Art should be included in the school curriculum at all, and, once in,
what it aims to do for the children. Some people, some teachers even, seem to
feel that the aim of teaching art in schools is to produce a generation of little artists,
but really this is no more true than it would be to imagine that writing is taught
to produce a generation of little novelists, or arithmetic to produce only scientific
mathematicians. Not tven the proud parent who insists on his child learning the
piano expects him necessarily to grow up a virtuoso. Art in schools is a valuable
and sure means of training mind and memory, and of developing the individual's
personality and faculty of thinking for himself. Furthermore, the child's eyes are
really trained to see, to observe the world and its beauties, "to do more" in the
words of Elie Faure, "than merely know the difference between an elephant and
an umbrella" And, with an eye to the tuture, by introducing Art and the
Appreciation of Art to school children we prepare them, at an impressionable age,
for what is one of the noblest and most enduring pleasures of the educated man.
It is not to be expected that all children who are taught art at school will turn
out to be either artists or connoisseurs, but to starve the eye altogether is as
dangerous and foolish as to starve the mind. We reap what we sow. and j.,
art-hating, ignorant, world of today, with indifferent and total divorce of

spiritual from material matters is hardly an example of what we should try to
repeat tomorrow. Even if the benefits of humanised education had not already
been proved on a small scale, there would be reason enough to start the revolution
off again today. "Teach him to live rather than to avoid death, and life as not
breath, but action, the use of our senses, our mind, our faculties, every part of
ourselves which makes us conscious of being. Life consists less in length of days
than in the keen sense of living" Rousseau's exalting words are still the credo
of the consecrated teacher today.
And how is this mystery to be introduced into the humdrum time-table of the
average school ? "Somehow", writes Ruth Dunnett, "the atmosphere of work
must always be made gracious" Somehow it must be made unlike that of the
first art-class which I visited in the West Indies where the bored teacher told me
that she marked the work from nought up. I suggested that she try marking it
from ten down.
"Painting is a music and a melody", said Michelangelo, "which intellect only
can appreciate, and with great difficulty" Even in a great country, with museums
and art galleries, the number of trained teachers or of persons susceptible to
training cannot be very large. How are the few sensitive souls to be found, how
trained, in the West Indies ? Are they likely to be already on the staff of the
various Education Departments ? Are the Education Departments likely to
recognize them or employ them if not ? Will time be found for them in the
curriculum ? What will head teachers say when they start asking for the double
periods which are essential if any progress is to be made with the children ? And
what of special art-rooms, grants for materials and such like ?
In the two years which I have been in the West Indies, I have visited
virtually all the British possessions, and given courses in Art Teaching in schools
in most of them. Among the teachers who have attended these courses, there
have always been some who, given the chance and proper training, would make
good art teachers at least for children under twelve years old. For it would be as
well to recognize without delay that the kind of teaching which the children will
require will depend more on their age than their ability. In general, the best
art-teaching being done in the Caribbean is probably in the Infant Schools where
modem methods and properly trained teachers seem more numerous thai is the
case among the older age-groups. The higher one goes the worse it becomes, until
in the upper forms of most of the best secondary schools no art is taught at all.
But they have to pass their examinations. As one Headmaster says, "Until
there are scholarships in art and music on the level of the Island scholarships, art
and music will not be taken as serious subjects for higher education however much
we might wish that they should be" The importance of the present scholarships
is such that the most ambitious and intelligent children have to spend all their time
slaving for them to the detriment of their general education, themselves, and
ultimately the community which they will serve.
Until, roughly speaking, the mental age of ten, the best course for the teacher
to pursue in the Art Class is to leave the children as much to themselves as
possible. The term anarchy has a peprative sound to so many people that one
almocS nesitates to usP it, but what the art class for young children should really
L,- is a kind of sweet anarchy,' and any teacher who has taught young children in
this w-y will know what a difference there is between anarchy and disorder.

It will be a class in which each child is absorbed in his own particular task.
Talking will be allowed, but not horse-play. Walking about will be permitted,
but not the pushing over of desks. Pencils may be borrowed, but ink will not
be thrown. It may seem improbable, but when the children are interested in what
they are doing, and almost any child given the chance will be interested in the
art lesson, they are too absorbed with their work-play to misbehave. Art classes
under Mr. Broodhagen or Mr. Collymore at Combermere School in Barbados, one
of the most enlightened secondary schools in the West Indies, have just this
atmosphere. So have any classes over which Miss Gloria Escoffery may preside
in Jamaica.
The secret, of course, is to find something good in each child's work, to
encourage, to point out the progress which has been made relative to each one's
own previous efforts, rather than to discourage and find fault, as so many teachers
tend to do, blaming the children for lacking qualities which, as children, they
cannot be expected to have, setting them adult standards of behaviour and
discipline. I do not mean by this that the child should receive nothing but praise,
but that, first, his self-confidence must be built up, so that he trusts the teacher,
and is not afraid of being laughed at (being laughed at by the other children is
less important), and that he be then judged on his own merits.(,) It is better to
overpraise than to overblame, but children soon explode the teacher who says
everything everyone does is wonderful, as I discovered for myself when taking
classes in Dominica. "Very good, very good indeed" I heard, repeated parrot-
like behind my back as I was looking through the afternoon's sketches. It was a
nice way of learning such a lesson.
The non-specialist teacher who loves children and who is susceptible to beauty
can be taught to teach art, can, indeed, probably even be given fairly quickly,
sufficient technical ability to hold his own on the blackboard or in the correction
of drawings. If he is diligent, he can, by reading, learn to know and understand
something of the history of art, and train his own, and his charges' taste. But he
is not likely to have the sensitive antennae of even the semi-trained artist, of the
man, who, for better or worse, has always looked around him with an eye open
for the beauty of common things, and who so often, perhaps for this reason, has
remained more innocent and childlike than the average adult, and hence more
understanding of and sympathetic to children. Perhaps the artist, the true lover
of beauty, should really be entrusted with the whole education of the child. Such,
at least, is the opinion of an eminent Chinese educationalist whom I met in Jamaica
and who told me that in the numerous schools for which he is responsible in China
all the teachers had to be, apart from their other qualifications, artists or musicians.
It would be interesting to know how children or adults who had been to such
schools felt about it.(2)

(1) This much applies equally to the training of the so-called adult "primitive" artist. But no
further. Adults, alas, are more gullible than children.
(2) I am not, of course, suggesting that all artists would make good teachers, or more particularly,
good full-time teachers. But then, ideally, should there be any such thing as a "full-time"
teacher ? .When is the full-time teacher supposed to learn, or to live ? It may be desirable
that we should have full-time green-grocers, lawyers, and telephone operators, but should we
really be content to entrust our children, and the future of our civilization, to overtired.
frustrated, intellectually exhausted teaching-machines, which is surely what even the most
conscientious are bound to become after ten years, or less, of solid teaching ? "Yes, but what
about all those long holidays they have ?" Question over-ruled. Anyone who has ever
taught knows that the holidays are barely long enough to recover from one term and prepare
for the next.

