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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
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    Front Matter
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    Foreword
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    Back Cover
        Back Cover
Full Text

-6495


quarterly
Nos. 2 & 3
June-September



I EGREE-EDUCATION AND
WITVfY THE ENTREPRENEURIAL
ji, AION ASSOCIATE
iVCATION AND PRODUCTIVITY-
.. ..PRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY-
.LL STATE S -TERTIARY
*Ai.%`.JAT-E .DEGREE- SMALL
NATIONN AND PRODUCTIVITY-
i.,-.. WOMEN AND UWI -
AW.NiVERSITY- MARKETING
.TIARY. .LEVEL EDUCATION -
RE .EDUCATION AND
UNIVERSITY- MARKETING-
Wf- -TERTIARY EDUCATION
E*R:eE- !SMALL STATES -
R OPICTIVITY- WOMEN &

B'A .\










CARIB B EAN


QUAR TERLY
(Copyright reserved and reproduction without permission forbidden.)
Caribbean Education
FOREWORD
Education, Productivity and the Economic Development of Barbados 1
Andrew S. Dowries
The Associate Degree in the Caribbean: Its Viability as a Post- 20
Secondary Option
Vivienne Roberts
Tertiary Education Development in Small States: Constraints and 44
Future Prospects
Bevis F. Peters
UWI A Progressive University for Women? 58
Marlene Hamilton
The Entrepreneurial University: locating the University of the West Indies 83
in a Global Context
Francis Severin
A Comment: Practical Marketing: The Key to Success for Artists? 132
Chandana Jayawardena
Books Received 145
Notes on Contributors 147













CARIBBEAN QUARTERLY

UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES

Editorial Committee
The Hon. R.M. Nettleford, O.M. Vice Chancellor, Editor
Compton Boumrne, Principal, St. Augustine Campus, UWI
Sir Keith Hunte, Principal, Cave Hill Campus, UWI
Sir Roy Augier, Professor Emeritus,Dept. of History, Mona
Neville McMorris, Dept. of Physics, Mona
Veronica Salter, C.S.I. Office of Vice Chancellor, Mona (Managing Editor)

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Manuscripts : We invite readers to submit manuscripts or recommend subjects which they
would like to see discussed in Caribbean Quarterly. Articles and book reviews of relevance
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Abstract and Index 1949-1990 and 1991-1996 Author Keyword and Subject
Index available. The journal is abstracted by AES and indexed by HAPI










FOREWORD
For two-thirds of the world, of which the Caribbean forms a part a
university exists strategically as a development resource for the peoples and
countries of that world and serves its adult clientele through education and training
in disciplines critical to tenancy of a diverse, competitive world in which science and
technology (including communications technology), culture and society and the
demand for life-long learning are inescapable variables in the equation of survival
and beyond.
Such a remit in places like the Caribbean is informed by the cultural
diversity engendered by accidents of history and, today, by the power of galactic
transmission via satellite. This now dictates acts of discovery, through the explora-
tion of lived reality, of new and appropriate ontologies, new and appropriate
cosmologies and, by extension new and appropriate epistemologies.
The wider world like the two-thirds developing part of it is too textured and
contradictory an entity to entrap itself into a mono-dimensional framework, there-
fore agencies of higher learning and of creative discovery have a real responsibil-
ity to point in directions to continuing development without fear of social
disintegration.
With this remit Caribbean Quarterly welcomes the contributions made in
this special issue, Caribbean Tertiary Education in a Globalised Context to the
ongoing debate.
The first paper, Education ,Productivity and the Economic Development of
Barbados by Andrew S. Downes is concerned with the vital educational dimen-
sion of human resources development. The paper first examines the way in which
productivity growth can contribute to the attainment of economic development
objectives. The extent to which education or, more specifically, expenditure on
education (schooling) can assist with the growth of human resources productivity is
then discussed. Since educational institutions, especially schools, play a key role
in the supply of human resources, an examination of the productivity of these
institutions is undertaken. The final section outlines some important implica-
tionsemerging from the relationship between education, productivity and economic
development.
The second paper by Vivienne Roberts, carries this argument one stage
further and examines post-secondary education and more specifically the Associ-
ate degree as a viable way of developing our human resources. In her paper, The
Associate Degree in the Caribbean: Its viability as a Post-Secondary Educational
Option, she advocates for a two prong approach joint programme planning
between local colleges and universities and external quality control. The former
prong points to adaptation of the US Associate degree to produce a truly Caribbean
Associate degree which is relevant to existing systems. The latter prong of the
concept acknowledges the practice of accreditation of colleges to regulate pro-











gramme quality. Roberts concludes that multiple qualification options need to
co-exist to cater to the wide ranging tertiary education needs in the Caribbean,
however, quality, utility and efficiency must be of paramount importance.
Bevis Peters, in his paper, Tertiary Education Development in Small
States: Constraints and Future Prospects also examines tertiary level education
but from the perspective of the Small States which comprise the majority of
Caribbean territories. He points out that what generally has emerged in the tertiary
education sector in the Commonwealth Caribbean since the 1970s is a regional
network (albeit embryonic) of tertiary education provision comprising close to 100
tertiary level institutions of which over 60% are national (publicly supported) institu-
tions; about 30% are private, and the remainder are under private ownership
including off-shore institutions. Peters examines the contribution made by the
University of the West Indies as well as the other tertiary level institutions national
universities State and Community Colleges. Peters is also cognizant of the need to
keep abreast of global and international economic trends as a means of ensuring
that the programme stakeholders will be equipped.
Recently there has been heated debate on gender issues in education,
with talk of male marginaliztion and under-achievement and concern that women
are out-numbering men in tertiary level institutions. The paper The UWI A Pro-
gressive University for Women? by Marlene Hamilton, queries some of these
broad-based statements using UWI as a case-study. She shows that despite
growing numbers of women at UWI their numbers are not reflected in senior
positions at their alma mater. She states that: "I believe that what women academ-
ics are able to do is empower female students in the university whose own notions
of identity and autonomy are partly framed in response to this. In this regard, the
visibility of women scholars and administrators at UWI is of paramount impor-
tance"
Francis Severin in his comprehensive paper The Entrepreneurial Univer-
sity: Locating the University of the West Indies in a Global context, reinforces the
appeal that Universities today must position themselves to serve their respective
communities and countries in more relevant ways if they are to justify their being.
Of relevance to the region is the notion that universities are increasingly expected
to engage in applied research for, and with, industry in order to generate additional
income and give local industry the competitive edge in the global market. Tertiary
Level Institutions will have to generate income and become entrepreneurial in
order to survive. Severin states that: "The global entrepreneurial trend in Higher
Education is irreversible. It is therefore axiomatic that...to remain an academically
respectable and respected university, the University (and other Tertiary Level
Institutions within the region) promptly put in place a synchronized and consoli-
dated entrepreneurial policy, strategy, or temperament in order to make the neces-
sary paradigm shift".








v


The final contribution Chandana Jawardena's short commentary Practical
Marketing: The Key to Success for Artists? was included as a follow-up to Severin's
essay. Although not written for educators, the pointers and suggestions can read-
ily be applied by educational institutions in an effort to market themselves.
REX NETTLEFORD
Editor












NOW AVAILABLE

Caribbean Contemporary Affairs



No 1 Political Leadership in the Commonwealth Caribbean
by Rex Nettleford
No. 2 -West Indian Constitutional Discourse
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No. 3 The Privy Council versus the Caribbean Court of Appeal
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Education, Productivity and The Economic Development of
Barbados


by


ANDREW S. DOWNES



Introduction
Like many other small developing countries, Barbados has to operate in an
international environment characterized by radical global changes with respect to
the generation and distribution of income and wealth, the integration of markets
within economic blocs, the development and increasing use of new technologies
(information, communications, materials), the gradual reduction of preferential
market access and a greater emphasis on 'free trade', and the re-distribution of aid
to the so-called 'emerging states' With its limited natural/physical resource base,
Barbados has to develop economic strategies to enable its firms and industries to
compete effectively in a changing international economic environment. The
popular notion is that Barbados should identify 'niche markets' in selected goods
and services and aggressively compete in these markets. This approach is simply
an extension of the concept of 'monopolistic competition' to international economic
relations whereby a producer has monopoly control over a specific product line in
a market consisting of several products.
An important aspect of this drive to increase international competitiveness
in selected niche markets, while at the same time providing the domestic market
with relatively low-priced and high quality goods and services is the need to
increase productivity. Productivity can be defined formally as the extent to which
the output of goods and services of a specific quality is produced by an economic
unit (a school, a firm) using a set of inputs in the most efficient way possible. These
inputs can be broadly classified as human and non-human resources (capital, raw
materials, labour, resources, etc.) The nature and quality of these inputs and the
way in which they are combined and organised determine the degree of output
produced. The output of an organization (e.g. a school) may be related to the
achievement of a stated objective, giving rise to the concept of effectiveness. Since
the achievement of a goal should occur with minimum effort or resource use
(i.e.efficiency), then productivity can be considered as the relationship between
effectiveness and efficiency.
A key factor in the drive to increase productivity is the development of
human resources. Human resources constitute one element in the productivity
equation. Human resources productivity (or more narrowly, labour productivity) is











a partial or single factor measure OT productivity. Through the development of the
human resource base of an organisation productivity can grow over time. Human
resources development can be considered as the process of improving human
capabilities, skills, knowledge, creativity and productivity at the national, sectoral
and organisational levels through improved health care, education, training as well
as through the strengthening of the mechanisms for the participation of people in
the decision-making process.
This paper is concerned with the educational dimension of human
resources development. One of the first composite measures of human resources
development, the Harbison-Myers Index, focused exclusively on education. It was
however narrowly defined to include enrolment at the secondary and tertiary levels.
Education involves the development of the knowledge base and general abilities of
the people of a country throughseveral agencies: schools, media, church,
family/household and the community. Education may be curriculum-based and/or
experience-based. It may take place through formal or informal channels.
Schooling, for example, is education within a formal institution, following a
standardised curriculum.
Education plays three basic roles in society:
(i) it provides for the preparation and training of skilled human resources to cater
to the needs of the economy;
(ii) it facilitates by means of trained personnel, the generation and advancement
of knowledge in the pure and applied fields;
(iii) it performs a consciousness-raising function of the social, political, economic
and physical environment.
Education therefore seeks to develop the cognitive (i.e., continuous
enhancement of knowledge and skills) as well as the non-cognitive (i.e., the
adoption of attitudes that are appropriate for individual and societal development)
skills of the population of a country. Several benefits are associated with
educational development: increased productivity and earnings; job promotion;
greater participation, social mobility; self esteem and political stability.
This paper first examines the way in which productivity growth can
contribute to the attainment of economic development objectives. The extent to
which education or, more specifically, expenditure on education (schooling) can
assist with the growth of human resources productivity is then discussed. Since
educational institutions, especially schools, play a key role in the supply of human
resources, an examination of the productivity of these institutions is undertaken.
The final section outlines some important implicationsemerging from the
relationship between education, productivity and economic development [see
Diagram 1].












DIAGRAM 1


Productivity Improvement And Economic Development
Economic development is a multi-dimensional dynamic process whereby
the material needs and aspirations of the people of a country are fulfilled and
sustained over time. Economic development constitutes one aspect of the overall
national development of a country. (National development embodies socio-cultural
development, political development, economic development and physical develop-
ment.) More specifically, economic development involves:
* improvements in the material welfare of persons especially those persons
with the lowest income;
* the eradication of poverty and deprivation along with its correlates of illiter-
acy, impaired health and mortality;
* changes in the structure of production in response to changing consumption
patterns and technology (e.g., from agriculture to tourism services);
* the organisation of the economy so that the labour force can engage in pro-
ductive employment and henc: r-F7r- theP full potential of human cap.bilit'-:











* ensuring that equity in the distribution of income and wealth pervades the so-
ciety
* greater participation of broadly-based groups (e.g., non-governmental organi-
sations, unions) in making decisions concerning the directions which should
be followed in order to improve economic welfare;
* the provision of basic social services (health, education, transport, housing,
etc) for the broad mass of the population;
* ensuring the existence of the ecological and general environmental condi-
tions which are necessary to support economic activity for future generations
(i.e. sustainable development).
Economic development is therefore concerned not only with economic
growth (i.e., the expansion of the output of goods and services over time) but also
with structural change, poverty alleviation, basic social needs provision,
employment generation, popular participation and environmental preservation.
The attainment of these development goals requires planning, that is, the
identification of ways and means for achieving these goals. Countries have used
different strategies to achieve their economic development objectives. Underlying
these strategies (agricultural diversification, import substitution, industrialisation,
export promotion, etc) is the need to be more productive. From a long term
economic development perspective, productivity improvement can be achieved via
economic growth plus efficiency (whereby output increases and inputs increase by
a lesser amount) or the better utilisation of resources (that is, output increases with
no commensurate change in inputs used).
At a macroeconomic level, the main objectives of productivity growth are
to:
* enhance economic growth and employment;
* boost international price and quality competitiveness;
control inflation
give workers more command over resources
encourage investment.
By extending the production possibilities of a country, productivity growth
can generate resources necessary to achieve various economic objectives. For
example, by increasing the output of goods and services relative to the inputs used
(i.e., economic growth), then the government would have access to the resources
(revenue) to provide basic social services (health, education, etc) for the
population.











An examination of available economic development indicators for
Barbados since the 1940s indicates that significant economic progress has taken
place (see Downes, 1994a, Worrell, 1982]. The indicators show that significant
structural changes have occurred in the production system with the growth of the
services sector and a decline in the agricultural sector (especially sugar
agriculture). The social services have been expanded and improved [Table la and
b.).
Table la: Economic Indicators of Barbados (selected Years)


Indicator 1951 1978 1990
1. GDP at factor costs
(current prices $m) 61.8 984.5 2965.3
2. GDP at factor costs
(in 1974 prices $m) n.a. 712.4 880.9
3. Population ('000 persons) 215.0 248.2 260.8
4. GDP per capital
(current prices) 287.4 3966.6 11370
5. GDP per capital in 1974
Prices ($) n.a. 2870 3374
6. Share of sector (%)
a. agriculture (incl.
forestry and fishing) 29.3 9.3 5.4
b. industry (manufacturing
and mining 20.4 12.1 8.7
c. other sectors 50.3 78.6 85.9
7 Labour force (000) 100.2 102.6 123.6
8. Employment (000) 79.6 88.8 105.3
9. Unemployment rate (%) 20.6 13.4 15.0
Note: n.a. not available
Sources: D.L. Worrell (ED) The Economy of Barbados: 1946-1980,
Bank of Barbados, 1982)
Barbados Economic Report 1993 (Ministry of Economic Affairs,
March 1994).












TABLE IB: SOCIAL INDICATORS OF BARBADOS (SELECTED YEARS)


Indicator
1. Crude bii




2. Crude de




3. Average



4. Populatic


5. Consume


6. Adult litei



7 Pupil-TeE


8. infant mo

Note:


Year Value
rth rate (per 1000) 1955 33.4
1970 20.4
1980 16.6
1990 16.8
ath rate (per 1000) 1955 12.6
1970 8.6
1980 8.1
1990 8.7
life expectancy (years) 1965-70 65.0
1970-75 65.0
1987 75.0

n/physician (no) 1968 2080
1976 1250
1980 1174
1989 912
ers of water (no) 1976 59000
1990 84034
racy(%) 1969 91.0
1976 99.0
1980 99.0
acher ratio 1980 21.3
(21.6)a
1990 19.1
(16.9)a
irtality rate 1980 24.5
1990 13.0
Figures in brackets represent secondary school, while other figures represent
primary school.


Sources: World Bank Economic Memorandum of Barbados 1982
UNESCO: Statistical Digest 1981
CDB: Social and Economic indicators 1990










There has been a growth in the middle income class consisting of
professional, administrative, managerial and technical persons. Unemployment
still remains a chronic problem. Barbados has been classified by the World Bank
as an upper middle income country with a per capital gross national product (GNP)
of US $6,630 in 1991. Indeed, Barbados has been 'graduated' by the World Bank
thus making it ineligible for certain types of development assistance. The United
Nations Development Program (UNDP) has recently developed a human
development index (HDI) which combines indicators of life expectancy at birth,
adult literacy and per capital GDP (gross domestic product). This index has a
minimum value of zero and a maximum value of one. In 1991, the value of the HDI
for Barbados was 0.927, the highest among the Latin American and Caribbean
countries (UNDP: Human Development Report, 1992).
While Barbados has made significant socioeconomic progress, it still faces
developmental problems such as high levels of unemployment, stagnant
productive sectors and pockets of poverty and deprivation. The macroeconomic
environment within which Barbados has to operate has changed considerably over
the past decade reduced preferential access, greater international competition,
etc. These features make macroeconomic management very challenging. The
achievement of economic development objectives means that organizations and
agencies in both the private and public sectors would have to expand production
within the constraints of existing resources. They would need to be more
productive.
Productivity improvement is affected by several factors at the micro level:
advances in technical knowledge, improvements in managerial and organisational
techniques, the choice of incentives, supervisory procedures, product design, use
of shift systems, training schemes, worker participation and improved working
conditions, reduction in bureaucratic 'red tape', re-organisation of plant lay-out, job
feedback and enrichment schemes, etc. There are also several factors which
affect productivity at a macro-level: structural change, technological change, labour
structure and policy, research and development policy, the regulatory environment,
government's economic policies, the social and political environment and the
nature of the education and training policies adopted by public and private
agencies. There is no doubt that human resources development broadly defined
contributes to the growth of productivity. Education plays a pivotal role in
enhancing the human resources base of a country which in turn leads to
productivity growth and thus the attainment of economic development objectives.
A number of channels can be identified through which education affects
economic growth, productivity and development [Lau, Jamison, Louat, 1991, p.2].
It enhances the ability of an individual
* to perform standards tasks and to learn to perform new tasks;
* to receive and process new information;











* to evaluate and adjust to changed circumstances;
* helps to reduce subjective uncertainty and unnecessary anxiety and thereby
enhances the probability of adoption of new technologies or practices;
* helps to bring about innovations in the production technology and stimulate
creative talent;
* by enabling the acquisition of the necessary skills it provides the basis for the
efficient use of physical capital and technology.
The Role of Education in Productivity Growth
Economists have examined the nexus between education and productivity
within the context of human capital theory. It is argued that education enhances
the productivity of workers "by imparting the basic skills and knowledge of the three
Rs, by providing highly vocational prepackaged skills and techniques that can be
applied directly and immediately to a particular job and by inculcating appropriate
values, desirable work habits, agility and clarity of mind, ability to solve" and adapt
to change [Maglen, 1990, p. 281]. Education therefore increases the cognitive and
non-cognitive (social) skills of workers thus enabling them to perform more
efficiently. (That is, education increases the quality of the labour input in the
production process.)
Human capital theorists argue that expenditure on investment must be
viewed primarily as investment expenditure since education contributes to future
output and productivity. They further argue that in a market economy where
workers are paid the value of their incremental contribution to production (i.e., the
value of their marginal product), then education' enhances earnings via increases
in labour productivity.
Research work has been undertaken by economists to establish the extent
of the relationship between education, productivity and earnings. The most
common approaches have been the growth accounting approach and the rate of
return approach. The growth accounting approach, pioneered by Denison (1967),
is a national income-based technique for evaluating the contribution of various
factors to observed growth in output. In his work for the USA over the period 1948
to 1976, Denison has shown that the "contribution of education to output growth
has always been positive and accounted for about 15 to 25 percent of the growth
in national income per person employed" [Haveman and Wolfe, 1984, p. 25]. This
contribution only reflects the direct influence of education in improving the quality
of labour and excludes the indirect impact of education on improvement in
technology, management practices, organisational skills and the development of
new products. Growth accounting studies for developing countries such as Ghana,
Kenya, Nigeria and the Republic of Korea show that educational investment
contributed to 12 to 23 percent to the growth of output (see Table 2).










