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Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) is published in April and October and is edited by Cynthia R. Taylor and James A. Powell Sea to Shore Alliance, 4411 Bee Ridge Rd. #490, Sarasota, FL 34233 USA Sirenews is available online at http://sea2shore.org/publica tions/sirenews/ and www.sirenian.org/sirenews.html April 2007 IN THIS ISSUE Research updates from Br azil, Honduras, and Mexico COMMON NAME USAGE FOR TRICHECHUS SENEGALENSIS While working in Africa for the past nine year s I have encountered gr eat confusion over the name "West African manatee" which often leads to problematic issues for conservation and management of the species. The designation "West Africa" applies to 13 countries located on the northwestern side of the African continent and this term is deeply embedde d in worldwide usage, but particularly by Africans as it applies to specific cultures, music, etc. Therefore, people in other non-West African countries where T. senegalensis occurs often believe that they have a diffe rent species, and that anything about the West African manatee does not apply to their count ry and their manatees. A few examples follow: During the CITES Conference of Parties in Ban gkok in March 2013, we received comments back from a meeting of range states on our up-listing proposal fo r African manatees stati ng that "the IUCN Red List states that there are an es timated 10,000 West African manatees, but there seems to be no estimate for the species in the rest of its range". These are the people maki ng important management decisions for the species on an intern ational level, so clarity was important. We did clarify in a response, but the confusion will continue until people are successfully educated that all manatees in Africa are one species. CITES permit applications for scientific sample expor t have twice been returned to me for "correction" in Central African countries because staff states that they have thei r "own" manatees, not West African ones. CITES office staff positions turn over frequen tly and therefore many staff may unfortunately not be educated about the correct name s of species. Since they have the ultimate power whether or not to Sire news Newsletter of the IUCN Sirenia Specialist Group Apri l 2014 Funded by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission Number 61
Sirenews No. 61 2 April 2014 give an export permit, it can resu lt in a painful process that basically comes down to the biologists word against theirs, and even showing them the Red List ba rely makes a difference. More importantly, this is the same agency charged with regulating trade between countries, so it is important for them to clearly understand the number of species that exist. There have been many other instances within African governments where the same misconception is perpetua ted at all levels, from national park staff to government ministers. There are always questions about West African vs. Central African mana tees in every training workshop from participants working with (or beginni ng work) the species. The good news is that with increased availability of the intern et, people in Africa have more access than ever before to information, but without an understanding that the sparse literature that currently ex ists applies to all manatees in Africa, problems will continue. It's great that more people are becoming aware of the species, but on the other hand it's no longer a matter of just educating a few people that the African manatee is the only manatee throughout the western side of the African con tinent. It is a matter of educating people in the 21 countries where they occur, and numerous other stakeholder groups worldwide. There will be significant positive consequences to shifting the common name usage to "African manatee" (a name that is already listed by the IUCN Red List as a common name for the species). My African manatee colleagues and I believe that adjusting the vernacular usage to "African manatee" will lead to positive change, in that people in Africa will understand that Trichechus senegalensis is all one species that requires cooperative efforts between th e many countries and people involved. There is only one trichechid on the African continent, so this simp le change will instantly make it clear there is only one. This change will not greatly affect future liter ature, because common names have no formal status in the literature, and the Latin name T. senegalensis will still always be present. Many thanks to Daryl Domning, who encour aged me to write this article. Lucy Keith Diagne Sea to Shore Alliance, email@example.com UPDATE FROM SIRENIA SPECIALIST GROUP SOUTHEAST USA REGION The Southeast USA Regional SSG has modified its Objectives and Issues of Concern after some feedback from colleagues. They now are: Objectives 1. Promote policies that prot ect and conserve Florida manatees and th eir critical habitats in the southeast USA at the state and Federal levels. 2. Assist in bringing attention to rehabilitation efforts and investigations regarding manatee mortality events. 3. Assist in bringing atten tion to the potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of manatees in the southeast USA. 4. Promote educational efforts regarding sirenian conservation in the region to a broad array of stakeholders. 5. To be an expert resource panel fo r the IUCN and other stakeholders. Issues of concern
