****W****~~~~ -aI tWWWW*s
I.OPLS'S UNITED PARTY 1950
The 'national party' which Leigh Richardson had called for in August, 1950,
p into being the following month. Friday night, September 29, marked the end
the People's Committee and the formation of a political party, fully constituted,
;ed the People's United Party.1 Those people present in the Thistle Hall heard
ge Price introduce the Party to them. He said that a powerful political party
Id not only be a good thing but a very necessary thing, and that shortly the
ple's Committee would present to them the constitution of a new party, with a
v to inviting all citizens of the country to join and work for the betterment of
editions. He assured them that if they received the constitution with interest
I enthusiasm, if they enrolled by the thousands, and if the majority of the
i9is constituted the People's United Party, then they would embark on the road
political and economic advancement. As a result they would not only win muni-
al and national elections, but also' direct and control the country eventually.
v The constitution was summarized and presented to the gathering by Philip
Ldaon, as follows:-
a) Members may be either registered voters or persons at least
18 years of age with three years residence in British Honduras.
b) The Party would be governed at various levels by district executive
committees controlled by a central executive council which would
' be under the supreme authority of a convention of delegates appoin-
ted by members throughout the country.
c) 1Municipal candidates were to be selected by district conventions,
i while national candidates would be chosen by the convention of
delegates from among persons proposed by the various district
' The Hon. John Smith became the first member of the Party, as well as the
gt leader, when he publicly took the pledge. He was followed by George Price,
Np Goldson, leigh Richardson, Cameron Gabb and Henry MLddleton, who were
qpently elected Secretary, Assistant Secretary, Chairman, and Party Councillors
vely. The membership grev steadily, and support for the new Party was give
those who did not register formally. In due course a new Headquarters was
. It was not long before branches of the Party began to be formed in the maij
ot touna. On October 50, a six-member Steering ComdLttee of the People's
kT was established in Stann Creek by Philip Goldson. The Provisional
pA was Mr. Frederick Gill, and the Secretary, Harry Stanley. Early in Novembe
paLng Camittee was formed in Corozal, ihen both Ieigh Richardson and Ihilip
pp were present at the inauguation. As early as September 6 a-delegation
p People's Committee had Journeyed to El Cayo and presented the Baymen's Flag
4 Eduardo Espat, Chairman of the Cayo Branch of the Committee.
P The early aims of the Party were lofty, the most important being;-
a) Industrial development
b Agricultural development
S o) Adult suffrage
d Just laws for all classes
Logan of the Party proudly announced: "The only Party. Your only hope."
SDuring November legal action was taken against Philip Goldson, the
cder of the Belize Billboard, and News Editor leigh Richardson. The former
barged with publishing in the Billboard of September 24, 1950, words with
ifts intent, as follows:- "A letter dispatched to His Excellency the Governor
ad an evasive reply which could only have originated from a desire to deceive
6ople of this country." Richardson was charged separately with having said,
Wdtious intent, at a meeting at the Courthouse Wharf on October 6, words
that the Governor was a gangstersm and a "iar or dishonest person. They
mitted for trial to the Supreme Court in the sessions commencing January 29
|d immediately Philip Goldson flew to Jamaica to secure legal assistance. 7
Ibg night, November 9, at a People's United Party meeting, a fund was launched
Sefenme of the two men.
, Mr. Noel Nethersole, eminent Jamaican solicitor, whose services the Journal
r secured, was due to arrive in British Honduras on January 50, 1951 to defe
however, on the 29th the sedition charges against them were withdrawn when
kadants apologetically ~athdrew the charges they had made against the Goverv
Tho People's Conmittee 19W50 I.,**o**ooo, ,, 1
Tho Poople's UIitod Party 19 ***..............5., 7
Tho National Party 1951 *************. .6oo 05
Tho bong-ran Independnce Party 1956 ******.. ....... 96
Tho nJational IndFpeidence Party 1950 o........,r-* -102-
Tho Chrettan .Democratic Party 195 *..............* 135
Tho United Black Association for ovelopmant 1960 ,,. 141
Tho PZopi' Jvelqmont Mm t 1959 ...... 149
rThMo ted Diaocratic Party 1973 *********.......*.... 1
OS *0906 OS 6000 000.66 66 SOSSSOSO
INTRODUCTTON AND BACKGROUD
This history is intended to be exclusively of political parties in
B~6~i Z.,and thuz constitutional history prior to 1950 (the year which saw
the birth of the first political party) is intentionally omitted. Any constitutiorql
development since 1950 has necessarily affected political parties, and only in
such instances is it mentioned. The 1955 constitution, with the 1958 and 1945 amend-
ments incorporated, remained in force until 1954.
In 1945 a Commission of Inquiry was appointed to make recommendations
on constitutional advance. The results of this Commission comprise the 1954
Constitution, the main provisions of which were: (a) the introduction of universal
adult suffrage; (b) the title of the legislature restored to Legislative Assembly;
(c) the number of electoral seats increased to havd an elected majority in tho
Assembly; and, (d) the Executive Council reconstituted as the chief instrument of
policy having the Governor as Chairman.
The main event which was responsible for the political awakening
was the devaluati >n of the dollar on December 3,
1949. However, underlying and proceeding this action, other relevant factors
can also be presented.
1. The first organized workers union in the Country, the General
Workers Union, was receiving its first successes and recognition
as a valuable organization during the years 1947 to 1919.
2. The Belize Billboard, one of the two newspapers in the Country, was
vigorously airing the cause of labour and the masses.
3. As early as 1945 the Legislative Council was objecting to the status
of financial dependence of the Colony on the United Kingdom, from
which it was receiving grants-in-aid.
4. Steps towards self-determination could be seen from the committee
which was working from 1947 on constitutional proposals for adult
suffrage, an elected majority in the legislature, and an elected
The *New Year's gift," as the Belize Billboard termed Governor darvey's
devaluation of the dollar, effected a political transformation which might
--_- 16-- ^* ^^ Jvu. e ao +.Aka. ether or not devaluation was really
L scary or justified economically is not the author's premise to 1ive his opinion on'
stu4y it will suffice to give some reasons for devaluation as stated in the
mal Secretary's Report for 1949 -
1. American demand for mahogany and chicle slumped in 1949 and the trend
to trade turned away from the dollar area to the sterling area.
2. 'The producers of pine lumber, grapefruit and fruit juices soon found
that their export market in the sterling area was very adversely
affected' by the devaluation of sterling while the B.H. dollar as
3. There was a lack of confidence in the dollar, which was 'exhibited
in many different ways.'
The majority of the members of the legislative Council had voted against
evaluation, but the Governor (Sir Ronald Garvey) used his reserve powers and passed
be resolution. The action was immediately branded as dictatorial, and on the night
f Decemberp,1949, some 1,500 people defied heavy rains to attend a meeting
i the Battlefield. Here a resolution was passed demanding that the dollar
o restored to parity with the U.S. dollar, and a People's Coouittee was set up to
sad the *Dollar Back' fight.
Tho work is oomprised mostly of edited, sunmarised and adapted versions of
the opinions expressed by direct reporting, in the case of newspaper sources cited;
direct quotations in tho case of works by authoritative historians) and in the very
rare case the author strays from this system, the views expresnod are moeat to be
unbiased, and does not in any way attempt to compare or contrast one party or faction
or personality with another. PAeTrI E watA vrA ,&&
T'ME PEOPLE'S CO'TITTEE 1950
The formation of the People's Committee in early January, 1950, was
the nucleus of the first organized national political party in
The success which it initially achieved was praised and supported by the majority
of the people. This was due partly to the vigour of its youthful leaders, partly
to the navclty of political agitation effectively displayed in heated speeches
from the Battlefield' rostrum, but mostly from the views the Committee held and
the aims it advocated during the early months of 1950. The original three-fold
'objectives of the People's Committee can be summed up as:-
1. Dollar back and development not exploitation.
3. Femoval of Clause Six.
As a means to gaining added strength .nd recognition, the Committee allied
itself with the General W'orkers Union, the only real organized body fighting the
cause of the working class at that time.
The leaders consisted of the lion. John Smith,(the Senior Elected Member
for the BElize Division in the Legislative Council who was selected to be Chair-
man of the Committee; George Price, a young councillor in the Delize City Council
who was appointed Secretary; Philip Goldson, the El4nnging Editor of the Pl ize
Billboard, who returned to ba-I.eXE in Lugust from journalism scholarship
in London in the midst of the political fight, :,nd immediately joined in:
Trust in the People's Committee was displayed as early ss January iQ.
1950, when the people at B Eattlefield meeting conferred on it a mandate to approach
the United aitions, if necessary, in the cause of the "Dollar lack" fight.
The thirst for identification as a free people was displayed first on Febru-
ary 1. 1950, when the People's Committee raised the flog of th" Paymen(l) on
the Pattlefield. 11hile c band played, thousands of voices were raised in(f~ sonz
(1) The Payinen flag is light blue colour. In the centre is the coat of arms
of the Settlement on a white circle.
KBless America," and the flao of the Paymen, which up to seventy years before
p-loun over this country, wos hoisted :,n the Brttlefield. Citizens greeted the
John Smith with cheers as he mounted the rostrum and declared: People of
Aas, we have recovered the ancient flag of our Boymen fathers." Also among
tee to speak was Ceorge Price, who near the end of the neeting spread the flag
i, intoned to the gathering: "Behold the ancient floag of this country. Blue as
a skies above high dt l s of democracy; the co.t of arms the symbol of our
try. Take it, protect it, love it." Pointing then to the flagstaff by the
H those, he ~-aij4thuJ amidst loud cheers: And perhaps someday if it is your
we shall move it from here and nut it over there."
The subject of federation ilrth the test Tndies was being seriously discussed
a Government, and the Peonle's Committee did not neglect t3 attack it. At the
. meeting the Hon. John Smith asserted that the Covernment wanted British Honduras
Moderate so that the test Indies could become one big slave camp. He felt that
Mnuation was the fore-runner of federation.
V Heated on the people were after devaluation of their dollar, and feeling
Lpae, with the urging of the People's Committee to greater self-determination,
Their cause was one oorth fighting for, it was iot surprising therefore when n
eruption of violence occurred. This was prompted when, at a Battlefield meeting
14, 1950, the crowd became angry at the Open Forum Chairman E.A. "Kid"
VA r who had tried to persuade them not to sing "God Bless America" on the
asion of Princess Alice's proposed visit. He was forced to leave the rostrum
being stoned, and running through the crowd took refuge in the Queen Street
-ihop of Tony Sobercnis. PRiot police were called out to disperse the crowd,
Pxte subsequently stoned with bottles. The Acting Superintendent of Police,
storey, ordered a tear gan bomb to be thrown into nearby U'ickie Uackie Club
location he said the missiles were coming, and unconsciously made history
*the first tear gas bomb to be used against any Belize crowd. lae more
as were thrown at the police and they retaliated by throwing another bomb
The Chairman af the Pcoploe' Comuitteo arrived an the scene and w ggested TO
Acting Superintendent/be allowed to addross the people in an attempt to
*rae them. He refused, assuring Mr. Smith that the police would handle the
*ir in their own way. Finally, however, the Chairman was able to 9'4tss the
from the Lizarraga hooe an Daly Street. He asked them to go home, telling then
. when ho approached the United Ilationo he wanted to prove that the people were
1Whl and orderly, and that it was the Police Chief who had been irresponsible
.ast his head. lie also spake to the Governor by phone, and he assured Ifr. Smith
Lhe would look into the matter as it was the first time he was hearinC of it.
'vAnother small bit of violence had also broken out at midday on the previous
-A orowd attending a People's Committee meeting on the Dattlefield became furious
.-Fth were told that certain mcmbors of the City Council had votod in favour of.
of the City beina presented to Pri.noess Alice on her arrival. City Councillor
I laon was abused physically, Councillor Cordon Leacock chased, the office
Sof M.S. Metagen broken, and the home of the Hon. UI.H. Courtenay stoned.
a, before any serious damaCe was done, the Conmittee Secretary arrived and
e people back to the Battlefield whore he dispersed hen.
L On the same night, February 13, an emergency meeting of the Executive
.aamoked. Public Safet, regulations, and the Covernor declared a state of
Cttlawing asseblios of seven or more persons. FollowinC thins, on March
at placed a total ban on all lattlcfield meetinra. The voice of the
cnCoMitteo on the Battlefield was hushed for 157 days, because the publicc
M ggalations was not repealed until July 1. During this period, however,
a had not been idle. The Belize Billboard continued its unwavering fight
t they called Colonial injustice, and the Party Secretary hnd gone to flew
at the people's case before the Human rights Commission of the United
e ported this on Friday night, July 28, to a oceting on the Battlefield,
te ..e uwman Richta Coimission had-studied it, it would be pw sented.
u attees of the General Acsembly.
r In this report it can also be said that Ir. Price sunmed up the objectives
0lieies of the People's Committee, while elaborating on the original three.
Ad that the Coemittee was resolute in its dc:ands that each individual received
wat was needed far the common good. This was social justice. A government was
d which was soundly established to secure for everyone the goods which the
| and resources of nature and technical achievement could offer. These goods
bhe sufficient to simply the wants of all, to provide an honest living for all
W to work, and to uplift the people to a higher level of prosperity and
Pe. The Committee advocated laws to protect the labourer and to guarantee him
jaemu wage, and had tried to stress repeatedly three things: the rights of
auAIula, the love of neighbour, and the brotherhood of nan. There were a few
a among thea who were seeking to prevent the dtAermined mnrch of a united
Boards better conditions and self fule. He concluded by sny' ng As long
'etts, the People's Committee will have to hammer and hammer until they
tthe nail home. Beware of a system that blocks the people's progress even
*%i6e1rW tfts in its hands."
AvBring the month ahead the Committee had continually announced its intention
:for eef-government by making the country economically and socially sound,
with the assurance given repeatedly by the British Government. National
as was not long in asserting itself in the minds of the people. But it
that to advance'constitutionally an organized party was needed a part
contest elections on both levels and endeavour to constitute a governcmnt
ty the people. Leigh Richardson was most forceful when in Angust he
StAional Party. He felt that in order to be free what was most urgently
b[ bt 'IaV tparty that wuold work for eventual self-government. He was
tht t~et that for a political party to achieve anything worthwhile
i th. country in which it existed had to allow for the right climate
.. .. freedom could grow -and flourish, lie was convinced that
B ie position into a healthy one was to found immediately a
optional political front which would oppose lawfully every individual, every
p atriction, every canditionrthat smelled of oppression under the guise of British
>eedom. Once the political party was forced it should acquire constitutional
patrol over both municipal and national affairs; this should be the ideal if pro-
as and freedom for the inhabitants of Dritis' Hinduras were intended. The
|ty had to be assured of the people's support in its actions, and it had to work
assure the people in turn that it was sincere and skillful. The People's
..ittee was in the early stages of forming such a party, which would allow then
work successfully to overcome the dark political blanket which Britain had thrown
As the people prepared to celebrate their nati- nnl day on Septembei 10,
Sther advocation of the Daymen flag was made on Friday night August 11, 1950,
feorge Price when he explained the People's Comnittee's stand on the September
celebrations. "We have a flag," he asserted, a beautiful flag. It is
to the United Natijnt; flag blue and white. Blue like the sky our
democratic ideals, and uhitv like the sea foum -- our pure and sole love of
Since the night of February. the flag has flown bravely through rain and
through better or worse, from the mast of the 11ule Park and on Queen Street.
sa your flag. As we celebrate our day, let blue and white be our colours...."