TABLE 2: THE CONTRIBUTION OF EDUCATION TO ECONOMIC GROWTH
Country Growth Rate Explained %
North America
Canada 25.0
United States 15.0
Europe
Belgium 14.0
Denmark 4.0
France 6.0
Germany 2.0
Italy 7.0
Greece 3.0
Israel 4.7
Netherlands 5.0
Norway 7.0
United Kingdom 12.0
USSR 6.7
Latin America
Chile 4.5
Argentina 16.5
Columbia 4.1
Brazil 3.3
Equador 4.9
Honduras 6.5
Peru 2.5
Mexico 0.8
Venezuela 2.4
Asia
Japan 3.3
Malaysia 14.7*
Phillipines 10.5
South Korea 15.9*
Africa
Ghana 23.2*
Kenya 12.4*
Nigeria 16.0*
Estimates based on 'Schultz-type' growth accounting.
Note: Unless otherwise noted, estimates are based on Denison-type growth accounting.
Source: Psacharopoulos (1984)











Macroeconomic research on education's contribution to productivity has
been supplemented by micro studies of occupations and industries. These studies
provide some evidence that education as measured by years of schooling has a
positive effect on productivity [see Haddad et al, 1990; Little, 1980].
Since human capital theory indicates that education expenditure is an
investment with benefits or returns which accrue over time, then the rate of return
of different levels of educational expenditure can be calculated. The values have
been used to guide the allocation of educational resources. Some of the general
results emerging from a series of rate of return studies are:
* private returns exceed social returns due to the subsidation of education by
governments;
* returns to primary education are the highest among all educational levels,
partly due to lower unit costs;
* returns to education on average are comparable to other investments;

* returns to investment in education in developing countries are higher relative
to the returns in more developed countries;
* returns to investment in general curricula (traditional education) are at least
equal to (and often higher than) the returns in vocational/ technical subjects
due to the higher costs of the latter;
* rates of return are higher for women than for men;
* educational expansion is not associated with a significant decline in the rate
of return to education.
Very little research has been undertaken on rates of return to educational
expenditure in the Caribbean. Results for Jamaica confirm the basic conclusions
outlined above [see Table 3].
Table 3: Rate of Return to Education in Jamaica. 1989(%)
Category %
1 Overall 28.8
2 a. Males 28.0
b. Females 31.7
3 a. Private 24.9
b. Public 31.7
4 a. Primary (Social) 17.7
(Private) 20.7
b.Secondary (Social) 7.9
(Private) 15.7
Source: Psacnaropoulos (1993)











Estimates provided for university (UWI) education for Barbadian students
show a private rate of return of 16.9 percent (assuming no financing costs) and
14.1 percent (assuming financing costs) (Bourne, 1993, p.8].
Both growth accounting and rate of return studies are subject to various
technical problems [see Dean, 1984]. Furthermore, the basic framework used by
human capital theorists has been questioned. The screening or signalling
interpretation of human capital formation suggest that education not only enhances
productivity but more importantly, provides a means by which individuals of
differing talents can be distinguished. Advocates of this interpretation state that the
educational system (namely schools):
* identifies persons with superior ability and personal attributes (motivation,
attitudes to work, etc);
* confers 'credentials' which employers use to select workers and determine
relative pay. Individuals seek more education to 'signal' his/her own produc-
tivity level;
* identifies productive capacities (i.e., innate ability or natural intelligence) with-
out necessarily enhancing it, that is, education screens for exogenous ability
differences;
* provides a convenient device for employers to identify persons who possess
such traits as intelligence, communicative ability, motivation, etc, which are
necessary for success on the job and trainability.
It is argued that the cognitive skills necessary to raise the worker's
productivity to the level of productivity expected for a job are learnt through formal
and informal training while on the job. Other analysts indicate that education simply
inculcate attitudes and values which are consistent with the needs of capitalism,
that is, it serves as a social reproduction function. In practice, governments have
not distinguished between the different functions of education. However, in
developing countries the emphasis has been placed on the provision of human
resources for production.
Successive governments in Barbados have placed an important emphasis
on the development of the education system. Educational development in
Barbados since 1945 can be divided into three phases [see Downes, 1994b]. The
period 1945-1960 was characterized by a widening of the educational plant and the
consolidation of the educational curriculum. The second period, 1960-1980, saw
the emphasis placed on equity and fairness in the system as free secondary school
education was introduced, a social support system (school meals, textbook loan
scheme, etc.) was developed and the secondary and tertiary systems were
expanded to meet both social and economic needs. Since 1980 we have seen the
expansion of the features of the 1960-1980 period, but with a greater emphasis











on training and human resources development for a new technological and
information age.
Government expenditure on education has expanded significantly since
the 1950s. In the 1946-47 period, total education expenditure was Bds $lm,
accounting for 15.7 percent of total government expenditure. By 1992-93,
education expenditure was approximately Bds $215m and accounted for over 20
percent of government expenditure [see Table 4).
TABLE 4: GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE ON EDUCATION 1946/47 1992/93
(Bds $000)*
Year Current Capital Total
Expenditure Expenditure Expenditure
1946/47 n.a n.a 1002 (15.7)
1950/51 1738 (18.6) 1738 (15.4)
1955/56 2490 (18.4) 290 (6.2) 2780 (15.3)
1960/61 3957 (18.3) 253 (2.9) 4210 (13.8)
1965/66 8217 (25.3) 541 (5.3) 8758 (20.5)
1970/71 19221 (23.2) 1210 (7.6) 20431 (20.7)
1975/76 43399 (24.9) 6783 (14.0) 50182 (22.5)
1980/81 92926 (23.5) 18966 (13.7) 111892 (21.0)
1985/86 149297 (23.8) 9300 (6.4) 158597 (20.5)
1990/91 221402 (23.1) 63643 (26.5) 285045 (23.8)
1992/93 195618 (20.8) 18856 (18.0) 214474 (20.5)
Note: The figures in brackets indicate the percentage of expenditure in total government
expenditure for each category.
Sources: Saunders and Worrell (1981).
Central Bank of Barbados: Annual Statistical Digest 1993.

The introduction of mass education has also affected the educational
attainment of the labour force and the employed population. The available data
indicate that the percentage of the labour force whose highest educational
attainment is secondary level increased from 48.8 percent in 1981 to 63.9 percent
in 1991. The percentage of university trained persons also increased from 4.0
percent in 1981 to 7.7 percent in 1991 [see Table 5].
There has been a marked decline in the number and percentage of
persons whose highest educational attainment is primary level. A similar pattern
can be observed for the employed and unemployed components of the labour force
(see Tat e 6].










TABLE 5: Labour Force by Highest Level of Education Attained
Both Sexes ('000 Persons)


1981
Level No %


1983
Nc %


1985
No %


1987
No %


1989
No %


1991
No %


52.6 46.8
54.8 48.8
4.5 4.0
0.4 0.4
0.1 0.09


112.41 100.0


48.8 43.3 44.1 38.9 43.9 36.6 40.5 33.1 33.9 27.7
58.1 51.6 62.9 55.5 67.8 56.4 72.3 59.1 78.2 63.9
4.7 4.2 5.2 4.6 6.6 5.5 8.3 6.8 9.4 7.7
0.8 0.7 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.7
0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0


112.6 100.0 113.3 100.0 120.1 100.0 122.4 100.0 122.4 100.0


Primary
Secondary
University
Technical
Other/None


Total













Table 6: Employed Labour Force By Highest Level Of Education Attained
Both Sexes (000 Persons)




Level 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991
No No No No No No %

Primary 48.2 48.1 43.4 43.4 38.1 41 1 37.6 37.8 36.1 34.6 28.8 28.4
Secondary 47 1 47.0 46.9 49.0 48.3 52.4 53.1 53.4 59.2 56.7 63.3 62.4
University 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.7 5.0 5.4 6.2 6.2 8.0 7.7 8.6 8.5
Technical 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 1.2 1.2 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.6
Other/None 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0
Total 100.2 100.0 95.7 100.0 92.1 100.0 99.4 99.9 104.3 100.0 101.4 99.9










Caribbean Examination Council (CXC) results also indicate that Barbadian
students have been performing reasonably well (especially in English, Principles of
Business and Caribbean History). These educational indicators (expenditure,
attainment and examination results) would suggest that at the macro level,
education should have a positive effect on productivity. No research has been
undertaken on the education-productivity link in Barbados. A preliminary analysis
of the relationship between productivity (real gross domestic product divided by
number of persons employed) and real total government expenditure on education
indicates a positive and statistically significant effect of real government
expenditure on labour productivity. The results indicate that a one percent
increase in real education expenditure results in a 0.15 percent increase in labour
productivity (alternatively, real educational expenditure accounts for 17 percent of
the growth in labour productivity). The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) results for a
regression of the change in labour productivity (dprod) and on the 'change in real
education expenditure (dtedn) over the period 1961-1992 are as follows:
dprod = 0.02 + 0.15 dtedn
R2 0.17, F(1,30) = 7.25, DW = 1.50.

However, this preliminary aggregate result masks the several ways in which
education has influenced productivity growth in Barbados. There is an urgent need
to explore -the education-productivity nexus at a micro level so that more definite
statements can be made rather than making inferential statements from patchy
data.
Productivity Improvement in Educational Institutions
Educational institutions, especially schools, are expected to provide the
cognitive and non-cognitive skills which are needed for persons to be productive in
the workplace. Educational institutions are organizations involved in the production
or delivery of a service. What they do and how they do it have an important
bearing on the productivity effect of education (i.e., schooling).
The objectives of the educational institutions help define the output side of
the productivity equation. Educational administrators may pursue a single
educational objective (e.g., number of passes kn a standardized achievement test)
or multidimensional objectives (cognitive and non-cognitive). While most research
on the effects of education on productivity tend to emphasize the level of cognitive
development of students within schools, Gintis (1971) has argued that the non-
cognitive personality characteristics reinforced or developed within schools have a
direct bearing on future productivity. Gintis (1971) defines cognitive characteristics
as "individual capacities to logically combine, analyze, interpret and apply
informational symbols" and non-cognitive or affective characteristics as the "pro-
pensities, codified in stable emotional and motivational patterns, to demands made











upon (the individual] in concrete social situations" (p.268). The essential problem of
measuring the output of educational institutions relates to finding operational
measures of these characteristics. Blaug (1970) has suggested in one of the few
quantitative studies of the productivity of schools, four (4) different measures of
output or outcome in secondary schools:
* the annual outflow of school leavers;
* the number of school leavers adjusted for the length of their education
(school-leaver years);
* academic achievement of students in standardised examinations (e.g., CXC,
'0' level, 'A' level) on the assumption that one of the main objectives of
schools is to successfully prepare students for examinations;
* "the earnings which a school leaver can expect to command in the labour
market, on the notion that schools pursue vocational aims as one of their mul-
tiple objectives" (p. 271-2)
These are admittedly rough measures of the cognitive output of schools.
The third measure represents a partial measure of the outcome of the school
system where the focus is on the cognitive characteristics a la Gintis. While a
number of activities take place within the educational (school) system which have
an ultimate effect on the productivity of the person in the workplace, few objective
measures have been developed. Some productivity analysts have argued that in a
service organisation like a school, productivity measurement by objectives would
be the best way to proceed [Felix and Rogers, 1983]. This approach however
requires the clear specification of organisational objectives and the development of
appropriate performance measures.
While the output or outcome side of the productivity equation focuses on
issues of effectiveness, the economic productivity of educational institutions must
also take into consideration the efficiency with which resources are used to achieve
educational objectives. These resources can be classified as:
physical school buildings and facilities
instructional material and equipment books, computer, audio-visual aids
human teachers, administrators, support staff
* community places of interest.
The productivity of an educational institution can therefore be specified as
the degree to which institutional objectives are achieved (educational
effectiveness) relative to the efficiency with which resources are used to achieve
these objectives. To the extent that the output of an educational institution relates
to that part of the school leavers' growth and development that can be reasonably












attributed to specific experiences within that institution, then, the appropriate
measure of productivity is a 'value added measure.
It is generally regarded that student achievement (an indicator of growth
and development) is affected by several variables that are internal and external to
the school environment. Walberg (1984) has identified nine principle factors:
(i) Student Aptitude Variables:
a. student's ability or prior achievement
b. age of the student
(ii) Institutional Variables:
a. quantity of instruction (number of hours assigned to subject given its nature;
homework)
b. quality of the instructional experience (attitude of the teacher, teaching budget
per student, class size, training and experience of teachers)
(iii) Educationally Stimulating Psychological Variables:
a. home environment (parental support, socioeconomic level)
b. classroom or school environment (e.g., the existence of a library)
c. peer group environment
d. the influence of the mass media, especially television.
The overall productivity of educational institutions (schools) depends on
the nature of these variables. Research work in Barbados points to the influence
of home environment and prior achievement variables in determining achievement
at the secondary school level (see Layne, 1991; Shorey, 1994]. There is need for
more research in this area to determine the extent of other variables, so that the
value-added productivity of educational institutions can be adequately measured.
Although there is need to measure the productivity or performance of
educational institutions in order to determine if educational objectives are being
met in the most efficient way possible, and to monitor the implementation of
productivity improvement schemes, there are a number of areas which need
attention in order to make schools more effective. These include:
* the determination of appropriate class size and teaching loads to reflect the
subject matter and the competencies of teachers;
* the leadership and vision of the senior school administrators (e.g., the man-
agement style of head teachers);
* the type of teaching technology (materials/equipment) and teaching methods
used;












* the course content and curriculum to be used and the learning time set aside
to absorb the material. Also, the need for curricula flexibility (between gen-
eral, vocational, technical subjects, foreign languages, etc);
* the physical environment of the school;
* the attitude of teachers and their teaching style;
* the degree of teacher training;
* the involvement of the parents and community in shaping the final product of
the school;
* the responsibility and accountability of the school for the success or failure of
students;
* the incentives for teachers.
Managers of schools must engage in more programme development,
organisational planning and assessment and personnel development. This would
require a change in the existing organisational structure of the school system which
gives school administrators more autonomy in the development of their institutions.
Conclusion
There is a clear need for greater research on the relationship between
education, productivity and economic development in Barbados. Although a
significant portion of government expenditure goes to the education sector, little is
known about the cost-effectiveness of this expenditure. Economists have
indicated that at a theoretical level, education has a positive impact on productivity
growth which in turn enables a country to achieve its economic development
objectives. Education assists with the development of cognitive and non-cognitive
skills which are important to productivity growth. Since schools play a key role in
the development of these skills, there is a need to examine the productivity
enhancing functions which take place within schools. In many cases, all schools
are forced to follow a rigid curriculum (for example, preparing students for CXC
examinations) without recognizing that student aptitude variables play an important
part in student achievement. Such a mass production approach to education can
only inhibit personal development and reduce or retard the productivity enhancing
effects of education. One result that has emerged from studies of educational
reform in several developing countries is the need for curriculum flexibility to reflect
the school population with which teachers have to work. Such curricula flexibility
and re-design along with appropriate teaching methods and resources can only
enhance the productivity of students entering the work force and thereby contribute
to the long term development of the country.












REFERENCES


Blaug M. (1970): An Introduction to the Economics of Education (Middlesex. Penguin Books).
2 Bourne C. (1993): Education for Development: The Challenge of the 21st Century.
CaribbeanCurriculum, Vol 3, No 2, pp 1-12.
3 Dean E. (1984): Education and Economic Productivity.(Massachusetts, Ballinger Publishing Co.).
4 Denison E.F (1967): Why Growth Rates Differ: Post-War Experience in Nine Western Countries
(Washington, D.C. Brookings Institution).
5 Downes A.S. (1994a): "Productivity Improvement and the Economic Development of Barbados"
(mimeo) February 1994.
6 Downes A.S. (1994b):" Education and SustainableDevelopment:Historical Perspectives and
Projections for Barbados." (Mimeo) Aug 1994.
7 Felix G.H. and J.L. Riggs (1983): Productivity Measurement by Objectives. National Productivity
Review, vol 2, no 4, Autumn, pp 386-393.
8 Gintis H. (1971): Education, Technology and Characteristics of Worker Productivity. American
Economic Review, vol LXI, no 2, May, pp 266 279.
9 Haddad W.D. et al (1990): Education and Development: Evidence for New Priorities. World Bank
Discussion Papers, no 95 (Washington, D.C., World Bank).
10 Haveman R.H. and B.L. Wolfe (1984): Education, Productivity and Well-Being: On Defining and
Measuring the Characteristics of Schooling. In Dean (ed) op. cit. pp 19-53.
11 Lau L.J, D.T Jamison and F.F Louat (1991): Education and Productivity in Developing Countries:
An Aggregate Production Function Approach. World Bank, WPS612, March.
12 Layne A. (1991): A Review of Research on Access to Education and Educational Achievement in
Barbados. In E. Miller (ed) Education and Society in the Commonwealth Caribbean (ISER,
UWI, Mona, Jamaica) pp. 75-104.


13 Little A. (1980): Is Education Related to Productivity? Bulletin (Institute of Development Studies,
Sussex), vol ii, no 2, May, pp 13-19. 1


14 Maglen L.R. (1990): Challenging the Human Capital orthodoxy: The Education-Productivity Link
Re-examined. Economic Record, vol 66, no 195, December, pp 281-294.
15 Psacharopoulos G. (1993): Returns to Investment in Education: A Global Update. World Bank,
WPS 1067, January.
16 Psacharopoulos G. (1984): The Contribution of Education to Economic Growth: International
Comparisons. In J.W. Kendrick (ed) International Comparisons of Productivity and Causes of
the Slowdown. (Cambridge, Ballinger Publ. Co) pp 335-60.
17 Shorey L. (1994): The Making of Excellence. Barbados Sunday Advocate, October 16, p. 9,
October 23, p 9A.
18 Walberg H.J. (1984): Improving the Productivity of American Schools. Educational Leadership,
41, pp 19-27
19 Worrell D. (ed) (1982): The Economy of Barbados. (Bridgetown, the Central Bank of Barbados).












The Associate Degree in the Caribbean: Its Viability as a
Post-secondary Educational Option


by


VIVIENNE ROBERTS

Introduction
Definition of Terms
At the outset, it is useful to define some terms which will be used in this
paper. These include the terms tertiary or post-secondary, as well as scope, utility,
status, quality and efficiency as they relate to qualifications. The term Caribbean
for the purposes of this paper, is also defined.
Tertiary or post-secondary education is considered to be the third stage
of the educational experience which builds upon secondary education completion
and which is itself often indicated by possession of credentials such as the
Caribbean Examination Council's General Certificate of Secondary Education.
Tertiary is a level and not a type of education and it can be engaged in not only in
colleges, universities and polytechnics but also in schools, the work place and
homes. The climate of tertiary education is one in which the teachers belong
simultaneously to a discipline and an institution or enterprise (Trow, 1984). Here
the teachers are required to provide leadership in their disciplines in an institutional
culture where they are all involved in identifying needs, developing programmes to
address needs and assessing the extent to which these needs are met.
The definitions of tertiary institution changes over time and with the
context. In the nineteen nineties, Sherlock (1992) defined an English-speaking
Caribbean tertiary institution as one which requires four CXC passes or their
equivalent as its major criterion for student admission and admits most of its
students with reference to this criterion. (Sherlock Report, cited in Directory of
Caribbean Tertiary Institutions, ACTI, 1992). The concept turns on identification of
a minimum standard for the majority of the offerings. There is allowance therefore
for a range of offerings including remedial, occupational, continuing education;
certificates, diplomas, associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees.
Scope is being used to describe the sphere or range of options which is
itself indicative of the capacity of the qualification to address diversity of needs.
The utility of the qualification examines its usefulness or currency in terms
of the advantages it confers on its holders for further study or for employment.










The utility of the qualification addresses its social position, relative
importance or perceived value not only by its deliverers and holders but also by
prospective holders and the wider society.
Quality of qualification is viewed as a measure of its degree of excellence,
the extent to which agreed standards are met, the reputation achieved or record
established by the qualification, or the extent to which the qualification fits the
stated purpose for its existence.
The efficiency of the qualification is addressed in terms of the extent of
acquisition of knowledge and skills and the achievement of relevant credentials in
the shortest possible time and at the lowest possible cost. This concept turns
therefore on desired outcomes relative to time and cost.
The term Caribbean here is used to mean the CARICOM member
countries. It therefore includes Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada,
Guyana, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts/Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the
Grenadines,Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, and the Turks and Caicos Islands.
Background
In the decades following emancipation, the British colonies in the
Caribbean were preoccupied with the expansion and reform of primary education,
the development and consolidation of public secondary education and the training
of teachers in Teachers' Colleges. There were attempts to improve agricultural
development through education and some effort to address cultural liberation
through the building of positive self images. The 1930s saw colonial initiatives to
extend basic education for adults and the community and after the second World
War, compulsory primary education was instituted in many colonies.
From the turn of the century, there were sparks of interest in 'industrial'
education. These sparks kindled in the 1950s the expansion of technical/vocational
education into the primary and to a limited extent into the secondary school system,
mainly the Junior, Technical and Comprehensive schools. Specialist technical
institutes also increased in numbers. The establishment of the University College
of the West Indies in 1948 marked a significant milestone for higher education in
the region. The inclusion of an extra-mural department within this institution
signalled the ascendancy of adult and community education. The 1960s and
thereafter saw the emergence of an independent regional university, the birth of
independent Caribbean States and the establishment by these states of a number
of relatively large, multi-purpose, comprehensive tertiary institutions, many
resulting from the amalgamation of smaller, specialist institutions.
As these nation states continued their development through the nineteen
seventies, eighties and nineties, the need for skilled manpower continued to
increase. Globalisation and technology development have both challenged and
facilitated the thrust to become knowledge-based societies. This has made more










pressing the demand for a wider variety and different levels of post-secondary
educational opportunities and credentials.
It is interesting to note the acceptance, up to the early twentieth century, of
the concept of primary and secondary education not so much as 'stages' of
education but as "types" of education. Both Miller (1990) and Campbell (1997)
attest to this situation in Jamaica and Trinidad respectively. Miller points, not only
to the differences in syllabuses, but also to the differences in the colour and class
of the separate clientele. The classification of educational experiences by type
rather than by stage or level has been a long standing tendency. This lack of
resolution between level and type also recurred in the interpretation and resulting
planning of technical/vocational and academic education.
With the establishment of the colleges offering non-university tertiary
education and with the offerings extending to academic, paraprofessional,
continuing and remedial education, this lack of distinction between level and type
has recurred and the 'tertiary' label still has connotations of status and type rather
than an emphasis on level. This conceptual framework has imposed limits on the
portability and prestige of local tertiary education qualifications originating in the
non-university tertiary education sector.
The Post-Secondary Education Context
There is in the CARICOM region one regional university, the University of
the West Indies; three national universities the University of Guyana, University of
Technology in Jamaica and University of Suriname; a University College of Belize;
Bachelor's degree granting Colleges in Bahamas and Barbados and more than
one hundred other colleges and institutions delivering tertiary education in various
forms.
In these institutions the formal educational programmes are non-
compulsory, cater to students over sixteen years of age and include overseas,
regional and local programmes and qualifications. Overseas qualifications are
those where the syllabuses are developed and approved externally and where
examinations are set and marked in a foreign country. These include the
Cambridge Advanced Level Certificate Programme which is administered by the
University of Cambridge to students in England, Wales and some other
Commonwealth countries including the Caribbean.
In the case of regional educational qualifications, the syllabuses are
designed by Caribbean professional bodies, using mainly regional expertise.
Assessment and certification are responsibilities of the examining body and are
separate from the delivery function of the educational institutions. The Caribbean
Examinations Council (CXC), for instance, functions as a Qualifications authority
overseeing and coordinating the development of the standards and guidelines for
a qualification, making the determination about whether the standards are met,
validating the qualification, and certifying individual candidates. The Regional