All children should paint and draw, construct models, build puppet-theatres,
carve, model in clay, print designs which they have cut themselves and express
themselves in as many ways as the art-teacher can devise and which the school
can afford. But just as, at the age of fourteen, and increasingly thereafter, the
adolescent begins to choose and specialise, so art will play a less, or more,
important part in the education of the growing child. It is distressing to think that
children who work so well and enthusiastically at their art while in the lower forms
of the secondary schools should then automatically have to give it up because
after say, the third form, there is no provision made for further study in the
school curriculum. Why should art be less important than history, science or
languages ? Is it not history, science, and language all in itself, going back as
it does to the brilliant cave paintings of Altamira and lighting up the slow progress
of man through the ages, the most ancient of crafts, the ancestor of all writing,
and the one means of communication which is common to all men ?
But although the appreciation of and respect for Art is something which all
educated men should feel, not many adolescents will wish to practice it as grown
men. The training of the artists is as long and arduous as the training of the
priest or the doctor, and, like theirs, his life is a consecrated one indeed even
today in primitive societies the attributes of all three are sometimes combined in
one powerful figure, and in separating so decisively priest, doctor, and artist, we
may be less wise than our ancestors, for all three are healers and comforters, and
to reject any one of them is to diminish ourselves.
The training of the artist should be a very serious matter for a society which
respects its children. "He must copy the masters, and then, after many years of
copying, he can be humble before nature", said the painter Degas to the ambitious
mother of a would-be artist of eleven. Such training obviously needs teachers
of a kind not likely to be found in any ordinary school. It could be argued that
there would be no justification for setting up a special Art School in the West
Indies at present, as there is no respect for, and no need felt for, the services of the
trained artist, precious little, even, for those of the trained and meticulous
craftsman. (3) No conscious respect, no conscious need, that is to say, for anyone
who has worked as an artist in the West Indies knows that, unconsciously, the
respect and the need are both felt. And anyone who has worked for long with
West Indian children knows that they have much to give. The wonderful flowering
of art in Haiti could be matched in our islands if only the people wanted it, and if
the children were allowed, and encouraged, to discover the joys of colour and design
while they are still at school, allowed to find out that art is something simple and
uncomplicated, as simple and uncomplicated and as wonderful as the sky or the
pebbles in a river bed.

"All members of the staff, whether full-time or part-time should receive encouragement to undertake
private work of their own-the artist or craftsman who does not keep his mind alert in this way is
bound to become stale and his usefulness as a teacher will deteriorate accordingly . Individual
time-tables should be arranged in such a way that the teacher, full of part-time, may be able to rely
on a reasonable period of time during which he will have the opportunity to carry on hIs private work".
Art Educalion, p. 31. Ministry of Education Pamphlet 6, (H.M.S.O. 1946).
(3) And not only in the West Indies. "(The artist's) position in society as a whole is like that
of a priest in a friendly but wholly atheistical state. He cannot be understood and he is
not, wanted. The cultivation of his best gifts imposes a serious economic and social
handicap . .(because of). the general belief that art is no more than an unnecessary
ornament tacked on to the edge of life", writes Jacquetta Hawkes in "Art in the Crystalline
Society". (PInguin New Writing No. 37).

IHREE FIGURES By Andersen Lilbrd

Andersen (age 14) years attends the Boys' Primary School in Charlestown,
Nevis. He is indefatigable, and has been selling hand-painted Christmas cards and
little paintings since he was twelve. He has attended a number of my classes.
A kindly artist, Miss Eva Wilkin, keeps a friendly eye on him in Nevis, but most
of the credit for his work is due to him alone. When he grows up he hopes to be a
teacher. This study of three figures is painted direct from sketch-book notes made
in pencil. The colours are bright and well-balanced.
9 *

Hilary, age 15 years, and
Marjorie Loy Chin (see
cover illustration) age
II years, attend a rather
exclusive boarding school
on the North Coast of
Jamaica. Their Head-
mistress is English, their
Art Mistress, Miss Sonia
Serrant, young and Jamai-
can. Miss Serrant's pupils
produce work of high
quality, varied and alive.
"John Canoe" is the name
of the Christmas masquer-
aders who s'ill flourish in
the country parts of

By Hilary Mears



This working-class boy (age unknown) was a member of an interesting
voluntary class run last year in Brown's Town, Jamaica, by Miss Gloria Escoffery.
Very little tuition was given, and the children were encouraged to work out their
own problems in the congenial atmosphere of a real artist's studio. Some boys
painted, others modelled in clay. An exhibition of their work, including also
paintings by Miss Serrant's pupils and from another girls' boarding school,
was organised to embellish the walls of the Town Hall for Brown's Town's first
annual festival, the children themselves putting in much work making and
distributing special posters. The organizers of the festival had the pictures taken

Clarris (age 14 years),
attends one of the primary
schools in Antigua. She
came to voluntary classes
which I held last summer.
As far as I know she had
never painted, perhaps
never drawn, before. This,
her third or fourth painting,
was done direct with the
brush from a small pencil
sketch. The colours are
rather dark, and chosen
with discernment.


RiB Olaris Lake.


PORTRAIT riY/l IInkntown

The unknown artist who painted this fine portrait worked in one of Miss Vera
Cumming's classes at the Junior Centre of the Institute of Jamaica. As was the
case with Miss Escoffery, the atmosphere at Miss Cumming's classes was free and
easy. The children were encouraged to experiment with subject and with media.
The results were often of a high standard and always interesting. Unfortunately
Miss Cumming, a Canadian, has now gone to England. As far as I know, no
one has taken her place.

Rosemary (age 14 years),
whose background is similar
to Clarris's came to my
voluntary classes in
Roseau. She had certainly
never painted nor drawn
before. She made quick
progress. This picture also
was painted direct, and is
brilliant colour. Note the
firm line and the sureness
of the decoration. It is
very sad to have to leave
such children just as they
are beginning to gain con-

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ig a

By Rosemary Lockhart

n~4~ Ir-



By lEmanuel Ambrose

Emanuel (age 17 years) who left school two or three years ago, worked as
messenger boy for me during my visit to Dominica. He asked if he might attend
the classes and showed much interest and diligence. Apart from a few technical
hints, I left him largely to himself, letting him experiment with different kinds of
paper, with ink and pencil, water paints, and powder colours mixed with oil media.
His little pictures are full of observation and not without iral;cc. As far as I know,
he is now working as a cook on a schooner. It is with such raw material that
DeWitt Peters creates his "primitives" in Haiti.

The little boys (average
age 8 years) who modelled
these heads in plasticine
are all pupils of Mr. Brood-
hagen, himself a thoughtful
sculptor who gets excellent
results from large classes
of sometimes rowdy boys
between the ages of six and
fifteen. In order to do so,
he directs their work more
than e.iher Miss Cumming
or Miss Escoffery. It is
one thing to relax the reins
at a voluntary session,
quite another to deal with
groups of boys who are
obliged to attend whether
they wish to do so or not.
I hope it will be possible
for Mr. Broodhagen him-
self to explain his highly
successful methods in some
future number of the
Caribbean Quarterly.

a.cb ~

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VBy Pupils of CoiiHbern ere School, Barbados

13F~-"-'~-L-~ -


We all know that immediate enthusiasm for a new idea is a Caribbean virtue
not always, alas, coupled with staying power. Wherever I have been in the West
Indies, I have been enchanted with the high spirits and hard work of the children
attending my classes. But I have never stayed anywhere for long at a time and my
fellow-teachers, who rove less, assure me that raising enthusiasm is far easier than
maintaining it. What are we to do about this ?
In some islands, too, there is the possibility that the movement may get
hitched on to political aspirations or be made to serve chauvinistic ends, until we
find ourselves being told that West Indian children have something special about
them and about their work because they are West Indian, because it is in their
blood in some mystical way, and that no one from outside may dare criticise
anything they do, and only at his peril compare it with anything being done
anywhere else. It would be a pity if this were to happen.


Child Art to Man Art
The Art of the Child
Writing and Writing Patterns
Child Art
Art and Child Personality
Teaching Creative Art in Schools
Art Education
Art in Elementary Education
The Teaching of Art in Schools
Art in Education
Renaissance in Haiti
Art in the Life of Mankind
Art for Children

William Johnstone (Macmillian)
Marion Richardson

Wilhelm Viola
Ruth Dunnett (Methuen)
Rosalind and Arthur Eccott (Evans)
Ministry of Education Pamphlet No. 6
Leon Winslow
Evelyn Gibbs
Herbert Read (Faber)
Selden Rodman (Pellegrini N.Y.)
Alan Seaby (Batsford)
Anna Berry (Studio)

Madonna and Child


Michael Smith is a Jamaican poet, some of whose work has been published
in "Focus"

Out of that mortal darkness flamed the cross.

It was not this the stranger prophesied
The star intended or the three old men
Kings of the east some said marking their state
Had by obeisance and rarest gifts
And worship in a strange unmusical tongue
Signified as the delivering light
When he as yet a babe beyond her teats
Knew nor cared nothing and no inkling shewed.