At a subsequent meeting onAucust 18 the people were told that Baymen
l and rosettes were being made and would soon be put on sale. The following
B at another meeting, Philip Goldson urged the people to answer them with the
,and white." He was referring to taunts, abusive language and lies that were
directed at the People's Committee by radio speakers and other people. "We
the Englishman's flag," he continued, we respect the America) flag, but we
m_ own. We must live for it, suffer for it, and if need be, die for it."
same meeting George Price pointed out that.some people were trying hard to
3Iptember 10 celebrations parade to be an exclusively pro-British affair,
a parade and demonstration in honour and memory of the Baymon who founded
and established a tradit of and order ths Central Americ.
He called for support to be shown in *~ two ways:- (1) there should be no address
of loyalty to the King, (2) non-predoninance of the Union Jack.
The People's Committee, in early September, marched to the tomb of British
Honduras patriot Simon Lamb who fought at St. George's Caye, and who was responsible
for keeping alive the spirit of the Tenth., A wreath was placed on his tomb by Peter
Lamb, great grand nephew fa the patriot. On September 11, the day chosen for the
pprado, some 1,800 people marched through the streets in rain. It was perhaps a
significant celebration because of the unprecedented incidents uhich occurred -
police permission for the official parade under the auspicies of the City Council
was refused; boos and shouts greeted the loyalty address; the Governor was roughly
and openly opposed, and the British National Anthem was not played when he appeared;
the people joined forces in confusing the official sponsors; and,"Cod Pleas America"
The People's Committee died so that a properly constituted party could carry
on. It had served its purpose of awakening the people politically and preparing
them for greater days ahead.
PEOPIEIS UNITED PARTY
&a was taken by Goldson and Richardson on their personal responsibility,
Sadvanoed that the People's United Party had nothing whatever to do utth
.... Mr. Nethersole was informed by cable that his trip was no longer
. The P.U.P. immediately called a meeting on Febr'pary 1 to consider the
i the two newspapermen. The meeting was split and ended in disagreement
Pira could reach no decision on the 'compromise.' The Party Secretary
t a dishonouzable settlement" and further moved that "the Party record its
ant with the action." The Party Leaderl on the pther hand, completely
I of the action, as did Mr. Nethersole in a\message a few days later.
The P.U.P. contested an election for the first time in its history, uhen on
_- er 20, 1950, their candidates were able to win a majority of seats in
City Council. It was the largest municipal election ever held in British
up to that time, proving how politically agitated the people had become
hbe instrumentality of the P.U.P. 1812 voters went to the polls out of a
1 2917 registered voters, and allowed the P.U.P. candidates to fill five out
da seats in the City Council. The Party Leader, Hon. John Smith, topped the
M 296 votes, and the other members of the Party elected were:- George Price,
zhardson, Cameron Cabb, and Philip Goldson. A candidate of the Democratic
6omel Francis, was also returned, along with three independents: Herbert
ser Barrow, and Egbert Brackett.
the remainder of the year the P.U.P. continued its activities, and the
their promise to the people of using their majority in the City Council
Mj3*h the beginnings of a party system of government. They kept constantly in
the people through meetings on the Battlefield, and took the people into
filled with optimism and high morale for the future.
Judge by the things we have dono" was the plea of Philip Coldson to a
ing on March 2, 1951. He admitted there uas a lot to overcome as yet, what
the claims of Guatemala and Mexico to British Honduras, the threat of federa-
the dangers of immigration, foreign development of the country, and the stiflinA
f England over our destinies. At another meeting Leigh Richardson urged that
ethword of the people should be "Onward to Freedom." Citizens were also kept
Aih with P.U.P. activities through the leaflet which outlined 'the party
i,' first issued in April and sold at tuo cents each.
The first convention of the Party was held at Thistle Hall on April 30,
. Hon. John Smith, then also Mayor of Belize, was re-elected loader of the
She former officers were also re-elected to their original posts, while
06a Party councillors elected included Leopold Grinage, Mrs. Elsa Vasquez,
4 Bevans, and Jose Rivero. All the elected officers comprised the Central
onail, which now replaced the Steering Committee. Several resolutions were
l;at the meeting, the most important of which wero:-
a) A Scroll would be prepared on which wmld be inscribed names of
the People's Committees (which formed tho P.U.P.) throughout the
b) The British Government should follow a policy leading to the
speedy relinquishment of authority to the freely chosen people
of the country.
o) The Baymen flae was chosen as the official flag of the country,
and it was decided to take firm steps to bring it into common and
d) The use of the term colony should beo discouraged, the name of the
country itself should be altered to Belize, Central America, and
the inhabitants known as Belizeans. &
Sqestion of import control came up for its share of ridicule uhan George
A an attack on it at a City Council meeting on July 10. He said that it
Scarcity of essential food and an excessive increase in the cost of living
snniblings of contention in the City Council, which led to a aeries of
lmtinatinr in the eventual dissolution of the City Council on August 6,
began when a resolution that a portrait of the King of England be hung in City Hall
was defeated. This occurred at the City Council meeting on July 10, when George
Prico moved an amendment to the resolution, saying that such an action should not
be considered until:-
a) The currency of the country was raotored to its former value.
b) Import controls were abolished.
c) Conventions of international labour organizations were extended
to British Honduras.
d) The 'green curtain' cutting off workers from natural association
with their fellow citizens had been lifted, and,
e) a democratic constitution liberated the people from colonial rule.
The resolution was defeated by a vote of three to two in favour of the P.U.P. coun-
cillors. Within a few days a petition was being circulated by Mr. H.W. Deaunmont, a
retired Postmaster General, requesting the Governor to dissolve the City Council.
This was suggested on the grounds that the P.U.P. majority in the Council was dis-
loyal to the British royal family because (a) the People's Coniriittee had earlier
created disorder to prevent Princess Alice from visiting the country, and (b) the
P.U.P. councillors had now insulted the King.
The matter reached Legislative Council level, uhcn on August 6 the members
voted to ask the Governor to dissolve the City Council because of alleged disloyalty
to the RoyAl Family. The resolution was moved by the Hon. Herbert Faller, and was
passed by a five to one vote in favour, with two abstentions. The following day
the P.U.P. circulated a petition which called upon the Governor not to dissolve the
City Council, and in turn demanded dissolution of the present Legislative Council.
It further demanded that elections be held immediately, as the present legislators
wore enjoying a prolonged term(1) of two additional years without the consent of the
(l) The ComiLssion of Inquiry appointed in 1948 to make recommendations on consti-
tutional advance did not make its report until April 1951. Drafting of consti-
tutional instruments did not proceed until after January 1953, and the new con-
stitution came into effect in 1954. The three-year period of the legislative
Council was therefore prolonged by the Governor, until elections could be held
under the new constitution.
people who elected them originally. The Governor did not see it fit to accept the
torns of the P.U.P. petition, and on August 0 dissolved the Council. In a radio
mossage be told the people, in part, "After my God comes my King. From my youth I
have been taught to worship my God and honour my King. As long as I remain Governor
of this British colony I u11 not stand by and see such acts of dialoyalty done
without my doing something about it. I shall therefore dissolve the City Council,
and in duo course I Ull refer the matter back to the electorate". He appointed a
nominated body to be members of the Council, under the Chairmanship of Hr. A.N.
Wolffsohn (a native and former Acting Colonial Secretary). All the other members
were either Justices of the Peace or prominent citizens in social life,
hben the Hon. John Smith returned to the country on August 10 after represen-
ting British Honduras at the Festival of Britain, the Governor offered him a oeat on
the nominated City Council. This offer, in a letter to the Governor, he flatly
rtfaood, and further challenged the Governor to hold elections immediately, asserting
in part: "Noither my intelligence nor my integrity would pormit no to assist in the
retrograde step of replacing a fully elected Council, dissolved for exercising the
right to vote, by a fully nominated one. So I must decline." In conclusion, he
said, "My constituents strongly urge him to put his statements to the proof by
having an election now."
Dissolution of the Council naturally infuriated the people, and undoubtedly
increased the strength of the P.U.P. This could be seen in the response and support
Given the Party uben September approached and they prepared to celebrate their
National DIy once more. Leigh Richardson wrote that he regretted there had to be a
rift in the celebrations. He felt that this rift had occurred becanse there were
people determined to keep the country a colony of Britain, and on the other side
there were people determined only to bring freedom to their country. It was a
national duty to refuse to celebrate the 'Tenth' the wuy the colonialists and the
colonial authorities wanted to celebrate. Philip "Goldson, at a rally on the
Battlefield on September 7, stated: w"le celebrate with the Baymen flag and the
Blqan colours, our beloved blue and white, to show that we are dissatisfied with
many things in our country ...Let every true Honduran be in that parade wearing
his blue and white Daymen colours." On September 10, as the Billboard reported,
about 500 citizens cheered the Hon. John Smith, and listened intently to a report
from his on the conditions and plans of the city. They then took a pledge of
loyalty to their country, followed by a parade accentuated by blue and white
Federation of British Honduras with the West Indies again came up at a
meeting on October 2, when the P.U.P. members accepted resolutions by the Hon.
John Smith against the forcing of the country into a British Uest Indian Federation,
He moved that the P.U.P. organize a large demonstration, also that they inform in
writing all foreign governments, the United Nations, the Pan American Union, and
the British Colonial Office that steps were being taken to federate this country
against the will of the people. Public protest was also shown in the anti-federa-
tion signs displayed in store windows and homes.
V During October also the four propriertors of the Belize Billboard: Philip
Goldson, Leigh Richardson, Lindberg Goldson, and Armando Dias, were charged by
Police Superintendent Abraham with publishing words in the newspaper with seditious
intent. The charges came out of:- (1) a speech made by leigh Richardson and pub-
lished in the Bill board of June 17, showing that it was theological teaching to
bring democracy to a country by evolution or otherwise; (2) an article published
on September 2 reviewing the struggle of the English people against Kingship; and,
(3) a speech made by Philip Goldson and published on October 7, reviewing the ways
of Central American dictators. As with the first sedition charge earlier in the
year, 1r. Noel Nethersole of Jamaica was engaged to defend the proprietors of the
Billboard, He arrived in the country on October 22, and preliminary hearings began
the same afternoon. The trial started on the 29th and ended on November 5, when a
jury found Philip Goldson, Leigh Richardson, and Armando Diaz guilty, and acquired
Lindberg Goldson. The first two were each awarded jail sentences of twelve months
with hard labour and a peace bond of $1,000, while Arnando Diaz was fined .1]20
with a peace bond of $1,000. Immediately a fund was started for the two imprisoned
journalists to help their families.
Indications showed that the position of the Party was further enhanced
with the publicity of the sedition case, but personal feelings, pointing in another
direction, among the leaders was soon to cause a rift. Rumours had been circulation,
among opposing parties of possible P.U.P. aid from Guatemala. This was perhaps
first prompted when on October 5, Philip Goldson reported to the people at a
Battlefield meeting on his recent'week's visit to Guatemala. The main points he
brought out were all in praise of Guatemala, as compared with the backward state
of British Honduras, and can be summed up as follows;-
a) He had'escapedl from British Honduras and breathed the suwut air
of freedom for one whole week.
b) There was absolutely nothing wrong in anyone going to Guatemala.
c) He saw modern toilet facilities in the huablest homes.
d) The labour lawa were better than in British Honduras.
e) The effect of freedom on the people and the country could be
f) Guatemala was ahead politically, culturally, and economically.
g) He urged that the 'green curtain' which separated us from our
neighbours be parted.
v The radical-conservation so effectively displayed by the Leader of the
Party since its inception culminated on the night of November 19, following a
policy debate during which his proposals were turned down. John Smith had always
advocated the aims of the Party, the chief of which was to throw off British colo-
nial policies and lead the people to self-determination. In this he was radical;
but apparently he was conservative enough to admire some aspects of the British
rule, and thus he proposed to show some loyalty to the British flag. He therefore,
at the general membership meeting on November 19, urged the. Party to show in a
tangible vay its sincerity to the declared policy of the P.U.P., that is, to attain
oelf-government within the British Commonwealth. He further proposed that to L.ve
the lie to accusations that the P.U.P. was anti-British and under foreign domina-
tion, the British flag should be hoisted alongside the Party's blue and white flag
at public meetings. This gesture, though not really necessary, was very important
in the absence of any other suggestion to establish the true identity of the people
and the country.
Unfortunately, this proposal did not meet with the approval of most other
officers and members of the Party. Two days later, Mr. Smith announced his rosig-
nation, and in a letter to the Party gave as one reason for resigning the fact
that the P.U.P. had been accused of receiving aid from Quatemala, and yet had not
seen it fit to vindicate itself. It had apparently seen no-need to disprove the
allegation either, and under these circumstances he could no longer be associated
with it, adding that he uould not work for Ouatemala either directly or indirectly.
Amon., other officers iho resigned at the bise time ucre V!rvyn Hulse and Caneron
Gabb. It is interesting to note too, that the Billboard, in an editorial, backed
the action of Mr. Anith. [A postscript to the resignation was the Party Secretary's
letter to the Billboard on December 3 stating that the issue of November .21 (uhich
reported the P.U.P. leader's resignation) contained an inference that suggested
that the P.U.P. was receiving aid from Quatemala to work against this country.
He asked to say that there uere no grounds for such an inference.
The year 1951 ended on a note of achievement for the people in the recog-
nition of their present and future place in the world; an awakening to their poli-
tical responsibility and their economic and social rights; a development of their
consciousness of the need for a better constitution and better living conditions;
and an awareness of the best road to a happy political and economic future.
year 1952 opened with strong rumours that City Council elections would
the very near future. This was the signal for the P.U.P. to start its
a as it was felt that the National Party would itself soon begin a
p espign nov that elections, which the P.U.P. felt was the main motive for
MLg Party's wexstence, were near. At a Battlefield meeting early in
George Price told the people, in a semi-oampaign speech, that the P.U.P.
,0 stoop to T1adyism; also that a full report of the sedition charges against
rs of the Blnboard had been sent to the United Nations together with a
M.p of the unsuitable conditions in the country. In concluding his speech,
i on the people to use their vote in the 'limited suffrage' and thus ahow
4[ and the United Rations their protest against the present conditions and
federation. This they could do by putting all the P.U.P. candidates into
fCounil at election time.
In following month the P.U.P. held the first real campaign meeting at which
g wses greeted the announcement that Leigh Richardson and Philip Goldson,
still imprisoned, would be candidates in the municipal elections. The
Mretary declared that "... a sign that the P.U.P. is feared by the privileged
the colonial ruling class, is the vicious and violent campaign of lies to
11 P.U.P. as traitors who, they say, would turn this country over to a foreign
s further assured then that the P.U.P. was not backing the claim of
Iand as a matter of fact when the United Kingdom contended that British
M- fbr the United Kingdom, and hOntemala in the same vein maintained it
iatemala, the P.U.P. rose up declaring that British Honduras was for the
On nomination day, when the Party attempted to register its candidates for
-- sa, the Returning Officer rejected Philip Goldson and Leigh Richardson on
& grounds that they were imprisoned with hard labour for a term exceeding
twelve months. (This was neither true nor justified, since the sentences handed
down by the Court had in fact been for twelve months exactly). The Returning Officer
upheld his decision, however, thus leaving the P.U.P. with only five candidates -
Herman Jex, David Smith, William Coffin, Josd Rivero, and George Price.
Election day was March 19. Out of a total of. 2,955 registered voters, only
1,694 people went to the polls, and the P.U.P. won a signal victory when George Price
topped the polls with 258 votes (46 more than in 1950). The other candidates who
were successful were: William Coffin and Jose Rivero, giving the Party only three
seats out of the nine in the City Council. The National Party won four seats
(Herbert Faller, Mrs. Floss Casasola, Ebeneser Barrow, and Lionel Francis), while
the other two seats were won by independent candidates Fred Westby and John Smith.