Nursing Body performs a similar function for Nursing Education and Council of
Legal Education for Lawyers.
Some standardization is also achieved by a few institutions in Jamaica,
which as members of the Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica have banded
together to jointly develop and jointly examine some Associate degree
programmes. The Universities and most Colleges have the legal authority to
develop, design and approve programmes; deliver these programmes; examine
them and certify their successful graduates. UCJ accredits some programmes of
the University of Technology, Jamaica.
There are few regional accreditation mechanisms for external validation of
tertiary educational programmes in this region. One example is the Joint Board for
Teacher Education. At the national level, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago
have established national accreditation bodies and Belize, Guyana and
Suriname have national accreditation mechanisms. Regional and national
professional bodies also perform a quality assurance function through the
establishment of standards and monitoring of their achievement as a condition for
registration. As self-regulating institutions, many universities and some colleges
have established systems for on-going quality enhancement. Among the local
qualifications which are awarded by colleges and universities are certificates and
diplomas; associate, bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees.
Through convention or informal agreement, there is a measure of common
understanding about the scope and value of these qualifications. However, there
continues to be some inconsistencies in nomenclature, levels and quality of these
offerings. All tend to require minimum entry qualifications of 4 or 5 CXC General
certificates at Grades I or II (up to 1998) or some equivalent qualification.
Certificates tend to require about one academic year of full-time or equivalent
part-time study. Basic diplomas tend to be awarded for successful completion of 2
to 3 years post-CXC full-time or equivalent part-time study. Associate degree
programmes are of 2 to 3 years duration and bachelor's degrees 3 years for
holders of Advanced certificates and 4 years for holders of CXC qualifications.
Advanced diplomas usually offer a year of fulltime study after an associate or
bachelor's degree. (ACTI, 1998).
The Caribbean post-secondary education context is therefore one which is
at best only loosely regulated. It is also serviced mainly by newly established
institutions. In an environment where information flow is unrestricted and where
the needs and demands of employers and students are continually changing,
educational institutions are being called upon continually to respond in a timely
fashion with programmes of various kinds and at different levels.
The choices which institutions make no doubt depend on their own driving
philosophies and missions, the needs and interests of their actual and potential
students; their strategic plan as it relates to the development of their institutional










capacities; the demands and support of the relevant interest groups; institutional
interpretation of development imperatives and trends, and their commitment to
these development imperatives. The choices which students make will ultimately
relate to the perceived relevance, accessibility, marketability and utility of the
qualifications. Governments, employers and professional bodies will no doubt,
through their policies and positions, influence the availability and sustainability of
the preferred qualification options.
Cambridge Advanced Level Certificate: The Traditional Option
Public secondary schools were established in the region in the 19th century
and not surprisingly followed the convention of the Mother Country. Although there
were other colonial influences at different points in time by the French and Spanish,
the sustained British presence in Barbados for example and the predominant
influence in 19' century Jamaica and Trinidad would have ensured modeling of the
public secondary school system along British lines.
Miller (1990) reports that High Schools in Jamaica have been preparing
students for Cambridge examinations since 1882 at Preliminary, Junior and Senior
levels. Campbell (1997) refers to the increase in participation in Higher Schools
Certificates in Trinidad. from 35 in 1937 to 66 in 1941 and 1 10 in 1945 and
increases in the School Certificates from 338 in 1937 to 607 in 1941 and to 1134 in
1945.
Cambridge discontinued the preliminary examination in the early twentieth
century and schools then offered Junior, Senior and Higher Schools Certificate.
The GCE superceded the Senior Cambridge and the Advanced Level Certificate
superceded the Higher Schools in the 1960s. The prestigious Island Scholarships
were awarded based on performance in Higher Schools and later Advanced Level
Examinations.
Undoubtedly therefore, its long tradition, its origin in and administration
from a prestigious British university, its implementation in the Caribbean's oldest
and most highly regarded schools, its academic orientation and its reputation for
rigour all combine to confer high status on this qualification. Additionally, time has
proven the qualification to be a solid base for academic and professional studies.
The international reputation of the examination makes its certificates very portable
within and outside of the Commonwealth. The programme offers depth of study
and its syllabuses and assessment methods promote the integration of content and
the development of critical and analytical skills. The facility for taking 3 or 4
subjects and the General Paper allows for some degree of breadth of studies.
In spite of these merits, there are limits which this qualification imposes on
its implementors and bearers. As an overseas examination guided by an
externally determined syllabus, the qualification may not be totally relevant in a
local context and its orientation in spite of its built-in options may reflect cultural,
philosophical and other biases. Since its primary role is for university selection, its












academic emphasis may not meet the needs of students whose current interest
may be occupational preparation or general education. As indicated earlier,
syllabus design, assessment and certification are done by the examining body.
Institutions are required therefore mainly to implement syllabuses. Although this
does not necessarily preclude, it does not actively encourage the development
within the institution of a cadre of examiners, an institutional system for valid and
reliable examinations, and a culture of self-directed curriculum design and renewal.
When viewed from a purely economic perspective and when compared
with Canada and the United States, the argument is sometimes made that the
Cambridge 'A' Level route to university education is longer in duration and
therefore more costly. A closer look reveals that uninterrupted progress through
the system in the USA takes about 12 years for High School completion and an
additional 4 years for a Bachelor's degree a total of 16 years. In the Caribbean,
under the same conditions, with normal progress, students complete primary
school in 6 years, secondary up to CXC in 5, 'A' Levels in 2 and university in 3 a
total of 16 years also. This is therefore no longer than the norm in the USA but is
shorter than the norm for many European countries as indicated in Table 1:
Table 1: Preparation for Entry to Higher Education: Type of Qualification
and Duration
Country Starting Years Age when Number Duration of
& Qualification Age of Study usually taken of subjects Bachelors
Degree
FRANCE:
Baccalaureate 15 3 18 7 4
GERMANY:
Abitur 15 4 19 5 4
ITALY- Maturita 14 5 19 5
JAPAN:
Upper Sec. 15 3 18 8-10 4
NETHERLANDS;
Leaving Cert. 16 2 18 6/7 5
ENGLAND & WALES
A Level 16 2 18 3/2 3
SCOTLAND:
Higher 16 1 17 5/6 4
USA:
High School Diploma
15 3 18 6 4
Compiled from Halsey (1992 and 1994)











Table I illustrates that the Advanced Level route as a preparation for
university education may be slightly less efficient in terms of years than the norm in
the United States and that the overall time for degree completion is shorter than
that used by most European countries. It shows also an emphasis on depth rather
than breadth in its requirements.
Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examinations (CAPE):
A Caribbean Initiative
The Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination (CAPE) is a recently
introduced regional examination of the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC).
CXC came into being in 1972/73 and is funded by 15 English-speaking Caribbean
territories. Its mandate is to:
"conduct examinations as it thinks appropriate
and award certificates and diplomas on the
results of examinations so conducted.' (Status
Report, 1997).
Since the early nineteen seventies, CXC has been involved in preparing
syllabuses and conducting Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate (CSEC)
examinations at Basic, General and Technical proficiency levels in a wide range of
subject areas. After more than 25 years, the examinations are now regarded
regionally and internationally as acceptable and of high quality.
In 1979, CXC undertook to develop alternatives to the 'A' Level. With
support from the Standing Committee of Ministries of Education, CXC began in
1980 to work on this new programme. The Council articulated the objectives of the
qualification indicating that it would:
(a) Provide for full equivalence with the current 'A'Level examinations, thus
satisfying matriculation requirements for entry into the regional and extra-regional
universities.
(b) Provide qualifications for entry into professional programmes or to recognized
levels of educational achievement within professional courses.
(c) Provide for horizontal articulation between and within subject groups offered in
the sixth form, community colleges and other tertiary institutions, and vertical
articulation with programmes in regional universities, Associate degrees and
Diplomas.
(d) Promote, through a compulsory core subject, attention to moral, ethical and
social issues.(CXC Report to OECS Ministers of Education, November 1998)
There are plans to develop syllabuses for 32 subjects in 4 phases. The
first seven were piloted in 26 schools, examinations were taken in 1998 by 424
candidates in 622 subject entries in the areas of Caribbean Studies,










Communication Studies, Functional Spanish, History, Information Technology,
Mathematics and Statistical Analysis. About 80% of the awards were at Grades
I-IV which is the level accepted for university entry. For the future, CAPE plans to
have open examinations for the seven subjects in 1999 and pilot an additional ten
subjects in 1998/1999. (CXC Report to the Eleventh Meeting of OECS Ministers of
Education, 1998).
It may be useful at this point to examine the structure of a few CAPE
Programme packages before looking at some merits of this qualification. There
are different packages proposed to meet different education and training needs as
indicated in Table 2.
Table 2
Programme 1


(oriented towards a career
in Art for business purposes)


Programme II
(oriented towards further study
in Modern languages)

Programme III
(oriented towards Business
Studies
or for entry to the workplace).

Programme IV
(broad studies)


Art and Design (1&2); Accounting (1); Business
Studies (1); Communication Studies (1);
Caribbean Studies (1);
Information Technology (1).
(Total number of units = 7)


French (1 & 2); Spanish (1 & 2); Sociology (1);
History (1); Caribbean Studies (1); Communication
Studies (1). (Total number of units = 8)


Law (1); Business Studies (1 & 2);
Economics (1);Caribbean Studies (1);
Functional Spanish (1); Communication
Studies (1). (Total number of units = 7)
History (1 & 2); Mathematics (1); Accounting (1);
History (1 & 2); Mathematics (1); Accounting (1);
Caribbean Studies (1); Information Technology (1).
(Total number of units = 6)


1 unit = 120 contact hours
2 units = 240 contact hours = 1 A Level in scope and depth
(Source: CXC Status Report, October 1997)

The CAPE qualifications will offer cultural and general relevance, flexibility
through modular design, depth of study in specific disciplines and breadth of study
through inclusion of a variety of units. CAPE certificates have already received
acceptance in principle by the regional University. Many Caribbean governments










explicitly or implicitly endorse CAPE as an appropriate substitute for Cambridge
Advanced Level examinations. Additionally, the origin of CAPE from a reputable
regional body with a good performance record of over 25 years and CXCs
reputation for rigour and effective quality control systems confer status and validity
on the qualification.
On the other hand, the qualification itself is new and still without
international endorsement. It is a costly examination to national governments. It
cannot adequately address all the diverse tertiary education occupational and
continuing education needs. Since the 1970s, many colleges have been
developing their own qualifications as alternatives to 'A' Level and as a base for
entry to professional programmes. Such institutions may perceive the CAPE
qualification as a challenge and a competitor particularly in a very small market. In
addition, the qualification will no doubt offer opportunities to a relatively small pool
of educators to develop their own curriculum development, assessment and
measurement skills and knowledge. However, as currently conceived, it will hardly
have a major impact on the development of overall tertiary institutional quality
control systems or the nurturing of the institutional culture of curriculum design,
renewal and management of assessment.
The Associate Degree: A United States Qualification and Concept
Before considering the nature of the Associate degree (AD) and its merits
and shortcomings, it might be useful to look at the forces which have guided its
emergence. The Associate degree in name and concept is borrowed from the
United States. It developed there in the early nineteen hundreds in Junior Colleges
which were assisting universities to cater to a wider clientele by offering the first two
years of the university's programme. This Associate degree was academic in
focus and broad in scope with a Liberal Arts orientation mirroring that of the
four-year colleges and universities. It sought then to foster academic functions.
With the emergence and proliferation of the Community Colleges later in the 20'
century and particularly in the 1960s, the Associate degree extended its original
academic and transfer emphasis to occupational, general, remedial and even
recreational goals. This inherent flexibility allowed for unprecedented responses to
the diverse needs of Community College students.
The American Junior College's emphasis on the transfer function was a
logical outcome of the historical period with the emergence of these colleges from
the upper divisions of the high schools and the lower divisions of re-structured four
year colleges, although some developed independently. Not surprisingly, between
1907 and 1940, transfer enrolment represented between 60% to 70% of total
enrolment in these Colleges (Eaton, 1994).
Between 1950 and 1980, the Community College sector in the U.S.
expanded to meet the demands for not only academic but also
technical/vocational, continuing, general and remedial education needs. New











types of Associate degrees were developed while the emphasis on the transfer
function waned. Eaton (1994) noted the changes as follows:


Relationships with business and industry became more important. More
attention was paid to preparation for immediate employment than the development
of generic intellectual skills needed for further collegiate work and earning the
baccalaureate. (Eaton, 1994, page 29).
Lombardi (1979) confirmed the fall off in the transfer function with data
from the States of California, Florida and Washington as indicated in Table 3.
Table 3: Percentage Transfers from Community Colleges to Universities
and Four-Year Colleges
YEAR CALIFORNIA FLORIDA WASHINGTON
1973 4.8 9.9 3.3
1974 4.1 9.4 3.2
1975 4.1 9.2 2.9
1976 3.6 8.5 2.9
1977 3.6 2.5
1978 2.1
Note: (1) California & Florida: transfers to public state universities and
Colleges.
(2) Washington: transfer to all universities and four-year colleges.
(3) Enrolment calculated as Opening Headcount at Fall of each year.
Source: Lombardi (1979), page 15

Several researchers in the 1980s and 1990s (Adelman, 1988; Grubb,
1991; Cohen, 1991) attest to increases in transfer rates from Community Colleges
during that time in the 20% range. Transfers occurred in both directions between
public Community Colleges, public universities and private multipurpose
institutions but the greatest movement was from public Community Colleges to
public universities as illustrated by Lingerfelter's (1992) report on the State of
Illinois, USA.











Table 4: Inter-institutional In-State Transfer, Fall 1990
Institutions Transferred Institutions Transferred to:
From Public Public Private
Community Universities Multi-purpose
Coll. Institutions


Public Community 3,305 10,636 4,511
Colleges
Public University 2,799 1,671 1,266
Private Multi-Purpose 1,720 1,134 916
Institutions
Source: Lingerfelter (1992) page 7

Table 4 indicates that for Fall 1990, the majority of transfers happened
between students from public Community Colleges to public universities, no doubt
primarily on the basis of Associate degrees completed or in progress. This
research was part of the initiatives of the Board of Higher Education to monitor and
promote access to and retention in higher education of nontraditional students -
older adults, recent immigrants, women and minorities.
It can be seen that in their native setting, Associate degrees may have
either an academic/university transfer focus or an occupational focus, although the
latter may also be used for university transfer. The academic/university transfer
programme embodies the principles of a broad, liberal education and as such
mirrors the structure and content of the lower division of a four-year liberal arts
bachelor's degree in the United States. It emphasizes a broad general education
component but allows for some emphasis on a declared major together with the
pursuit of elective subjects in an area of interest outside of the area of
specialization. Table 5 exemplifies the structure of Illinois and Florida Associate
degrees.
The Broward Community College Handbook (1997-1998) articulates
the philosophy and purpose of the Associate degree and highlights the
fundamental function and academic differences in the Associate of Arts (AA)
and Associate of Science (AS) degrees.
The centre piece of the Associate in Arts and the US Baccalaureate
degree is the General Education Component. The Handbook states that general
education is the foundation for the specific academic and technical programmes at
the community college and for further education towards a baccalaureate degree.
Its intent is to provide social, technical and academic competencies for
participation in a democratic society and a global environment; to provide an










understanding of a variety of cultural and historical heritages, understanding of the
role of the individual in a complex and rapidly changing world, and understanding
of the physical universe. It also prepares the student with the necessary
communication and analytical skills.


Table 5: Credit Weighting in selected U.S. Associate Degrees
COMPONENTS ILLINOIS FLORIDA
Associate Associate Associate Associate
In Arts In Science In Arts In Science
General Education Core
Communication 9 9 9 3
Humanities 9 6 6 3
Social Sciences 9 6 6 3
Mathematics 3 6 8 3
Science 6 8 7 3
Electives/ Flexible Hours
3 areas depending on discipline
2-14 4-15
Transfer Major; Minor/ Elective
10-36 10-25 24 45
TOTAL SEMESTER CREDIT HOURS
60-64 60-64 60 60
Sources: Lingerfelter (1992), page 18. Broward Community College, Florida Handbook

Although both the AA and AS include general education, the AA degree
requires completion of 36 credits while the AS requires 15. The AA requires study
in six areas:
(i) General Communication;
(ii) Humanities including a foreign language, Art, Music or Religion;
(iii) Social/Behavioural Science;
(iv) Physical/Biological Science;
(v) Mathematics/Computer Competency
(vi) Intemrnational/Intercultural Studies.
The AA in Broward Community College is expected to launch students into
a baccalaureate degree at the following institutions:
Florida A & M University
Florida Atlantic University










Florida International University
Florida State University
University of Central Florida
University of Florida
University of North Florida
University of South Florida
University of West Florida.
It is noteworthy, however, that the College advises that in choosing
courses "students should consider specific programmatic requirements of the
upper-level institutions to which they intend to transfer. (Broward Community
college Handbook, p. 75-76).
The emphasis of the AS is initial occupational preparation or re-tooling and
the College advises when students decide to follow an AS programme, they are not
preparing themselves for transfer to a State university. If they decide to attend a
university, they may be required to do additional work at the freshman or
sophomore level in order to earn enough credit hours to transfer to junior level
status. (Broward Community College Handbook, p.81 ).
From Table 5, it can be seen that there are variations in Associate degrees
in the United States. The variation occurs from State to State and within a State or
institution may reflect an academic or occupational bias.
The American Associate degree has been in existence for a century,
therefore its meaning, purpose and status should be well understood. Even in that
context, however, articulation efforts have waxed and waned for a variety of
reasons some structural and some functional." (Prager, 1994). Prager indicated
also that there are legally binding State-level articulation arrangements and
voluntary inter-institutional co-operation and that in at least 30 States, articulation
was based primarily on credit transfer.
The currency of the Associate degree is its usefulness for transfer mainly
to public universities and colleges (Lingerfelter, 1992). Legislation and active
collaboration among institutions mainly at the State level have had to be invoked to
promote and sustain the transfer process (Prager, 1994). Even so, the utility of the
Associate degree in the USA is generally high as evidenced by its wide acceptance
in many areas for employment and for full articulation or credit transfer in further
education.
Baird (1984) found in the United States that colleges admitted students
with a wide range of test scores but students with high scores tended to go to
private colleges and four year colleges in preference to two year colleges. Many
High School high achievers with high SAT scores enter Bachelor's degree
programmes directly. It should be noted therefore that in the USA, the Associate
degree is a qualification which is not often pursued by the highest achievers and is
more readily accepted by institutions which are not themselves very highly











selective in their intake. While the Associate degrees are delivered to meet diverse
tertiary education needs of a large population of young and older adults and are
used for transfer to some universities, it is still high SAT scores which are preferred
by the highly selective institutions in the United States.
However within the Community Colleges themselves, academic Associate
degrees have relatively high status compared to vocational Associate degrees and
certificates. Eaton (199 1) has shown further that in Illinois in 1988 mainly white,
younger, part-time males enrolled in the academic programmes and mainly white,
younger, full-time males transferred and completed the Bachelor's degrees.
Additionally, mainly white, female, younger, part-time students pursued vocational
Associate degrees but it was the white, younger male, full-time students who were
more likely to transfer and persist to the earning of a degree. Enrolment
particularly in the academic Associate degree programmes seems to be skewed in
favour of the more traditional student and Bachelor's degree completion even more
skewed in this regard.
The Associate Degree: Caribbean Context
In the Caribbean, an Associate degree is a post-secondary, sub-
Bachelor's degree, academic or technical/vocational qualification like a certificate
or diploma. It is usually awarded by colleges or universities after a student
successfully completes a prescribed programme of two to three years of fulltime or
equivalent part-time study. The programme usually includes one or more major
areas of study, a core of required general education courses and a set of elective
courses. (ACTI, 1998).
The major area may be a professional/vocational area, e.g. Pharmacy or
Agriculture or academic disciplines like Chemistry or History. The general
education core may include English Language, Mathematics, History, Foreign
Language and Computer Studies for example. The elective courses are intended
to cater to the interests of the individual student and by virtue of their selection from
an area outside of the major discipline, give breadth to his/her studies.
The Associate degree programme usually includes at least sixty credits
(about twenty courses) and is usually examined by the institutions themselves
through continuous assessment and/or examination after each course. There are
scores of Associate degree programmes but they can be conveniently grouped into
four main categories: Associate degree in Arts, Associate degree in Science,
Associate degree in Applied Arts and Associate degree in Applied Science. The
former two usually have an academic focus and the latter two a vocational
orientation. The majors normally define the Arts or Science category. All have the
potential for university transfer but the Applied programmes often lack counterpart
programmes at the University of the West Indies, for example. This classification
differs from the US scheme where the last two categories are not in popular use












and the Arts degree usually has an academic orientation while the Science an
occupational focus.
Some Caribbean Tertiary Level Institutions (TLIS) have chosen to develop
or expand Associate degree programmes in order to:
* increase and expand the certification options to respond to the needs of their
diverse clientele
* broaden, expand and enrich the background of students and so enhance
their flexibility in the field of work and competence in the field of study
* provide an alternative qualification to Advanced Levels for university transfer
* facilitate access to higher education through the re-organisation of pro-
grammes into courses and assignment of credits to each course to make the
course transfer process transparent and systematic
* provide opportunities for learning and inter-disciplinary teaching and so mini-
mize the potential of course duplication, improve efficiency, and reduce pro-
gramme delivery cost.
The structure of the Associate degree in the Caribbean conforms to some
of the principles undergirding the USA Associate degree in its emphasis on general
education, provision for electives and focus on one or more majors. Table 6
provides examples of the Associate degree structure from seven tertiary
institutions in the region:
1. College of Bahamas (COB)
2. Community College of the Cayman Islands (CCCI)
3. Barbados Community College (BCC)
4. Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica (CCCJ)
5. Bahamas Baptist Community College (BBCC)
6. College of Agriculture (COA), Belize
7. Sir Arthur Lewis Community College (SALCC), St. Lucia












Table 6: Associate Degree Structure
COB CCC IBCC BCC
Science Science General General
2 Majors 3 Majors
Cr. Contact Cr. Contact Cr Contact Cr. Contact
Hours Hours Hours Hours
Gen.Ed. 27 378 33 495 8 216 8 144
Elective 9 126 12 180 12 144 4 360
Major 1 31 434 15 225 20 360 20 360
Major 2 15 225 20 360 20 360
Major 3 20
Minor 15 210
Total 82 1148 75 1135 60 1080 70 1080
CCC JBBC CCOA SALCC
Business Business Agriculture Proposed
Studies Studies
Cr. Contact Cr. Contact Cr. Contact Cr. Contact
Hours Hours Hours Hours
Gen. Ed. 32 480 27 378 46 552 36 504
Major 19 285 20 280 82 994 20 280
Minor 35 525 13 182 16 224
Electives 9 126
Total 86 1290 69 966 1081296 7 1008
Source: College Catalogues, Programme Brochures

Table 6 shows that these Associate degrees are generally similar but not
identical in design nor duration, efforts are being made to achieve a regional
consensus on minimum standards and to promote the implementation of these
standards by colleges throughout the region. (ACTI, 1998).
Merits of the Associate Degree
The Caribbean Associate degree iconfers several advantages on its
holders. It provides for a broad education and should offer some level of
satisfaction to its holder who earns a qualification which has been in existence for
a century. Vocationally oriented Associate degrees are usually initiated with the
prior approval and endorsement of occupational or professional groups and as
such have at least national occupational currency. Associate degrees have
allowed their holders to gain advanced placement with credit in some North
American universities and colleges and therefore promote efficiency in terms of
cost and time spent for earning a Bachelor's degree in its native North American
setting.