That was a strange beginning long ago
Too bright was promise in its glorious dawn
To bear a day as bitter as his birth
Broke open to her in the twisted light.

Now all was passing, world and light and time,
Into apocalypse with such a swirl
Of frenzied shapes and shrieks whose pain and joy
Burned indistinguishable one that horror bound
Her spirit numbly to it and compelled
The tribute of a pain surpassing all
But love as witness. And so summoning
The white inhuman ashes of her will
And with a countenance as cold and set
In preparation for the falling blow
As stone or metal she raised her head again.

Yet for her eyes were shut she saw more clear
Than at that hour sight was possible
Through tears and gathering darkness the white stark
And dreadful angularities his limbs
The human shape of pain had given but did not see his peace.

For in his eyes was such a peace it seemed
He was a thoughtless little boy again
And wandered heavenwards up dusty roads,
Or caught shrimps in the hill-streams with his mates,
Or went bird-nesting, or on a solemn start
Thanked God for Nazareth and his mother's home.

The white drawn mouth winced with its still-born cry.
Her head tilted defiance of the hurt.
She stood and waited by the wooden cross
Beyond appeal or hope, a graven wound,
Carved with such care and pain that could she keep
Intact and motionless though all the world
Break and come toppling downwards on her head
And all the firmament her birth and death were one
And the door open at last to understand.

The meaning. Yes, the meaning. Where the throne
So clearly promised ? Where the golden throng ?

Because she had been but a peasant girl
More used to do without and toil than dream
Of joy or glory she had distrusted all
Even the stranger who had been the first
To mention this with mouth and eyes aflame
In that still dusk of autumn by the well.

So when he came she watched him narrowly.
Where had she missed or failed to understand ?
That evening she appeared between two men
After he had been three days lost with John
Whose death in prison had been such a blow
Unto them all, lost in Jerusalem
Had she not spoken kindly out of love
And thankfulness for his return unharmed ?

But could love be enough ? When she had asked
Perhaps a little plaintively that he admit
His truancy and negligence had been unkind
To her and a grave breach of faith, promising
To forgive and forget all, he had said,
"I was about my Heavenly Father's business".

Then first she knew, yet knew not what she knew
"My Heavenly Father's Business" As he grew
Further and further from her, quite beyond
The place where speech had meaning or touch flowed
Even at work together in one room
Nothing remained for her but love and pain,
Such love, there was no movement free from pain,
Such pain, it was the soil and birth of love.
How could there be acceptance ? Day on day
Like prophets of inevitable doom
Burst with a storm of darkness on her world
And full of instance made the silence peal
With his rejection and all light terrible
With apocalyptic vision of the end.

"My Heavenly Father's business." Still she watched
Hopeful of the winged hosts descending to set right
Her days again and give her back her son
Counselling carefulness and fearing too
The time when he would rise and snap the last
Invisible associations of her love
Like threads and go with his unfaltering steps to meet
Out in the darkness that unknown thing she feared
And leave a crown of thorns for memories.
Where was the understanding ? He was wise
And he had said when she had asked for peace
And pleaded that among the Pharisees
He could sufficiently perform and teach
The love and good he longed to give to all,
"Be in peace
The peace that passeth understanding
Make that thine"

And so one morning when he answered not
She came and found his straw upon the floor
Cold and the goatskin untouched. Martha said
"Jesus has gone into the wilderness"
Since first she knew that prayer had not ceased.
"Oh God Almighty Give me back my child
Take this cup from me. Thou hast many sons
Oh Father Father Give me back my light."

This was a land where rumour like the wind
Bathing the cedars swept the villages
With a great mounting tide of mood and dream
Disabling the judgement of all fact.

And so the news came in blue rolling waves
That surged up suddenly and rushed and broke
Upon her cliffs and thundered till the deep
Swallowed the echoing heavens in their wake
And gave all calm the unreal sense of trance.

Capernaum, Gadara, wave and wave
Wrothfully surging from an unknown world
And Galilee and Bethphage and the names
Each name a new wound the names of all his friends.
Was not her love sufficient ? Still she hoped
For peace or glory and unceasing prayer
"0 God Almighty, Give me back my Son"

Then Martha said that he was coming down
For the Passover at Jerusalem.
There was no need to say more for she knew
Even beside the cross the memory of that
First moment of the foreknown light
Terribly blazing with ecstatic death
Wrung from her cold white lips one last fierce cry
"O Father Father thou hast many sons
But he is all my peace. Give back my child"

One of his friends called John who stood close by
Moved out of pity at the sudden shriek
Drew near and saw how tear flowed past on tear
Under her eyelids down the wrinkled cheeks
And whispered broken comfort to a wound
Carved with such pain and care that could she keep
Intact and motionless though all the world
Broke and came toppling downwards on her head
And all the firmament, her birth and death were one.
And as he whispered she was overcome
With tiredness and turned and leaned on John.
And shut the door of understanding fast.
For in that hour Jesus raised his eyes
And saw them both and spake clear as a bell
"Son, behold thy Mother ;
Woman, behold thy Son"


Cultural Life in Curacao


CURACAO HAS no native population. When we compare this part of the Netherlands
West Indies with Indonesia, we find that the latter has a native population and,
therefore, the tradition of an indigenous culture. One cannot speak in this sense
of a typical Curavaoan culture. White and coloured people compose the population
of the island. The white people are either the descendants of early immigrants or
newcomers who remain only for short periods. The ancestors of the coloured
people who are by far in the majority came from Africa.
Nowadays, missionary activities are adapted to the conditions of peoples with
whom they are concerned, but during thp age of colonisation nothing of the kind
was done. To make the chances of uprisings as small as possible, the slave-
hunters and traders did their best to loosen the captives from their own soil, and
transplantation of the negro tribes from the African jungle to Curaqao accounted
for the loss of much of their culture. Whenever an effort was made to help the
negroes (and this was not often) its purpose was to make Westerners of them,
primitive Westerners, but Westerners nevertheless. When slavery was abolished in
Curacao in 1863, the local government, continuing what the mission had started
centuries before, tried to westernize the negroes. The result is that today one
cannot speak of any negro culture in Curacao.
The culture of the island tends towards that of Western Europe and is a
mixture of European culture, as manifested in the Netherlands, and of the few
elements of African culture which were lost. In his book Volkskunde van
Curapao (Folklore of Curavao), which unfortunately, is available only in Dutch,
Nicolaas Van Meeteren gives typical examples (the emphasis being placed on
music and dances) of the admixture.
The remnants of the African culture, are fast disappearing, and it will not be
long before the coloured population of the island is almost completely
"Westernized" There are no signs, however, that their language, the papiamento,
which is still in use everywhere, will disappear. But the Belgian professor,
William P6e, who recently visited Curacao, Jamaica, Trinidad, Surinam and Haiti
with the intention of studying local languages, has said that it would be some
time before the papiamento could be scientifically systematized as the patois of
Trinidad has been.