The first meeting of the new Council to elect a President and Vice-President
was held on March 51, and ended in a deadlock; as did another meeting convened on
April 2. Finally, on April 4 the Acting Governor, exercising powers given to him
legally, nominated Herbert Fuller to be the President. The first business meeting
convened on April 9 and elected Lionel Francis as Vice-President. The P.U.P. coun-
cillors declined from serving on any of the six committees, George Price significant-
ly refusing nomination to the Import Control Advisory Board on the grounds that
there was insufficient representation of the people on the Board.
It was a day of great rejoicing by the people when Philip Goldson was release
from Prison on July 8, after serving eight months. After attending Mass at Holy
Redeemer Cathedral he took part in a parade held in his honour, and was hailed as
Rhero of the day.* He addressed the crowd after the parade returned to the Majestic
Theatre Yard, saying that he did not regard his imprisonment as a sacrifice, but as a
joy. He had also had the chance to think of new ideas for furthering the struggle
and for helping the Party and the Union. Leigh Richardson got a similar treatment
when he was released a week later. After his parade returned to Cinderella Town he
praised the people for having kept together during the past months, which proved that
throughout the world "they don't come any better."
On July 28 the Legislative Council approved a draft constitution for the
country, which included, among other points -
a) adult suffrage (with ability to write, and over 21 years of age),
b) Legislative Council to have a Speaker appointed by the Governor,
c) three official, three nominated, and nine elected members,
d) Executive Council to have the Governor as Chairman.
The P.U.P. immediately cabled a protest against the constitution to the Secretary
of State, objecting tos(l) the proposal that voters must fll out registration forms
before Justices of the Peace on the grounds that it was impoqAible for 18,000
potential voters to complete such registration before a mere handful of Justices
of the Peace available. It was therefore suggested that enumerators be employed to
institute adult suffrage effectively; (2) the proposal that the Executive Council
contain only four elected members; (5) the proposal that the Governor retain reserve
powers: and, (4) the withholding of adult suffrage in Town Board elections.
The constitution, after being approved by the Secretary of State, did not come
into force until in 1954.
That year's National Day was celebrated as usual, but was marked by a telegram
sent by the P.U.P., through the Acting Governor, to the Queen. In it they demanded
independence and self-determination through a plebiscite as guaranteed to the people
by the United Nations Charter. It asked that the people be released from the
shackles of colonialism, otherwise they might be compelled to appeal to their demo-
cratic neighbours of the Western Hemisphere to help to secure their sacred rights.
1 message from the Party Secretary, who was in the United States on business, was
read to the gathering, in which he complimented them on having defeated mentally the
colonial system of life. They were beginning to see what was necessary for a free
and happy way of life, and they would have to fight for this free and full life for
themselves and their children. He praised the courage of those who had welcomed
imprisonment rather than betray their people and their country, and actions like
that should inspire the masses of people. He asked for God's blessing on that
National Day to make them more determined and pore courageous to meet bravely
and surmount skillftally and defeat gloriously the forthcoming encounters and
obstacles that nll oome from whence we know not where."
The Second Anniversary meeting of the Party vas ohld on September 29, when
several speakers reviewed the activities of the P.U.P. and stressed its aims and
purposes. Philip Goldeon said that the P.U.P. was prepared for long hard years of
struggle if need be, and while they hoped for early victory they did not allow this
hope to keep them from preparing for the struggle,
The P.U.P., allied with the General Workers' Union and the Belime Billboard,
had several charges levelled against them by their natural 'enemies.' The Party
classed these 'enemies' as colonial government spokesman, the National Party, and
the nvwspaper the Daily Clarion. The charges included the followings-
1. The Party represented the minority of the people.
2. The leaders were merely seeking personal glory.
5. They were tools of (Qatemala and Russia.
4. The entire movement was communist.
5. The Party was under the Catholic )Masion in British Honduras.
6. The leaders were irresponsible.
Allegations like these did not have mch effect in belittling the integrity or power
of the Party, and the year ended with the P.U.P. still on the upward climb.
1This was a significant year for British Honduras in that it say the
beginnings of important constitutional reforms which were approved to be brought
into effect the following year. As a result of these preparations, political
activity quickened and the people showed an increased awareness of the constitution,
and even attempted to assess its possible effectiveness and intentions.
Early in the year too, the Secretary of the Party began to attack the charges
made against them by opposing factious. At a meting at Uarborough on January 29,
be said *The strategy of our enemies is to smear falsely and propagate that the
ovement of the P.U.P. for liberation from Colonial evils is wild and irresponsible,
and that it advocates violence and bloody revolution. It may be revolutionary in the
sense that the P.U.P. is working for a change for better living conditions of the
people. By its very nature the Colonial system weilding means of modern warfare makes
revolution impossible. It is absurd and untrue to pretend that there are possibilities
Campaigning for elections to the Legislative Council under the upcoming
constitution got under way early, and the P.U.P. began holding meetings in varlops
sections of the City. The Representation of the People Ordinance, which Goveriment
sought to pass in July, carm under savage attack by the P.U.P. They protested certain
clauses in the Bill which stated that the people could not wear what they choose on
election day, condemning this as violating the rights of citizens to vote freely.
They also protested strongly against all the clauses of the Undesirable Literature
Bi, calling it a Police State Bill, on the grounds that it prevented people from
leaning and knowing the truth. These protests were directed at the Colonial Secre-
tary and the elected members of the Legislative Council, and backed up with a peti-
tion signed by 1,250 citizens representing Belise City and Stann Creek. Both bills
were passed by the Legislative Council on July 24.
The yearly convention of the Party was held on September 50, and officers
elected to official positions veres Leigh Richardson Leader, William Coffin -
Chairman, Jose Rivero Vice-Chairman, George Price Secretary, Philip Goldason -
ssistant Secretary, Tharine Rudon Treasurer; and Party Councillors included
Albert Cattouse, licholas Pollard, and Berman Jex. Several resolutions were moved
by the leaders and accepted by members, the most important of which were administra-
tion of internal and external affairs by representatives of the people, universal
adult suffrage, opposition to Communism and Colonialism, encouragement of credit
unions, equitable land reform and financial assistance to farmers, social security,
opposition to racial prejudice, religious dissension and class prejudice. Nicholas
Pollard and Albert Cattouse also passed a resolution that the P.U.P. offer a reward
of One Hundred Dollars "to any person or persons or any organisation able to prove
that any officer or officers have been seeking and/or receiving financial assistance
from asy foreign country or foreign source with a view to the violent or subversive
oerthrow of the administration They said that the reason they had moved such a
resolution was because for three years opponents of the P.U.P. had been asserting,
and the Colonial Government had been implying, that the P.U.P. received financial
assistance from Guatemala (or through Guatemala from Russia). No proof, however,
had eer been advanced.
Although the Governemnt had taken the P.U.P. suggestion of having enumerators,
apart froa the handful of Justices of the Peace, to register votes, closing of
registration had to be extended more than once, the final date being December 15.
Up to then 20,858 people had been registered.
go year opened with the P.U.P. asserting its usual stand against Colonialis
in a oampig speech delivered by Philip Goldaon on January 22 at a Pound Yard Bride
mating, Be cited the evils of Colonialim, saying that it was responsible for
(1) our not having a nationality of our own, and (2) the natural resources of the
country to be largely undeveloped nexept for that secotion that had been exploited
for the benefit of the ruling power. He urged the people to vote out the colonialists
in the coming election, adMing that the P.U.P. was the only group that showed itself
capable of leading the people oat of Cola1ia14m into freedom and progress. The Party
bad stood up f r jstice for the wvorkr, the famer, the buainamma, and generally
for all the people irrepeotive of oamed, oolaor or state of life. It was ld by
Christian leaders with singleminded devotion to the welfare of the people, and by this
el*otion it oould be made possible to lead the country *out of the gloom onto the
threhold of a great opportunity."
On January 28 the Party held a convention at which candidates for the lIgis-
1Utive Assembly election were named. George Price was to contest the Belise North
vision, Philip Goldson the Belise South, Leigh RLahardson the Belse Vest, and
Herian Ja the Belise Riral. To complete the P.U.P.-G.V.U. platform for the election,
the G.V.U. General Counaci nmnd its fie candidates on Fabruary 12 Enrique Depas
for Cayo, Joed Chin for Corosal, George Flouers for Orange Walk, John Busano* for
Stenn Creek, and George Gardiner for Toledo.
A policy statement on charges of Ouatemalan relations with British Honduras
as made during February by George Prioe, when he reftted a report by an English
reporter reprinted in the Daily Clarion. The item alleged that a B.H. resident in
otamlas City mad certain statements regarding P.U.P. ties with Gnatmala. These
ch Mes ar dirty lies," denied Price. 'The truth is that the P.U.P. is not turning
2*C0 nastiun day he was replaced by athaniel Cache, because he had not resided
in the country for the tim specified to allow him to stand for election.
is country over to utatnmala or any other country. The P.U.P. is vindicating
s rights of the people to possess their ow land and to rule and govern themselves
the manner that suits their interests best."
TBese allegations of P.U.P. pro-Ouatemalan activities were acted upon, when
Maroh 10 the Undersecretary for Commonwealth Belations said in reply to a question
the House of Comons:s In view of the allegations which have been made from time
time of connections between the P.U.P. of British Honduras and Onatemala, it has
n decided that an impartial inquiry shall be held as soon as possible by a om.-
esioner from outside the Colony.' Sinoe the Party had consistently and vehemently
nied that there vas any truth in the allegations, the decision was taken mildly.
e leader of the Party commented that the P.U.P. had absolutely nothing to fear
on any enquiry of that sort. What they had objections to was the time chosen for
oh an enquiry practically on the eve of elections. Secretary George Price sent
letter to the Colonial Secretary, along with a telegram for transmission to the
aretary of State for the Colonies, branding an investigation of the P.U.P. on the
o of elections as a political trick. He tfrther asked that if an enquiry he held
all, that it be conducted by United States Senator Joseph MoCarthy (a great
mnidst hunter), rather than by a British commissioner.
Governor Renison for his part seemed convinced, however, that there vas a
e-up between the Central American colony's leading political party and the
emnista of neighboring Guatemala." He proceeded to appoint Sir Reginald Sharpe,
C., to carry out the enquiry. He arrived in the country on March 25, and the
quiry started at once. Seven days later, after listening to evidence from several
aple, he read the summary of his fings to a packed courtroom, while thousands
r citizens stood outside, some lifting George Price onto their shoulders saidst
u playing of "land of the Gods.'
At a press conference held afterwards the Governor stated that he felt the
Dntact uLth Guatemala had been proved, and it was left to the voters and the world's
Isay what the contact meant. Philip Goldeon asked the Gowmnor if he thought
o.*k with a P.U.P. legislative Assembly majority, to wiah he nplieds -1
Uald depend on the P.U.P. It would be my duty to work together with the
M the end of it all the P.U.P. charged that all the persons who gave evidence
am owe either Goveamrnt officials or hangers-on of John Proud (Public
0O tfnoer and leading witness against the P.U.P.), or one of his stooges,
h agreed, the charges against the rfty, which were being made for four
Snot proven. It ua noteworthy too, that the evidence of lake lemp, a
,pit es, as completely suppressed by the British Honduras Broadcasting
the Daily Clarion, and the Commisaioner himself in his report. (Eamp lad
01f it as impossible for the people of Brirish Honduras not to have contact
mtala; that John Proud was unreliable and untrustworthy; and that Proud
to get bhi to fom a political party with John tSdth against the P.U.P.)
Ch election day, April 28, the majority of voters showed their trust in
J.P, and their contempt for the Sharpe enquiry, when they returned eight out
Iu P.U.P. candidates to the legislative Assembly. 'his was the first general
I under smai-universal adult suffrage, and it signifed a victory for the
Sor Uays than one the people were satisfied to know that the *Colonialist
not worked, and the P.U.P. leaders on the other hand muas have felt
Seventy-one per cent. of the electorate voted, of which the P.U.P. won
wa per oent. of the votes. The Ponta Gorda candidate, George Gardiner, was
ed by Charles Weatby.
Nov in command of the majority of seats in the Legislative Amsembly, the P.U.P.
M1 not be regarded as completely in charge. Thair power was limited in that
Lg no control over the executive Council, which was composed of the Governor,
tfcia2s, two nominated members, and four elected members of the Legislative
. Ihe inaugural meting was held on June 18 under the hairmanship of the
the Hon. A.I. Volfftohn.
a yearly Party convention held on or around the anniversary of the
ya"r held on September 22 at Liberty Hall leigh Richardson was
mr of the Party. Daring the oarse of the meting he made a call for
st the ministerial system to the government of British Hoaduras, and
iWasi of twelve million dollars in C.D.& U. funds to be made to the
p3 development during the period April 1955 to March 1960,
Sr 2 the Secretary of State had announced from London that be would
:.*?P. leaders to discuss plans for the development of the country, as
I matters. Later in the year the delegation ws named and comprised the
6. Salvador Espat (a nominated member), Hon Philip Goldaon, Bon. Herman
* IJaig Mchardson. hey left Belise on October 12, and after friendly
tunedd on November 9 with the Secretary of State's promise of an
itten of five million dollars for the aezt three years. This was to
Wit7y to carry on, and if possible, improve on the then present rate
oe o developMnt. He also promised that a further measure of constitn-
me us now Justified due to the good co-operation of the majority party
Ste plan was that as from January 1, 1955, there would be three
Vold have responsibilities for those departments dealing with natural
iOal services, and public utilities. There were also to be three
wbo would share the responsibilities. So it was that at a Legis-
meting held on the last day of 1954, the Governor announced that he
SofLicial members of his Executive Council to assume responsibilities,
S1, 1955, as followsu-
Leigh Richardson Member for Natural Resources
neaman Jez Mmber for Public Utilities
Philip Goldaon Mhaber for Social Services
i George Price Associate Member for Natural Resources
LSalvador Espat Associate Mnber for Pbblic Utilities
AV. Macmillan Assoeiate Member for Social Services.
p system of government was regarded as sea-mliisterial responsi-
Uling Party, and also a step in the right direction leading towards a
of participation in the affairs of the Country.
On the eve of Flag Day ( February 1 ) the P.U.P. leaders at a meeting,
pledged allegiance to the Blue and White flag, referring to it as the *sacred
qabol of the people's aspirations for a true and lasting democracy." The Party
leader said that the Blue and White should eventually fly atop Government build-
ings all over the Country in an attempt to oust Colonialism, which still re-
mined a vital issue and a dangerous threat to "life, limbs, and property." He
also thought that it was time for foreign investors to be encouraged to come into
the Country, and in fact efforts to attract investments of some six million dollars
vas already under way. At the same meeting George Price reiterated his statement
of three years before, in connection with the flag, when he stated that it was,
and vold forever remain the guiding star of the people and their leaders. When the
day car that they were completely liberated from the evils of British Colonialism,
the blue and white flag would fly from the flagstaff of the Courthouse Wharf.
The Party celebrated its first anniversary, on winning the elections the
previous year, with a meeting oneApril 29. Leigh Richardson urged the people to
face the facts, because before the elections there were fantastic stories being cir-
culated about the P.U.P. These rumours were still strong, but they were prepared to
fight them, since the people had shown good faith in electing them.
In August the Party Leader approached the Acting Governor requesting him to
consider a greater measure of responsibilities and authority for the elected members
of the Eoecutive Council. Under the Membership system the Members had no powers to
take steps to solve the unemployment problem, so it was necessary for the functions
of Members to be extended so as to allow them to deal with this pressing situation.