For the institution, the Associate degree offers an ideal opportunity for
fulfilment of mission. Community Colleges in their missions affirm commitment to
open access; response to diverse needs academic, vocational and remedial;
holistic development of learners, and active community participation and renewal.
The modular design of Associate degrees, nested in a context where there is
respect for all disciplines makes this possible. Stated differently, it allows colleges
to cater to a heterogeneous student body thereby giving meaning to democracy in
education. It provides different opportunities for students with different abilities and
aspirations to develop their full potential.
Additionally, the delivery of Associate degrees by Colleges challenges the
total development of the institution by encouraging the evolution of an institutional
culture of planned change and development which addresses the entire cycle of
needs assessment, curriculum design, assessment and renewal, continuing
education and life-long learning. By doing so, it also imposes tremendous
responsibilities on the institution in relation to self-regulation and quality control -
responsibilities which are exaggerated particularly in a context where institutions
are small, newly established, and possess few external validating mechanisms at
national or regional level. For the most part this is the scenario which exists in the
English-speaking Caribbean.
Limitations of the Associate Degree
Some limitations which the Associate degree imposes on its holders and
the institutions which deliver the programmes can be viewed in terms of their
efficiency, scope, validity, utility and quality.
Efficiency The Associate degree is efficient in terms of its modular design
and inherent flexibility since it allows for the substitution or addition of modules to
achieve different purposes. The maintenance of common modules across
programmes also facilitates administrative efficiency. For study in the United
States, Associate degree holders have been accepted by some Colleges and
universities and degree completion achieved without loss of time or credit. On the
other hand, by virtue of its incongruence with the less liberal and more "specialized"
Bachelor's degrees in many British, Canadian and European universities and in
institutions such as the University of the West Indies, the Associate degree has
less currency for "efficient' transfer in those cases.
In the case of the UWI, much effort has been made over the years to
establish articulation between Associate degrees and UWI Bachelor's degrees but
with modest success to date. Many of these Associate degrees have already been
recognized for normal matriculation to the University but only a few and mainly
those in the Applied areas have been accepted for Advanced standing. Table 7
details the existing agreements with UWI. Tables 8 and 9 list some formal or
informal articulation arrangements with North American institutions.












Table 7: Associate Degree/UWI Bachelors Degree Articulation
Institution and Programme Articulation Arrangement Date of Agreement

College of the Bahamas:
AD in Arts & Sciences Normal matriculation 1986
Barbados Community College:
AS in Arts & Sciences &
Applied Arts & Sciences Normal Matriculation 1989
AD in Computer Science Normal Matriculation 1994
AD in Economics Advanced Placement 1999
St. Johns College, Belize:
AD in Arts & Sciences Normal Matriculation 1991
T.A. Marryshow Community College, Grenada
AD in Science Normal Matriculation 1993
Royal Bank Institute of Business & Technology
AD in Information Tech. Normal Matriculation 1994
NIHERST, Trinidad & Tobago
AD in Computer Studies Normal Matriculation 1997
Bahamas Baptist Community College:
AD in Social Sciences Normal Matriculation 1997
AD in Natural Sciences Normal Matriculation 1997
Community College of Cayman Islands
AD in Physical Sciences Normal Matriculation 1997
College of Science, Agriculture & Education, Jamaica
AD in Agriculture Advanced placement 1987
Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica (CCCJ)
AD in Business Studies Advanced placement
Normal matriculation 1999
College of Bahamas
AD in Business Studies Normal matriculation and
Advanced placement in Hotel
& Tourism Management 1886












Table 8: Articulation Links between Extra-regional Institutions and
Universities and some Caribbean Colleges


COUNTRY CARIBBEAN
INSTITUTIONS
Bahama Baptist Arts
Comm. Scie
College





Barbados Barbados
Comm. Mas
College
Hos
Envi
BVI H. Lavity Stoutt
Comm. College
Cayman Islands


Jamaica IMP


26 differ(
courses


PROGRAMME EXTRA REGIONAL INSTITUTIONS
'with formal agreements
and US Colleges:Flonda Memorial,
nces Marygrove,Mich. Morchead N.C.
Northwestern, Minn.
US Universities: Florida Atlantic,
Nova, South Eastern ,Wayne State,
Mich.Detroit, Minnesota,
Tampa Tech. Institute
Technology Penn State University
s Commun. Syracuse N.Y.Wilberforce ,Howard,
Johnson & Wales, Florida International
pitality Connecticut Culinary Ins.of America
ron.Health Ryerson Polytechnic, Canada
Wright State University, Michigan
University of the Virgin Islands
British Universities
NottinghamTrent,Brighton, East London
N L ondon, Southhampton,Warwick,
Birmingham, Bristol, London, Plymouth, Surrey
American Institutions:
Colleges: Oakwood,Saint Leo,Webber,Eckerd
Universities:Stetson, Illinois, Miami,
Depaul,Florida International,Florida
State,Howard,Loyola (New Orleans),
Nova Southeastern, Central Florida,
Colorado, New Orleans,South Florida,
Tampa, TennesseeXavier
Florida Institute of Technology
ent Evaluated by the American Councilon Education
enabling transfer of credits to 1,000 universities
and colleges in the US.


IMS 8 courses
JIM Business Barry University, Florida,Nova University, Florida
Northern Caribbean Atlantic University, Andrews University, Michigan
Excelsior
Comm. Information
College Management Barry University
Source: College Brochures and personal communication











TABLE 9: Other US Institutions which have accepted students with
Caribbean Associate Degrees
INSTITUTION US UNIVERSITIES
Barbados Community College City University of New York
State University of New York
Georgia State University
Seaton Hall University
University of Kentucky
Dukane Univeristy
Community College of the
Cayman Islands University of Miami
Source: Personal communication

Scope The Associate degree is noted for its breadth. Its emphasis on
breadth however, predisposes it to less focus on achievement of the traditional
depth, rigour and integration of content within the stipulated time-frame and for a
diverse clientele. In a context where depth of study is also a major consideration,
Associate degree awarding institutions have been faced with the challenges of. (1)
proving the validity and worth of this qualification, and (2) adapting the qualification
to meet the demands of the operational context. Many, for example, have begun
to place greater emphasis on the major disciplines, sometimes including two or
three. Some have had to extend their duration to three years full-time to achieve
academic or professional goals.
Validity Secondary qualifications are regionally standardized through
common syllabuses and a common regional examination (CSEC). Their level is
well understood. University qualifications are in the main validated by internally
determined but externally accepted norms and mechanisms. Bogue and Saunders
(1998) have identified some validity mechanisms including institutional reputation,
institutional checks and balances, client satisfaction, graduate performance,
professional endorsement and international recognition. Over time these have all
conferred validity on UWI's qualifications. At this stage of its development and use,
the Associate degree is yet to receive validity normally provided by an external
qualification authority or derived from tradition as is the case of 'A' level. This
exacerbates issues related to its credibility and validity.
Associate degree programmes are understood in the United States as
equivalent in content and level to the first two years of a four-year degree but to
date have not been able to establish convincingly that in general they achieve
equivalence in content and level to the Cambridge Advanced level and also the first
year of a three-year Bachelor's degree in the Caribbean. They are therefore being
challenged to define themselves not only in terms of name and type but also in










terms of the level of qualification, using clearer and regionally relevant performance
indicators. In other words, the association with the three year Bachelor's degree
and equivalence to its components still need to be clearly demonstrated. Since
Associate degree programmes are generally examined and certified on an
institutional basis, external verification continues also to be an issue.
Utility- Applied Associate degrees must prepare students with knowledge
and skills for the workplace; knowledge and skills for living in a changing world and
knowledge and skills for continuing more advanced studies in the future. The
Caribbean Associate degree has shown adaptations in several ways to achieve
these objectives. One noted adaptation has been that of a three year duration
evidenced by CASE's Agriculture, CCCJ's Business Studies and BCC's
Pharmacy, Medical Technology and Nursing Associate degrees. These have, in
the main, responded to both academic and occupational competencies. Another
adaptation is a greater emphasis on majors and less on General Education in some
BCC Associate degrees, compared to their United States counterparts.
Many Caribbean Associate degrees prove to have high utility for advanced
placement into the third year of the Bachelor's degrees of public universities in the
United States. Several are accepted for normal matriculation at UWI. A few
Applied Associate degrees allow for advanced standing at UWI and University of
Technology. However, they are limited in their general acceptance for advanced
placement at UWI or other universities in the Commonwealth. These limits are
imposed by the incongruence in emphases and organisation.
Quality In most instances, except in the case of Jamaica. Caribbear
Associate degrees are developed, designed, delivered and self-validated by thE
individual colleges. Their quality may vary from programme to programme, collegE
to college and among countries. The standards may also vary from year to year
Institutional mechanisms are required therefore for quality enhancement anc
control, and mechanisms are required for external verification and maintenance o
standards across geographical space and time.
Conclusion
The Caribbean tertiary system is diverse and unevenly developed. A.'
secondary education becomes more widespread, there will be increasing deman(
for several forms of tertiary education. There will continue to be need for remedial
vocational, general and academic tertiary education provision. Students and thei
parents desire access to higher education within the region, in the United State!
and the Commonwealth. Governments require the training of leaders, educators
technicians, middle management personnel and line workers. They have also se
a target of 15% enrolment in tertiary education by 2005. Different types of offering'
are therefore required to meet the needs of this inevitably heterogeneous group.
As has been shown, there is a tradition in the Caribbean for adopting
foreign educational qualifications perhaps because of their already established










validity and currency. The Cambridge 'A' level has been adopted for more than a
century from Britain where it is used predominantly for university preparation and
selection. While the qualification can boast quality and validity, it is limited in
scope, utility and relevance in this setting.
The latter limitations have been partially addressed through the offering of
certificates and diplomas mainly in the technical/vocational areas. Many of these
certificates have also been imported from Britain but some have been home-grown
and have over time earned currency and validity.
As English-speaking Caribbean countries gained their political
independence, they established regionally validated secondary school
examinations (Caribbean Secondary Education Certificate) (CSEC). They have
simultaneously established multi-purpose colleges which use performance in this
examination as their predominant entry qualification to several programmes.
Some Colleges deliver the Cambridge 'A'Level, others deliver the US or amended
type Associate degree and yet others offer CAPE. Many deliver various
combinations of these qualifications.
CXC has recently undertaken the development of a Caribbean Advanced
Proficiency Examination (CAPE) which is regionally validated by a centralized
examination. CAPE is likely to achieve quality, validity and relevance but may be
limited in scope and utility, considering the vast areas of tertiary education need.
Some Caribbean colleges have adopted the US type Associate degree
and have found it to offer wide scope, limited utility in the Caribbean, greater utility
in some US colleges and universities and variable quality. The Associate degree
allows for relevance in content but limited relevance in context, particularly as
regards its structure vis a vis three year degree programmes.
The adoption by some emerging degree granting colleges and universities
in the region of a US type Bachelor's degree allows for implementation of the
intended two-plus-two concept. This has enhanced the utility and structural
relevance of the Associate degree in those institutions. This pattern is becoming
apparent in the programming at the College of Bahamas, University College of
Belize and Barbados Community College for example where they offer four year
post-CSEC Bachelor's degree. This addresses utility but the issue of regional
quality remains unresolved.
The above approach can be regarded as one of adapting the system to
match the qualification or adopting the full US system and not just a part. An
alternative approach may be the promotion of structural relevance through the
adoption of two prongs of the US Associate degree concept: first, joint programme
planning between local colleges and universities and second, external quality
control. The former prong points to adaptation of the US Associate degree to
produce a truly Caribbean Associate degree which is relevant to existing systems.
It points therefore to association or convergence between the Associate degree











and the existing or amended three year bachelor's degree. The latter prong of the
concept acknowledges also the US practice of accreditation of colleges to regulate
programme quality. This highlights the need for the establishment of mechanisms
to establish standards and control quality in this setting.
In sum, the diversity of the English-speaking Caribbean is a reality. There
are different types of colleges and universities in the region. The existence of
separate island states at different stages of socioeconomic development and with
stronger or weaker geographical and economic ties with the US exacerbates this
diversity. Developed countries have evolved strategies for dealing with their
diversity and these have either involved programme differentiation within
institutions or differentiation among institutions, with supporting linkages.
In spite of the inherent inefficiencies, perhaps multiple qualification options
need to co-exist to cater to the wide ranging tertiary education needs in the
Caribbean. Each qualification has a philosophical, educational, pragmatic or
political rationale supporting its existence. Institutions or governments need to
make choices. Regardless of the qualification choices, however, quality, utility and
efficiency must be of paramount importance.
In terms of quality assurance for a stable relatively uniform tertiary
education system a central overarching qualifications authority would prove to be
an effective but expensive option. This represents an outside-in or top-down
approach to quality assurance. Alternatively, bottom-up approaches may prove to
be more developmental, less costly and more responsive in a dynamic
environment. Institutional quality control needs to be improved and national quality
control would offer further validation. In this case, an appropriate regional
accreditation mechanism could be expensive but effective and developmental for
wider-ranging tertiary educational quality enhancement and control. Each
institution must be guided by its mission and each country by its national
development agenda and these different imperatives add to the real and potential
diversity in the region. However, in a system where there is the promotion of
quality at the institutional, national and regional levels, articulation between
different institutions and different educational programmes would be a realistic
instrument for carving out some functional unity in this mushrooming diversity.


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Tertiary Education Development in Small States:
Constraints and Future Prospects



by

BEVIS F. PETERS



As is generally accepted, the socio-economic, cultural, political and
historical conditions of a country exert a strong influence on that country's ability to
formulate, execute, and sustain policies related to its educational development and
reform processes. This is particularly so in small countries; and the impact of these
contextual factors are manifestly more pronounced when such countries pursue
strategies to develop their human resources as a means of achieving national
socio-economic development goals.
"Smallness" is indeed a relative term, and an elusive one and we need
therefore to be cautious about the kind of generalizations we make about what
constitutes so-called "small states" Generally, we can agree that a country's
population size, its land area, its geographic location in relation to others, its
resource base, and its economic endowment are all useful indicators in
determining whether a particular country can be classified as a small state.
Small States and the Impact of Size
The Commonwealth Body of Nations comprises 49 Member States
(Commonwealth Secretariat, 1985). Over one-half of them (27) have populations
of 1 million or less. In the African Region, five of these member countries fall within
that category. They include Botswana, the Gambia, Mauritius, Seychelles and
Swaziland. In Europe, there are Cyprus and Malta; and in Asia, Brunei and
Maldives with populations of less than 300,000. Coming closer to home; in the
Caribbean area, we note that with the exception of Jamaica and Trinidad and
Tobago, the other 15 Commonwealth Caribbean countries are also less than a
million in population size. They include Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, the
Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Dominica,
Grenada, Guyana, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the
Grenadines, and the Turks and Caicos Islands. Eleven of the 17 countries are less
than 150,000.
If only by virtue of their population size, all of these countries can be
regarded as small states. We must take note too that these are countries not so











well endowed economically. Generally they have a limited economic base. I am
referring here primarily to financial, natural and human resource base. As such,
they are generally dependent on the rest of the international community for import
and export of goods and services and various types of international finance and
assistance to support their development efforts. Some small states, because of
their geographic dispersion are also isolated. They are not only small and isolated,
they become decidedly vulnerable to all types of external forces with threats on
their socio-cultural integrity and national autonomy.
The factor of small size has implications on the ability of such countries to
create and pursue their own options of educational development and
transformation at all levels. Small countries such as ours generally suffer from
constrained financial resources with which to carry out expansion and
modernization plans in education; they also are generally constrained by an
insufficient number of qualified personnel to adequately design and execute their
educational development policies. The overall effect of such constraints tend to
place limits on our ability in the region to devise creative strategies, to develop and
implement much needed innovative projects, to evaluate and test them, and to
ensure their compatibility with existing conditions and particular circumstances.
It is against this background that we as educators who are called upon to
tackle the problems and challenges generally associated with a small country will
need to be more creative and strategic in our thinking. At the same time, we must
be mindful that the reality of this aspect of our condition our "smallness" need
not be accepted as so insurmountable as to render us powerless in dealing with the
negative effects of size. Countries though small do have positive and enabling
attributes. They offer opportunities for small scale, low cost experimentation and
provide an appropriate context for the selection and application of best practices
based on these experiments. E.F. Schumacher is widely known for his advocacy
of this view and his name has been associated with the idea of "small is beautiful"
In 1976, he had this to say as he gave the Sir Winston Scott Memorial Lecture in
Barbados:
Many years of work have completely
convinced me not only that small is beautiful but
also that small is possible and has the future on
its side.
One might react with a certain level of sceptism to a notion which on the
surface appears to be too sentimental a view; but as an economic adviser who
spent many years advising developing countries, Schumacher came to believe that
part of the solution in overcoming the negative effects of smallness may well lie in
a country's ability to pursue creative, low-cost, small-scale development ideas.
"The condition of smallness", in this view, was both a problem and an opportunity.











The essential requirement was one of creativity and imagination in exploiting
benefits intrinsic to the condition of smallness.
Eric Williams (1978) espoused similar themes in relation to the
development of the tertiary education sector in small developing countries. He
stressed the need for creativity in our development strategies and the requirement
that we should seek to explore a variety of appropriate options. Williams who was
then Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago and perhaps not as sentimental as
Schumacher about the prospects of being "small, argued forcefully about the need
for more creative alternatives that small developing countries could purposefully
pursue in arriving at ways to address their tertiary education development needs.
He drew attention to the various tertiary education models that existed in both
developed and developing countries, expanded on their appropriateness and
relevance, and made the case for the adaptation of some of these models to our
particular needs and circumstances. Williams like Schumacher rejected any
notions of defeatism. He too was a strong advocate for the use of creative and
responsive ways to address the challenges and constraints related to a country's
small size. He believed it necessary to accentuate the positive aspects of
"smallness" and to see them as opportunities for the benefit of the countries
concerned.
As will be demonstrated in the remainder of this Paper, the small countries
in the Commonwealth Caribbean have more or less creatively pursued the
development and transformation of their tertiary education systems within the
context of small geographic size, small populations, limited economic base, and
consequent resource constraints. Along with the inescapable constraints imposed
by "smallness" there is another reality which adds to the contextual condition. In
this regard, we are reminded by the Pan-Commonwealth Experts that in relation to
the development of the tertiary education sector, we are dealing with what
essentially is the;
"apex of the system the level of the education
system at which specialization for the labour
market occurs, and the narrow market demand
for specialists raises peculiar difficulties. Unit
costs may also be high because of the relatively
small numbers overall amongst whom the
overheads must be spread. Small countries are
thus faced with a difficult choice in terms of
developing their own post-secondary education
systems."
For most if not all of the countries categorized as small, a combination
of these factors has indisputably influenced the pace and direction of their tertiary
education development. The small countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean











have had to deal with these and similar aspects related to being small. Their
experiences in relation to the development of their tertiary education sector should
therefore be instructive.
The Provision of Tertiary Education
The Education systems in the Commonwealth Caribbean are generally
well known to be based on the British model of formal education, structured as
pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary level. For our present purposes we
can define the tertiary level (sometimes referred to as post-secondary) as
constituting the third level of the formal system of education.
The education and training provisions in institutions that comprise this level
may include;
"non-university and university programmes,
technical and vocational education and training,
professional and sub-professional training, and
continuing education programmes. Students
attending these institutions are generally sixteen
years and over, would normally be required to
meet certain minimum academic or experiential
standards to be eligible for admission and
would normally be granted some form of
certification or academic credit as evidence of
successful completion of the programme in which
they are enrolled" 2
Some two decades ago, William Demas lamented the fact that at the
tertiary level of education in the region;
"there has been an excessive pre-occupation
with the university element of post-secondary
education and a failure to view the tertiary level of
education as an integrated system, consisting of
various elements bearing a certain relationship
one to the other" 3
Demas called for more attention to be given to other types of tertiary
provision such as "Technical and Vocational. Institutes and Colleges, Farm
Schools, Community Colleges, Nursing and Para-Medical Training, Commercial
Schools, Teacher Training Colleges, and, most important, on-the-job training" It is
of course pleasing to see that over the past two decades, the region has heeded
the call and has established a number of multi-purpose institutions to address a
diversity of student needs and to partly respond to the challenge of achieving










economies of scale which continues to be a developmental imperative for the
tertiary education sector in small states.
What generally has emerged in the tertiary education sector in the
Commonwealth Caribbean since the 1970s the period in which the pace of
development quickened and continuing into the present is a regional network
(albeit embryonic) of tertiary education provision comprising close to 100 tertiary
level institutions of which over 60% are national (publicly supported) institutions;
about 30% are private, and the remainder are under private ownership with some
governmental support. Among the private institutions are an increasing number of
"off-shore" distance providers based mainly in North America which have been
using the new distance-learning technologies to good effect to reach more and
more of the regions citizens and offering an increasingly diverse range of
educational programmes.
The University of the West Indies remains the main regional institution in
the network with campuses in three countries: Jamaica which is the largest,
followed by Trinidad and Tobago and then Barbados. The UWI enrolls just over
18,000 students from 17 countries in the region. About 2,000 additional students
are enrolled in UWI courses delivered by distance modes. Approximately the
same number of students are also enrolled in UWI certificate and degree
programmes being delivered by other national tertiary level institutions as a
consequence of affiliation and articulation arrangements negotiated between the
UWI and these institutions. It should also be noted that the UWI has university
centres located in each of the contributing territories (i.e. countries that financially
support the UWI). These centres are responsible for the delivery of the UWI
continuing studies and distance education programmes.
The other tertiary level institutions include the University of Technology,
Jamaica, which is a national university. Other national universities are located in
Belize, Grenada and Guyana. Antigua and Barbuda has a State College; and
Community Colleges exist in the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, the British Virgin
Islands, the Cayman Islands, Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, St. Kitts/Nevis, St.
Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Perhaps the most distinguishing
feature of these national/state/community colleges relates to the thrust of their
development which reflects the adoption of the organisational principles and ethos
generally associated with the "traditional" multi-purpose, comprehensive
community college. But these countries have been able to combine these
universal characteristics with certain carefully selected indigenous elements in
relation to their governance, management, programming and financial
arrangements. The result of this is a marriage of the traditional and modern
conception of a community college resulting in a "home grown" model of tertiary
institutional development. They might best be characterized as eclectic types of
institutions. There are teachers' colleges in many of the countries. In some
countries there are also technical, vocational institutes, allied health and