Unfortunately, an examination of cultural life of this island does not yield
much. The first material printed 1812-during the English interregnum-and in the
subsequent century and a half the emergence of periodicals of all kinds shows that
Curacao enjoyed a vital exchange of ideas. But on looking through the book
Oranje en de Zes Caraibische Parelen which was published last year (on the
occasion of the Royal Jubilee) in the Netherlands, one cannot help but be
somewhat disappointed. There was a chapter on music, one on the typical
Curataoan country house, and one on the press, but no more is said.
Yet there is something which implies that in the end Curaqao will become a
central point in Caribbean cultural life. Let us examine what the cultural forum
of Curaqao has to show at present.
Famous musicians visit the island from time to time, for the geographic
position of the island is such that artists on their way to South America
from North America find visiting a simple matter. All that one has to do
is to miss one or two planes. Concerts by these artists are'organised by the
Curacao Art Circle, and its president, Mr. Rudolph Boskaljon, himself the director
of an orchestra, must be mentioned as the man whose energy provides Curaqao
with cultural events of the finest quality. The occasion of a concert is typical of
the spirit of Curacaoan culture. The recital is held at one of the local cinemas,
which foregoes a performance on the night in question and is called "Municipal
Theatre" for the occasion.
The Algemeen Nederlands Verbond-General Netherlands League, an
association mainly for Dutch expatriates but with clubs in the Netherlands, does
the same with stage shows, but the transport of a group of actors and stage
properties is very expensive. This results in a scarcity of professional shows, but
from time to time good amateur shows are produced.
The Foundation for Cultural Co-operation between the Netherlands, Indonesia,
Surinam and the Antilles, an Institute founded in Amsterdam about a year ago,
arranges visits for musicians and stage groups, and also sends paintings,
etchings, &c. to Curacao. Formerly this was done mainly by Shell management
in The Hague for the benefit of their employees in the West, and the visitors
usually went on to Aruba, Maracaibo, Punto Cardon and sometimes Caracas. The
government-subsidised Foundation is now trying to send abroad works of art,
mainly Dutch. The Art Circle and the Algemeen Nederlands Verbond organise
these trips in the Antilles.
Curavao has its Philharmonic Orchestra, whose director is Mr. Rudolf
Boskaljon. This is an amateur orchestra which thrives because of the peculiar zeal
of its director who, on Mondays, when the members practise has to go personally
to the famous swing bridge to catch members passing in their cars after office
hours, just to remind them of a rehearsal. The Philharmonic Orchestra is quite
good, but is only able to give a few concerts a year, and whenever there is a
concert music lovers have to attend whether they are inclined to do so or not
because if they missed it they would have to wait for months for the next concert.
During the war a Rotterdam-born doctor, Chris J. H. Engels, who has lived
in Curagao for years, started a literary periodical, De Stoep (The Steps). This
review, a quarterly, but published at irregular intervals, gathered manuscripts from
all over the world. Even Belgians, who were on allied soil and who wrote in
Dutch, contributed to this magazine. Contributors got their fee in cigarettes which

were very scarce in the Netherlands The founder's purpose was to stimulate
Curavaonans themselves to write, and he is slowly succeeding in doing this. Among
the contributors is Cola Debrot, well-known Dutch author, who was borne on
Bonaire. Notwithstanding the opposition of the bourgeois, this review is making
some headway. Judging critically, one has to say that it is a pity that Dr. Engels
represents a particular school of avant-garde writers, the extreme expressionists,
and thus subscribers remain few, although contacts exist between this magazine
and libraries of the principal universities in the Netherlands, Belgium, South Africa
and Venezuela.
There are a few painters in Curacao, the above mentioned Dr. Engels and his
wife, Lucila Engels (both extreme expressionists) being well known. An exhibition
of the paintings of Dr. and Mrs. Engels' painting is now being arranged at the
Amsterdam Municipal Museum. Mr. Hagedoorn and Mr. Pandellis are other
painters whose work deserves to be mentioned, but one could not call their art,
nor that of the Engels couple, Curaqaoan. Of the painters who deserve to be
mentioned only Mrs. Engels is a native of the island, but even her art is not
Curacaoan in character.
And now for reading material. In Curacao, too, the Weekly Times is the
bible of the poor of spirit. The second World War, during which the Antilles
were cut off from their main source of printed matter, saw an increase of American
books and magazines. Comic strips conquered the island easily. It is true that
the readers of real literature are always few, but we have the impression that very
little is being done to cultivate the taste for the good book. The Education
Department runs its own public library and we are of the opinion that this reading
room is slowly gaining an important place. A so-called Popular University is
working with the support of several prominent people in Curacao on a programme
of courses for adults. This Popular University can be compared with the Extra
Mural Department of the University College of the West Indies, but so far it
functions only in Willemstad, the capital of the island. A large variety of subjects
which are included in the programme, makes it attractive for many people. The
Popular University only works a few months every year, during what is called
the "winter" (because in the Netherlands these lectures are only given during this
Some time ago a Curacao Museum was founded by Dr. Engels together with
a committee of prominent Curagaoans. Though small, this Museum has every
chance of becoming the focus of the old Curacao. Many things of bygone days
have been collected already. Old Curaqaoan furniture, kitchens and utensils are to
be seen here.
Assisted by his colleague Dr. Ary Van der Sar, Dr. Philip Hartz, who does
work in the pathological field, publishes work in professional reviews in the U.S.A.
A foundation for the promotion of cultural work is being planned and a
committee has already been appointed. This Foundation is to have an office of
its own and to promote a cultural liaison between the Caribbean area and Western

This is the Evans Report

Report of the British Guiana and British Honduras Settlement Commission


THE REPORT OF THE British Guiana and British Honduras Settlement Commission,
under Sir Geoffrey Evans, attracted much attention when it was published. But
copies are not easy to obtain, and the findings of the Commission must be known
to readers of the Caribbean Quarterly mainly through newspaper accounts and
comment. This summary of the report may be useful to those who wish to know
the Commission's proposals in more detail.
The members of the Commission were an economic botanist, (Sir Geoffrey
Evans), a former Chief Controller of Road Transport for India (Sir Kenneth
Mitchell), the secretary of the Aborigines' Protection Society, the Medical Adviser
to the Comptroller for Development and Welfare in the West Indies, the Economic
Adviser to the same, and the Commissioner of the Interior, British Guiana. There
was no member with particular connections with industry. The services of
Mr. Edmeades, a forestry specialist, were called in for advice on the British Guiana
forestry project. By its terms of reference the Commission was to investigate
the possibility of settling in British Guiana or British Honduras either European
displaced persons, or part of the surplus population of the British and other West
Indies, or both, bearing in mind the needs of the two colonies' own growing
The report is divided into three sections. A short introduction describes the
general problem of overpopulation in the West Indies, the difficulties of planned
immigration and some decisions of principle that had to be made before detailed
proposals were put forward. The second section deals with British Guiana, giving
first a summary of the history, climate and economic make-up of the colony, and
next a list of settlement projects to be undertaken or investigated in the next ten
years. The third part deals with British Honduras in the same manner. In
Part I of Sections II and III the Commission have incidentally provided very
useful handbooks to the two mainland colonies.

In a sense the Evans Commission takes up the subject of the development of
British Guiana and British Honduras where the Royal Commission of 1939 left
off, and carries it forward a stage nearer actuality. But on several matters of
principle it runs counter to the earlier report. The Royal Commission was sceptical
of the possibility of agricultural development in the hinterland of British Guiana.
The Evans Commission finds that many thousand square miles of unused back-
lands, and some of the fertile coast lands of British Guiana can be made available

for settlement, and there are smaller but more immediately promising areas in
British Honduras. The Royal Commission was at pains to squash the idea that
either the forest lands or the savannahs of British Guiana were naturally fertile
or could be brought under intensive farming. But the Evans Commission finds
that there are areas of good soil in the districts named below which offer good
prospects for settlement. Another disagreement is in the type of agriculture
desired. The bias of the earlier commission was toward smallholdings and away
from estates and from monoculture of crops for export. All save one of the projects
of the Evans Commission are to be conducted on plantation lines, and mainly
for export. The difference here is perhaps not serious as there is no inconsistency in
advocating small mixed farming for local markets in the densely populated islands
and planning large scale estates in opening up what is now an almost unpopulated
country. The points that the Evans Report cites in favour of 'plantation' schemes
are two. In the first place much of the capital cost of some of the schemes will go
into houses, hospitals and other community services for the workers. Some of
this can be recouped from the anticipated profits of the estates it could not be
recovered from the small holders. Secondly, since the projects are to be
commercially sound, (though not necessarily sound enough to attract private
capital), they must be brought to full efficiency as early as possible and this can
be done more certainly by estates under expert management than by smallholders.
On the social disadvantages of estate labour and the possible difficulties when the
districts become more heavily settled the report says little.
The concentration on export crops raises a point the report does not
explicitly meet. The state of the world markets in primary products will determine
the success or failure of most of the suggested projects. Is it to be assumed that
the colonies will continue to operate under bulk contracts from Britain, or will
they have to fight their own battles in a possible post-war recession ? Generally,
the report assumes that the markets will be uncontrolled, but that within the next
ten years the prices will not fall to less than half their present levels.