Members also needed powers to enable them to undertake better the social and economic
fields on a long-term basis. The Acting Governon agreed to make a few changes in
the original distribution of departments and subjects among the official and un-
official members of the Executive Council. He proceeded to place Development
hbich was previously under the Financial Secretary, under the Member for Natural
Resarcea. Industrial relations, labour, and local Government were placed under
the Mmber for Social Services, who in an effort to create complete impartiality
in labour and industrial relations, had to resign his membership of the General
orikere Union and sever all connections with it and any other trade union. .th
these changes it was advocated that it would now be possible to attract potential
investors, settle land tenure problems, and eventually set up a development cor-
On the National Day the pledge of allegiance to the P.U.P. and to the
Country was renewed. The Party Leader spoke of the need for the celebrations to
be carried on separately in protest of the ways of Colonaialism. He also felt
strongly that there should be a never-ending fight for social, economic, and poli-
tical rights and privileges to be carried on despite criticisms.
Political progress under the P.U.P. since the 1954 elections, as well as
uder the Numbership system introduced afterwards, was landed in a September issue
of the London Times. The article stated, in part, "The course of political develop-
ent has run remarkedly smoothly in British Honduras since the elections of 1954.
Ma has been recognized by the devolution of increased powers upon the elected
umbers of the Executive Council, who are drawn from the P.U.P.... This is cause
for satisfaction, seeing the awLeties which were felt at the time of the elections...
It was not only constitutional reasons, however, that was responsible for this smooth
progress, but also human reasons "attributable to the personalities of the leaders
involved. The P.U.P. Government has certainly addressed itself courageously to the
tasks it has had to tackle, and has ezLhibited a marked degree of wisdom and restraint
~aich haa been fully met by the outgoing Governor..."
A P.U.P. convention held at the Riverside Hall on October 11 saw the re-
election of the Party leaders Me bloh to a new teru of office. A resolution was
passed unanimously by which the leaders were authorized to 1) seek from the Govern-
mat of Britain thirty million dollars needed for urgent development and reoonstrue-
a, 2) request the immidite granting of the Ministerial system of government to
County, and 3) send a delegation to London, if necessary, to present the ease
5e year we a oala and progressive one for the Party and the Country, but
%tp the greatest a Lievement was the unity and dedication uith itLch elected,
asted, and efficial members of the Goveirn t served the people's interest.
he determndination and solidarity the P.U.P. expressed during this year was
less than it was in those/early 1950 days when the Party first came to the
pie. Tds was the year when the first municipal elections under adult suffrage
to be held, and the Party's campaign was vigorously under way. At one campaign
ting held on February 24, the Party Secretary expressed his conviction and pride
the fact that four years of pu1aing political life had allowed the people to
ce graduates of the college of politics. These years had made the men and women
the streets responsible, intelligent and sharp.
Before election day, which was set for March 19, the Leader of the Party
nmed from the london Federation Conference he had attended as observer, and in
i report to the Party, brought out three main points on federations-
1. So long as British Honduras could help it, she should try to
steer clear of any form of federation.
2. If she could not do this, she should then look around to secure
the best possible conditions before making alliances with anybody.
5. The Country should not close the door completely on a possible
union with the West Indles, but should rather wait and see what
the future had in store.
ins tateemnts vere perhaps interpreted by certain members of the Party to show a
ght pro-federation attitude, very unlike the Leader's initial stand on the matter.
4,449 voters went to the polls on election day, representing forty-seven per
it. of the electorate. The P.U.P. won an unprecedented landslide victory over
dr opponents(1) by getting all six candidates elected. William Coffin topped the
U1s wth 715 votes, and the other successful P.U.P. candidates were George Price,
e liwro, Tharine Badon, Leopold Grinage, and Jaime Staines. At the victory
sting the Secretary said that by their polling the people had shoia again tangibly
dir aspport and devotion to the Party.
V=n the City Council met, George Price was elected President of the Council,
d M or of Belise City. William Coffin was elected Vice-President.
the Belis Billboard of March 25 contained an editorial praising the merits
the P.U.P. It said "The P.U.P. id the people of the Country. Study the P.U.P.
Lyu id.1l see in its members, in its leaders and its candidates, exact reflection
the people of British Honduras. In the P.U.P. you will see mirrored the strength
I the weakness of Honduras. Study the P.U.P. and you will see a people's deteruina-
a and ability to overcome all obstacles to political progress for their Country."
On September 10 the address of loyalty wa read and presented to the Governor
a P.U.P. leader for the first time, when the task fell on George Price as IHyor,
A little over two weeks later the second rift was made in the Party, when at
Samnnal convention at Riverside Hall on September 27, the Party Chairman, Wlliam
Tin, made a declaration bringing up the following pointas-
On July 6 the G.W.U. suspended its General Secretary, Nicholas
Pollard, for financial irregularities(2)
On July 7 Nicholas Pollard began a public campaign of slander against
leaders of the P.U.P. (with the ezoeption of George PriLe and sme
other Party Councillors who he said supported his in his actions).
During the course of his campaign Pollard had declared many times
that his aim was to destroy certain leaders of the P.U.P. and the
G.V.U., leaving only "Price for politics and Pollard for unionism."
He had been assured of the full support of George Price in achieving
Wes campaign had resulted in ditruast and disunity within the P.U.P.,
and had allowed informed and thinking people to get the impression
that the Party was not to be trusted with the destiny of the Country.
If this was not checked, the Country's prospects for getting
1) ~his diaspte amongst the leaders of the G.W.U. had resulted in Pollard farming
a break-mmy union registered as the Christian Demooratic Union.
development capital fra abroad could be damaged, and a certain
neigbboaring republic mght beto enooraged to press its elaim to
Tis dealsration am signed by the following personas, who also de it olear
t they van reuimingh froa the Party- Iigh Ri hardsom, 1illim Coffin, Philip
dean, Bobert Stanmore, Albert Arsu, Elfreda Bwp, Arther Waite, Magms Vernon,
an Jex, JoTs Chin, Jaime Stainesp and Leopold Grinage. here was disorder in
meting ibtn the Chaizman reached that section of his prepared statement,
ipUting, as the Blise Tims pat it to read a landerous statement about C.D.U.
enl Secretary eicholas Pollard and Party Secretary George Prioe,' Coffin had
azently ignored the point of order movd by Pollard, despite the Secretary'a
th U entire meting*as dead that the point of order be onsidered before the
iamn ocantmed his speech. the P.U.P. umbers, who had resigned, failing to
* the statement properly read due to the load noise, left in a body amd.dst booing.
eral people were injured in the melds that ensued, and the Police had to intervene
parent leigh Richardson from causing any serious ham with the pistol be had
After order as restored, the meeting reomed under the chairmanship of
rge Price, and the oanmntion, among other things, re&ffzmd its determination
achieve self-govermnt for the Country, and re-e phassed the Party's stand
dlst federation. At election time the new officers unanid aly elected weres-
irg Price frty Leader, Edward Austin PArty Secretary, Joe Eivro Party
dLa, Albert Cattouae Treasurer, Alfred Bevans Deputy Chairman, Jose
and Assistant Secretary.
The solidarity of the P.U.P. in the legislative Aembly we nov split.
L Bibazrdson formed the Hndaran Independee Party on October 4, and five of
i former P.U.P. members alimod themselves i th this new Party, while three remained
th the P.U.P. Several view were expressed on the split its aomes, its possible
OMltition-- and it is interesting to note the opinion of a
ut' a iting in the Daily Clarion of October 20s "leigh
Goldeon and others had from the beginning followed an irres-
Igmdt, policy of agitation and Utopian promises. 1Ith the elso-
Sto pablio office, they found themselva up against the true
the decision hoch they had to make vas whether to
and view of the facts presented, or whether to oentinne to
so as to secure for themselves the contimed support of
esisnee of their honesty these embers modified their demands
k kLth Goverment in order to bring about the mch needed changes.
Sbmiught them into conflict iLth the Ir-ty's extremists. Since
Sq=ad not reconcile their different vievpointa, it was an inevi-
SWtlat one of them would have to resign from the Party.'
The Governor dissolved the legislative Assembly on Jamnuary 51, and announced
nev elections vould be held in March. Important political dmvelopents had
red in 1956, which resulted in the formation of the Honduran Independence Party,
tha the need for early elections. This was to be conduoted under the sawe
tituaton of nine elected seats in the fifteen seat legislature,
he P.U.P. in its election campaign maintained its stand against Colonialim
Vest Indies Federation, advocating instead the country's poistion on the Central
loan nei na.nd. Its platform was a formidable one, consisting of candidates dramn
I the P.U.P., the Corosal United Party, and the Christian Democratic Union, as
George Price Belise North
Albert Cattouse Belize West
Denhigh Jeffery Belise South
louis Sylvestre Belize Jaral
Knrique Depas Cayo District
David McKoy Stann Creek District
Santiago BLoalde Corosal District
Victor Orellam Orange Walk District
FPmstino Zuniga Toledo District.
On election day, March 20, the second general elections under universal adult
frge, the P.U.P. won a clean sweep of all nine elected seats and the Party Leader
pod the polls with 1355 votes. They acquired fifty-nine per cent, of the total
as ast, and another feature of the voting was that only fifty per cent. of the
etorate voted (compared with seventy per cent. in 1954). One opinion on this
nation was as follows OIt is alear that Price captured moet, but far free all,
the 1954 P.U.P. voters; and it seems likely that Richardson vas unable to attract
7 vote from people who had voted against the P.U.P. in 1954 perhaps because
h voters viewed the election of 1957 as a purely internecine struggle within the
i.P., or possibly because Price's stigmatizing of Richardson as pro West Indian
blration restrained such voters from voting H.I.P.,,(l)
) D.A.G. Waddell, "British Honduras: a historical and contemporary survey.' 1961.
Inaugural meeting of the new legislative Assembly was held on April 12.
t e month the Governor announced the names of the unofficial members of the
SCounadl, assigning portfolios to Members and Aasociate MNmbers as follows:-
Mmber fobr natural Besouaroes Bn. George Price
Asso. Member for Natural lesouroes -- Louis Sylvestre
Nmber for Social Servioea -- Albert Cattouse
Asso. Member for Social Services -- J.W. Mamillan, C.B.E.
Mmeber for Publio Utilities Dnbigh Jeffery
Anso. Member for Public Utilities H.T.A. DBowm, O.B.E., J.P.
a 8th Annual Convention of the P.U.P. vas held on October 1 in the R.verLide
all officers and comnttee members were re-elected. Resolntions were
tiug a vote of confidence to George Price and his oolleagmue, and support-
mpowering the proposed delegation to London to request further financial
advanced constitution, miLnisterial powers, a fully elected Legislative
and Exoutive Council, and self-government by a fixed date.
iA sizman delegation comprising the Governor, the Financial Secretary, the
Boman, G. Prioe, A.E. Cattouse, and D.R. Jeffery, left for London in
dor. They were sobhedled to hold talks at the Colonial Office with the
of State for the Oolonies. These talks were a sequel to the disauasions
may tters held in London in November 1956, and were concerned with fitan-
economio topics arising ou* of the Developent Plan and draft 1958 Budget.
oenstittional advance would also be asked for.
O november 27 the Seoretary of State announced in the House of Commons that
eme had been discovered in a conspiracy with the Guatemalan )Lnister in London
teer British Handuras from the Comanealth, and fore noa sort of association
a a He consequently informed Price that because of *his lack of good
would not omttiLa the talks, and Price, in an effort to save the talks,
that he withdraw from the discussions, and that the training members of
nation be allowed to carry on the negotiations. The Secretary of State re-
wring that the Governor and himself had agreed that the correct thing to do
a for the delegation to return howe, consider the nov izoumstanoes, and as soon
poeslbis form a reconstituted delegation,
On Novober 28, Jeffery cabled homwsaying that the Guatemalan Minister had
fared them all the money they needed to balance the budget and for development -
B totalling same sixteen million dollars if British Hondoras agreed to become
part of Guatemala. Price, on the other hand, explained that the Guatmuln MILister'i
for was purely a suggestion that he himself would hae laid before the Secretary of
ate. They were never asked to accept or reject it. Hb did not regard the mission
a failure, adding that it would probably lead to something mach bigger. He further
dled, before leaving London, that his talks with the" Ididster were secret.
The delegation returned to British Honduras on ovember 30, and there were
my P.U.P. supporters at the Airport to greet them. Price was presented with bouquets
aring the greetings "We are still loyal to yeou, while the people carried him on
sir shoulders. In a brief statement to the people he said uWe were betrayed by the
drd maber of the unofficial delegation... For months there were negotiations going
Between the Guatemalan Embassy and the British Foreign Office. The Guatemalan Min-
iter invited us and said he would inform us of a proposal which would be put to the
)Mgn Offioe. He did not make a proposal to us... When we heard of the proposal, we
pledged to keep silent about it... The thing to do is to stand firm and make sure that
f y are going to send another delegation bank to London, then you send Mr. Cattouse
In a radio broadcast the Governor gave his views on the matter, and informed
is people formally of the Secretary of State's decision. He said that George Price
dcl ilth three other unofficial members of the delegation had attended a luncheon in
doa given by the oQatemalan Miaister, Sefior Jorge Granadoe. Proposals were made to
te r delegates which in fact meant the severance of British Honduras from the
IdU Crowa, and its integration with Guatemala as an associate state. Mr. Price,
ma debr of the delegation, had failed to inform the Governor of these proposals,
ad dia asked by the Secretary of State about then had said that he wanted more tim
think about them, as he had not been able to make up his mind. The Governor was
inoed that R4r.4Pi-Pce had the intention of trying to play one Government off
Inst the other..* and he was prepared in certain eventualities to\ see the people
this country handed over to the Guatemalan Republic lock, stock and barrel."
On December 6, at a Legislative Assembly meeting, Price's election to the
ative Council was revoked under Article 14 of letters Patent 1954, on the grounds
it his actions were not compatible with his Councillor's oath of loyalty to the
na. hbis dismissal was condemned by the elected members of the Assembly. Price
i replaced as Member for Natural Resources by Enrique Depas, the P.U.P. Member for
i Cayo Division. On the same afternoon the Anti-submarine Frigate H..S. Ulster
*ved at Belize Harbour with military reinforcements from the regiment. in Jamaica,
is others arrived by plane. These steps were taken as a precautionary measure in
is of disorders following Price's expulsion from the Executive Council. There were,
jemr, no incidents.
An emergency meeting of the P.U.P.-C.D.U., also held on December 6, decided to
Ution the Government for the expulsion of the Hon. D. Jeffery from the Executive
dcil, on the grounds that he no longer enjoyed the confidence of the Assembly
jority which had placed him on the Council. He was already expelled from the Party.
The Deputy Leader, Albert Cattouse, proposed on December 27 at a meeting of
e Assembly, a resolution reaffirming the House's allegiance to the Crown, and
jecting any other government's claim to sovereignty over British Honduras. He also
n1ed for friendly relations with other countries. The resolution was unanimously
prod by the Assembly.
George Price lost little of his popularity, and throughout all the allegations
I iatained his innocence, protesting that the whole Government action was a plot
pint him. HLs defence against the charges levelled at him bordered around the fact
bnt he had been advised by the Secretary of State to be ready at a moment's notice
o disaws the Guatemalan question in London. Mr. Jeffery and Mr. Bowman both in
ise and on the boat to London had advised him to see the Guatemalan Minister
h a view to settling the British Honduras Guatemala dispute. All four unofficial
gates knev of his actions (except perhaps Mr. Boman who was out when Price went
second time to clarify certain points with the Minister). The Miniaster had only
formed' them of a proposal to be made to the Foreign Office, and Price had made it
ar to the Secretary of State that he did not recognise Guatemala's claim to British
dmras, and furthermore did not wish to become a part of Guatemala. He believed that
Kjdaiter's proposal of self-goverment for British Honduras in a Central American
ration could only be decided by the people not there and then by the delegation
London. Be would not coiLt himself without oding back to the people about the
posals, and for this reason and not because he wanted to sell the country to
temala the Secretary of State boeme displeased.