agricultural institutions, theological colleges, colleges of fine arts, and other various
specialized training institutions. As would be expected, Jamaica being the largest
of the group has about 50% of the total number of tertiary institutions, followed by
Trinidad and Tobago with about 15% of the total.
An evident feature then of this regional network is its diversity, making it
increasingly possible for students to obtain educational services closer to their
homes at lower costs to them; and to achieve educational and career goals more
easily than has been true in the history of the region. But diversity in mission and
of functions of these institutions poses questions of definition and nomenclature.
Within the Commonwealth Caribbean, the term "higher" is used interchangeably
with "tertiary" This can at times cause confusion in meaning. What, however, is
important to note is that for either usage the term is intended to be inclusive. It is a
recognition that education and training provisions in these third level institutions
may and in fact do include non-university and university level programmes, and
offering terminal oriented, short-cycle programmes and courses as well as the
longer-cycle university oriented/transfer programmes.
Demand for Tertiary Education
To complete the overview of the tertiary education system in the
Caribbean, it should be noted that in addition to the enrolment at UWI cited earlier
(approximately 20,000) total student enrolment in non-university institutions
throughout the region in certificate, diploma, associate degree and bachelors
degree programme is close to 22,000. Generally speaking, the tertiary education
sector is currently (1998/99) catering to about 50,000 persons.
The development in the Caribbean of such a diverse range of tertiary level
institutions is indicative of the progress that can be made with limited resources,
but at the same time the tertiary education sector in these small countries faces
multiple challenges in meeting the demand for increased access to tertiary
education and training. The economic impact of globalization, the effects of the
myriad technological changes in the work environment and in teaching and
learning, the recognition in all of our economies that the knowledge industry has
become a predominant economic force, and the acceptance by governments of the
need to embrace democratic and egalitarian ideals among its values for the
development of the nation and civic society; these local and external influences
have all conspired to drive the demand for tertiary education in the Caribbean. And
it is, of course, noteworthy that CARICOM governments have made the
development of human resources in general, and higher education in particular, a
major priority. In 1997, the Heads of Government indicated that by the year 2005,
15% of school graduates (as against 7-8% currently) should be enrolled in tertiary
education. This represents a doubling of the tertiary level enrolment
(approximately 100,000) in seven years. In this particular regard it is noted that
within the age cohort (20-24) over 25,000 persons across the region are eligible
annually to enroll in tertiary programmes. Projections are that by the year 2007/8,












close to 115,000 persons or 19% of the age cohort should be enrolled in tertiary
institutions across the Commonwealth Caribbean; of this total 33% should be en-
rolled at the University of the West Indies and the remainder in other tertiary insti-
tutions.
It is true to say that the goal of meeting increasing tertiary education
demand in the region has so far been only partially achieved causing the gap to
widen between the demand and supply of trained workers (skilled and professional
and technical). And even though the governments of the region are committed to
ensuring a significant share of their annual budget to higher/tertiary education, they
are of course constrained in meeting the inevitable increasing expenditures
brought about by expansion. Governments constitute the major source of funds for
public tertiary education institutions in the Caribbean even though different coun-
tries have different policies relating to the funding of this sector. While for example
the Barbados government pays the full economic costs of students' education, the
Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago governments require that students attending
public tertiary institutions pay between 15 and 20 percent of the economic cost of
their education. A major challenge confronting small developing countries is how
to determine how the financial burden to meet the costs of tertiary education
provision should best be shared between government, students and employers,
and to decide on how to strike the appropriate balance between private and public
sources of funding for the expansion of the tertiary education sector.
In sum, the evolving situation in respect of the development of tertiary
education in the small states of the Commonwealth Caribbean, could best be
characterized as a highly differentiated sector in which public universities and
colleges predominate. These institutions are for the most part comprehensive in
nature and function providing para-professional programmes, vocational and tech-
nical training, university studies, university transfer programmes, career education,
continuing and adult education. The emerging community colleges which repre-
sent about 40 per cent of the total are mandated specifically to provide alternatives
to university education; thereby avoiding the proliferation of mini-universities. All of
these institutions particularly those supported by governments and this is in the
majority have been accorded full recognition of the growing importance of their
role in national development efforts. They will need however to fulfill their mandate
against the background of financial stringency and other factors related to their
"smallness" which have not always been the most conducive to their attempts to
fulfill their respective mandates.
We shall now deal with the future prospects of these institutions against
the background of the major issues and challenges that they will need to address if
they are to remain viable, responsive and relevant as we move into the 21st
Century.











The Issues and the Way Forward
Institutional Mission and Programme Re-orientation
I alluded earlier to the enormous responsibilities which the Tertiary
Education institutions in small states such as ours are increasingly being called
upon to assume. The publicly supported institutions if they are not already there,
will become a country's foremost human development and enabling institution.
Generally speaking their mandate is that they should be student centred,
responsive to change, cost-effective and community relevant. The overarching
goal or mission of a country's tertiary education sector should be to ensure that our
young women and men are provided with the knowledge, skills, competencies and
attitudes that will empower them to become confident, self reliant and productive
persons in their community. That generally has been the yardstick by which the
tertiary institutions are being judged currently and in the years to come.
In keeping with the spirit and intent of this overall goal or mission, we need
also to be cognizant of global and international economic trends as a means of
ensuring that the programme coverage will enable Caribbean students to develop
the necessary knowledge and skills that will make them worthy and competitive
players in the global market place.
Another important requirement concerns the need to continuously review
the programme priorities of the tertiary institutions to ensure they are relevant to
local changing conditions. We know for example that the economic bases of most
of our countries is shifting from traditional agriculture to a more diversified sector:
tourism, manufacturing, services including off-shore financial services, agro-
industries and electronic goods and services. It is also well known that economic
growth of the small countries of the region will depend not so much on capital
investment per se but rather, the emphasis will be on a combination of technology
and a trained labour force the predominant factors of economic growth and
transformation during the foreseeable future, with implications of how we approach
the future development of our human resources.
In addressing this particular concern, a recent report of the Caribbean
Development Bank stated unequivocally that the Caribbean worker for the 21st
Century will need "solid grounding in technology and communication skills"
Further the report confidently predicts that "business and industry will look to
tertiary education for continuous upgrading of work forces at all levels through
degree, credit, part-time, short-cycle and self paced courses." (p. 436).
All of the above would tend to suggest that the tertiary education sector will
need to be dynamic, reoriented and restructured so that our students who come
through our national and regional institutions can function creatively and
productively in the international arena.










Need for a Regional Policy and Planning Framework
In our small developing countries where financial resources to support the
tertiary education sector are limited, there appears to be a urgent need to reassess
the basis upon which the highly differentiated tertiary education programmes and
institutions have been developed in the past and to consider how we might for the
future formulate and implement agreed strategies to promote improved resource
rationalization, encourage inter-institutional co-ordination and achieve multiplier
effects in areas such as programme development, curriculum innovation and
change, development and assessment of standards, and such other areas that
may lend themselves to regional or sub-regional collaborative approaches. It is of
course true that in each country the tertiary institutions have been established and
nurtured to respond to the priority needs and circumstances of the constituencies
served the student, the public and private sector, and the community as a whole,
but it must be also observed that from a regional perspective, this pattern of
development may well result in institutional and programme duplication. To the
extent that this is indicated, perhaps there is now a case for the development of a
regional tertiary education planning framework a collaborative one in which
specific institutional roles and education provision parameters are negotiated and
assigned. In other words, through a coordinated effort, it might well be necessary
to assign specific areas of responsibility to the national sub-regional and regional
institutions so as to reduce unnecessary proliferation of institutions and
programmes with the same mission. In this regard, it is conceivable that some
institutions could be designated as is currently under consideration by the OECS
member countries special institutions while others could fulfill a more general or
comprehensive role.
Naturally such a strategy of regional cooperation would require the
commitment and support of all the stakeholders involved governments,
representatives of the institutions and the private sector. From the point of view of
resource utilization, a coordinated approach applied to programme delivery can
provide the basis for the pooling and sharing of resources. Additionally, an inter-
dependent and coordinated regional strategy can have the benefit of reducing
programme overlap, eliminating unnecessary duplication and generally help to
achieve overall cost-effectiveness in programmes and operations. As significant
stakeholders, the onus will be on them to share responsibility and accountability for
agreed decisions and actions regarding the role and functions of each type of
institution in terms of the education provided.
Institutional Articulation and Programme Accreditation
If they are to remain viable the tertiary institutions in the small developing
countries of the region, must also become more proactive in the search for
improved ways to promote student access, and to develop strategies to help
eliminate unnecessary barriers to the students' progress and mobility. Some
initiatives in relation to inter-institutional articulation between the University of the










West Indies and several national colleges and institutions have already been
undertaken. But they will need to continue to capitalize on these efforts. An
inter-dependent, coordinated and articulated system should be the major goal in
this regard.
The matter of the improvement of institutional and programme quality and
the development and recognition of regional standards is another demanding
challenge for the tertiary education sector in the Commonwealth Caribbean. The
concept of educational quality is multi-dimensional and incorporates notions of
programme and institutional relevance, effectiveness and efficiency in so far as
they relate to the various academic, teaching, research, outreach and institutional
management functions. Quality assurance is therefore a fundamental concern in
relation to what is delivered by our tertiary education sector, how it is delivered, and
the outcome or effects. Notwithstanding the need for diversity in institutions and
programmes, there remains the imperative that the region must aim at the
development and maintenance of regionally and internationally recognized
standards of institutional and programme quality. This is particular crucial if
movement of employees from one country to another in the region is to be
encouraged. It is even more critical if we are to ensure that our students who come
through our national and regional tertiary systems will be competitive in an
increasingly contracting world or global economy. As part of the solution to this
particular need is the urgent requirement that the region's tertiary education
systems agree on the frameworks, processes and organisational arrangements for
national and regional accreditation and articulation of institutions and programmes.
Some initiatives taken in this regard at the national level include the establishment
of the University Council of Jamaica (UCJ) as a national accrediting and degree
granting authority for that country. In Trinidad and Tobago, the Committee on the
Recognition of Degrees (CORD) has a similar mandate; so too is the Guyana
National Equivalency Board (GNEB) with the mandate to assess credentials of
persons receiving training from extra-regional institutions. It is essential to
undertake assessments of these experiences and the best practices should be
adopted for the whole of the region.
It will also be necessary for the region to move quickly to put in place a
regional agency with competent and reliable authority to undertake accreditation
functions and act as an appellate body to guarantee overall quality and credibility
of programmes and credentials that students receive from local, national, regional
or extra-regional institutions. In this regard, the Association of Caribbean Tertiary
Institutions (ACTI) must be provided with the enabling resources and the
authoritative basis in order that it can legitimately carry out this important regional
accreditation function.
The Technical and Vocational Field
The further development of the technical and vocational training provision
continues to pose a major problem for small Caribbean countries. This particular










aspect of the region's tertiary education system will continue to require injection of
funds and expertise, and future planning will need to be imaginative and flexible.
Funds will need to be earmarked for the expansion of the training capacity of the
institutions; the improvement of the quality of instruction; the expansion, renovation
and upgrade of facilities and equipment; the upgrading of the professional
qualifications of instructors; and for joint collaborative efforts in harmonizing,
articulating and accrediting technical and vocational education throughout the
region. With regard to the latter, there is also the urgent need to collectively
develop common standards that focus on the learning outcomes and skills that
graduates in these programmes are expected to have acquired as part of their
programme of studies. With a diversity of tertiary institutions along with a wide
range of local and external qualifications certificates, diplomas, associate
degrees, etc. the region needs to establish an appropriate certification body and
qualifications framework along the lines adopted by the National Council on
Technical and Vocational Education and Training (NCTVET), Jamaica.
Beyond these measures, there is a case to be made for on-going
reassessment of programme coverage the types of programmes provided and
their relevance to the emergent needs of the 21st Century. We might take for
example, the area of Health Care where emergent training needs are becoming
increasingly evident. Are our institutions equipped to provide the necessary
training for personnel in such areas as geriatrics, home-care, occupational therapy,
rehabilitation therapy, public health nursing, nutrition and the like? In the same
vein, considering the creative and performing arts: is enough being done to identify
and train our creative fashion designers in our national and regional institutions?
What about our singers, the musicians, painters and other artistes, to what extent
are we providing them with the education and training that will enable them to
effectively market their skills and go on to become successful business persons?
In Agriculture, are we doing enough training of our young people to become
successful small farmers who in turn will be able to help sustain a thriving Agro-
industrial Sector? How much exposure and training are our farmers receiving in
relation to modern production techniques, in storage techniques and marketing?
Might there not be a larger role for the tertiary education sector colleges and
specialized institutes in the development and provision of Physical Education and
Coaching Studies targeted to the youth of the region? What about training in
pleasure boat building and maintenance and repairs an area that is becoming
increasingly important as part of the tourism product? Could not centres of
excellence in Marine Studies be developed in several countries where individuals
from other parts of the Caribbean can go and be trained as competent
professionals and artisans in this particular growth area for the region?
We need also to consider how the overall quality of training in the more
traditional technical areas can be enhanced to meet future needs. For those being
trained in mechanics, as electrical and electronics technicians, in building
construction and the like, are we providing them with the appropriate education and











training so that they can confidently become self-employed and earn the
confidence and trust of those of us who will hire them? Are they for example being
adequately prepared to make a proper diagnosis of the problems we as
householders face everyday, and can we feel confident and secure that the training
they receive has provided them with the practical and technical skills necessary for
trouble-shooting and problem-solving? I am referring here specifically to the
quality of workmanship, and whether those trained can meet national, regional, and
international performance standards.
The propositions put forward here will unavoidably have cost implications.
So the question arises as to where is the money to come from? Part of the answer
may well lie in a reassessment and reordering of current programme priorities,
along with the redeployment of resources. Governments and the institutions
concerned might also need to consider policies related to the delivery of courses on
a cost-recovery basis. Additionally, serious consideration should be given to ways
in which the tertiary institutions can increasingly forge partnerships with the Private
Sector. The intended effect of such partnerships between the private sector and
the tertiary institutions should be to persuade businesses and companies to
provide increased sponsorship to training activities either by providing financial
support to students to cover some of their fees, or by agreeing to place at the
disposal of the institutions some of their own resources whether it be in form of
finances, personnel, special equipment and facilities.
Concluding Comment
I started out by making the general observation that the factor of small size
has implications on the ability of small countries to create and pursue their own
options for tertiary education development. In the Commonwealth Caribbean, the
reality of their limited resource base continues to be a challenge in every respect of
their national development efforts including the development of their tertiary
education sector. What is evident however, is that despite the major constraints
these countries have more or less made significant strides over the last two
decades: the pace of expansion has quickened; modest advances have been
evident in meeting increasing demands for access; there is also evidence of
initiatives taken in respect of quality improvement; institutional building and a
general reorientation of the sector. Perhaps the way to describe what has
happened over the last 20 years is one of expansion and consolidation.
Clearly, as we move into the 21st Century, the imperatives in relation to the
further development of tertiary education will continue to demand of the institutions
concerned creative and imaginative responses. In this connection, a five point
strategy for the immediate and long term future is presented for consideration:
1. To achieve realistic consolidation and expansion targets in the tertiary
education sector, the small countries of the region will need to have in place a











clearly worked out institutional development framework, comprehensively
devised and reflecting short and long-term time frames.
2. In their future development thrusts, these countries should continue to pursue
and strengthen cooperative and inter-dependent arrangements within a national
policy framework. Further while it is recognized that individual countries need to
develop and strengthen their own programmes and basic infrastructure, it is
critical that developments beyond this level should be pursued within the wider
regional and sub-regional context.
3. Matters related to quality enhancement, curriculum issues, and issues of
accreditation and articulation call for coordinated solutions and efforts based on
collaborative relationships. The underlying concern here should be one of
promoting student access and mobility within and among high quality institutions
and programmes of recognized quality.
4. In the interest of resource conservation, the tertiary institutions should work
towards achieving economies of scale and seek to design and implement
projects that will yield significant multiplier effects. The avoidance of
unnecessary duplication of programme offerings, facilities and personnel should
be taken as a guiding development and operational principle for the tertiary
education sector.
5. Finally, the framers and builders of the tertiary education sector in small
countries should strive towards the development of their tertiary educational
systems which can ultimately be characterized as a seamless system in which
the academic, the technological, the vocational and the cultural are articulated
and linked so as to produce creative and productive citizens for the 21st Century.


NOTES

1. Report on the Pan-Commonwealth Experts Meeting held in Mauritius (1985:13).
2. Peters, Bevis F. (1993). The emergence of community, state and national colleges in the OECS
member countries: An institutional analysis. Bridgetown: Institute of Social and Economic
Research (Eastern Caribbean).
3. Demas, William G. (1975). Change and renewal in the Caribbean. Bridgetown: CCC Publishing
House.


REFERENCES

nacchus, Kazim; Brock, Colin (Eds). (1987). The challenge of scale. Educational development in
the small states of the Commonwealth. London: Commonwealth Secretariat.
Higher Education in the Caribbean (1998). Report on UNESCO/CARICOM Consultation on Higher
Education in the Caribbean. Caracas: IESALC/UNESCO.









57


McRobie, George (1981). Small is possible. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers.
Stephens, Michael D.; Roderick, Gordon W. (Eds) (1978). Higher education alternatives. New York:
Longman Inc.
"Towards a new higher education"(1 997). Proceedings of the regional conference Policies and
strategies for the transformation of higher education in Latin American and the Caribbean.
Caracas: CRESALC/UNESCO.











UWI A Progressive University For Women?

By

MARLENE HAMILTON

I have entitled my presentation, "UWI A Progressive University for
Women?" 1 However, I have added a questionmark, to indicate that there are
some doubts in certain quarters, serious doubts as to whether UWI is, indeed, a
progressive university for women. It is my understanding that 'Progressivism'
has been the subject of debate among female educators (, la Foucault) and in that
context, has been used to embrace a consideration of shifts in power relationships
in the classroom (or lecture room) represented by the emergence of a more
person-centred approach to teaching; in the instructional curriculum employed,
through the design of one which deviates significantly from the male oriented,
phallocentric model; and in the general structure of the institution, whereby the
male dominated, authoritarian and bureaucratic structures are discarded in favour
of female oriented, more flexible and democratic models.
I should let you know that I do not support indiscriminately any position
which concentrates on power relationships to the exclusion of other factors: rather,
I choose to use the term, 'progressive' to refer to opportunities within the institu-
tional context that provide for the advancement of women achieved as a result of
demonstrable merit that is recognized and rewarded in an appropriate manner.
Basic to this is the issue of women's access to university education and the
encouragement offered them to pursue a degree.
Having offered you a disclaimer and suggested an alternative definition, I
will get on with the business at hand. I was in the United Kingdom when Cambridge
University celebrated the 50th. Anniversary marking the granting of degrees to
women. Before 1948 as early as 1869 women were permitted to study for
degree examinations (although they were not allowed to attend lectures) but, at the
end of the day, they received no formal recognition of their efforts through the
conferment of a degree. There had been numerous attempts to have the Univer-
sity's Senate do away with this restriction from about 1896, but the all-male Senate,
confident of the broad support of the all-male undergraduate body, held firm and
this was in spite of the growing numbers of British universities which, from 1878,
were granting women the right to take an academic degree. The records indicate
that, at a celebratory dinner held at Girton College in July 1948, Helen Cam, one of
the first female lecturers appointed:2
evoked the battle between St. George and
the Dragon to describe the battle for women's











admission, in which the women themselves had
been forced to stand by while St. George did his
bit on their behalf and which, in the end, the
dragon had died of old age." 3
The fact that UWI in 1998, also celebrated a Golden Jubilee (in this case,
of the institution's "birth") was, as you can imagine, not lost on me. UWI (as UCWI)
a "new" university founded in 1948 very much in the British tradition after all, we
were originally a university college in "special relationship" to the University of
London actively sought to admit female scholars right from the start. The 1945
Report of the West Indies Committee of the Commission on Higher Education
(popularly known as the Irvine Report) charged with providing directionality for the
new entity proposed, makes this abundantly clear when it speaks to the issue as
follows:
"In this context there is another important consid-
eration. The women of the West Indies, though
some of them are already showing their quality,
do not yet make their full contribution to profes-
sional life or to public affairs.... With greater ac-
cess to higher education, the influence of women,
valuable in itself and perhaps especially requisite
for the solution of the difficult social problems of
the West Indies, would make itself felt. It is
probable that if University education could be pro-
vided in the West Indies at a lesser cost than
overseas and with residential accommodation, a
gradually increasing number of daughters would
be able to obtain higher education and play their
part fully in the life of their communities."4
Given the very positive early start, when roughly one-third of the first group
of 33 students entering the new university were female, it is indeed timely, 50 years
down the line, to pause to consider whether UWI has, indeed, proved to be a
progressive university for women hence my title. As my focal point, I want to
consider the question of women's access to UWI as students and as academic
and/or administrative staff over the years and to attempt to gauge the impact they
have had, or are having, particularly within the university setting.
There have been numerous studies done, particularly over the past ten
years or so, which have teased out various aspects of this theme, but the present
effort is intended to offer a broader sweep. I propose to bring an inter-disciplinary
approach to my paper one informed by the disciplines of history, gender studies
and education, although I can claim some authority in but one of these areas.