If the proposals of the Commission were adopted, the two colonies could
absorb one hundred thousand immigrants in the next ten years, being mainly
agricultural labourers and small farmers, but with an absolutely necessary minority
of highly skilled managers and technicians. The capital cost of this would be
between seven and eleven millions for each colony, or about 20 millions for the
two. One hundred thousand persons is little more than the expected natural
increase of Trinidad during the next ten years, and it may seem that the West
Indies will be put through a painful financial labour only to bring forth a mouse.
But the projected developments in British Guiana, which include new roads to the
inland savannahs, may touch off a spontaneous opening up of wider areas. They
are as the report says, partly an 'act of faith'

The traditional agents in the opening up of America are the miner, the farmer
and the transport company. Only the first has pushed far into British Guiana,
and he has not been very effective either in drawing in labour, or in blazing a

trail for the other two. The aim of the British Guiana scheme, and to a less extent
of that for British Honduras, is to compress into ten years the opening up of a
territory the size of Nebraska and to do it without the waste of mis-invested
capital, the social conflicts, the maltreatment of the aborigines or other unwanted
accompaniments of an advancing frontier. In doing this the agency is
all-important. The report proposes a set-up in which the main agency will be the
Colonial Development Corporation, working along with the colonial governments
and private capital. The first step is to be the setting up of a Development
Corporation for each colony, with capital contributed jointly by the Colonial
Development Corporation, the government of the colony and the governments of
any islands intending to organise migration. This body is to carry out preliminary
work in surveying and costing. The next stage, the putting into execution of the
schemes found workable, comes under either the Development Corporation itself or
a similar ad hoc body which may include private interests, especially where expert
advice and good commercial contacts are needed. As much as possible of the
capital subscribed should be drawn from within the colony. In this way, while
private investors will not be excluded, the control of the operations will rest with
the Colonial Development Corporation and the colonial governments, to ensure that
the policy is 'benevolent, not exploitative' This is especially necessary, since
the wages of the labour imported may be fixed by a long term contract (though not
in other respects indentured), and since the development of the Rupununi area
will break up the lands over which Amerindians have been accustomed to carry
on shifting cultivation. In regard to wages, where, because of their isolation, some
of the estates would have considerable powers of extortion if so minded, the
Commission estimated costs on the basis of a wage of $250 a year (B.G.) for an
unskilled labourer, which, as they remark, was probably somewhat above the West
Indian average at the time of their sitting. The policy suggested in regard to the
Amerindians in British Guiana is as follows of the two tribes likely to be
displaced, one, the Wapisiana, is not likely to be demoralised by contact with
settlers, and its members should be encouraged to take up land set aside for them
and establish themselves as cattle raisers and balata bleeders side by side with
the existing Rupununi Development Co.; the other tribe, the Makusi, should be
protected in a reservation at Karasabai.
The above are the main general conclusions of the Commission ; below are
set out the separate projects which they recommended, either for action or for
investigation. There was no project on which they did not recommend some
investigation for it is the great weakness of a Royal Commission that it has no
executive arm to test its suggestions before it submits them.

(i) There are certain unused lands on the coast, and possibilities of more
efficient dairying and greater production of citrus, but none of these offer much
prospect of employment for immigrants. The vacant coast lands should be kept
free against the expected natural increase of the population of British Guiana. A
scheme for promoting the rice industry is needed, and might take the form of a
public corporation similar to those recommended for the settlement schemes, but
would not need immigrant labour except possibly in the remote future.

(2) Experiments in Surinam seem to show that the pegasse lands of the coast,
formerly not thought worth empoldering, can be used to grow bananas, especially
the Robusta type. A block of fifteen thousand acres between the Essequibo and
the Bonasika canal seems suitable for this use. With ten thousand acres under
bananas, and the price at 16 per ton, this scheme should employ four thousand
workers (with about 12,ooo dependants) and have an annual turnover of 800,000,
with capital cost of 2 millions.
(3) Three forest areas within 70 miles of Bartica could be selectively logged
so as to yield about 3 million cubic feet of saleable timber per year, mainly
Greenheart but also Mora and other hardwoods. This rate of logging would permit
natural regeneration of the Greenheart. The scheme would have a capital cost of
about 1,Ioo,ooo and would employ only one thousand men, but would justify
itself since it would open up the country along the Bartica-Potaro road, the
beginning of the projected route to Rupununi and the interior.
(4) Cocoa is a possible crop for the Potaro district. If trials confirm this,
production should be organised so as to yield at least a thousand tons to the export
market-for example, twelve units of 300 acres each, centrally directed in full
production these would employ 600 workers with their families at a capital cost
of about 500oo,ooo.
(5) Other developments in the same area might include dairy farming, to
supply the mines or the forest workers, and possibly citrus and coffee. Feeder roads
would be necessary the estimated cost of these is 200oo,ooo.
(6) The next area of potential development consists of the Savannahs and the
Kanukus. Cattle from Rupununi are now driven to the coast over a cattle trail,
and losses are heavy. A central abattoir and refrigerating plant and a good road
to Potaro would improve the prospects of the existing ranching industry in the
Savannahs and, if extended Ioo miles south to Dadanawa, would open up new
areas of the Savannahs and the fringes of the Kanuku Mountains. The cost of the
abattoir and refrigerator is estimated at 2o-4o,ooo, and of the roads mentioned
at 1,750,000ooo. An improvement of the existing Bartica-Potaro road would absorb
another 750,ooo0-I,00,ooo, .
(7) Better communications with the Savannahs would enable the existing
ranches to import fencing and fertilizer, and to farm more intensively. But the
scope for immigration would be not in the Savannahs, but on the fringes of the
Kanuku Mountains, which are suitable for either West Indian or European settlers.
Land is available for at least 5,000 families, but a trial should be made with a
settlement of 200 families, beginning with pigs and poultry and proceeding to tree
crops (coffee, cocoa, citrus, tung) if tests are satisfactory. Capital cost of the
completed scheme is estimated at 1I million, and of the trial settlement at
(8) Communication with the upper Mazuruni is at present via a road from
Potaro to Issano. If this were re-aligned to strike the river above the rapids, at
Tiboku, settlement would be possible on the middle Mazaruni. Capital cost of this
road would be about 4oo,ooo.
(9) Land on the Mazaruni near Tiboku, below the present settlements at
Tumereng, seems to be good. If investigation confirms this, a cocoa scheme on
the lines of that suggested for Potaro might later be started. The eventual aim of
both these schemes would be a production of 5,000 tons each, giving employment
to 6,000 families.