TdL statement was further strengthened when the Guatemalan MHnister, before
1nWg london for consultations with his Government, issued a statement to the
fah press. He completely exonerated the P.U.P. leader from any kind of action
*lled 'secret intrigue' by over-zealous, too hasty politicians in Parliament. At
* too, the Party leader and the Exeeutive Councils of the P.U.P. and the C.D.U.
mnd a statement on the results of the London delegation, bringing out the followings-
1. They regretted and protested the action of the Secretary of State in
breaking off talks. They thought this was deplorable in view of the
urgent financial and constitutional needs of the country.
2. Faith in and loyalty to George Price and Albert Cattouse were reaffirmed
as leaders of the P.U.P. and Government of the country.
3. They could not find it possible to believe that there were disloyal or
clandestine intentions connected with talks with the Guatemalan Minister
4. It was their view that the Guatemalan Minister merely told then out of
courtesy a proposal he was going to make to the Foreign Secretary.
They also felt that this proposal should not be completely ignored,
and should be made knoun to the people.
5. Their intention of listening, along with all the unofficial members of
the delegation, to a proposal of self-toverment with a Central AJerioan
Federation with eoonomic aid was not intended to be 'secret intrigue'
by the Minister or the delegation.
6. There was never any intention of transferring the sovereignty of British
Honduras to Quatemala.
Price later declared and signed to the effect that he did not accept Guate-
Ila's claim to British Honduras, but rather believed in self-goverment under the
hited Nations. He advocated finally that it was a first principle of British and
hited Nation' justice and freedom that a man has a right to think, listen and to
Pzoss anything not morally wrong.
The year ended with the announoeaent that a new delegation was to leave for
andon early in 1958.
meotnstituted delegation, comprising of the Governor, the financial
."Us Bons. Enrique Depas, Albert Cattouse, and Denbigh Jeffery, left the
Plamary 8 to begin talks on Jamuary 14. They did not achieve the financial
I P.U.P., under George Price, continued to dominate the political life
htry. This was observed even in England when a Pebruary isume of the
"M~ s4A of the Leader 'There is no doubt that he is experiencing
Itloalt daq as a politician, but those who are hoping for a change in
i.~y to be disappointed... Although dropped from the January talks in
Stpora n the shadows, Price is still the man who cannot be ignored
i BoIdmas politics."
lag Narch the Bon. E. Depas wrote a letter to the Belise Billboard dia-
g bdlself faro the P.U.P. Ihe letter, although not one of resignation,
-meg other things that he was not satisfied wLth certain aspects of party
I party policy set by George Price. This attitude followed on the heels of
) msid to have been made by C.D.U. Secretary, iobholas Pollard, to the
he had oamp3taly lost confidence in Price.
Ilsad's threat to resign supposedly came about because of an address
p as alleged to have delivered, favoring a plan for Joining British
fth Guatemala(1). Pollard said he would have to resign unless the P.U.P.
Psalared that neither the leader nor any other member of the Pkrty should
ah a matter in public before the Pkrty Council had given its approval.
)be was expelled from the Party on the grounds that he "released for public
i a libellou letter containing damaging and false statement against the
its leader.o Shortly after this Depas resigned, and the P.U.P. consequently
i said that he was always in favour of using the Guatemalan situation as
pa against Britain, but he was never serious about any form of association
pother country. He believed that the future of B.B. was independence.
st its majority of one in the Legislative Assembly.
Although he suffered the loss of some of his associates, Price continued his
urd fight. About this tlj one historian(2) said of him: BA man of considerable
raonal charu, and an effective speaker, his personal magnetism rather than his
]lcies attracted many followers, though the visions he conjured up of a Central
erioan destiny were also not without effect. His unocmproising nature, his rigid
tholicism, the asceticism of his private life, all tended to lead to uncritical and
tisdastic idolization. To a great extent he was assisted by the rudimentary
nature of politics... Moreover, the emotional reactions Price produced among his
pozmnts tended to rob the opposition group of mich potential effectiveness by
kng their outlook essentially anti-Price, and thus predominantly negative."
Uhile addressing a political meeting on March 21 at the Majestic Theatre lard,
ioe vaa alleged to have said that while he and Cattouse were in New York they had
served that toilet paper, instead of ticker-tape, had been dropped on to the Queen
ring her visit to New Tork. He was immediately charged with sedition, and the
ial which opened in the Supreme Court on April 16, ended with his acquital on
During May, Herbert Fuller, President of the National Party, and Philip Goldson,
Sting Leader of the Hondnran Independence Party, proposed in a letter to George Price
at the three parties oombine to send a delegation to discuss a solution to the
atealan problem with Mr. John Profumo, Under-Secretary of State, due to arrive in
e country on May 13. The P.U.P. declined on the grounds that the Guatemalan claim
is a dispute between the United Kingdom and Guatemala, and as such should be dealt
Lth by the Foreign Offices of both countries.
2) D.A.G. Vaddell; mBritish Hondurasn a historical and contemporary survey., 1961,
On the day following the joint delegation talks with Mr. Profumo, the P.U.P.
wortheless sent a separate delegation. On May 15, the Executive Council, which
eluded the Deputy leader and one other member of the P.U.P., unanimously passed
o following resolution:- *That the people of British Honduras reject entirely and
solutely any pretensions to soveriegnty over their territory by Guatemala and on
kalf of the people we represent this Council urges Her Majesty's Government
purously to resist any claims of this sort which are totally repugnant to the
*spi of British Honduras."
In July, Price asserted that his policy was one of economic association with
itral America, with a view to becoming a sixth Central American state.
S A demand for self-government was made during August in the form of a demon-
ration in which about 5,000 persons of Belize City and the districts took part.
sy supported the presentation of a memorial signed by Price suggesting that Her
esty's Government had failed to bring about adequate economic development and to
mide several of the basic services required by the people. It was further requested
at immediate self-determination and self-government be granted. The memorial was
lvered at Government House following a parade through the City, requesting trans-
aioa to the Secretary of State.
S 1The reply came on December 15, re-affirming Her Majesty's Government general
hay for political and constitutional development of Colonial territories, namely to
L& the people along the road to self-government within the Commonwealth, the
poest on a whole had been diplomatically turned down, and the reasons given included:-
a) the country would still have to be financially dependent for a time,
b) self-government could only be interpreted as transfer to another
power most likely Guatemala in view of statements made by
both British Honduras and Guatemala, and,
c) any transfer of that sort would not be in keeping wit* the resolution
of loyalty previously passed by the Assembly in December, 1957.
end of October the P.U.P. had announced its candidates for the Belize
elections. They were Edward Austin, lcas Marin, Anthony Maighan,
apg, Fred Westby, and George Price. At a convention held on October
passed several resolutions, among them that the Party centime its
hieve its rightful place within the Central Amerian orbit, and that the
ontry be changed from British Honduras to Belizs, and the capital city
etLon day, December Is votes were cast the highest up to then in
Lsatory. 56.9 per cent. of the electorate voted and returned five
tes to office. They lost same ground here, although still in the
the opposition charged that the anti-P.U.P. vote was split due to
odidates intervening. At a City Council meeting on December 22,
na unwimously elected President, and Fred Westby Vie-President.
air's end .minipal elections were also held throughout the country
iptiLa of Stann Creek), and the P.U.P. won majorities in all six of
SBoards in the districts.
Early in the year the Governor attempted to introduce a resolution into
the Assembly against association with Guatemala. This was done to offset the bold,
mtiumous statements of the Onatemalan President regarding 'Belice, and although
the resolution was carried, quite a few elected members opposed it.
On April 5 the P.U.P. held a demonstration for better housing and employment.
At the sam time a memorial addressed to the Secretary of State was presented to the
Gowrnor. The memorial referred to a previous one of August 22, 1958, requesting
iiediate self-governuent and self-detersination in accordance with the United Nations
I A Constitutional Commissioner, Sir Hilary Blood, arrived in the Country on
September 1 to review the 1954 Constitution. The P.U.P. submitted a umber of pro-
posals, ausuarized as followss-
a) The introduction of the ministerial system,
b) A fully elected Assembly of seventeen members.
a) The Governor to be divested of all legislative or administrative
powers, and to be solely the Queen's representative in the Country.
d) The Government should be under an elected representative.
e) There should be no nominated or ex-officio members of the Assembly.
f) Members of the Assembly should be immne from prosecution for their
political opinions, and should not be arraigned in Court without
consent of the Assembly.
g) A Cabinet should be charged with the administration of the Country,
and be responsible to the Assembly for all acts of Government.
h) The Cabinet should be further empowered to contract loans and request
aid for economic development.
i) Appointments to the public service should be made by the Government.
The report of the Commissioner was made public on October 25, and he recom-
makded only a few constitutional. changes. He said that he preSerred to institute
a gpadual change because -
1. The Guatemalan claim complicated matters.
2. British Honduras was not ready for any more changes.
5. The fact that the P.U.P. wanted self-government under the
United Nations was a danger-eignal.
On November 19 it was announced by the P.U.P. Secretary that Councillor
%ogers, a former member of the National Independence Party, had resigned that
because he disagreed Lwith their policy, and had now become a member of the
. ehis move increased the Party's representation on the City Council to six.
Elections to the Stann Creek Town Board were held on December 28, and
ted in the P.U.P. gaining three seats out of five. 897 out of 1,580 registered
a vent to the polls, and the successful P.U.P. candidates were: Allan Arthurs,
L Mc oy, and Carlos Nolberto.
In January the P.U.P. and the N.I.P. agreed on joint action so as to present
dted Front at the forthcoming London talks. This was mostly in reaction to the
ititational Conmissioner's report, and it was proposed to present suggestions for
neater measure of constitutional advance.
Besides the Constitutional Delegation from the Working Committee which com-
ed George Price and Albert Cattouse of the P.U.P., Herbert 1ller and Philip
laon of the N.I.P., and two independents (Rev. G. Hulse and W.H. Courtenay),
Svwas the official Government's Delegation (which would diewuss economic policy
financial aid), and a Christian Demooratic Party delegation. The talks opened
February 1, and when it ended on February 17, there were several constitutional
gea agreed on for the Country, embodying substantial transfers of political power
the people, the more important being:-
the introduction of the ministerial system, with the majority
Party leader to be known as First MLnister,
an Executive Council consisting of the Governor as Chairman, two
official members, the First Minister, and five other ministers,
elected by the legislative Assembly from among their own members,
a Legislative Assembly presided over by a Speaker, comprising eighteen
elected members, two nominated official and five nominated unofficial
the First Minister to propose names of his Cabinet to the Assembly,
the First Minister to allocate, through the Governor, the portfolios
Uhese developments, braoght about by the new constitution, undoubtedly took
i Country nearer to self-government, and although most members of the delegation
t be thanked and praised for the part they played, it is interesting to single out
1J.P. Leader and quote what a newspaper(1) had to say of him "After some ten
billiue Times. January 29. 1960.
in of arduously fighting for the people of this Country, after sowe ten years of
rd work, uniting the people of this Country, and after ten years of removing the
ny obstacles presented by the Colonial system, the Hon. George Price, Leader
mnipotent' of Belize Country, has won another great victory this time that of
citing the voices of their Country to seek for self-over ment and independence."
It is significant that in the preamble to the new constitution, there was a
action which rejected the Guatemalan claim to B.H., and another section which stated
at a referendum must be held before there could be any question of joining with a
lAhboring country. This vas signed by leaders of both the P.U.P. and the N.I.P.
Ioe was definite when he proclaimed that he wanted B.H. to be a bridge between the
nmonmealth and Central America.
I he granting of greater constitutional powers to the Government heralded
kat later became know as the 'new order.' The people's identity began to assert
tself, and nation-consciousness was encouraged by slogans and daily reminders. The
oty leader led the movement with vigorous and perspicacious declarations. An
ample of this was in December when he moved amendments to certain bills concerning
h Judiciary system of the Country, proposing that Belize be no longer termed a town,
at a city, and the entire land no longer a colony, but a country. He said that such
W vas in keeping with the 'new order' and the new pattern of Government.
With the dissolution of the Legislative Assembly by the Governor on January
14, and the subsequent announcement that general elections would be held early in
March, the P.U.P. began campaigning vigorously. Their national convention opened
at Memorial Park in Belize City on January 27, when thousands of members and suppor-
ters attended, and the district candidates for the election were presented to the
convention. The following nightie session was held at the Riverside Hall, when
officers were elected and the Party's manifesto for the elections adopted. The
officers were as follows:-
Deputy Party Leader
On March 1, election day, the P.U.P. candidates(1) won all eighteen elected
(1) C.L. Rogers
Fort George "
Corozal North "
Cayo North "
Cayo South "
Stann Creek Town
Stann Creek Rural
Belise Rural North
Belize Rural South
Orange Walk South
Orange Walk North
meats in the Assembly, under an advanced constitution. This victory vas regarded
by the P.U.P. as a strong mandate for them tp govern the Country during the next four
7aan. This was the second time in mucoession the Party had won all the elected seats
in a general election. Statistics for the election shoved that over eighty per cent.
of the registered voters vent to the polls, and 65.16 per cent, of these voted for the
George Price was formally appointed First Minister by the Governor on March 5,
and on March 27 Price in turn allocated portfolios to his Ministers, elected
to his Cabinet through the Governor, as follows:-
Finance and Devlopment Hon. G. Price
Public Works, Power and
Com nications Hon. A. Cattouse
Local Government, Social
Welfare and Cooperatives Hon. L. Sylvestre
Natural Resources, Commnrce
and Industry Hon. A. Hunter
Labour Hon. C. Rogers
Ednoation, Health and
Housing Hon. J. Macmillan.
Now in total power, the Leader and his Party went ahead with plans for the
Country, helped along by its mouthpiece the Belize Times, and before the year ended
aeh had been changed in areas of semantics and political ideas and ideals.
At a City Council meeting held on May 25, the members unaniusly approved
a neolution made by the President that Central Government should repeal the existing
lav of proportional representation, and institute the system of direct counting of
otes as was used for elections to the Legislative Assembly.
During this year too, the Battle of St. George's Caye, celebrated on September
10, was branded by the Party as a myth, and at a Legislative Assembly meeting held on
hAm 27 a resolution was proposed that the 10th day of September be adopted and
bolared to be the National Day of the Country. This was approved by the Emcutive
Coudl on July 19.
An unprecedented incident on the southern border with Onatemala on Janaary
oangt the attention of the entire Country, when a party of armwd Quatemalans
sted that country's flag at Pueblo Viejo after tearing down the Union Jack and
Ding it. This at once formed a platform from which opposing factions could
nch attacks on the P.U.P. A few days after the incident, the Leader of the
:.P., Philip Goldson, wrote to the Mayor of Belise City saying that his Party's
itvive felt that since the Onatemalan invasion of the Toledo District, public
dings in the capital had been such that the displaying of the Guatemalan
lonal colours in a public square of the City was causing growing resentment
mg the people. He requested therefore that the P.U.P. flag be removed from its
ad in the Market Square, and be displayed only at Party meetings.
George Price replied, reminding the N.I.P. Leader that the flag of the
I.P. had been flying in the Market Square for over nine years, and moreover,
I been there with the knowledge and consent of the Belize City Council which
3d and controlled the Square. He did not believe that there was any danger
In April Price led a delegation to London to discuss financial assistance
r hurricane reconstruction and rehabilitation(l). The British Government gave a
ant of $16 million. Later in the month, on April 16, talks were held in Puerto
co between delegates from Britain, Guatemala, and British Honduras on the long-
andLng dispute between Britain and Guatemala over British Honduras. Price also
tended, along with two other delegates.