In light of UWI's links with the University of London, particularly in the early
days, it seems useful to comment on what Ann Brooks has termed the "historical
position of academic women in the (British) academy"5 before looking at the
Caribbean. Margharita Rendel has indicated that by the end of the 19th. Century
in England:
"the relevance of higher education to the profes-
sions and occupations other than the Church had
become apparent," (and that) "changes in the
form of patriarchy (in the 20th century) were rein-
forced by changes in legislation, opening up the
possibilities for women's employment."6
However, despite early gains by the group which was to become known as
"first wave feminists", "significant closure remained in terms of access to academic
institutions, subject areas and to academic appointments."7 Indeed, the position
articulated in the late 18th. Century by the French philosopher, Rousseau, was, it
seems, not too far buried beneath the surface, particularly during the post- World
War periods. To quote:
"The whole education of women ought to be rela-
tive to men. To please them, to be useful to them,
to make themselves loved and honoured by
them, to educate them when young, to care for
them when grown, to counsel them, to console
them and to make life sweet and agreeable to
them these are the duties of women at all times,
and should be taught them from infancy. 8
Basic to this concept which sought to define women's position "relative to
men" was that of an.over-arching assumption that the feminine sex possessed
inferior intellectual ability. Indeed, Edward Clarke argued in 1873 that, since the
use of the brain for intellectual pursuits required excessive blood, women could
ill-afford to engage in strenuous pursuits, for fear that blood would be "drawn away
from the nervous system and reproductive organs."9
Lest you dismiss Clarke's treatise as a 19th. century aberration, let me
remind you that, as late as 1994, several articles appeared in the U.K. educational
press which proposed, among other theories, that "men have larger and/or better
brains than women, and women, because of their lack of testosterone, are incapa-
ble of competing with men at work." 10
But let us return to more serious matters. During the 1920s, "attitudes
toward female (undergraduate) university students (in the U.K.) were initially enthu-
siastic, but this interest declined between the wars."11 Further, even when the











number of male undergraduates declined during the war years, this was not offset
by any significant increase in the number of females.
More recent access patterns in Britain have demonstrated a greatly im-
proved situation in respect of university enrolment figures for women. This, Rose-
marie Deem maintains, is as a result of changes in state ideology reflecting
provisions which enable women to participate more fully in the labour market, albeit
in segregated sectors.12 Indeed, these policies resulted in a global expansion of
higher education in the U.K. in the 1960s, and, as such, saw increasing numbers of
males, as well as females, entering university. By 1996, roughly half of these were
women, although the proportion pursuing postgraduate studies was only about
one-third. They were represented within most subject groups in nearly all British
universities.
The position of women academics in the U.K., on the other hand, has been
more difficult to assess due to a paucity of statistical data. Despite this limitation,
Rendell, writing in 1980, has claimed that:
"The proportion of women academics now is vir-
tually the same as in the 1920s and the proportion
holding senior posts virtually the same as in the
1930s Individual women have learnt it is not
enough to be better than men they are just not
perceived as scholars."13
We move on now to the UWI experience, and I begin by offering certain
hard data on several issues total enrolment patterns, distribution of the top
academic awards, subject orientation to provide a contextual setting. I need to
point out that the disaggregation of these data by gender is, to be kind, incomplete
and inconsistent in presentation. Indeed, figures for the first 10 years provide
much more useful information than is the case for later periods, particularly the 70s
and '80s. Even the official UWI Statistics publications unfortunately do not at all
times seek to provide gender-specific data, although there has been some im-
provement over the last five years or so.
Having made this point, I will now examine the total enrolment figures over
10-year intervals commencing in 1948 (Table 1).










TABLE 1: TOTAL ENROLMENT FIGURES
(From UWI Statistics for Relevant Years)
TOTAL ENROLMENT
YEAR Overall Female WOMEN(%)
1948/49 33 10 30
1958/59 622 231 37
1968/69 4216 1559 37
1978/79 8531 4046 47
1988/89 11896 6560 55
1997/98* 20997 13442 64
*Provisional


What emerges is an increase in the average percentage of women en-
rolled, from 30% through 37% (during the decade of the 50s and 60s) to 47% in the
70s, 55% in the 80s and 64% in 1997/98. This is against enrolment figures for both
men and women increasing from 33 to 20,997 over the 50-year period.
The swing of the pendulum in the direction of women in 1988/89 calls for a
more detailed look at the years immediately preceding this time. This pin-points
1982/83 as the period at which the shift actually commenced, there being 51%
females registered in the institution out of a total of 9,573 students.
I should say something about the distribution of the top academic awards,
the U(C)WI Open Scholarships and national Exhibitions. The Open Scholarships
are embarrassingly small in number (there are only 10 new awards, occasionally
11, currently given annually, and, up to the 1980s this number stood at 6). For the
1950s, the representation of women among the Open Scholars stood at 21%, for
the 1960s, 22%, for the 1970s and 1980s, 30% and for the 1990s, 34%.
Women have fared better with the Exhibitions, gaining 34% in the 1950s,
38% in the 1960s, and 46% in the 1970s and early 1980s. (No data seems to exist
centrally after this time). As an aside, what struck me in collecting these data was
the almost complete absence of women gaining Barbados Exhibitions during the
first 10 years following the inauguration of these awards only 3 of a total of 22
awardees (14%). This was marginally better for the Trinidad Exhibitioners (5
women 17% of a total of 30) although for Jamaica the position was much
stronger, women having won 36 out of a total of 84 Exhibitions (43%). I would not
venture an explanation for the differential at the present time, as this suggests the
need for detailed study in its own right and quite likely involves a range of variables,
including policy issues and societal expectations.
The academic options pursued by the UWI students (Arts as against the
Sciences) provide an insight into the shifts of emphasis over the years (Table 2).










Initially (that is, in 1948) there was only the Faculty of Medicine on stream and it
has already been noted that the enrolment of women stood at 30%. Ten years
later (in 1958) when there were two other faculties in operation at Mona (Arts and
the Natural Sciences) along with the Department of Education, males demon-
strated their numerical dominance in the Sciences (73% to 27%) although, even at
a relatively early stage, the differential in the Arts favoured females (53% women to
47% men).
In 1968, with the birth of the St. Augustine and Cave Hill campuses having
taken place in 1960 and 1963, respectively, and the addition of Engineering,
Agriculture and the Social Sciences, the representation of males in the Sciences
remained virtually unchanged from 1958. Males' figures also indicated a "recov-
ery" of sorts in the Arts-based options due to their sizeable enrolment in the new
Faculty of Social Sciences (53% males to 47% females).
TABLE 2: TOTAL ENROLMENT OF UWI STUDENTS BY ARTS/SCIENCE
OPTIONS *
(Arts:Education, Humanities, Law, Social Sciences,Science:
Agriculture, Engineering, Medicine, Natural Sciences)
YEAR OPTION TOTAL Ss MALES FEMALES
1948 Sciences 33 23(70%) 10(30%)
(N=33) (Only Medicine offered males predominate).
1958 Sciences 373 273(73%) 100(27%)
Arts 249 118(47%) 131 (53%)
(N=622) (More males in Medicine and the cultural Sciences, but not
in Arts; Faculties of Social Sciences, Engineering Agriculture and Law
not yet on stream)
1968 Sciences 2199 1593(72%) 606(28%)
Arts 2017 1064(53%) 953(47%)
(N=4,216) (More males in every faculty except the Humanities Law
still not yet on stream).
1978 Sciences 3512 NOT AVAILABLE
(N=8,542) Arts 5030
1988 Sciences 4533 2705(60%) 1828(40%)
Arts 7363 2628(36%) 4735(64%)
(N=1 1,896) (females in all Arts faculties, more males in all Science faculties).
1997 Sciences 6350 3405(54%) 2945(46%)
Arts 12030 3362(28%) 8668(72%)
(N= 18,380) (More females in all faculties except Engineering).
(Culled from various official documents for the respective years)











The year 1978 reflected for the first time the presence of the Faculty of Law
which had been inaugurated in 1970, along with a larger total enrolment in the
Arts than the Sciences. (Unfortunately, it was not possible to obtain disaggre-
gated data for this year). The next decade (1988) pointed to the "traditional" pat-
tern of more men in the Sciences and more women in the Arts (accompanied,
however, by an overall enrolment of 55% females). The final set of available
data (for 1997) show a similar outcome, although the differential for the Sciences
had by now become much less (54% males, 46% females). In fact, it is only in
Engineering that men significantly outnumbered women, by some 52% (76% to
24%). The overall enrolment of females stood at 63% at that time.
The next issue that presents itself here, particularly in light of UWI staffing
patterns which will shortly be examined, is that of the post-graduate data, since one
would reasonably posit that this is the group from which academic staff are likely to
be recruited. Unfortunately, it has proved even more difficult to verify enrolment
figures here, especially where one seeks to concentrate on higher degrees PhD,
MSc, MA. Although it seems that the first postgraduate degree was awarded in
1953/54, no credible enrolment figures could be located prior to 1968. By that time,
women's enrolment stood at 26%. Byl970/71, it had risen to 31%,and by 1980/81,it
was 50%. Ten years later (1990/91) the percentage of women registered for
higher degrees was still 50%, although the actual numbers had increased to the
point where the Vice Chancellor, in his Report to Council in 1988, claimed that:
"(The) growth in higher degree registration is
noteworthy and is a clear response by the Univer-
sity to the needs of the community, as well as a
recognition of its own need for future members of
staff."
By the mid-90s there was an increase to 55%, and the most recent data
(for 1997) give a registration of 58% women out of a total of 3,079, the majority
being located in taught Master's programmes.
What of the actual graduates? While not unexpected, it must be also
noted that first degree graduation patterns have followed a similar trajectory to that
of enrolment from 1952 when U(C)WI presented its first graduating class. I was
able to unearth data for the period, 1951/52 to 1961/62, showing a graduation rate
of 36% females out of a total of 859, and for the period extended to 1971/72, an
increase in the percentage of female graduates to 42%, out of a total of 6,051.
However, apart from these early figures, the information available has many gaps
(Table 3).










TABLE 3:FIRST DEGREES AWARDED BY UWI
(From UWI Calenders and Statistics covering these years)
YEAR TOTAL FEMALES YEAR TOTAL FEMALES
1951/52 11 1975 1160
1953 35 1976
1954: 42 1977 1281
1955 47 1978 1285
1956 51 1979 1361 684(50.3%)
1957 75 1979/80 1457
1958 84 1981 1465 744(51%)
1959 107 1982 1583 812(51%)
1959/60 114 1983 1540 811(53%)
1961 120 1984 1570 812(52%)
1962 173 1985 1650 927(56%)
1963 235 2521 (42%) 1985/1986 1687 943(56%)
1964 333 117(35%) 1987 1822 1058(58%)
1965 332 1988 1765 989(56%)
1966 384 1989 1800 1032(57%)
1967 534 223(42%) 1989/1990 1183 1110(59%)
1968 570 220(39%) 1991
1969 588 1992 :2319 1405(61%)
1969/1970 639 265(41%) 1993 2190 1321(60%)
1971 814 1994
1972 835 1995 2905 1852(64%)
1973 1003 1996 3017 1965(65%)
1974 1078 1997 2979


Nonetheless, indications are that the graduation rate for women in the
1950s was in the region of 34%; in the 1960s, 38%; the 1970s, 44%; the 1980s,
54%, and the 1990s, 63%. In all instances, percentages calculated on women's
graduation rates were higher than for their enrolment figures. I should add that the
graduation figures presented for all programmes (not just first degrees) based on
the 1997/98 data provided an overall percentage of 66.3% women 66% from Cave
Hill, 73% from Mona, and 60% from St. Augustine.











1979 can be regarded as a bench-mark year, when slightly over 50%
females graduated from UWI with first degrees; and this is against the larger
registration of males up to 1982 already mentioned. This leads to the natural
conclusion, therefore, that women were outnumbering their male counterparts,
during this period at least (1979 to 1982).
In 1996/97, for the first time the St. Augustine campus reported a larger
percentage of women in the graduating class, thus at last joining Cave Hill and
Mona in this regard, and contributing to the highest percentage of female gradu-
ates to that date (65%). Nonetheless, Engineering at St. Augustine still remains a
predominantly "male" discipline, having an enrolment of approximately 22%
women at the present time.
Unearthing patterns among those awarded higher degrees proved equally
challenging. What is clear is that all 11 graduates of the 1950s (the first were
presented in 1953/54) were men while, for the decade of the 1960s only 10 (9%) of
the 110 awardees were women (all receiving the MSc award). Subsequent dec-
ades show a growing number of women gaining higher degrees, equalling men
around 1993, and surpassing them the year following. The most recent data
(1997) show 62% (337) of the total awardees (542) being women certainly a
better record than the one-third reported earlier in this presentation for the UK.
Special mention must be made of the year 1972, when the Ph.D. degree was
awarded to a woman (actually four women) for the first time. The first doctorates
were gained by men one decade before, and this has to be taken into account
when we look at staffing patterns which, as you may be aware, are strongly skewed
in the direction of males.
But before I grasp that particular nettle, I should like to address an impor-
tant concern where do our female graduates go upon receiving their degrees? To
trace their professional lives from 1952 to the present would be a formidable
challenge, outside the scope of the present paper. Nonetheless, it was important
to get a sense of this important feature, even if in very general terms. I limited my
search in the first instance, to a sub-set of the women those who had gained Open
Scholarships or Exhibitions under the UCWI dispensation. In order to secure the
information needed, I relied on feed-back from individuals who knew these women
where I could not locate them personally.
The main profession which UCWIs female graduates adopted was, over-
whelmingly, some aspect of education, typically teaching at the secondary level
(after securing a Diploma in Education) but also, in instances, at university (not
necessarily the regional institution) or a tertiary-level institution after completing a
higher degree. One became Deputy Vice Chancellor at the University of Guyana,
and another is currently Principal of one of the largest and most dynamic Commu-
nity Colleges in the region (sited in Barbados). Two were at UNESCO, one, in
Paris, the other, in the regional office.










I located three who had been Civil Servants, one, at the Government
Chemist's laboratory in Jamaica where she rose, after some years, to the position
of Deputy Government Chemist. It was reported that at least two of the eight
medical doctors never did work after being awarded the MB, BS. A ninth did not
complete, while two others attempted to get into Medicine after graduating with the
Bachelor of Science degree. One was successful, the other was not, and resorted
to teaching like so many of her peers. One of the first medical graduates currently
holds the title of professor (having returned to UWI about ten years ago after a
distinguished career in academia overseas) and, although she is past the retire-
ment age, is held in very high esteem by her colleagues and still demonstrates a
level of research productivity which is not easily equalled by her male counterparts
or her more junior colleagues.
I know of two other female graduates of this era who secured employment
at UCWI after the award of their first degree. One remained in her initial post as
Administrative Assistant for several years, after which time she went into journal-
ism. The other became an Assistant Registrar, and later, Campus Registrar at the
Cave Hill campus. Two of the group became Librarians, one at UWI, where she
rose to the position of Deputy Campus Librarian at Mona. She resigned over a
decade ago to migrate along with her family to the United Kingdom. Three are
professional writers, one on a part-time basis. Another is quite well known for her
contribution to children's literature.
Whereas three of the sample became well known in other creative
spheres, one as a floral arranger and two as pianists, I did not get a sense that
there was any marked recognition of the women's contribution to the business
community, except in one case, whom I shall name. Mrs. Gloria Knight, one of
UWIs honorary graduands, certainly became recognized in Jamaica as a signifi-
cant player in the private sector. At the same time, and up to her death in 1997,
she ensured that her company proved itself to be a "good corporate citizen" as the
saying goes, through its efforts to improve the teaching of physics at A levels and
mathematics in the primary schools by way of a series of special videos, among
other things.
Roughly one-third of these early female graduates went on to "post-gradu-
ate" studies, mainly the Diploma in Education as mentioned previously, but several
of the rest gained scholarships tenable overseas (bearing in mind that UWI did not
have a full graduate programme until the 1960s). It is not unexpected, therefore,
that some did not return to the region, or else, as in the case of the distinguished
medical practitioner cited above, relocated on the eve of their retirement.
Jumping forward in time to the present decade, I also tried to get a sense
of where our recent graduates have been placed. I was very pleased to find that
two of our three campuses, through their Placements Offices, carry out annual
tracer studies of recent graduates' fields of employment. From the impressive data
set provided by St Augustine and Mona, I was able to determine the number of











women employed in each of the three main categories reported the Public Sector,
Private Sector and Teaching. For Trinidad and Tobago, their greatest repre-
sentation has been in the Private Sector, followed by Teaching, then the Public
Sector. Less than 25 women each year have sought to enter a post-graduate
programme.
In the case of Jamaica, strongest representation has been shown within
the Public Sector, and here a breakdown has been provided, which points to the
health services as by far the largest employer of UWI female graduates. The
Private Sector ranks second, and banking and accounting/auditing are the fields
best represented. Teaching is third, with virtually twice as many women as men
entering the classroom. Graduate Studies, as in the case of Trinidad and Tobago,
has received few students each year, the number of women returning to UWI being
under 30. Details of these findings are shown in Table 4.
While not focusing on UWI graduates specifically (although one can de-
duce that most persons would, indeed, have graduated from this institution) a
study commissioned by the Jamaica Employers' Federation in 1995 14 showed
that of a sample of 3,714 persons employed at 8 local companies (2,004 men and
1,710 women) 481 had earned university degrees, 68 at the master's or doctoral
level. However, their distribution across the various employment categories appli-
cable to these companies (Executive, Senior and Middle Management, Supervi-
sory, and Clerk/Secretary) was, at the highest levels, skewed in the direction of
males. Indeed, it was only for the Supervisory and Clerk/Secretary categories that
degree women outnumbered the men.
I also had the opportunity of using some of the results of a study conducted
in the non-campus countries intended to probe completely different issues, and
was able to ascertain, from a small sample of 75 female graduates of the past three
years, that most (53%) had secured employment in the Public Sector, followed by
Teaching (23%) and the Private Sector (20%). Only a few (under 5) had any plans
for graduate studies but none to that point in time had managed to concretise such
plans.
The last set of data which I secured (and was elated to obtain) relates to the
medical doctors, specifically. The Medical Alumni have established a well-run
secretariat at Mona, the Executive Officer of which keeps excellent records. She
made the following information available to me (Table 5) from her database,
which, while not complete, provides a reasonably accurate record of UWI's medi-
cal graduates over the 50-year period.











TABLE 4: GRADUATE EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO (St Augustine)


CATEGORY 1990 1991
Public Sector 30 41
Private Sector 35 33
Teaching 35 26
N= 92 121
JAMAICA (Mona)


YEAR
1992 1993


1994 1995 AV. % 1990S


23
48
29
N= 845


CATEGORY 1990


1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 AV. % 1990S


Public Sector
Private Sector
Teaching
N= ,
OECS SUB-SET
CATEGORY
Public Sector
Private Sector
Teaching


37
35
29
N=2192


1996-98(%)
53
20
23
N=75


TABLE 5:FIELDS OF SPECIALIZATION FOR FEMALE MEDICAL DOCTORS
WHO ARE UWI GRADUATES
(Information drawn from Medical Alumni data base)F


SPECIALITY NO. OFWOMEN
Anaesthetics 46
Radiology 35
Haematology/
Oncology 12
Pathology 65
Primary Health Care 73
Pediatrics 118
Nephrology 9
Neurology 6
Endocrinology 3
Cardiology 5


SPECIALITY NO.OF WOMEN
Rheumatology 4
Gastroentology 10

Internal Medicine 66
Obstetrics & Gynaec. 129
Psychiatry 35
Ophtalmology 38
Urology 3
Microbioogy 3
Ear, Nose & Throat (ENT) 6
Family Practice 366











What is immediately apparent is that, of the 1,273 female doctors traced,
most are practicing in the "feminine" side of the profession in Family Practice,
Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and Paediatrics. This seems to support findings
reported a decade ago by my colleague, Professor Elsa Leo-Rhynie and myself,
that although there are more women entering traditional "male" professions, they
are, nonetheless, practicing the "feminine" side of the profession.15
Gven the title of this presentation, "UWI A Progressive University for
Women?" we have also to consider those women who joined the male-dominated
ranks of UWI as staff. In this regard, we recognize that women were not included
in the original cadre of academic staff in 1948, but, by the next year (with the
establishment of the Natural Sciences faculty and Extra Mural Department) they
had made an appearance (5, including 2 Research assistants and a Resident
Tutor, out of a total complement of 43 after all, the Irvine Report had spoken to the
need to attract "men and women of the first quality"). A sketch of the situation over
the ensuing years shows that in the decade of the 50s the number of women
academics held fairly constant (between 7 and 8) equally spread across the Arts
and the Sciences and including Extra-Mural. In 1954, Medicine received its first
female lecturer (in the "feminine" field of Obstetrics and Gynaecology) and 1956
saw the first to be promoted to Senior Lecturer. (Contrary to popular belief, the
noted historian, Elsa Goveia, was the second female Senior Lecturer at U(C)WI
although she achieved the distinction of becoming the first female Professor in
1964.)
The proportion of women on the teaching staff grew very slowly during the
'60s and '70s, reaching an average of 28% in the 1980s, and 31 % in the '90s (and
here we include both Academic and Senior Administrative staff). But an important
consideration is that, coupled with these low numbers, is women's very weak
representation at the more senior levels Senior Lecturer, Reader, Professor (or
their equivalents).
The official Yearbooks and Calendars give us the relevant data: at the end
of the '50s there was a total of some 260 persons employed in teaching and
research. The end of the '60s saw an increase in the total teaching/research staff
complement to approximately 475 (and another 90 classified as Senior Administra-
tive) while the '70s showed an expansion to 796.
The decade of the '80s brought with it a further increase in the staff
complement (Academic and Administrative) to an average of about 875 overall,
and the 1990s raised numbers beyond the 1000mark(1,247for96/97). However,
consistently there have been more males in all categories of staff than females,
except in the case of Assistant Lecturer where women have at times, been in
greater numbers. But in any event, this last category does not, by its very nature,
carry a large complement, rarely more than 50.