It is recommended that all the initial settlements should be communal the
organizations might later supply credit to those who wished to branch out on their
own. The developments would probably stimulate a certain amount of unassisted
settlement later.
(I) The Commission recommends an expansion of the sugar industry on
70,000 acres of suitable land between the New and Hondo Rivers. A new central
sugar factory would be built, and fed partly from private growers, partly from
12,ooo acres to be brought under cane by the British Honduras Development
Corporation the designed output would be 30,000 tons rising later to 60,ooo.
Capital cost would be /3,6oo,ooo and employment would be given to 7,500 families.
(2) Much dairy produce now imported could be grown in British Honduras.
A dairying scheme is suggested for the Cayo district a central model dairy farm
of 300 acres, with a milk dep6t and canning plant, to advise and serve 50 farms
of about 50 acres each, which would carry on intensive dairy farming and market
their produce through the central farm. The satellite farms would be run by
skilled farmers, native or immigrant, under an agricultural credit scheme. About
200 families would be employed and capital cost would be (60,0ooo-155,000.
(3) Cocoa production, organised as in British Guiana, is proposed for two
areas-the 'Topco' lands in Toledo district and the upper Stann Creek valley.
The aim should be a production of io,ooo tons from o1 units of 3,600 acres.
Capital cost of the completed scheme is estimated at 2,400,000.
(4) A thriving citrus industry exists in the Stann Creek area. To make this fully
competitive in the world markets a threefold expansion of production and factory
capacity is needed. Since it is doubtful if the present (private) factory company
could or would finance this expansion, the Development Corporation should
attempt to bring it into a public scheme, perhaps a profit sharing one in which all
growers would be represented. Capital cost of a larger factory and 2,000 acres of
new orchards would be about j160,ooo.
(5) Now that bananas resistant to Panama disease (e.g. Lacatan), are being
grown commercially, an attempt to revive the banana industry might be made.
Two areas near Punta Gorda are suitable each should eventually provide
1o,ooo acres under bananas, at a capital cost of ,260,ooo, and employ
4,000 families.
The above are all commercially profitable undertakings. To make them
possible some development of roads, port facilities, and hotel accommodation
would be needed. The commission was particularly impressed by the badness of
the accommodation for visitors in Belize. The total figures of capital cost for the
colony include allowance for these, and investigation of certain other possibilities
they total from seven to eleven million pounds for ten years, according to progress
made. The crops to be investigated are tobacco, Manila hemp, groundnuts, Sea
Island cotton, sisal, cassava and rice and there seem to be great possibilities in
the fisheries off the Honduras and Yucatan coasts. Line fishing off the cays might
also attract tourist trade. Finally, both here and in British Guiana, there are
possibilities of the development of hydro-electric power, but in neither can much
be done until more accurate surveys-geological, soil and ecological-have been


The scope of the projected corporations is so wide that in several fields-
health, housing, the welfare of the Amerindians-there is danger of conflict and
overlap with government departments. The situation is rather different in British
Guiana from that in British Honduras. In the former the corporation will be
operating in the interior, where the writ of the government departments hardly
runs ; it can easily and appropriately handle the required development of social
services. The increment of population expected in ten years is only one-sixth the
present population of the colony, so that the provision of whatever increase of
social services is required from the colonial government would not in any case
exceed its power to provide them. In British Honduras development will take
place in districts already populated the increment will be relatively much larger,
and the public finances of the colony smaller. Moreover it will be convenient for
most of the health services of the estates to be provided by the Medical Department,
and the schools to be organised by the Department of Education. To cover these
and other costs to the colonial government, the Commission proposes that the
Development Corporation make a capital payment to the government of some
425,ooo and an annual contribution of 9o,ooo.
To compress some of the substance of the 150,ooo words of the Evans Report
into the length of an article has meant cutting out the whole of the background
information, truncating arguments and omitting qualifications. The Report is much
more balanced and cautious than the above suggests. It is also unusually precise
in its proposals, and ambitious in its costing of what are still paper projects. Its
greatest weakness is its omission of a fair sizing-up of the effects of the large scale
development it proposes, under what is in effect an Imperial agency, on the status
of the colonies concerned. The capital expenditure proposed for the British
Honduras Development Corporation in ten years is considerably more than ten
years expenditure by the colonial government at present rates, and probably about
twice the annual national income. The status of the Development Corporation,
here and to a less extent in British Guiana and the islands from which the
immigrants will come, will be less that of a department of government than of a
government within a government. These implications needed defining.

November on the Mountain


Vic Reid is a Jamaican, whose novel "New Day" was published in America
last year. The above sketch is an example of the language which Mr. Reid
developed in his novel, on the basis of the language of the Jamaican people.

EVERY NOVEMBER, the wind soughs down from the north mountains, and fills the
valleys with sweet shrub scents. Every November month, there is a sweetness of
mountain jasmine bringing such a headiness to the air that you walk from the
valley with your face turned to sun-up and lift yourself into the mountain, not
descending until evening. Aie, beautiful is the mountain in November.
True, for truly, the wind blows icy on top of the mountain. November walks
with ice in his knapsack and a biting grin on his face saying, if now we complain,
what shall we do when Elder Brother December comes tottering in ?
But, ah, the days are wonderful in November with shrouds of curling mists
being torn to shred-patterns when the sun comes up and curling and curling all
the livelong day even now and again, quick visionary snatches of the heated
valley, shivering as if in a fever curling and curing does the mist all day until
the sun goes a-questioning for another mountain and the mist rolls back in white
triumph, banners flying and burnished moon-shield proudly aloft in victory.
There is no victory over the mountain. Nothing has ever conquered a
mountain since in order it was brought about when the earth received her frame.
Deep bosoms and mighty shoulders are the mountain's. Through its veins runs
the silvery streams, not thicker than blood, but with the same lifegivingness of
that stream. On its head, there are tall trees, noble and windblown, shaking their
locks at God. Its shadow can reach across a country ; Jehovah piles clouds against
its back when He would thunder and water His valley.
"John O ? there will be peas and beans and thick vegetables for the table
come this Christmas"
"Aie, is good that, Tamah. But how the weeds ?"
"How the weeds ? Bad grass canno' take our ground when many eyes watch
for him, Pa John"
"Often, often we must look, old woman. Think you not that interference only
now and again will free our ground of bad grass. What they say about trouble ?"
"Trouble in the bush, Anancy brings it to the house"
"Eh, no, there is another"
"If you trouble trouble, trouble will trouble you"
"Eh, my head has turned to water, old woman. Remember I cannot'
remember the old sayings. There is another."
"Trouble does no' set like rain"


"No. No, Tamah, not that. Eh, no matter. We will talk of today-things.
For the spring planting, we will plough in the top half-acre in the month a-come ?
Month a-coming is the best time for that plough"
Furrow and harrow and plough. Plough in the greens and the droppings
mould the yam-hills, cut the potato-slips, mark out the trenches, drain the
bottoms ; how can we watch all the weeds ?
Tamah 0 How the weeds ?

It talks a little as it shallows over the stony places, then goes back into the
depth of still pools. It flows to the sea from the mountain, bringing sustenance to
the valley. Thinner than blood are the waters of the river, but of the same life-
If there had been no river, there would be no dust and aridity and nothing
of green in the valley. The river links the valley and the mountain, and then
pendants they both are on the chain of the river hung about the neck of God.
Then which is mightier ? The mountain or the valley or the river ?

Breath draws clean and cold to your nostrils and there are sweet scents from
jasmine and cedars. At morning, the troubadour wings through the great passages
which open in the secret heart of the mountain, and a flood of gay delight pours
from his throat and fills the lonely hollows with music. Down into the evening
comes the nightingale, carolling notes which perch on the heart strings and whisper
of faith in the long night.
But there is no night on the head of the mountain. Stars hang low, white with
light, and only the gloom in the valley tells that night is abroad. Tomorrow, we
go back to the shadowed valley of death. Now, we stay on the mountain and
watch the November moon.

A Letter to the Editor

Sir, the fact (a) that the present pronunciation
A discussion has appeared recently in of the word is Kwaysay and that it is not
the Trinidad Press as to the origins and derived from Quai d' Orsay as many had
pronunciation of the name of that part of thought but from croisde meaning a cross-
San Juan on the Eastern Main Road known road, and referring to the meeting of the
as Kwayzay, or, according to the caption Saddle Road, and the El Socorro Road
of the Press-Kayzay or Keezay. The with the Eastern Main Road.
Press discussion seems to have established