) n October 51, 1961, Hurricane Hattie severely wrecked Belize City and
other parts of the Country.
The Country was split once more in the celebration of September 10. One
tion insisted on gloryfying the events of the battle of September 10, 1798,
eAd-e2d the P.U.P., or Gorment, faction for not regarding it completely.
P.U.P. had an explanation for this. they were celebrating that year's National
(as they choose to call it) ahadowed by a conjunction of events, recalling
indecision and the struggles of the past, the awareness of the present, and
b mind turned to the future of the aspiring nation. wToday we are celebrating
memory of those glorious events of 1798 which gave us the occasion to observe
tenth of September," the Belise 7mes stated. mBut the emphasis of the
ntieth Century celebrations have a now theme, a new angle. Instead of dwelling
the victory of masters and slaves over Spaniards, the idea is to increase our
ional canoepts. We are looking forward to the future, not to the total ex-
sion of things of the past, but necessarily in keeping up with our gradual
ilutLon to mature thinking.'
On October 51, Rlverside Hall was the scene of the P.U.P. Convention, at
.h nine members were selected to contest the City Council elections to be held
Dooamber 12. 7hey weres- HoBn George Price, Undbergh Rogers, Fred Weatby,
em Mhighan, and Mrs. Gwendolyn Lisarraga; and Mr. Anthony Maighan, Miss Lois
Wlada, Mr. Orlando Itzam, and Mr. Vallan Neal. On election day the P.U.P.
Lad a complete victory when all nine candidates were elected, allowing the
ty to realise its goal of having a P.U.P. City Council working along with a
J.P. Central Government a theory first proposed by the Party leader. 8,774
)ple voted out of 12,751 registered, and out of 77,086 votes cast the P.U.P.
xiwd 44,625 (57.9%), while the N.I.P. got 52,461 (42.1%). At the first
ty Council meeting held after elections, Hon. Fred Westby was elected Mayor,
d Anthony Heighan Deputy Mayor.
%ay, George Price in the following words, made clear the plans he had
bae of the Country:- Our aim is independence and friendship with all
wrica, invading Guatemala who is our neighbour. We want trade relations
La the development of the adjoining large Peten region. We are studying
L American Common Market of which Quatemala is a part; the Economic
am Latin America (in M zico City) is about to akes a study." (Price
r that the developea t of Neten would depend on the ooaniwcation facil-
Ithte through British Honduras. If development of British Honduras and
hIeoome a reality, then British Honduras in turn could benefit immnsely
3 this large area of development so near to it).
Ltitutional change was being agitated for, and a conference in London
Iea place in July. As leader of the P.U.P., Price formally announced
O oposals for the type of constitution he hoped to negotiate for the
SJane 11 he placed these before a special comodttee appointed to hold
lag in the legislative Assembly Chambers, and the most important weres-
L the Governor shall act in accordance with the advice of the
Cabinet or a MLnister
Executive authority to be vested in the Cabinet
-Lnisters directly responsible to the House of Representatives
a Prime Minister shall be appointed by the Governor
Ministers appointed by the Governor with the advice of the
SPrime M nister
twu ex-pfficio members of Executive Council replaced by MLnisters
PL Minister removable by the Governor, bat only if a vote of
no confidence passed by the legislative Assembl
boameral legislature consisting of the elected House of Representa-
tives (18 members)
a Senate with a president, to initiate legislation, but have no
a- control over finance
a Privy Council to advise the Governor on the exercise of the Royal
Prerogative of Mercy in capital cases
all matters concerning foreign affairs to remain in the hands of
H.M. Government in the United Kingdom
Plblio Service Comdission appointed biennially by the Governor,
on the advice of the Prime MLnister
a Court of Appeals set up, and an Auditor-General for the government.
At the Legislative Assembly meeting on June 17 these proposals were
roed, and for the next few days the Party Leader visited all the district
w tkddig the proposals to the people. He left the Country on June 29
attend the talks in London, the other members of the delegation being:-
. MsrB G. LIzarraga, Hon. C.L. Rogers, Bon. F. Zuniga, Bon. U.H. Courtenay
natitutional adviser), and Hon, C. Henville (legal adviser). The conference
rted on July 10 and ended on July 22, with most of the P.U.P. proposals approved.
A victory rally was held on August 28 to celebrate the achievement of
onatitation which would form the basis for full internal self-govermaent. The
ty leader said that the strength of the delegation which went to London was the
port it received from the people, and it was also the people who would be called
a to decide and approve the next step in constitutional advance, He added that
i National Day programme and ceremonies, coming up in a few days, should also be
aided as a celebration of the new constitution.
On September 27 the P.U.P. held its annual convention at Riverside Hall,
I George Price was re-elected leader of the Party. Other officers elected weres-
Hon. A.E. Cattouse Deputy leader
Mr. A. Bevans Chairman
Mr. A. Neighan Secretary
Mr. M. Isaguirre Assustant Secretary
Hon. A. Hunter Treasuaer
Hon. C.L. Rogers) Co-Assistant Treasurers
Mr. 0. Islam )
Mr. I. Tillett Deputy Chairman.
Several resolutions were passed an such subjects as oommniusm, internal
mrity, and national symbols. The new motto proposed for the convention was
I join the P.U.P. to gi, to the nation not to take A from the nation."
sides being a celebration of the 15th birthday of the P.U.P., the convention
a also a celebration to mark the achievement of a self-government constitution -
job the P.U.P. set out to do when it was formed on September 29, 1950.
The Party leader was always partial to self-government and self-determina-
an in accordance with the United Nations Charter. With United Nations Day
preaching (October 24) he further stressed his convictions when he raised the
dted Nations flag in the Market Square on October 22. In a short address he
ad the gathering that the flag was symbolic to this Country, because the P.U.P.
.ifesto stated that the Party would continue to adhere to the principles of the
dted Nations Chartet. This was being done in an effort to attain full internal
if-goversment within the Commonwealth, and eventually go on to independence.
Town Board elections were held on December 27 in the seven district towns,
id 4,010 voters out of 4,945 who were registered voted. The P.U.P. gained victory
F dining in five towns, namelys. Corosal, San Ignacio, Stann Creek, Monkey River,
ad Nmta Gorda. They garnered 55.40 of the total votes, while the N.I.P. got
5.9A inning in the towns of Orange Walk and Benque Viejo del Carman.
On January 1, British Honduras became the newest nation of the hemisphere
a it was granted full internal self-government by Great Britain, after ninety-
B years of Crown Colony rule. George Price was sworn in as Premier by the
minor at Government House on January 6. Ministers who would subsequently form
Government Caninet, were also sworn in and allocated portfolios as follows:-
Hon. A. Cattouse Minister of Local Government, Social
Welfare and Co-operatives
Hon. J.W. Macmillan Minister of Education, Health and Housing
Hon. A. Hunter MInister of Natural Resouroes, Commerce
Hon. C.L. Rogers Minister of Internal Affairs and Justice
Hon. D.L. McKoy Minister of Labour
Hon. H.D. Silva Minister of Public Works, Power and
The date January 6 was also significant in that it marked the 15th Anni-
sary of the anti-colonial, anti-devaluation demonstration.
Celebrations were the order of the day. January 15 was declared a holiday,
all over the Country festivities reigned. The numerous events were characteri-
by a great show of enthusiasm. A special sitting of the Legislative Assembly
held on January 15, and was addressed by Mr. Nigel Fisher, then Under-Secretary
Stale for the Colonies. In his talk he said that British Honduras was well set
the road to independence, and that the people should always cherish the fact
ht they are free from racial strife, and should always remain a "truly united
iple." Mr. Fisher had only words of praise for the Premier and his Government.
a have a good Premier who has gained the friendship and confidence of the
ted Kingdom Government," he told the people of Punta Gorda as he made a 'whirl-
id' tour of the district towns. In Stann Creek Town he told the school children
Lt the new Constitution would one day be remembered as a most important event
their history, and he further felt that they should know that no other man in
i Country had done more to achieve the present political advance than the Premier.
"This is an important week," he said in San Ignacio, "and one which was well
earned. This is due to the calibre of your leaders and their wisdom during the
In collaboration with the celebrations the P.U.P. held a meeting at the
Majestic Theatre lard on January 15, at which the Premier and other speakers
addressed the gathering. Price said that fourteen years ago when the movement of
independence started, the moving desire of the Party was to ensure the betterment
of all the people. The task was not an easy one because the vested interests in
the Country tried to keep down the people. He made a pledge, however, that
Government would do its best to bring a better life for all, and reiterated his
call for hard work in a dedicated manner so as to achieve complete nationhood.
On February 25, tbe City Council passed a resolution that the official
name of the capital city be known as Belize City. Councillor Price, speaking on
the motion, said that the resolution was intended to clarify any confusion which
may arise over the district of Belize and the capital Belize City(1).
Three Government M.nistere(2), all members of the External Affairs Com-
aittee, left the Country as a delegation on March 7 on a goodwill tour of Central
American countries. The purpose of the tour, which lasted eighteen days, was
chiefly to observe the workings of the Central American Common Market, and to
establish goodwill abroad.
I At a Party meeting held at the Courthouse Plaza on July 28, the Premier
announced that the Cabinet had decided that Government should sponsor the National
Day celebrations during 1964. This was decided on because the P.U.P. Government
had led the people to full, internal self-government, and the National Day (cele-
brated on September 10) could serve as a unifying force toward nation-building.
(1) The Legislative Assembly on May 23 passed a Bill changing the name. It also
changed El Cayo to San Ignacio, and added 'Town' after Orange Walk, Corozal
and Stann Creek.
(2) G. Price, C.L. Rogers, and A. Hunter.
them for that year's National Day as: We unite to build a nation.
Another delegation, this time destined for Mexioo, left the Country on
t 7. It comprised of G. Price, C.L. Rogers, and F.S. Ricalde, and lasted
S During the National Day celebrations, the Party's and people's aspirations
sovereignty, unity and an identity, were best reflected in the following words
d drink one of the celebration activities:-
"I see a certain light
Which beckhns me
To walk upon a wider stage.
I speak with one voice,
And still I tell you true
There are so many parts to me,
But one voice raised
In perfect harmony ...
Things men yearn for, hope for, sigh for;
Things men pray for, live for, die for;
My people now in happy integration,
My people now with fervent concentration,
My people now resolve to build a nation ...*(5)
A series of campaign meetings, conducted in all six electoral divisions
the City, was launched by the Party on October 5 in preparation for general
motions schebaled to be held in 1965.
The year was in many ways a politically historical and significant one
r the Country, the highlight being the attainment of ifll, internal self-
go tment. The Governor too felt that the people were Justified in looking
back at the past twelve months with satisfaction and gratitude for the many
blessings they had received. They had witnessed the development and establishment
of friendly relations with neighboring countries, and they had bean greatly
encouraged by the spirit of genuine goodwill which so many friends had shown them.
It was alaoet certain that these friends had appreciated the way in which the
people had reciprocated their interest.
(5) From "Epic of Belize" by R.L. Clark.
On January 21 the Premier announced that general elections under the
new Constitution would be held on March 1. The candidates chosen to contest
the election for the P.U.P. were:-
Fort George Division
Belize Rural North
Belise Rural South
Orange Walk North
Orange Walk South
Stann Creek Town
Stann Creek Rural
Mrs. G. Lizarraga
C. Martinez, JR.
Before the elections, the Party held a convention at the Riverside Hall
on February 11, at which all officers were re-elected to their posts. The Manifesto
vas read to the members and approved unanimously.
Election day came and 26,431 voters,
returned the P.U.P. candidates to sixteen(1)
candidates winning the remaining two seats.
captured 15,271 (57.8%), while their nearest
(39.5%). In Belize City, 17,660 voters were
out of a total of 37,860 registered,
seats in the Assembly, the N.I.P.
Of the total votes cast, the P.U.P.
rivals, the N.I.P., got 10,407
registered, of which 12,409 voted.
The following night, after the last of the election results were announced,
George Price and the other successful P.U.P. candidates were given rousing cheers
by the crowd gathered in front of the Party Headquarters in Qaeen Street. The
Leader told them that the people had given the Party a strong mandate to lead the
(1) F. Westby and S. Vernon were defeated.
country to independence viti4nthe Commonwealth, and to build a prosperous,
happy Christian democratic nation in Central America.
On March 3 the Governor invited the Premier to form a government. The
Ministers comprising his new Cabinet were sworn in on March 5, and allocated
portfolios as followss-
Mrs. G. Lizarraga(2)
Minister of Finance & Economic Development
Minister of Local Government & Social
Minister of Natural Resources & Trade
Minister of Internal Affairs & Health
Minister of Labour
Minister of Public Utilities & Communications
Minister of Education & Housing.
The National Assembly, which was made up of the House of Representatives
and the senate, met on March 12 to elect the Speaker and Deputy Speaker of the
lower house and the Prehident and Vice-President of the upper house. Both houses
wre thus fully constituted and this completed the introduction of the Country's
nev self-government Constitution. A Seven Year Plan, drawn up to coincide with
the date on which the Constitution came into effect, was formally implemented.
The Plan was designed to help the country achieve full independence by giving it
a viable economy.
The Party was fifteen years in existence on September 29, and at this stage
it might be useful to pause a while and go back in history to assess what progress
had been made sinoe George Price assumed full leadership -
(2) Mrs. Lizarraga was the first woman to be appointed a Cabinet Minister in
sugar increased from an output of 6,000 tons in 1957 to
35,000 tons in 1965
rice increased from one million to seven million pounds
citrus made significant strides
many co-operative societies were formed
each village now had its own Village Council, and most villages
also had a community centre
feeder roads linked many villages with the rest of the country
high schools were established in each main town
several people had gone abroad to study
thousands of acres of land had been given to farmers
electricity supplies in Belize City had been improved, and plants
were being set up in the district towns to allow for 24 hours
more clinics were built, as well as a new hospital for Punta Gorda
over $50 million was being invested in the country by private
On November 17 a convention was held at Riverside Hall when nine candidates
were approved to contest the coming City Council elections. They were:- F. Westby,
A. Maighan, J. Meighan, 0. Lizama, MLss L. Encalada, W. Coffin, G. Dakers,
Mrs. M. Usher, and H. Eacalante. In addressing the meeting, George Price told
the people that the P.U.P. in the City Council had worked along with the Government,
and together had accomplished ninety-five per cent. of what they had promised in
their IMnifesto. The Party gained complete victory on election day, December 14,
by inning all nine seats. 10,004 people voted out of 17,716 registered, and the
Phrty received an aggregate popular vote of 46,647, while the N.I.P. got 59,732.
The P.U.P. Government had always advocated that the ideal state for the
Country should be a Christian and democratic one, and this was brought out
strongly in the Premier's Noew Year message in 1966, when he said:-
"In March of 1965 Belizeans chose Christian Democracy as
the best way to happiness and prosperity for the new and
independent Belize... We belive in Christian Democracy
as the best way of life and we are determined to prove
that it can best succeed where other systems have failed
and will fail. For our way is 'Christian' in its belief
in the supreme value of the individual; it is 'democratic'
in its concern for human rights and the rejection of all
forms of ungodliness and slavery; and it is 'revolutionary'
in the sense that it implies a transformation and a perfection
of the social and economic structure not by violence, but by
law and order."
L966 was also to be remembered as the year Ambassador Bethuel Webster,
a United States lawyer, arrived in the Country (on January 16) to mediate in
the dispute between the United Kingdom and Guatemala over British Honduras. He
held meetings with political party representatives and other interested parties
in an effort to reach an honourable and amicable solution to the long-standing
question. The Cabinet assured Mr. Webster that the people of the Country did
at vent to belong to or be a part of any other country whatsoever. They wanted
tbe world to respect their right to decide their own future.