At the other end of the spectrum, at the Professorial and Senior Lecturer
levels, there has been a notable under-representation of women (Table 6).
TABLE 6: NUMBER OF STAFF (MALES AND FEMALES) AT THE
PROFESSORIAL AND SENIOR LECTURER LEVELS
(From UWI Statistics for these years)
YEAR PROFESSORIAL SENIOR LECTURER
Men Women Men Women
1984/85 84 6 213 51
1986/87 83 7 216 58
1988/89 89 8 219 64
1990 89 7(+2) 219 71
1992 104 13(+2) 217 68
1994 106(+21)*10 235 52
1996 103(+18)* 10(+4) 200 69
'Indicates number of Readers

To cite some figures the number of male professors has increased margin-
ally during the '80s up to 1989/90 from 80 to 89, and over the hundred mark during
the ensuing years. Female professors, however, ranged between six and eight
during the 1980s, only reaching double figures in the 1990s (between 10 and 13).
The same holds for the Senior Lecturer category, where, during the 1980s, men
have numbered between 200 and 235, and women, between 51 and 71. It seems,
in fact, that female academics at UWI remain, in the words of Slater and Glazer (I
989) "locked in the contract mill of the junior ghetto." 16
I checked the numbers of full-time female academic/administrative staff
holding PhDs, DMs or an equivalent qualification, and ascertained that in 1996/97
there were only 121 to be found (less than half the number of women employed).
Of these, 64 had been awarded by UWI, and they, together with the other 57 (the
non-UWI PhDs) were mainly at the Lecturer level. In terms of the principal officers
at UWI, women (attached to the Centre) hold the post of Pro-Vice Chancellor,
University Registrar, Deputy University Registrar, one Deputy Campus Principal
and University Librarian. The University Librarian (who also doubles as Campus
Librarian) is not counted as Senior Management, so, in effect there are four women
in this category. Across the three campuses, of a complement of 15 senior staff
there are only four females (one Deputy Principal, already counted above in the
Centre category, a Bursar and two Librarians, one of whom is also University
Librarian).










I fear I may be accused of repeating myself, but the point has to be made
in no uncertain terms. There have been only been five female Deans in the history
of the university) and, (at the time of writing 1998) of the 68 Heads of
Department, only seven are women. There are 12 women at Professorial level -
six holding the title (one is now operating in an administrative capacity) five in
Senior Management and a sixth who does not hold the title, who is the Director of
a research unit shortly to be merged with another similar entity, currently headed
by a man. With the exception of two at St. Augustine, all are attached to the Mona
campus.
All of these women except for two, read at least one of their degrees at
UWI, and in all but three cases, have been employed at the institution for 15 and
upward years. I sought their comments on several issues which embraced their
personal history and experiences (academic background, career path, sources of
encouragement, barriers along the way, assumption of leadership roles, level of job
satisfaction) as well as their perception of what I would call institutional concerns
(UWIs responsiveness to the region's developmental needs, specifically with re-
spect to women in higher education; the institution's employment and promotion
policies, again, with regard to women; evidence of any "glass ceiling"; the respect
accorded the scholarship and leadership qualities of female academics by their
male counterparts, etc.) I also probed respondents' personal efforts at mentoring
female students and/or young female academics and, for those who had done their
undergraduate studies at UWI, any observable differences reported between fe-
male students of yesteryear and today.
The information has been insightful and informative to me, and should be
able to support a full case study which I hope to tackle in the not too distant future.
For the purposes of this paper, I will instead attempt to distill certain patterns, at
times presented as commonalities across the group, yet recognizing, however, the
small number of respondents involved. This obviously presents a limitation to the
extent to which the information provided can be taken to be representative of
university-wide positions relative to female staff members.
The first pattern points to a distinction between those women who entered
UWI straight after school (the 'A' level route) as against the few who chose to work
before attempting their first degree (one actually secured a position at UWI, and
then did her degree some 20 years later). The high school group presented as
having been strongly influenced by their parents' expectations that they should
receive a university degree. For some, they were the first of their respective
families to go to university and thus accepted the importance of achieving success
which this brought. For a few, there was parental pressure to study Medicine -
what more prestigious profession could one hope for? However, two had success-
fully lobbied for the Natural Sciences as an acceptable alternative, although for one
this was the antithesis of her humanities bent. All but one had attended a girls' high
school, and as one put it, "You simply did not recognize at that time that there could










possibly be any inferiority in girls' intellect compared to boys' You knew you were
competent, that you could succeed at your studies, and you proceeded to get the
job done."
The "working" group those who, for largely economic reasons entered the
work force after school were strongly self-directed, in that the decision to secure
a university degree at a later stage was of their own making, and not that of their
parents. In one instance, her exposure through work to a certain field shaped a
respondent's decision to do a first degree, then graduate studies, in the area. This
particular woman pointed out that there were no external sources of encourage-
ment operating for her professionally, she saw the need to have a degree and
acted to attain the target she had set herself.
Familial responsibilities curtailed advanced studies upon graduating with
their first degree for some members of the 'A' level group which, by this time, were
looking to marriage and raising a family. A few, however, found it possible to
proceed to a postgraduate diploma or degree after but a couple years' break
because of the willingness of their mothers to assist with child care. Nonetheless,
all spoke of the bidirectional pull upon them to satisfy a growing desire to pursue
further studies, at the same time being conscious of their familial responsibilities,
particularly where their children were concerned.
It is of note that one respondent reported being confronted by such familial
pressures later in life (and this was beyond the call to care for ageing parents which
several others faced). In this case, having teenage children at the present time,
when she is at the apex of her professional life, has imposed certain constraints in
terms of her time and flexibility to travel on university-related matters. She also
pointed out that this situation has brought with it a recognition that UWI (that is, the
institution's management) does not demonstrate a concern for working mothers (at
whatever level) and acts as if all staff should be at the Vice Chancellor's (or
Principal's) beck and call. Is it really necessary to hold meetings after 5.00 p.m,
she queried? To receive a summons for a Saturday morning meeting at 6.00 p.m.
on a Friday evening? Although this woman is able to afford a housekeeper, she is
aware that more junior women might not be in the same position. In any event, she
has taken the decision that her children are of greater importance and need her
more than does the university after normal working hours. She also recognized
that this position may well work against her promotion prospects in the future.
Another pattern observed related to academic staff members who had
been in the institution for many years. For them, the offer of a position at UWI
typically came after they had obtained their PhD, or at least, had gained a Master's
degree and were fairly well advanced with doctoral studies. These women virtually
"grew up" at UWI, to the extent that one expressed the view that at times she felt
she was "part of the walls." This period of academic maturing, however, has had its
down-side in instances where in later years more senior (in age) colleagues
(typically men) had difficulty accepting the professional competence demonstrated











by these women. Promotion beyond their colleagues' levels was also an issue for
some.
While three women had left as staff, then returned, two others had led a
professional life elsewhere before joining UWI, one, in a senior management/con-
sultancy capacity, the other in a professional service organisation. The former had
been well on the way to obtaining her doctorate and engaging in an academic
career when, because of the frequent call to move family occasioned by her
husband's career, she took the decision to do an MBA and become a consultant.
She opined that she came to UWI at an opportune time, when the institution had
undergone an audit which called for a reorientation of certain practices which she
felt, she was well qualified to spearhead. She spoke to her successes in achieving
her targets, but at the same time, to the perceived resentment (often subtle) of her
as a woman in a senior management position, but moreso, as an "outsider"
It was noteworthy that one woman spoke to her perception of a position at
UWI as carrying the level of status she craved and thus set out to obtain, while
another referred to the fact that she had a PhD several times during our conversa-
tion, leading me to appreciate that she still placed much store on this accomplish-
ment even after being on staff for some 16 years. In this vein, one woman, in
speaking to the need for university women to be "super performers" if they hoped
to have the ear (or respect of their male colleagues) went on to add that having
first-rate qualifications is not enough women have to be the best teachers, the
best researchers, the best administrators; and even then they are likely to be
overlooked at promotion time, and the nod given to a less able man by other men.
(As an aside, I am reminded of a statement reported in a Jamaican
newspaper recently and made by a female Senior Lecturer of many years' standing
in the Faculty of Social Sciences at Mona. The staff member commented that "her
personal experience is of having had her views ignored in meetings, and of being
amazed to hear the same views, expressed by a man, taken up some minutes
later, 'And everyone says, what a good idea! Why didn't we think of that be-
fore'?")17
Yet, role models for this group of women, where they have been acknow-
ledged, have typically been male, and where a female has featured this has been
on a more informal plane almost behind the scene, so to speak. Only in one case
was a "strong and dominant" female role model mentioned. It was reported that
some sectors of the university community seemed to feel that women who advance
at UWI owe their success to the patronage of certain influential men in the system.
The interviewees, however, made it clear that they felt they had made it on their
own merit and according to their own terms, neither of which had anything to do
with their gender. This also seems to be the view of ta Dean of Social Sciences,
Mona, who, in referring to two of these women in the local media said of one,
"When she speaks, I never think, 'that's a woman'; "and of the other, "her views are











so wise and sound. Neither of them", he said, "would have got their positions by
way of tokenism."18
Overt discrimination along gender lines was thought to be absent at UWI,
but several gave examples of what they considered covert discriminatory practices
evidenced in such areas as contractual terms and conditions and the lower-level
committees (often of a service nature) they had been asked to sit on. Three
respondents reported attempts made by other women colleagues to undermine
them after they had been promoted, while one spoke to not being taken seriously
by her male colleagues since she was not regarded as "one of the boys"
It was suggested by three respondents that UWI women need to speak
more to the problems they face, or, where they do speak, to do so in a louder voice.
This, it was felt, would cause the institution to become more aware of the "woman's
issue." In one case, the view was expressed that it is only since females have been
outnumbering males in enrolment, graduation rates and class of degree, coupled
with the ascendancy of a limited number to Senior Management level, that the men
are beginning to "sit up and recognize women's existence." If this seems to be a
stark statement, it might better be considered against the broader criticism that
UWI has not, in the main, actively promoted what has been called by one inter-
viewee, women's enfranchisement" In other words, the perception was that there
has been little effort on the part of the university to offer the same treatment to men
and women. Taken further the view was that UWI did not seem to have articulated
any specific path enabling women to play their role in the region's development -
but then, again, some did not feel that UWI should define any such role for women.
Rather, what was called for was a more informed and immediate response to our
Governments' needs, whether these be addressed by males or females.
Differences were reported between current female students and those of
yesteryear by participants capable of making an informed judgement on the matter.
While female undergraduates of the 1950s and 1960s might not necessarily have
been overtly aware of gender issues, this is not a matter of debate for today's
women. Unfortunately, all too often they have demonstrated their complacency by,
for example, being unwilling to assume leadership roles there are still mainly male
leaders in the Students' Guilds so the women seem, therefore,simply to be riding
on the gains made by female activists in the university who are of greater vintage.
By way of summarising the general issues emerging from the interviews, it
can be said that while there was recognition of UWI as a "male" institution, there
was the view that the previous Vice Chancellor had made commendable strides in
opening the door to allow a few women in, thereby cracking the strongly evident
glass ceiling. There is also a perception that some UWI women are "waiting in the
wings", being acceptant of male leadership, and demonstrating an unwillingness to
step forward into the limelight. This, it is suggested, is probably because of a lack
of self-confidence. None of my interviewees spoke to the need for "special plead-










ing" for women, for it was felt that given the right environment, women scholars'
obvious competence would, over time, be recognized and appreciated fully.
One respondent, very knowledgeable about gender issues pointed out that
male and female staff at UWI should not be thought of as engaging in a "race
model", with the intention of one outstripping the other. (In any event, it has to be
recognized that men and women have different starting points, hence the inappro-
priateness of the "race model"). Rather, what should be sought in her opinion, is
the "ladder model" calling for men and women to attain the goals set at their own
pace. This it seems, is a realistic approach to take as I move on to my final set of
concerns.
And here, I return to my theme: UWI a Progressive University for
Women? Based on the data spanning the first 50 years of the university's life ils
UWI a progressive university for women? After fifty years existence the institution
must have something to say for itself; but I wonder whether this is very much
different from what it "said" on its fortieth anniversary, ten years ago. Reviewing
the numerical data available in 1988, an article, co-authored by Elsa-Leo-Rhynie
and myself, spoke to the greater involvement of women in higher education during
the 'eighties, but at the same time indicated that their placement was still in
sex-stereotyped areas. Thus:
"Women who pursue Engineering, Agriculture,
Pre-clinical Medicine or the Natural Sciences
(particularly the physical sciences)not only find
themselves outnumbered by male students in
class, but they encounter few, if any, women
among their teachers." 19
Reference made to the paucity of female teachers at UWI still holds today.
However, enrolment data one decade later show larger numbers of women stu-
dents than men in most subject areas Engineering being the only "male" faculty
left. In addition, mention in the 1988 study to "the power, leadership, decision-mak-
ing and control (being) completely in male hands" has to be modified within the
present context in light of the promotion of several women to senior management
positions. These women, along with their academic counterparts at professorial
level must confront several unique issues of helping educate new generations to
a broader understanding of women's roles, and of assisting in shaping women's
roles in organizations that have a very traditional masculine ethos. 20 A serious
concern is whether these few women at the apex carry sufficient sway to achieve
the level of success called for. Where their more junior colleagues remain silent,
the task assumes Herculean proportions.
The level of participation of female staff members in such matters, as well
as wider concerns pertaining to the university's governance have been criticised by
several sources. Various explanations have been advanced (for UWI as well as










other universities) some of which are credible, others, dubious. While we recog-
nise that all do not necessarily demonstrate the same degree of validity, it can be
accepted that they represent issues which women, moreso than men, face, and,
indeed, add support to the proposition reported in contemporary feminist literature
of the 'difference' between the two sexes. Barrett (1987) for example, explains this
in two ways:
"(The first draws) on the idea of difference be-
tween women and men (whether seen in time-
less, essential terms or in a more socially
constructed approach) and the other a more de-
constructive model that emphasizes the specific
social existences of women."21
This definition not only speaks of registering diversity of situation and in
other words, also of an understanding of the positional rather than experience
between men and women, but the absolute character of meaning between women.
So, while recognizing the importance of these issues to academic women, it is
evident that each will not impact equally on every one of them. This, in itself can
become problematic where certain women (particularly those in more senior posi-
tions) fail to recognize the extent to which others (typically their juniors) might be
affected. The lack of support which this occasions is likely to further weaken the
position of women in the institution and must be constantly guarded against by all
concerned.
Let me offer brief comments about three clusters I consider most important
within the UWI context.
Role Modelling/MentorshiplNetworking. Role modelling, as a concept,
and mentorship and networking, as strategies, have largely been discounted by
feminist theorists as effective means for effecting change. Nonetheless, their
importance to the careers of men has to be acknowledged, and, more and more it
seems, women are seeking the guidance of their more senior female colleagues,
and looking to chart a career path on their advice. Indeed, my "professorial"
interviews suggested that most of the group sees this as an important task for them
to devote considerable time to (one even drew my attention to the fact that a few
years ago she had worked hard and long on another member of this group, to go
after one of the "top jobs" in the institution). However, we must bear in mind the
limited number of women in this category:
those who make themselves available are likely
to carry considerably more than their male col-
leagues in this regard. Also, there are the others
who do not make themselves available and
whom, according to Weston (1993) must be re-
minded "not to pull the ladder up after them." 22











Institutional Responsibilities. For some, this issue is thought to address
Equal Opportunities, and one observes that many universities have introduced an
equal opportunities policy as a result of pressure from women academics. Even in
the UK, which is generally thought of as ultra-conservative, the 1990 Report of the
Hansard Society Commission on Women at the Top offered a liberal feminist
approach to the issue, speaking to it as follows:
"We recommend that all universities should ap-
point equal opportunities officers and that they
should monitor and publish information about
women's progress."23
It is my understanding that in the U.K., while the response to this recom-
mendation is by no means uniform, considerable advances have been reported for
some universities. I do not know how such action would be received at UWI in
fact, I really would want to learn whether the Gender and Development Studies
units on our three campuses, led by their regional Centre, would welcome the
institution demonstrating in so-called tangible ways, its willingness to put in place
processes designed to enhance the opportunities of academic women. I ask this
in light of reports in feminist literature which suggest that the liberal feminist
approach basically, to create space for women at all levels can be counter-pro-
ductive; for all to often the women then become marginalised within the very
context they seek to make a difference.
That space is now being provided for more women does not mean that it is
accompanied by any yielding of male power or privilege. What is particularly
disconcerting is a point made to me on several occasions by the Professor of
Gender and Development Studies at UWI, that men, having given women more
space, are now trying to use that space for their own concerns, in her words, "to
divert women's energies into men's anxieties." She feels that the research on male
underachievement is a case in point. Although this is legitimately sited in the
Centre for Gender and Development, is it not further evidence of the research
agenda being directed to a male, rather than female, concern?
I would hope, however, that should UWI ever take steps in the direction of
equal opportunities legislation (or, if you prefer, affirmative action) provision for
such opportunities would not be based on a deficit model of women's careers, but
rather, on the setting of targets for the promotion of suitably qualified female staff,
at the same time putting in place (or, if you like, setting the stage by providing) the
institutional support required. It would be equally important to take into account the
need to ensure that women have a call in determining priority areas for research,
for the allocation of research firms, for what is taught in terms of curriculum content
and reading materials; at the same time making their voice heard on matters such
as appointments and promotion.











Attention would have to be paid to various other matters, for example, the
issue of child care and of sexual harassment and discrimination; so concern must
be with the need for timely action on the part of UWI to accept its responsibility as
an employer and to act to establish real equality of opportunities in an expeditious
manner, reflective of the notion of "access and success" that Kenway and Modra
(1992) talk about.24
Attitudinal Barriers. Legislation of university policy, such as is called for
when addressing Equal Opportunities, does not necessarily mean that the policy
will be internalized by members of the institution. Legislation cannot ensure that
there will not be a negative response of male (and even female) colleagues to
women on the staff, including the few in senior positions within the university.
Indeed, it has often been said in academic (and other) circles that "A man is
preferred because he is a man." It has also been said that women who have made
it to the top are thought of as "honorary men"!
The position which is widely held is that many academic women see their
profession as secondary to their family responsibilities, for they have internalised
the culturally prescribed role of women in the society. Some also acknowledge that
this duality leads to a level of internal conflict and of self-guilt which, if not resolved,
can become counter-productive and even, in the extreme, a cause of serious
illness. Halsey (1992)25 writing of the U.K. claims that university women's lack of
recognition is the fault of the women themselves, for they allow their domestic
responsibilities to impinge upon their professional performance. Considerations
such as a husband's attitude toward her career impact positively or negatively on
the female academic's career,
Depending on whether the partner is supportive or otherwise. Career
interruption for child-bearing and child-rearing also retard progress for the women.
But there are others who put a different slant on the matter, suggesting that far too
many female academics are lacking in career motivation, that they are simply
"drifting" career-wise, or else are plagued with the view that they are not as
competent as the men. Indeed, some women have opined that their confidence
and achievement levels are undermined by male values and that they are help less
to do anything about it.
In the university, legitimacy is granted to persons possessing what is called
"cultural capital", that is, having recognized resources and values (Birdie, 1988)26
and, I think we must add, Power (at a personal level, I interjected a disclaimer
earlier in my paper against power relationships). Nonetheless, we must accept
that greater value is placed on those qualities traditionally identified as male, so
women either have to choose to assimilate male attitudes and values or attempt
the difficult task of changing them. The emergence of formal and informal women's
groups and networks have done much to sensitize both men and women about the
issue, and the fact that international agencies such as UNESCO and the Common-











wealth Secretariat have, certainly within the past eight years or so become quite
vocal is to be considered a positive development.
Special mention should be made of ComSec's 'Women in Higher Educa-
tional Management Programme', initiated as part of the Commonwealth's response
to the demonstrable underrepresentation of women at middle and senior manage-
ment levels. This had as its genesis, the Commonwealth Plan Of Action on Gender
and Development which was presented to the World Conference on Women in
Beijing and was more recently endorsed by Commonwealth Heads of Government
at their meeting in Auckland. While the Plan represents, it is claimed, a new
Commonwealth vision for women towards the year 2000 and requires that all
Commonwealth activities are gender-sensitive, the specific higher education Pro-
gramme addresses leadership training for women academics and administrators
through a series of management and staff development activities. Also included in
the design is the development of a Commonwealth-wide electronic network which
is to be used to encourage participants to provide one another with Professional
and moral support.27 I understand that the network is up and running, and is
operated out of Malaysia.
While I appreciate fully, the importance of the home environment and
particularly, formal education in ensuring that our girls are afforded access to
university, I have concentrated my discussion on female staff, although the earlier
sections of my presentation also addressed UWI's student body. I believe that
what women academics are able to do is empower female students in the univer-
sity whose own notions of identity and autonomy are partly framed in response to
this. In this regard, the visibility of women scholars and administrators at UWI is
of paramount imp to them importance, Particularly in terms of the leadership they
offer.
The literature is replete with examples of differences of style between male
and female leaders and has generally presented the "masculine" leadership behav-
iours in a more positive light. Yet, the "feminine" behaviours need to be appreci-
ated for the contribution they can make by way of creating an appropriate working
climate and setting inspirational goals. The main abilities which women as leaders,
can offer are, as Middlehurst (1997)28 puts it:
...flexibility and adaptability, ability to handle mul-
tiple demands, sensitivity to different perspec-
tives, an approach to life and work which involves
a longer-term view of how to make a difference
for 'the greater good' of the family, group, organi-
zation or society."
One would therefore look for a change in the concept of leadership within
the institution, a change that is accompanied by parallel shifts in the environment












and operating context of UWI I look forward to the day when our female leaders'
styles become less exceptional and ultimately, more valued, at the same time
maintaining a strong commitment to UWI's regional character and a clear sense of
its institutional goals.


Notes and References


1 express sincere appreciation to three of my colleagues and friends Elsa Leo-Rhynie, Woodville
Marshall and Peter Whiteley, for their insightful critique of the draft, and for their willingness to
debate (explosively, at times) many of the issues raised.
1 I wish to recognize that this title was suggested to me by someone with whom I worked closely for
years, particularly during the period when I had responsibility for the Board for Undergraduate
Studies. This person is Dr. Peter Whitely.
2. It should be noted that female lecturers were appointed at Cambridge University prior to the time
when women were granted degrees from this university.
3 This statement, attributed to Helen Cam, appeared in the special 1998 edition of Cambridge Uni-
versity's Focus, in recognition of the 50th anniversity of the granting of this university's degrees
to women.
4. This appears at Minute 45 of the Irvlne Report.
5. See Ann Brooks' interesting review, Academic Women, published by The Society for Research
into Higher Education/Open University Press, 1997
6. Ibid p.8.
7 Ibid. p.9.
8. This quote is reported in Storming the Tower Women In the Academic World, edited by
Suzanne Stiver Lie and Virginia O'Leary and published by Kogan-Page, (1990).
9. Ibid.
10. See p. 13 of the Association for Communwealth Universities' Bulletin, ABCD # 1 8,(April, 1997).
11. In Brooks, op. cit. p. 9.
12. Ibid.
13. Rendel's position on the issue of low numbers of women academics in the U.K. is reported on p. II
of Brooks' Academic Women cited above.
14. Information was obtained from the data gathered from a pilot survey conducted by the Centre for
Gender and Development Studies, UWI, and presented at a seminar on Gender at the Work-
place sponsored by The Jamaica Employers' Federation, December 7 1995.
15. See E. Leo-Rhynie and M. Hamilton's article on "Women in Higher Education a Caribbean Per-
spective, in Education In the West Indies: Developments and Perspectives,1948-1988" ed-
ited by D.R. Craig and published by UWIs Institute for Social and Economic Studies, 1996 (pp.
75-86).
16. See M. Slater and P.M. Glazer's "Prescriptions for Professional Survival in J. Conway, et aL (eds.)
Learning About Women: Gender, Politics and Power, Ann Arbor, Ml: University of Michigan
Press (1989).
17. This was reported in Margaret Bishop's four-part article entitled, "Why so few women at the top in
UWI?" Which ran in The Dally Observer (Jamaica) during October 1998. The immediate quote
appeared in the October 12 section.
18. Ibid.
19. This quote appears at p. 84 of Note # 1 5, above.