But we are still faced with the prob-
lem of tracing the transition from croisee
through the Creole-patois word to the
Creole-english Kwayzay. For an answer
to the question we cite the authority of
John Jacob Thomas whose book A
Creole Grammar, published in 1869, is a
classic in its own right and deserves to be
more widely known and used.
Writing in 1869 Ahen he claimed that
the proper interpretation of Creole-patois
was a matter of moment in our courts of
law and to the then religious instructors,
Jacob Thomas sought among other things
to dispel the mistaken belief that Creole-
patois was only mispronounced French I
This mistaken belief, he pointed out, was
fostered partly by "a neglect to study the
idioms of the dialect in combination with
their English equivalent"
Professor Melville J. Herskovits in his
study "The Myth of the Negro Past" says
this connection 'The assumptions
underlying the approach to the study of
syntax and idiom in New World Negro
speech developed out of an intensive
analysis of texts recorded in Duch Guiana
in 1929, and may be recapitulated as
follows "The Sudanic languages of
West Africa, despite their mutual unintelli-
gibility and apparent variety of form,
are fundamentally similar in those traits
which linguists employ in classifying
dialects, as is to be discerned when the not
inconsiderable number of published
grammars of native languages, spoken
throughout the area from which the slaves
were taken, are compared. This being the
case, and since grammar and idiom are
the last aspects of a new language to be
learned, the Negroes who reached the New
World acquired as much of the vocabulary
of their masters as they initially needed
or was later taught to them, pronounced
these words as best they were able, but
organised them into their aboriginal speech
patterns" in short, patois was and is
much more than merely "a corruption of
French" That is why I indicated above
that there is a third word still to be
discovered. Let us search for it with the
light which A Creole Grammar provides.
It is easy enough to accept the change
in the last syllable of croisde, i.e. from
French -sde to the Creole-english zay.
As regards the first syllable, there are
three distinct changes that can be

explained from the French through the
old Creole-patois into the modern Creole-
english if Jacob Thomas' Creole
Grammar is accepted as authoritative.
Moving backward, then, we take the
French double-vowel sound oi in croisie.
This oi in French, according to Jacob
Thomas, changes to oe in the old Creole-
patois or "Creole" as he named the
dialect. Now we come to the consonant r
which Mr. Thomas tells us was the
sound "least tolerated" in the Creole-
patois of that period. It will be better
il on this point I quote him direct. The
relevant passage reads as follows :-
"a Creole informing you for instance
of a brother being ill with ague says
fouer moon tni fouisson, the first and
last words being meant for fr& and
frisson respectively. This replacement
of r by ou (which is equivalent to w
in the same position) occurs when the
r in a French word is preceded by the
labials b, p, f, v, and followed by any
vowel except o ;"
the following examples -English brave,
French brave, Creole bouave; and, English
practice, French pratique, Creole pouatique
(which in Creole means customer as well).
Now to go on with the quotation
"R if followed by o either is changed
or suppressed altogether when it has a
consonant before it.
He also gives examples of this :-
English to rub, French frotter, Creole
foster or fouoter; and English crooked,
French crochu, Creole cochi or couochi.
This ouo sound is not as difficult as
it appears. Ask any of the older patois-
speaking people you know to pronounce
the patois word for too (used in the sense
of too much) derived from the French trop.
He or she will be heard to say tone. a
rather delicate and refined sound.
In the result, I submit that the old
Creole-patois word would be couod-sde or
cod-sde. Accordingly, the Creole-english
now becomes Kwayzay or more appropri-
ately, to my mind, Quayzay.

Trinidad and Tobago Youth Council

Mr Pierre would be glad to hear from
anyone who is sufficiently interested in
Thomas' "A Creole Grammar" to wish to
buy a copy, should it be reprinted.

Resident Tutors' Notes

Leeward Islands



IN FEBRUARY, 1949 the first classes formed
under the supervision of the Extra-mural
Department began in Antigua, two in
Choral Music, one in Economics, and one
in Psychology.
In May new classes in Spanish and
Education (Junior and Advanced) for
teachers were started in St. John's, in
addition to Choral Music in two other
country districts. The Psychology class
met for its second session. These classes
which lasted o1 weeks ended in July.
The absence of more of the working-
class population at the classes is very
marked and it is hoped that very soon the
Extra-mural Department will be able to
decide on a plan to get these persons
among its students.
The first meeting of the Provisional
Advisory Committee was held on the 18th
February at which all the ex-officio mem-
bers were present. The next meeting will
be held on the 9th August when among
other things a chairman will be elected.

A TRAINING COURSE for Tutors was run in
Basseterre from jist May to 6th June, by
Mrs. R. V. Colman, M.A., Resident Tutor
of the Extra-mural Department of Oxford
University. This was attended by five
In the absence of an assistant Resident
Tutor in that Island, Mr. O. W. Flax, B.A.,
agreed to act as the Extra-mural corres-
pondent until an assistant Resident Tutor
is appointed.
The Resident Tutor expects to visit
St. Kitts from 4th to 9th August with a
view to getting a few "pioneer" classes
started. It is expected that a meeting will
be held with those persons who have
agreed to serve as members of the
Advisory Committee.

I HE RESIDENT TUTOR has just returned
from Tortola, B.V.1. where he and the
Director for Extra-mural Studies surveyed
the field for Extra-mural work.
A meeting was held with the provisional
Advisory Committee which was formed.
The Resident Tutor met and discussed
with members of the Social Welfare
Council the needs of possible students with
a view to knowing what classes to start.
An Extra-mural correspondent, Mr. N.
Harrigan, was appointed and on receipt of
certain data which he is now collecting,
the Resident Tutor will pay another visit
when it is expected that a Class Tutors'
course will be run and meetings held with
groups of students.


So FAR it has not been possible to visit
Montserrat, but contact has been made
through Mr. E. De Vere Archer. Head-
master of the Montserrat Secondary
School, who has agreed to act as corres-


UNFORTUNATELY Dr. J. A. Waites was
forced to leave British Guiana on account
of his health, and his post as Resident
Tutor was taken by Mr. A. Lennox-Short,
who arrived in British Guiana on Tuesday,
zoth September. Developments have been
so far insufficient to warrant Mr. Lennox-
Short contributing to these notes ; how-
ever it is worth reporting that a 2-weeK
training course for tutors was held in
Georgetown at the end of June, which
40 persons attended. Mrs. Rebecca Cole-
man of the Oxford University Extra-mural
Delegacy was in charge of the course,
which aroused considerable enthusiasm.


of the Cambridge University Board
of Extra-mural studies, and formerly
Scholar of Emmanuel College, arrived in
Barbados on 23rd September. He has
been seconded during a period of twelve
months to act as Resident Tutor. At the
period of writing various useful contacts
in the island have been established, as
with the Barbados Museum, Public
Library, and Association of Cultural Socie-
ties, while the Department of Education,
the Development and Welfare Organisa-
tion's officers and others have been very
helpful and friendly. In particular the
British Council, whose Representatives
have already carried out much important
cultural work in Barbados, have placed a
large room at Wakefield, their Bridge-
town headquarters, at the disposal of the
acting Resident Tutor as a temporary
Barbados has a long tradition of educa-
tional activity and there is a genuine public
interest. An Advisory Committee on Adult
Education will shortly be established, and
it is also hoped to organise a conference on
the subject. It remains to be seen what
adequate provision of part-time tutors can
be found in the island, but the Training
Course conducted by Mrs. Barber during
1948 should furnish a valuable nucleus
among its students. Meanwhile a course of
lectures on the Appreciation of Art has
already been projected, and there seems no
reason to doubt that this island can imitate
the excellent beginnings of Extra-mural
%\ork now taking place in others.


THE MOST interesting of the activities of
the Extra-mural Department in Jamaica
since news of it appeared in the first
issue of the Caribbean Quarterly have
been the Summer Schools, and the opening
of "Anderson House"
The Summer was full and busy. The
Department planned three Summer Schools
and helped with a fourth. On the 25th of
July, twenty men and nine women came
into residence at the University College.
They were all Elementary School Teachers
who had been recommended by the
Education Department for a two-week
Course in Biology. Professor Millott of the