In connection with mediation discussions, the Premier led a delegation
Tsw orik and london during June. On his return, on June 17, he made a state-
ao the people telling them that the British Government had given a solemn
assurance that there was no intention of imposing any solution to the Anglo-
(katemalan dispute that was not acceptable to British Honduras. He said it was
never suggested or proposed, either in London or in New York, that the Country
should not be a sovereign and independent nation.
While the talks were in progress in New York, a Trinidad newspaper had
reported falsely on the discussions in London, saying that "Britain wants to quit
British Honduras and in effect hand the colony over to Guatemala as soon as
possible." The Premier branded this as completely untrue, and added that he
had every trust in the United Kingdom Government and in the ability and integrity
of the Mediator.
In a bye-olection held in Stann Creek Town on July 14, the Party suffered
a small defeat. Their candidate, Mr. Carl hamos, lost to the N.I.P. candidate,
the former receiving 564 votes, while the latter got 664. Out of 1,883 registered
voters, 1,259 voted. This bye-election came about through the death of Mr. Richard
Castillo, a P.U.P. member of the Town Board, when his seat was declared vacant.
The sixteenth birthday of the Party was celebrated on September 29, and
a Belize Times editorial of that date, stated:-
"Never before in the history of our Couhtry has any one
organization meant so much to so many people. Never
before has one organization received the support, loyalty,
and affection of so many people.
"Because the P.U.P. has accepted the rule of democracy and
recognized the sacred personality of the individual, it
has received the backing of all segments of our society.
"If anybody is to be singled out for praise today on the
sixteenth anniversary of the Party formation, it is the
ordinary Belizean man and woman who has made the P.U.P.
what it is; the voters who have given their support at
the polls; and the leaders who have worked the Manifesto."
A now headquarters for the Party, called "Independence Hall," was
ially opened and dedicated on October 21. The P.U.P. leader formally
be blue and white ribbon across the front door, and along with the
ter of Internal Affairs, addressed the gathering.
Town Board elections were held in all towns on December 28, and the
Orange Walk Town
Stann Creek Town
Benque Viejo del Carmen
Monkey River Town
- all seven
- 2 P.U.P.,
- 4 P.U.P.,
- 1 P.U.P.,
- all seven
P.U.P. candidates elected
5 N.I.P. elected
3 N.I.P. elected
6 N.I.P. elected
P.U.P. candidates elected
1 N.I.P. elected
N.I.P. candidates elected.
if 7,025 registered voters, 5,587 persons cast 56,259 votes 18,685 of
I going to the P.U.P.
One outstanding feature of this year occurred during May, when the
Premier issued a commission to inquire into allegations made by opposing factions(1)
that I have been making secret weekly visits to the Gallon Jug area near the
Guatemalan border since the month of June 1966, and that in the month of November
1966, I made eighteen trips to the area, crossing the Tower Hill Ferry at the
dead of night. Inquiry is also to be made into my movements on the 20th April
and 3rd May of this year." He appointed Sir Colin McGregor, a retired Chief
Justice of Jamaica, to be the Commissioner, and he arrived in the Country on
May 29. The inquiry opened the following day, and the Commissioner's findings
uere read publicly on June 2, completely exonerating the Premier of the allegations
made against him.
Talk of an early independence for the Country grew stronger during this
year, and although some people had adverse, and even pessimistic views, the
Premier's Government seemed optimistic. One journalist, Jean M. Fox, who visited
the Country went back to Michigan and began telling the story of British Honduras
and independence in a series of articles. One article stated:-
"Leaders in Belize are charged with good sense... As a
colony costing Great Britain approximately $5 million
annually, they could have independence tomorrow morning
if they wanted it... But in the words of a very wise
man, the Premier of the newly emerging country: 'We prepare
for independence slowly. When it comes, we want to be able
to stand on our own feet economically, financially and
emotionally. Belize can be independent whenever it wishes.
We are fully aware, however, that political independence
without economic stability and without a universal feeling
(1) Headline article published by the Belize Billboard, May 10, 1967.
of national consciousneass, is empty and undesirable..
"Wo go forth with hope and courage. Wo go forth united under the ensign
uhich is raised over the people. An ensign we dil need to keep us going onward
in tho faco of fear and obstentiono" Uith these forceful wlda the Proador,
in hias ov Year' message, opened 1968.
The will of tho Party to forge on to achieve full sovereignty for the
ooantry uao evidenced a feu weeks later, when on March 14 at a meeting hold in
Independence lall, a roaolution calling for the drafting of an Independence
ConotLtution vas passedd by the Central Party Council of the P.U.P. !ih resolution,
uiA.h was pronented by the Party Leader, centred around two main points (1) it
expressed the hope that mediation would produce a satisfactory solution of the
Anglo-Autnmalan dispute (2) it emphasized that whatever the outcome of mediation
the P.U.P. would be guided by the mandate it had received from the people to lead
the country to independence within the Cowonuealth. Tho drafting of such a
constitution, it was hoped, would lead to broad, bi-partisan aproemont on at least
the main features of the draft to be taken to London for a final conference at
uhich indopendenoo and arrangement for future assistance from Britain would be
dotoninodd. P.U.P. supporters endorsed this decision at a public meeting hold at
the Courthouso Plaza on March 21, and further asked that the National Acoombly
proceed with the drafting.
A outingg of tho llous of Representatives vaas hold on March 29, and in
reply to a question as to a time-table for tho attaiment of indepcndonoo, the
Premier, in answering otatods "However much our good Beliaean people ardently
desire independence at an early date, it does not seem possible, according to
the present time-table, that independence will be this year; neither is it
possible at this time to fix the date for an indepenlonce conference."
On April 5 both the House and the Senate passed motions setting up a
joint caunittee to study terns of an independce constitution.
Me pr6posale of bMdiator Bethuel Webster on .the Anglo-Cuatealan diaputo
were to be handed ovor in london, and on April 24 the P.U.P. seootion of a dele-
gation (Preer CoGeorge Prioe, Hons. A.A* Hunter, C.LD. Rogers, S. Ricalde,
S. Pardoni and V.H. Courtenay) left Deolie.
On May 8 the Preuder made a radio broadcast to the country, announcing
that follouinC oountry-ide consultations with the people his Governmont had
antLtied the United Kingdom of its decision to rjcJt tho draft Tr:'nty proocnted
by those bdiator.
In a byo-clection held in Stann Creek Town on June 1, the P.U.P. candidate
Carloe INolberto (949 votes) defeated the N.I.P. candidate Inke Palaoio (703 votos).
Of the 2,61. registcrod voters, 1,755 persons voted. The P.U.P. Vieeud this
victory as "an important indication of the people'sa continued confidence in tho
On September 29 the Party uas eighteen years old. The Praeor published
a saaage in the Delie Times of that date in vi.oh he said that *all objective
sobervers will have to admit that the P.U.P. has brought preat benefits and
progress to Deliae. We must keep up our support for this great movement to
lIad Slie9 to independence and prosperity."
at Independence Hall on March 18 selected the
to contest City Council elections:
Mrs Iris Gallap
All nine were successful in the elections held on April
Faustino Zuniga, a former member of the House of
Representatives for Punta Gorda died on 1st April.
From October 2 7, Lord Shepherd, the Minister of State
in the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, visited Belize, and the
Premier viewed the visit as significant because it was usual for
the Minister to visit territories that were going into
Independence. In a petition to Lord Shepherd, it was stressed that
in 1965 the people of Belize gave overwhelming support at the
polls to the P.U.P. and its Manifesto for Belizean Progress;
deciding then that Belize should become a nation free, sovereign
and independent. The petition also brought out the important need
for an efficient, well armed and well trained Volunteer Guard, which
vwidth military aid from the United Kingdom would defend Belize
from outside aggression.
As a preface to Lord Shepherd's visit, in proposing
a motion in support of the petition, the Premier stated in the House:
"The Government of the P.U.P. was a responsible government. It
originated from the people, represented the people and had a sacred
responsibility to serve the people. In discharge of this
responsibility it sought to fulfil its promises made at election
time and was, in consequence, determined not only to achieve
independence but was also committed to secure proper guarantees of
the territorial integrity of the new Central American nation of
Belize in the heart of the Caribbean Basin".
At a convention held on October 26 in Corozal Town seven
candidates to contest that Town's upcoming Town Board elections
were selected. They were: Hon. F.S. Ricalde, Enrique Romero,
Ramon Chi, Rodney Moguel, Antonio Sosa. Alfonso Alcala, and
General Elections were held on December 5, with the P.U.P.
winning 17 of the 18 contested seats. The N.I.P.-1.D.?.. won the other
seat. (Detailed figures are listed at appendix ).
The following were appointed Senators by the Governor:
Joseph Gray, James Leighan, Elsa Vasquez, Thomas Salam, Allan
Castillo, s.A. Hassock, Ulric Fuller, and Adolfo Schofield-Perez.
The President of the Senate was E.W. Francis.
Municipal elections were held on December 29 in seven
towns, resulting in the P.U.P. winning an overall thirty five
seats to the H.I.P.'s fourteen. (Detailed results are shown at
Introducing the decade-of the 1970's the Premier
in his New Year's message spoke of the problem and the
challenges of the "surging seventies". For Belize, the
challenge was to guarantee the security of an eventual
On September 20 the Premier led a delegation comprising
the Hons. A.A. Hunter and V.H. Courtenay on a tour of Canada
and Washington. On returning in early October the Premier
announced that the Canadian International Development Agency
(C.I.D.A.) will take another step towards achieving modern
sowerage and a more adequate water system for Belize City.
F.U.P. celebrated 20 years of existence on September
29. Ag. Premier, C.L.B. Rogers in his address stated: "Without
the support and dedicated effort and prayers of the Belizoan
people, the success of the P.U.P. could not have been achieved.
le are grateful for that support as we girth ourselves?
to face the challenges of our peaceful, constructive Belizoan
'Members of the House of Representatives and the Senate
held the first meeting in the National Assembly building in
Belmopan on Friday Cctober 9.
Former Deputy Mayor rilliam Coffin was elected Mayor
at a City Council meeting held on January 5.
Hon. Fred Hunter, Minister of Agriculture, Lands and Coo-
peratives on March 14 declared open the Bolizean Green Revolution
1971, which was described as a campaign by the Agriculture
Department to grow more food.
A Co-monwealth Caribbean Regional Secretariat release
dated March 10 stated that Belize was to become the twelfth
member of the Caribbean Free Trade Association (CARIFTA).
I The P.U.P. won all nine seats in the City Council
elections held on December 8, returning the following candidates
to office: James Rogers, 1-etor Thomas, Brian Chavannes, Iris
Gullap, William Coffin, Doyle Prince, George Dakers, Adolfo
Lizarraga, Miichael Usher, Coffin was re-elected Mayor at a
meeting held on December 15.
results of 1971 Belize City
(in order of highest number
of votes received)
E. Hyde -
R. Derry -
:. Burgess -
B. Belisle -
I. Shabazz -
E. Bennett -
C. Leslie -
J. Gardiner -
F. Abrahan -
In January the P.U.P. selected three candidates to contest
a bye election to fill vacant seats a rsu of the resignations
of three :.I.P. Torn Board members. The candidates were:
Santiago Rosado, Joe Loskott, and Fortunato Cervantes. Since no
other candidates were nominated, the Returning Officer declared
them duly elected on January 18.
.In Town Board elections held on December 8, the i-.U.F.
won six of the seven toun boards, while the N.I.F. won one.
This victory was viewed in the light "that the great majority of
the Belizean people are supporting the People's United Party and
its programme to lead Belize to independence and prosperity".
Cn March 16 the National Assembly approved the third
reading of a bill to change the name of the country from
British Honduras to Belize. The new name was scheduled to come
into effect on June 1, 1973. At the first reading of tho bill
the Premier told the House of Representatives that the bill
was in fulfillment of the manifesto promise made at three
successful general elections. The change of name was seen as
a conferring of dignity on the people not as subjected citizens,
but as a people in their own right with their own name and their
own identity Belizean.
Cn November 12, Hon F.S. Ricalde resigned from the
P.U.P. He was representative for the Corozal North Division.
Cn October 15, the following candidates were nominated
by the P.U.P. to contest the upcoming general elections:
/Vilio Marin Corozal North
*Florencio Marin South
*Elijio Bricehfo Orange Walk North
*Guadalupe Pech South
*Fred Hunter Belize Rural Nlorth
*Louis 3ylvestre South
*George Price Freetown
*Adolfo Lizarraga Pickstock
Said M'usa Fort George
Joseph Gray Albert
*C.L.B. Rogers I.lesopotamia
*W.H. Courtenay Collet
Assad Shoman Cayo North
*Santiago Perdomo South
*David McKoy Stann Creek Rural
Allan Arthurs Toin
Thomas Salam Toledo North
Alejandro Vernon South
On election day October 30, twelve I .U.P. candidates
were elected (*), and a few days later the Premier named his
cabinet as follows:
George Price Premier and Minister
V.H. Courtenay Minister without -ort
Ambassador to CARICCGI
Minister of Works
Minister of Agriculture & Lands
Minister of Social Services,
Labour S. Local Government
Minister of Education 2 Housing
Minister of Trade, Industry
and Consumer Protection
Attorney General and '.nister of
YMinister of Power and
The P.U.P. nominated the following nine candidates to
contest the Belize City Council elections: Willian Coffin,
George Dakers, Jose Encalada, Joe Erales, Alvan Fuller, Iris
Gullap, Louis IHrnphreys, Billy .Musa and Doyle Prince. On
election day, December 11, the following three were elected: Jose
Encalada, George Dakers and Alvan Fuller. The U.D.P. won the
other six seats.
At a public meeting held on May 21 at the Courthouse Plaza,
Premier Price reported on his attendance at a recent Cormnonwealth
leads of Government meeting in Kingston, Jamaica. He stressed that
for the first time in the P.U.P.'s twenty-five year struggle for
independence the Belize question had received so much support
and publicity abroad.
The first woman elected to serve in the House of
Representatives, Mrs Gwendolyn Lizarraga, died on June 9 at the
age of seventy four. She served for three terms in the House,
being first elected in 1961 and serving as IMinister of Education
from 1965 1969.
From September 21 the P.U.P. entered into a week long
series of activities to celebrate its Silver Anniversary, popularly
referred to as "25 years of struggle and achievement".
In October a mission was set up in New York comprising
Assad Shoman, C.L.B. Rogers and Said .usa, along with a member of
the opposition Theodocio Cchoa. The purpose of the mission was
described as follows: "The Belize Government in its continued efforts
to bring about a settlement of the unfounded and unjust claim of
Guatemala to this country has established a U.N. Mission in Hew
York headed by Minister of State Assad Shoman whose job it is to
gain support for Belize by internationalizing the issue".
On November 4 Premier Price left to join the Mission in
Niew York, and on November 7, he addressed the 4th Committee of the
United Nations. In general he called on the U.N. to support the
right of Belize to self-determine its own future. At the end of it
all the countries of the world voted overwhelmingly in favour of
Belize's right to self-determination, independence and
Towi Board elections were held on December 22 and the
P.U.P. was victorious in four of the main municipalities,
winning over 51% of the votes cast. to the U.D.P. 39% (detailed
results at appendix ).
In a letter dated December 30, the Hion. V.H. Courtenay
tendered his resignation as a Minister of government. He
explained that his reason for resigning was that he was personally
involved as a solicitor for the Ajax Petroleum Company and
Ariel Petroleum Company both of which had an outstanding legal
dispute with the Belize government. He pledged his continued
faith in the P.U.P.