82


20. See Foreword (p. xi) by Elaine EI-Khawas to the book on Women as Leaders and Managers ed-
ited by Heather Eggins and published by The Society for Research into Higher Education and
the Open University Press (1997)._
21. For the full discussion on this topic, see M. Barrett's article, "The Concept of 'Difference" in Femi-
nist Review 26, Summer (1988) pp. 29-42.
22. See Note #8.
23. This is reported in Ann Brooks' review (see Note #5 above).
24. See J. Kenway and H. Modra's "Feminist Pedagogy and Emancipatory Possibilities", in C. Luke
and J. Gore (eds.) Feminism and Critical Pedagogy (pp. 138-166) New York:Routledge
(1992).
25. See A.H. Halsey's Decline of Donnish Dominion: The British Academic Professions In the
Twentieth Century. Oxford: Clarendon (1992).
26. See P. Bourdieu's Homo Academicus. Oxford:Polity (1988).
27 An excellent overview is provided by Dr. Jasbir Singh in "Women and Management in Higher Edu-
cation: a Commonwealth Project;" which appeared in the ACU Bulletin, ABCD #133 of April
1998.
28. Reported in Heather Eggins' Women as Leaders and Managers see Note #20 above.











The Entrepreneurial University: Locating the University of the
West Indies in a Global context.


by


FRANCIS SEVERIN


Introduction
Bannock et al. (1992) define the entrepreneur as,
an economic agent who perceives market
opportunities and assembles the factors of
production to exploit them...The essence of the
entrepreneur, therefore, is that he is alert to gaps
in the market which others do not see and is able
to raise the finance and other resources to
exploit the market that he initiates. (p. 135)
Historically, the foregoing held little meaning, if any, to university administrators
and academics alike in the traditional approach to their operations. The
marketing concept whereby a company attempted to be more effective than its
competitors in creating, delivering, and communicating customer value to its
chosen target market, (Kotler, 2000, p. 19) was somewhat anathema to
institutions of higher education (HE). The raison d'etre of universities was to
educate, to prepare graduates for life in general, and, by implication, HE
institutions presumed what was best for the prospective customer or consumer;
important decisions like these could therefore not be reasonably left to the free
market lest the very nature and aims of HE were jeopardized.
Visiting the issue of privatization in HE, Peter Rae (1996) in an article
entitled New Directions: Privatization and Higher Education in Alberta, set out the
view of opponents of this trend. Thus,
education is not just a matter of private choice
and private good and, consequently, should not
be left in the control of private, sectional interests
which may be antithetical to the broader public
good. (p. 63)
Elsewhere in his article, he touched on a cardinal fear articulated by many
opponents of privatization: the concern of subordinating academic goals to











economic ones and narrowing the knowledge base, thereby threatening the
autonomous functions (Trow in Rae, 1996) of HE institutions.
While such claims are plausible, it is also possible to argue that if
universities are unable to survive economically, their academic goals would not be
realized either. Anthony Clayton (1999) in a paper presented to the Conference on
the Caribbean in the 21st Century, observed that many of the world's universities
were facing a crisis for three reasons, namely:
1. Demand for HE was rising and given the current world population growth, one
new university per week would have to be opened from now until circa 2050 in
order to maintain even prevailing levels of HE provision
2. Expectations of HE were rising and universities were being asked to provide
HE to an increasing proportion of the population, as nations were increasingly
faced with the fresh demands of competing in a high-skill, knowledge-based
world economy, and more pertinently,
3. Public funding for the majority of universities was being eroded, as many
governments were faced with more urgent demands from other sectors.
Hence, universities are being told by governments to do more with less
and become more entrepreneurial in attracting funds from the private sector
(Mawditt & Wilmink, 1998). Rae (1996) maintains that,
divestment of public responsibility for services is
seen to reduce government expenditure, since
free market competition will create more
efficient services and offer better value for money
than will a public monopoly. Furthermore,
market-oriented enterprises are said to respond
more swiftly to the demands of consumers and
will promote diversity, giving a greater range of
choices than centrally planned systems could
offer. (p. 62)
Inevitably then, universities have been forced by the attrition in
government funding to seek sponsorship from, or partnership with, the private
sector and industry. This in turn has led to what Jones-Evans (1998) sees as the
gradual whittling away of the perception of universities as being mainly institutions
of higher learning and the replacement of this with the view that they could be
fundamental vehicles of economic growth and development. They ought to
become businesslike as well. Against such a backdrop, these institutions of HE
must have the business acumen to reckon gaps in the market before the
competition does so, and in partnership with industry, raise the finance and other
resources ... to exploit the market. (Bannock etal., 1992, p. 135)










This paper seeks to enter the discourse pertaining to the current trend
towards entrepreneurship by institutions of HE. It is not a polemic; rather its
purpose is to identify the regional University's bearings in the context of this global
trend. It begins by briefly tracing the evolution, and hence the rationale, of the
entrepreneurial university, followed by a sketch of the entrepreneurial practices of
universities around the world for illustrative purposes. Throughout, the term
entrepreneurship as it relates to universities, is clarified. This entails references to
the various tools and issues associated with entrepreneurship, and more generally
management, including marketing, competition, image, SWOT1 analysis and
branding. How the University of the West Indies' situation approximates or fits into
the discussed criteria will be examined, utilising its 1997-2002 Strategic Plan and
drawing from concrete developments within the University. Having done so, the
paper will seek to reexamine the situation with a view to determining the way
forward.
The Entrepreneurial University: A Global Background
In the contemporary HE organisation,
the enterprise culture may keep awareness of the
market to the fore and re-emphasize the tasks of
the university: to serve its clients and
communities. It relies on a clear mission
statement with established priorities and plans
that link policy to practice It relies on good
market intelligence and good internal data
systems its appeal is often commercial, based
on extrinsic motivation and rewards. (Dopson &
McNay, 1996, p. 27)

This is an heuristic device which aids in an understanding of the organisational
cultures and ethos reflecting -the evolution of HE institutions from the purely
academic and bureaucratic structures they once were to the more corporate and
entrepreneurial types many have been forced into becoming, or at least, striving
towards.
Along with the declining funds from public coffers, there was also the
changing perception of the role, and therefore, expectations of education, referred
to earlier by Clayton (1999). This has forced universities to re-think their mission of
general education. In contemporary society, graduates are less likely to do the
same job for the rest of their working lives and as a result, there must be an
innovative approach to education, one which will take on board the development of
life-long learning competence, the ability to be flexible, to train and retrain, to learn
how to learn, to work with other people and learn from experience. (Eastcott &
Farmer, 1996, p. 207) This point is also underscored by Mawditt and Wilmink










(1998) who speak of the need for an increased emphasis on continuing education
(CE) and ultimately life long learning due to rapid technological changes which
often reduce the "education product" of traditional education institutions to short
term viability.
Universities today must position themselves to serve their respective
communities and countries in more relevant ways if they are to justify their being.
While they must not renege on their pure research undertakings and teaching,
universities are increasingly expected to engage in applied research for, and with,
industry in order to generate additional income and give local industry the
competitive edge in the global market. Industry requires knowledge workers who
can function in the context of rapid technological change. Universities are useful to
industry only to the extent that they can provide this (Mawditt & Wilmink, 1998).
One might suspect that the foregoing was the intent of a document entitled
"Improving Research Links between Higher Education and Industry "(June 1983)
by the Advisory Council for Applied Research and Development in collaboration
with the Advisory Board for Research Councils. It proposed that industrial work
should become a variable in academic promotion, a suggestion which appeared
sacrilegious within academic circles. It also recommended that industrial senior
executives and their employees seek and accept appointments to bodies which
might allow them to establish links with academics (Mawditt & Wilmink, 1998).
This paved the way for a new thinking on the part of industry and academe,
although not without misgivings on both sides.
Mawditt and Wilmink (1998) raised several issues which underscored the
anxieties of industry and connote why the latter engaged in their own research,
education and training programmes. Their rhetorical questions imply that industry:
* may be finding the general degree offered by universities inadequate to
equip graduates with the knowledge which industry requires
* generates new forms of knowledge that universities and technical colleges
are neglecting
* views the process of co-operation with universities too unwieldy to efficiently
gain the results it requires from graduates.
In addition to the above paper2 it is also possible to discern four
privatization themes in the goals for HE affordability, accountability, accessibility,
responsiveness outlined in another document, the New Directions framework of
the Department of Adult Education in Alberta, Canada. Thus,
* private providers will be encouraged
* users will pay more
* competition and accountability will be maximized










* articulation with industry will be accentuated (Rae, 1996, p. 69)
While the final document was rather oblique in its treatment of articulation
between HE and industry, a new applied degree was designed to enable HE
institutions to maintain their relevance to the economy by offering more in-depth
programs [sic] that included significant work experience components (Section 2.2)
[to ensure that] knowledge and skill competencies identified by employers are
met ibidd., p. 73).
The recent Dearing Report: Higher Education in a Learning Society (1997)
was yet another landmark document which puts into context the evolution of the
entrepreneurial university. This report stressed the realities of underwriting mass
HE in Britain which, although remaining primarily dependent upon public subsidies,
had to depend more and more on the customer the individual student, the
corporate sponsor/partner or the research body. The customer would increasingly
have a greater direct and indirect influence over funding and more weight was
accorded to the need for corporate partnership and opportunity for franchising
(Mawditt, 1998, p. 324).
The British White Paper on HE, Meeting the Challenge (c. 1990), was very
precise in its intentions for HE. It stated government's concern that links between
HE and industry in Britain remained less close than in many of its competitor
countries. Government and its central funding agencies therefore resolved to do
all in their power to encourage and reward approaches by higher education
institutions which bring them closer to the world of business. It will at the same time
make a comparable effort with industry and commerce with a view to making them
cognizant of the value to be derived in working closely with education (Mawditt,
1998). In 1990, the British Council for Industry and Higher Education (BCIHE)
published its statement on Expanding the Partnership with Industry. Wanting a
more diversified HE system which provided for larger numbers of students from a
broader segment of the population, it called for a partnership among government,
HE, and industry. The purpose was to:
* offer more diversity in learning methods and in opportunities
* enhance relationships with Industry, and
* collaborate in the structure of courses jointly managed by academics and in-
dustrialists (Mawditt, 1998, p. 324).
Mawditt (1998) made two significant observations: (1) the BCIHE then
contemplated Industry as a customer rather than a financier or supplier, and (2) the
term 'partnership' was a common thread in both the statements of Goverment and
the BCIHE.
The picture in the United States of America was rather different in that HE
institutions had not faced to the same extent the kind of uncertainty of expansion
and development through lack of financial support. Says Mawditt (1998), a culture










which quite naturally responds to private giving, social benevolence and duty has
no problem with recognizing the university as a business with management prac-
tices and executive authority (p. 326). In the USA, there has been substantial
private funding from various sources such as endowments, corporate sponsorship
and tuition fees (met primarily from the individual student) ibidd.) Muller (1986)
contends that several factors made entrepreneurship more natural in the USA
compared to other parts of the world.
* American society's commercial character perceived HE as a commodity to
be purchased (via tuition fees) rather than a boon conferred by society
* there was a general endorsement of the necessity for private contributions to
sustain public causes
* the American ethos of individual initiative and enterprise
* the competition between American colleges and universities for resources,
students, and to some degree, faculty members (Muller in Boswell &
Boswell, 2000).
The sensibility and culture of universities being more business-like has not
caught on very easily, in many cases not at all, in the poorer nations of the
developing world. Indeed, the World Bank's document, The Lessons of Experi-
ence and the UNESCO's corresponding Policy Paper for Change and Develop-
ment in Higher Education were blunt in their reproach of those nations whose
universities secured investment from donor agencies and overseas governments
but failed to show good housekeeping. These documents repeated the need for a
more business-like approach in the management of universities. The World Bank
later tempered its stance, suggesting instead a balance between public and private
investment and an entrepreneurial approach (Mawditt, 1998). In sympathy with
the developing nations, Mawditt (1998) both poses the question and unravels it:
Who is going to invest in a university's cater-
ing, residential or bookshop needs if the students
do not have the allowances or wherewithal [sic]
to fund their basic and essential needs? The
concept of the student as the paying customer is
far removed from the image portrayed in the
Western, Northern or richer South East parts of
the globe! (p. 328)
Bearing the foregoing in mind, Mawditt (1998) submits that:
the complexity of managing a university is sig-
nificantly greater than running a business with a
limited product range or relatively small work-
force....it is only recently that universities have











looked to profit motives and profit centre account-
ing with marketing and customer client relation-
ships coming to the fore....Most now recognize
that corporate business planning and manage-
ment techniques are, and should be, applied to
higher education .... Vice Chancellors are now
Chief Executives and as such have to manage
and be accountable for their actions. (p. 329)
How has the preceding been put into practice until now? The following
section will sketch some specific and general examples of entrepreneurial prac-
tices by universities in North America and Europe. Although not evaluative, an
attempt will be made to identify the benefits which have emerged, or are expected
to, from such practices.
The International Scene: What Universities are doing Entrepreneurwise
It is useful at this point to reiterate the basis for privatization 3 in HE, and
by extension, the motives for adopting the entrepreneurial approach specifically.
Rae (1996) submitted the following which include, inter alia:
* a perception of fiscal crisis
* fear of rising government debt
* a renewed belief in market forces and consequently marketing principles
* a loss of faith in the capability of state coordination and government interven-
tion the push towards less government (laissez-faire) enunciated by the
classical economists.
In such a climate universities have sought alternative funding through
various entrepreneurial endeavours. Appendix A provides a classification of
university-industry partnerships which clarifies the nature, benefits and limits of the
university-industry alliance. 4 Appendix B presents a typology of industry-acade-
mia collaboration. This is helpful since it suggests a continuum, with philanthropic
contributions at one end where there is distant interaction with private interests and
therefore greater autonomy and limited obligations by the university, and at the
other extreme, joint ventures or partnerships in which there is more intimate
interaction and therefore greater commitments and obligations (Zinser, 1983).
Appendix C identifies three categories of technology transfer (non-commercial,
conventional commercial, and unconventional commercial), their nature (transfer
of knowledge, problem-solving, exploitation of inventions), the recipients (whether
industry, government or new company), the degree of risk, and the organisational
forms which impact upon the method of transfer. The following, by no means
meant to be exhaustive, are therefore broad entrepreneurial practices:











* undertaking contracted or sponsored research projects or training pro-
grammes
* providing consultancy expertise
* initiating hybrid or co-operative programmes/agreements
* establishing spin-off companies or industrial parks/incubators to supply their
own products (testing and sales of the products by incubators within Science
Parks)
* teaching and research support from industry taking the form of endowments
for chairs and fellowships and royalties related to intellectual property
* designing, developing, delivering, and marketing of innovative credit and non-
credit offerings; customers include, for example, members of the public and
private sectors in need of gaining skills specifically tailored for their jobs
* introducing the trimester and international summer school courses; the latter
are part of the trend towards the internationalization of education; data analy-
sis from universities and colleges in the USA, UK and Canada indicated that
the most beneficial and financially rewarding summer programmes were
those which primarily satisfied their internal students' demands, but were
also geared to international students; the present tendency among universi-
ties and colleges around the world is to allot a quota of spaces for interna-
tional students who pay full economic cost 5
* using nontraditional time periods for innovative, creative, and financially re-
warding programmes
* modernising and consolidating campuses/university estates in collaboration
with private sector interests in order to attract world-class research groups
with the lure of comparable first class teaching and research facilities
* developing large-scale science projects
* patenting/licensing
* using digital technology to deliver distance education (DE) and on-line
courses
* launching capital campaigns
* adopting the Private Finance Initiative (PFI) whereby universities pay private
providers for a regular service charge, covering capital and facilities manage-
ment costs, for the use of fully operating facilities with specified service stand-
ards (Ball & Slade, n.d.; Boswell & Boswell, 2000; Hooker, 2000;
Jones-Evans, 1998; Mehta, 2000; Rae, 1996)











* privatising food services, residences/halls, building maintenance, transport
for business and student/staff travel, student/staff health facilities, bookshop,
security, parking (University of Bath)
Likewise, universities have sought to draw upon the benevolence and
goodwill of likely generous donors, for instance, charitable foundations, alumni,
boosters of local institutions, or generally those who are sympathetic to the aims
and orientation of the institutions in question. Rae (1996) sees these as philan-
thropic rather than entrepreneurial since they are not driven solely by the expected
financial and economic gain. This should not of course detract from the reality that
alumni relations is lucrative business in international universities and may bring in
hundreds of thousands of dollars from several sources such as event registrations,
membership dues, annual fund gifts, merchandise (pins, t-shirts, ties, caps etc.)
sales, among others (Feudo, 1999).
Increasing tuition fees is also a very important source of cost recovery.
This essentially transfers some, more, or all of the burden to students, students'
families, or the employers, a form of load shedding (Rae, 1996) and inevitably
places a responsibility on the institution to provide a quality product range since the
primary users or customers are paying and they logically expect value for money,
especially in a free market situation.
The following cases of actual university entrepreneurial practices should
help illuminate and concretize the foregoing:
1. In the USA, Silicon Valley and biotechnology-based enterprises in the vicinity
of many universities is an acknowledged success story (Mehta, 2000);
2. At universities in the UK and USA, there is a fast growing enrolment of over-
seas students, who do their entire degree in their own country, that is, outside
the UK and USA; the great majority are being taught in overseas validated
courses', or franchised degrees; the Open University now has 14 complete in-
ternet courses (as at July 1998), and intends to expand this further (Clayton,
1999);
3. The use of digital technology. The University of Phoenix has taken up the chal-
lenge of maintaining quality while delivering lower-cost, consumer-convenient
education; New York University has established a for-profit spin-off company to
sell online CE courses; according to a 1997 report by the National Center for
Education Statistics, 75 percent of campuses planned to offer some courses
through digital DE in the near future; California Virtual University connects stu-
dents to hundreds of online courses, as well as certificate and degree pro-
grammes, offered through the state's colleges and universities (Hooker, 2000)
Benefit of delivery of educational material over the internet includes the
following:











* technology itself is a diminished cost since most of the cost of each individual
course comes from the development of the material
* the administrative cost of each new student added thereafter is negligible
* staff/student ratios change dramatically as there is little restriction on class
sizes
* other fixed costs (such as building maintenance) can be slashed
* there is a powerful incentive to recruit more students, and to add to the prod-
uct range of profitable courses (Clayton, 1999).
4. Disney, Time Warner and Microsoft are exploring links with major research uni-
versities such as Berkeley, Michigan and Columbia whereby the latter would de-
sign the materials and validate the courses, and the communications
corporations would package and dispense them (Clayton, 1999), thereby dis-
charging the role of marketer and retailer;
5. The summer school at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte enrolls
11,000 students, 28% of the fall enrollment and yields a revenue of $3.1 million;
the trimester system at the University of Pittsburgh was a response to enrollment
declines in the 1980s, which were most serious in the summer, resulting in a $2
million deficit; a series of compressed summer sessions were developed and af-
ter initial falls of 10% in the early 1990s, the enrollment increased by 3% in 1996.6
The advantages of the trimester are:
* more revenue is brought in
* the year-round offerings maximize intellectual pursuits of students (greater
course flexibility); students get out more quickly and therefore enter the work
force more quickly
* cost-efficiency is improved
* it is an answer to the persistent criticism that academe is not in step with busi-
ness
* more students are attracted (greater recruitment possibilities)
* increased public visibility of the colleges or universities in question image
augmentation
* optimum plant usage (the capacity of the physical plant is increased)
* twelve-month appointments for faculty are justified (Burrows, 1996;
Samelko, 1996).











6. The following example is very instructive in terms of illustrating the various
choices available to the entrepreneurial university. The Innovation Centre, Trinity
College Dublin (TCD) in Ireland, was established to:
* foster academic innovation by providing patenting advice, consultancy serv-
ices, research information, and access to industrial laboratories and campus
companies
* narrow the gap between the development of academic research and its com-
mercialization, particularly by the scientists involved in such activities.
Important highlights of the TCD Innovation Centre include:
* the researchers are in constant contact with industry as a result of the links
developed between the two
* it acts as a linkage office between the various high profile research pro-
grammes currently taking place at the college, attracting a number of visits
each year from industry world-wide
* it provides an array of services for academics and organizations located at
the university these services encourage entrepreneurship in academics by
marketing the research capability of TCD to external companies and by facili-
tating the initiation of new ventures, either in partnerships with other organisa-
tions or on their own. Services entail:
* acting as a nucleus of information for all internal and external queries regard-
ing research and development at TCD
* dealing with the administration of research contracts
* undertaking the administration of other industrial liaison services such as pat-
enting, licensing, and consultancy
* making presentations to industry publicizing the facilities of TCD and main-
taining databases on research expertise
* overseeing 15,000 sq. ft. of industrial space at the Innovation Centre and
enabling the development of campus companies by university academics
* engaging in international marketing and developing linkages abroad.
Having examined all these facets of the Innovative Centre at TCD, Jones-
Evans and Klofsten (1998) contend that the dynamic, entrepreneurial culture which
has emerged there has yielded financial return, leading to:
* the acquisition of high technology equipment for the university, access to
skilled teaching and top class training that teaches students to deal with real
lifes problems




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