Zoology Department kindly allowed us to
use his Department's Laboratory, and the
Course was planned and largely carried
through by Mr. Garth Underwood, lecturer
in Zoology. He was helped by Misses Bax-
ter, Liversidge and Hutchinson and
occasionally by Professor Millott. The
"Summer Undergraduates", as these stu-
dents called themselves, soon settled down
with eagerness and interest to the routine
of lectures and labs broken by the
occasional expedition to the sea-shore,
river and hillside to collect specimens.
Evening lectures were arranged on various
aspects of community life. The energy
and enthusiasm displayed kept the tutors
busy but interested, and their co-
operativeness and generosity left everyone
with the feeling that something good and
very worthwhile had been accomplished
by giving an intensive practical Course to
so eager a group of students.
The Summer School for Nurses which
was held at the Practical Training School
for Nurses at Mona, was arranged by the
General and Trained Nurses Association.
This Association asked the Extra-mural
Department to arrange all the morning
sessions in their Ten-day Course. Under
the general title of "The Social Back-
ground of Jamaica", various speakers
were invited to deal with such topics as
Education, Economics, Population Prob-
lems, Family Problems, Juvenile Delin-
quency and Town Planning. These talks
were given during the first morning session
and during the second part of the morning
Dr. J. Arthur Waites of this Department,
dealt with various aspects of Hospital and
Nursing Psychology.
The next Summer School lasted only four
days and dealt with "S6me Problems of
Public Administration" Thirty-five Civil
Servants, mostly members of the Civil
Service Association, with which this
Course was arranged, came into residence
at the Social Welfare Huts, Mona, on the
2Ith of August. After a General Introduc-
tion to the topic of Administration and a
brief summary of the British Administra-
tive System, the students discussed with
various heads of departments or their
deputies, the relation of the departments
to one another in the administration of the
affairs of Government. A Round Table
discussion was held on Sunday morning
with Mr. Clegg, Economic Secretary to
the Government of Jamaica, Mr. Ferguson,


Commissioner of Commerce and Industries
and Mr. Morals of the Bureau of Statistics,
on "Government and Industry" very ably
chaired by Eric James, our new Tutor-
Training Officer.
The last Summer School-Drama-lasted
also for two weeks. Thirty-six of the
sixty applicants had a busy time having
Classes in Movement, Mime and Gesture
with Miss Louise Bennett and Voice and
Play Production with Miss Jean Scowen
in the mornings. In the afternoons and
evenings they had Make-up with Miss
Norah Bremner and Acting with Mr. Neil
Gibson. Occasional evening lectures on
Music in the Theatre were given by
Mr. Robert Verity. Students could be seen
during the rest period practising falls and
movement on the grass, or walking about
muttering lines under their breath. The
school closed with a word-perfect per-
formance of Priestley's "They Came to a
City" with the players substituting for
each other at inconspicuous intervals
during the performance so that nearly all
of the students had a chance to appear.
One measure of the success achieved by
the Summer Schools has been the unani-
mous request by all. of the "Summer
Undergraduates" that these Schools be
repeated next year if possible for a longer
period, and also that arrangements be
made that those who came this year
should return to continue their Courses,
while additional Courses for beginners
should be held. The Department has
already been approached by two more
groups wishing to have Summer Courses
arranged for members of their Association.
Another tribute to the usefulness of the
Courses came in one of the many letters
written to the Department by satisfied
Summer .Undergraduates. "I have learnt"
he wrote "more of Biology in my two
weeks at the University than I have in
two years of reading books and listening
to lectures"
Anderson House was rented by the
Extra-mural Department in Jamaica in
May, chiefly because we needed a central
place in which to house the Drama Project
and this place, ideally situated, was going
at that time. It has proven most useful
to us and is at the same time assuming a
little of the character of a cultural centre.
As well as the Drama Project, we have
six classes running at Anderson House.
We have also had many requests from


other organizations to be allowed to use
the place, and at present the Readers and
Writers Club meets there weekly and it
is loaned to other bodies for Executive
Meetings, small lectures, &c. A Canteen
has recently been opened, and a small
library devoted to Drama and Spanish
has been set up in a very airy front room,
which has now become the Reading
There are other plans afoot in connection
with Anderson House which will, it is
hoped, help it to achieve a real character
as a centre.


THE POSITION of a Resident Tutor in a
group of islands like these is rather like
that of a juggler trying to keep four balls
in the air at the same time. In the early
stages, the result must necessarily be
uneven. One has to become proficient with
one or two balls before attempting
to cope with more. In St. Lucia it has
been possible to run one series of ten
Short Courses and we have now embarked
on another similar series. In Grenada we
have had four such Courses with larger
numbers. These are now, in some cases
being extended to longer Courses. St. Vin-
cent has had less attention but we hope
to get some Courses started soon.
Dominica has not yet been tackled. Com-
munications between the islands are by
no means easy. One can fly between
St. Lucia and Grenada without difficulty
but, until the projected new air services
which will include St. Vincent and
Dominica are in operation, one is depen-
dent on the odd steamer or schooner. One
of the Courses offered both in St. Lucia
and Grenada which has proved attractive
that in Current Affairs. News of the
outside world in these islands tends to be
sketchy and people welcome the oppor-
tunity of considering and discussing
events and problems which constitute the
matter of contemporary history. Besides
international questions, our surveys include
matters of more local interest, such as
changes in the Constitutions of local
Legislatures, Closer Union, Universal
Suffrage and these usually arouse eager
In St. Lucia, which is largely a French-
patois speaking island, "English-Spoken
and Written" has proved a popular sub-

ject. This beautifully vague title makes
it possible to spread the net very widely
and the haul includes would-be verse-
makers, journalists, teachers, budding
politicians and Trade Union leaders as well
as those with a taste for literature
Another Course-rather off the beaten
track-is one in Building Construction.
This was suggested by the fact that
Castries, our main town, was destroyed by
fire last year and is now in process of
reconstruction. Whilst avoiding a syllabus
of too technical a nature, it has been
possible to devise a course which has
satisfied a need of a definite group of
people. The lighter side of life-Music,
Art and the Drama-has also its devotees
and we have tried to satisfy them. In
History we have had a Course in English
Social History of the Fourteenth Century
and we have now embarked on a Course
in West Indian History.
There are difficulties. The fire in
Castries has resulted in most of the popu-
lation being driven far afield for housing
accommodation and it is not easy for
them to get into town again for evening
classes. With a small population we
cannot expect to monopolise the interest
of the people all the time. Such things as
cricket tournaments (with their accom-
panying social activities) dances and
concerts have to be allowed for.
Recently we have formed a Students'
Committee which I feel sure is going to be
most helpful both to the Advisory Com-
mittee and myself in keeping in close
touch with the needs and wishes of
students. In Grenada the Society of
Friends of the University College has been
great support of extra-mural work.
Altogether, I think that we can face the
new year with a reasonable degree of


EXTRA-MURAL CLASSES have been taken
up very seriously in Trinidad, and we are
fortunate to have the co-operation of a
considerable number of well-qualified and
enthusiastic persons as tutors. Five main
centres are being developed, namely Port-

of-Spain and San Juan, serving an urban
population area of nearly 200,oo0, San
Fernando and Point Fortin in the South,
and the island of Tobago.
Economics and Government are very
much in demand, and 15 classes in these
subjects are in progress. There are
12 classes in French and Spanish language
and literature, 12 in Natural Sciences and
Mathematics, 8 in Music, Drama and Art,
and six in English Language and Literature.
27 classes are of 24 sessions or more in
duration. No class has a membership of
more than 40, and the average size is
about 20.
The present demand for education in
Trinidad is truly formidable and there is
great growing vitality in the voluntary
organizations. The Department is co-
operating in education programmes with
the Union of Friendly Societies, the
Youth Council, the Little Carib, two new
Women's organizations, the Public Library,
the Central and San Fernando Libraries,
the Arts Society, San Fernando Cultural
Society, and various music and drama
groups. Relation with all these bodies
have been most fruitful, and at the same
time Government, and particularly the
Education Department, has been most
helpful. Not only have temporary premises
been made available to the Extra-mural
Department, but two teachers, Mr. Remy
and Mr. Herrera, have been loaned to the
Department. They assist in the running
of the classes, and acting as tutors to
certain groups, in return for which they
are being given the opportunity to under-
take special study of a research character
under expert supervision.
Events of special note during the past
six months have been-the re-organisation
of the Education Extension Department,
whereby its main work becomes the
fostering and assisting of voluntary organi-
sations, the establishment of a Folk-
Lore Society, the setting up of a co-
operative Department, and the imminent
realisation of the dream of many of the
Cultural and Education bodies here for
a Cultural Centre This will almost
certainly be the extensive premises of the
U.S O. building near the Port-of-Spain

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