* U.P. 1976
The Hon. Vicente Choco, representative for the Toledo
North Division submitted a letter of resignation as a member of
the U.D.P. on February 20. Mr Choco said that "he could no
longer support the policies of the U.D.P. since he was treated
with contemptby the leadership of that Party and not as a
representativeof his people". At a sitting of the House of
lepresentativeson March 5 he crossed the floor and joined the
P.U.P. side of the House.
The P.U.P. held its National Convention in Delmopan
on November 28, and the following officers were elected.
Deputy Party Leader -
1st Dep. Chairman -
2nd Dep. Chairman -
3rd Dep. Chairman -
Campaign Manager -
National Youth Organizer
Carl L. Rogers
Dr. Leroy Taeger
In January Mark Cuellar was appointed Secretary General
of the P.U.P. and Assistant Editor of the Delize Times.
The nine F.U.P. candidates nominated to contest the
City Council elections were: Said Miusa, George Dakers, Jose
Encalada, Alvan Fuller, Leroy Taeger, Signa Yorke, Edwin
Flowers, Lois Young and Evan Hyde. On election day
December 7, 9448 voters out of 13,948 returned a1' "'"
candidates of the U.D.P.
"The policy of the People's United Party remains the
same after as before the Belizean government and opposition
party met in New York City with Doctor David Owen, the Secretary
of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs on June 2 this
year". The circumstances and the substance of these discussions
was seen by the P.U.P. as the basis for the independence of
Belize. Any delay in reaching independence after an acceptable
settlement of the Anglo-Guatemalan dispute was viewed as being
contrary to the decolonization policy of the U.I' and the policy
of the U.K., "to bring Belize to early and secure independence
as soon as possible".
In Tow Board elections held on December 20, of 10,136
registered voters 9,026 voted giving the U.D.F. an overall
majority of seats. (Details at appendix ).
Assad Shoman resigned from the Cabinet as from January 2,
and effective January 9 his post as Attorney General was assigned
to Edwin Flowers. The post of Minister of Trade and Industry
left vacant by the resignation of Santiago Perdomo was assigned
to Guadalupe Pech effective January 15. Eligio Driceno was
appointed linis ter of Education also effective January 15.
The Central Party Council of the P.U.P. passed two
resolutions on January 17: (1) "that the guiding principles of
the P.U.P. continue to be those of democracy with a mixed economy
and that any other principles or systems, be it communism, fascism
or any kind of dictatorship, have no place in its philosophy or
its activities"; (2) "requests the Government of Belize, using
the authority of modern legal thinking, to persuade the Government
of the United Kingdom to spare no effort to obtain a just
settlement of the Guatemalan claim to Belize in accordance with
the United Nations resolution passed on the 13 day of December 1978".
The National Convention held
the two resolutions, and elected the
Louis Sylvestre -
Santiago Perdomo -
Florencio Marn -
Williamn Coffin -
Leroy Taog er-
Jose Erales -
on February 11, also passed
following to the Central
Deputy Party Leader
1st Deputy Chairman
In general elections held on November 21, the P.U.P.
candidates won thirteen of the eighteen contested seats.
The U.D.P. won the other five. Successful P.U.P. candidates
Belize Rural Uorth
Belize Rural South
Stann Creek Rural
Georae Dakers. the President of the Senate, died on
March 26 at the age of 58.
Senator Norma Fuller resigned as a member of the Senate
on May 14, and was replaced by her husband Alvan Fuller.
At a sitting of the Senate on May 23 William Coffin
was elected President of the Senate.
In City Council elections held on December 17 the
P.U.P. won a landslide victory over the U.D.P. by gaining all
nine seats. The candidates were:
The Council's inaugural meeting was held on
December 23. Elected as Mayor was Remijio Montejo, and
Deputy Iayor Dorian Barrow.
A fire on December 22 completely destroyed the building
which housed the P.U.P. headquarters and the Belize Times Press,
Cn January 30 history was made in the House of
Representatives when Fremier George Price laid on the table a
white e Paper containing Government's proposals for the new
constitution of Belize on the attainment of independence.
The P.U.P. saw this move as "the beginning of the
crowning glory for him and his 30-year old People's United Party
which began its struggle to achieve independence on September
A special convention was convened on February 15 to
study in detail the Government's White Paper. Representatives
from countrywide attended the convention at the Agriculture Show
grounds in Belmopan.
NIegotiations on the Heads of Agreement began in New
York on May 20, and Belize was represented by C.L.B. Rogers;
V.H. Courtenay and Assad Shoman.
Mrs Idolly Simpson, a former Senator, appointed in 1974,
died on May 27 at the age of 68.
A former Minister of government for two terms, Albert
Cattouse, died on July 6 at the age of 88.
Independence came to Belize at midnight on September 20 as
the British flag was lowered and the Belizean flag hoisted in its
place. Thus fulfilled a promise made 31 years before, on February
1, at the 'Eattlefield' by George Price regarding the flag of the
Baymen: "And perhaps some day if it is your wish, we shall move it
from here (the Battlefield and put it over there" (the Courthouse
The Belize City Council, at its meeting on Dece.ber
14, elected Earl Ferguson as Mayor for 1991 92, and Simeon
Sampson as Deputy Mayor.
In Totwn Board elections held on December 16 the P.U.P.
held control of three of the six main towns: Orange W7alk, Corozal
and Punta Gorda.
The inaugural meeting of the National Party was held on August 21, 1951.
at the premises of Metzgen and Matthews in North Front Street. Capt. Metzgen
pned the meeting by saying that this was the culmination of several smaller
metings held during the past few months. among certain people who had seen the
for proper political organization.. The meeting was chaired by the Hon.
rt Fuller, and the proposed constitution read by Mr. E.O.B. Barrow. The
ring agreed to the proposal to form a new Party, which was to be called
N national -Party.
The early objects of the Party were summed up as followss-
to secure and extend the liberties, to protect the interests
and to develop the national life and prosperity of the people
of British Honwreas by all constitutional means.
to work for and promote political, economic, social and
cultural progress of the Country.
to develop the political life of British Honduras by guiding,
informing and expressing public opinion through public
meetingss and Party literature.
to nominate and support Party members for elections.
to secure the development of a planned policy for the social and
economic future of British Honduras.
Ihe officers elected to serve weres-
Aset. Secretary H
Committee members M
on. W.H. Courtenay
on. Herbert fuller
r. E.O.B. Barrow
r. Z.A. Leing
r. M.S. Metsgen
r. C.M. Stained, Mr. M.B. Wilson, Mr. N.
* Tennyson and Mr. F.D. Westby.
Other citizens who Lttended the first meeting ueres- R. Renaus, H.'4. Beaumont,
II. Lainficata, Philip Hall, Reginald Pratt and Ldward Pitta.
The Party was viewed as "the answer to the challenge of the times."
During the follouLng months meetings were held on the laun of lesors. Matzgen and
Hatthvw on North Front Street, and membership grew slowly but steadily.
On October 168 ono 150 members and friends attended a rally hi4ch was held
on the lama of I-tzgcn and Matthovw. The President, W.ell. Courtenny, uho had
recently returned froc a tour of the United Kingdom and Europe, addressed the
gathering, lae congratulated the Party on the strides it had made since its for-
Mation, and appealed to members to giv it every co-operation for the general good
of the country.
beginningg on October 50, the Pirty held a eoxies of talk on, tho port of
the Conatitutional Reform Commission.
Early in January, Party members unanimously approved the Policy and
Program of the Party as outlined by'the Eeocutive Committee, which was presented
at a general meeting. The basic points can be summarized as follows-.
a) Constitutional self-eovernment within the British Commonwealth
b) kconoin self-sufficiency in basic food production; development
of local industries expansion of exports; and financial indepen-
a) ocini improvement aad extension of medical and health services;
increase of educational facilities; better hoasing; and social
d) b=o improvement of living standards of workers and employers;
Lator in-the month the Party announced its decision to contest the forth.
Made Belize City Council elections, and presented the following seven oandi-
as- .O.B. Darrow, Egbert bradcktt, Herbert Phller, Lionel Francis, M.B.L.
OHenry .iddletoa, and Mrs. Floss Camasolao The Party's platform embodied
Items of its manifesto, promisings-
-- to do practical Work and eliminate "playinC of politics" at
^^ -- construction and repairing of streets
-- nuv areas for building 3f h.-u:;b, nnd fasterin '"build ing
-- bttur water diatribution
-- to encourage and promote every advwicement for the City.
Campaignigie began in earnest on Fcbrur'ry 2c At the Tmaporial Hall, uhcn
.1H, Courtcnay presided at a meeting n nd presented the candidates to the
Uoi 'l-ction duy, 'Tarch 10, the ?!'tional Party won four of the nine
Council euts. lierbert Fuller, 2rs. Floss Coasola 2,0.P. 3nrrow,
Lianal, Francis wc-r successful cnndidateas. The 'arty leader had this t sauy
re results of the elections& "The working of the democratic process has
Lted in a victory for the National Party. The popple of Belize, by their
and unfettered will, have elected to office as members of the Belize City
1l a majority of candidates of the nationall Pn.rty. That ts democracy," lHe
d his statement by declaring "Let us all together -- NP's, PUP's and Inde-
ants join hands together end shoulder to shoulder work hard for our
*city -nd our people's advancement. That iu the only pledge, the only pro-
,,which the Nationnl Party makes and by Cod's grace utll keep,"
Herbert Puller, the Deputy Leader of the Party, was appointed by the
raor on April 4 to be President of the City Council. This cnme about after
attempts to elect a President failed. Lionel Francis was elected Vice-
the Party held its first annual Meeting on July 22 in St. -ory's Hall,
ed over by .1,'. Courtenay. Membership at that tirie nun.bred 45. Thec
ar elected at thc meeting ueret-
President .oI, Courtenny
Vico-President 1I,.F ullor
Secretary 4 Ko0,o, Pnrrow
Last. Secretary l ,.' 1etafen
MI!mwbcrs of Committeei- Mrs. Violet Locun, o.2.. Vernon, Coor-o S.
, Crispin Jeffries, Irvin Fobinson, 1rs. Vivian Seay, and '!ornan Liinfiesta.
At the Annual General Meeting held on arch 3, the following officers
II.C, IllUer )
-Mrs. V. Seay )
On April 23 a meeting discussed in detail the water problem in Belize
City, taking a serious view of the situation. The Party'c Executive was charged
with the task "to go into the matter thoroughly, immediately, with a view to
taking ouch recommendations to the authorities as may help to find a solution
to the problem."
For the remainder of the year the Party continued to hold reLular indoor
The first open-eLr meeting of the general election campaign was held at the
sonrs of Cemetery Road and Amara Avenue on January 28, when Branston Clark pro-
sidod, and the principal speaker was lir. C.M. Staine. 'The candidates selected to
contest the election vereo-
C, We stby
Election day was April 28, and the Party was only able to win one seat,
'ids in the Toledo Distriot. The P,U.P. won the other eight seats.
Thin year was a rather quiet one politically, and the Party mostly watched
the course of political development under the ruling Party since the 1954 elections.
L "The first shots in the 1956 Belize City Council election campaign were
Ld by the National Party in the Yarborough area last night. The opening
Ittacks against the hnemy' were made by Mr. Ethelbort (Kid) Broaster and
.r Wilfred leslie, and the main attack came from Mr. Herbert Co Ifuller, National
Kat Loeader." Thus did the Daily Clarion of February 21 report the launching
ht the campaign, using as the main issue the unemployment situation. The
dates chosen to contest the election were Herbert Fuller, Lionel Francis,
B~ed Uilson, Robert 11. Reneau, Mrs. Floss E. Casasola, George Quinto, Samaol
Ifeasey, and ioy Beliale.
On election day, lIarch 19, Herbert Fuller and Mrs. Floss Canasola were the
Rly two successful candidates for the Party. The P.U.P. won six seats, and the
"aininc one was won by an independent candidate.
On October 15 the Party released a statement for public information
rdin an article which appeared in the Belize Billboard of October 12, under
ee aptions "Puller not naked to join H.I.P." 'his was in connection with a
Eaur which was circulating suggesting that there might be a merger between either
h National Party and the P.U.P., or the H.I.P, and the National Party. 'Uhe
release stated that apart from this being an unfounded rumour, it was also designed
to mislead the electorate. Firthormore, the National Party had remained firm to
tta policy since its inception, and there had never been any division among members
.wgarding it. The Party was not prepared to waver in any direction from its policy
d programme, since it was fully convinced that it had the best aims for the
During October too, a political observer writing in the Daily Clarion of
eober 25, saw the political situation in British Honduras at that time as under-
I the need "for a political party truly representative of the interest of the
olany." The writer felt that neither the P.U.P. nor the national Party had served ue.
inturcuts of the people, and comnmnting on the latter Party, continued:- "The
national Party is by its vory nature, negative. The Pirty can be said to have
boon formed to oppose the P.U.Pe. Its opposition has neither been constructive
nor effective. Patriotism is an admiranble quality in political life, but it must
not be confused with flag waving, band beating, and empty, servile protestations of
loyalty. A party can oppose the Government in its policies which may be considered
to be not in the beat interest of the country, without being unpatriotic or dis-
loyal. An effective National Party should have boon able to give leadership to
the people; instead the P.U.P. was allowed to dominate the situation much to our
detriment and the resulting situation we:,are now in... The 11ational Party has
failed to reflect the hopes and aspirations of the people and has consistently
failed to show the dynamism necessary for the political progress of the country
at this sta&e of ito development."
The Annual General lioeting was held at Liberty Hall on November 15, when
it was reported by the President (Herbert Filler) that there had been a conaidcrablo
increase in membership. At election time the following were elected to offices-
HC. Fuller President
L.A. Francis lat Vice-President
EA. Goff 2nd Vico-President
C.L. Jeffries 5rd Vice-President
IJ.A. lUddlet6a Chairman
Ls Burns Secretary
Mrs. C. Dunn Asst. Secretary
N. Tennyson Treasurer.
Committee members wc.res E. Eusey, 11.4. Beaumont, Mrs. M. Hrackdtt, MXrs. V. Soay,
and Mrs. F. Casasola.
Tho year opened on a note of vigoroua campaigning by the Party for 2nocral
elections to be held in Iarch. The Leader of the Party was most forceful uhen
he declared at a meeting hold at Liberty Hall on Jamnury 17s- "The people of
British i onduran have scan the administration they wanted and it has not come
up to their expectation. We are the ones with our experience to show them how to
do it, and we are going to do it. 'Suoop them out' is our slogan for this campaign."
'.ouarda the end of Fobruary the candidates woro announced -
H.C. Flleor Bolize South
L.A. Francia Delize IWest
L.T. Dua Belize fural
HU.!. M s Cayo Division
B.L. Aviloz Toledo i.viaion
Wl.A George Orange Walk I~vision.
,a election day, March 20, the National Party gained 4,338 votao, while
the P.U.P, got 6,087 to give the latter Party a clean swoop of the poll.
Speaulationas about a possible N.P. II.I.P. merger were widesprcud during
'ay, and one month lator had started to look like a reality wean the tjo partion
entered into serious diaouasiona at Joint meetings.
l.'o have before us a decision to make uhich is oven more important than
the decision ue made seven 7oars ago when tho national Party uwa formed. A
proposal has boon placed before us that the nationall Virty and the Honduran
Indo-nennce liarty should both dissolve thoemaelvos to uake way for a new political
party." Those word uere said by the Party Leodor in his opening remarks at
Liborty 11 on. June 26 ihen the Party held its apodial General Me1etin to decide
aon the resolution to dissolve the Party. The resolution uaas moved by lr. ,..n.
Clark, end ninety-ooven voted in favour and one aCainst. Thus the life of the
national Party was terminated, and a now party(I) was formed out of thle national
Party and the Hoadan Independence Party a few days later.
(1) Thu Ilational Independence Party, A-v