Sirenews No. 61 3 April 2014 1. Red tide and episodic mass die-offs 2. Habitat loss (seagrass and SAV degradation and loss) 3. Protection of warm water refuges 4. Coastal development 5. Boat speed zones 6. Harassment in sanctuaries Chris Marshall (firstname.lastname@example.org) RESULTS OF SIXTH INTERNATION AL SIRENIAN SYMPOSIUM 2013 The Sixth International Sirenian Symposium wa s held on December 7, 2013. This symposium was held in conjunction with the 20th Biennial Conference on the Bi ology of Marine Mammals in Dunedin, New Zealand. Delegates fr om over 10 countries were present. A total of 17 presentations covering manatee physiology, biology, modeling, monitoring techniques and genetics were given. In addition, Dr. Ivan Lawler gave a special update on the IUCN assessment process for Sirenians, introduced the IUCN criteria and described the data requirements to make these assessments. The symposium was generously sponsored by the Secret ariat of the Dugong MOU, Convention on Migratory Species Office in Abu Dhabi. Nicole Adimey (Nicole_adimey@fws.gov) SPANISH LANGUAGE DOCUMENT AVAILABLE FOR COMMUNITY EDUCATION Sarita Kendall of Fundacin Nattama in Colombia has developed a document written in very simple Spanish for teaching community members a bout the importance of m onitoring wildlife and conservation. The document was developed for distri bution to teachers, community leaders, fishermen, etc., and includes sections on many species including th e manatee. If you feel this document may be of use in your area you can access it at: http://sirenian.org/library/F_N atutama_Caminos_Conservacion.pdf REQUEST FOR MANATEE AND DU GONG HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS My name is Dr. Debra P. Moore and I am a veterinarian involved with health care of manatees in Puerto Rico. I am trying to compile a list of all health care providers working with manatees and dugongs internationally. Would you please send me your comple te contact information (name, address, email, and phone number) at your earliest convenience. I would like to co mmunicate with you in the future about projects or health issu es in your respective countries Thank you for your help. Debra P. Moore (email@example.com)
Sirenews No. 61 4 April 2014 LOCAL NEWS BRAZIL News from Omar, an orphaned manatee in rehabili tation in Maraj Island, Brazil North Coast. Omar, the orphaned manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus ) rescued by villagers the GEMAM/MPEG team and IBAMA/PA personnel on 20 July 2013, is doing well in his semi-cap tive environment in the locality of Passagem Grande, Salvaterra, Maraj Island, Par, Brazil. Omar has grown significantly since his arrival, now reaching 1.33 m. He weighs 52.1 kg, a 41% increase in five months. Biologists and veterinarians are taking swabs and collecting fungus on the skin fo r a continuous evaluation of his health aspects. Swab collection indicated the presence of Citrobacter freundii and Escherichia coli in the anal slit, Enterobacter sp. and C. freundii in the genital slit and C. freundii in the mouth. Results for Vibrio and Aeromonas were negative in all samples taken. Sk in biopsies and swabs revealed the presence of Curvularia sp. Species of Curvularia are saprophytes or phytopathogenic, occur mostly in tropical and subtropical environments and are isolated from soil, ai r, organic matter, living plants, animals in general, as well as humans. These fungi have also been known to opportunistically infect wounds. According to the lite rature, the infection causes characterist ic lesions and discoloration as the darkly colored fungus grows. Omar was treated with ketoconazole (20m g/g) cream and the lesions have rapidly retreated. Future plans includ e the release of Omar in his natu ral environment in the Maraj bay area and monitoring using satellite tracking. We acknowledge IBAMA/PA personnel, especially Veterinarian Leandro Aranha, for providing both l ogistical support and provi sions that are helping Omars care in Passagem Grande. Salvatore Siciliano1,2, Renata Emin-Lima2, Maura E. M. Sousa2, Jorge A. B. Soares2, Dlia P. Rodrigues3 and Fernanda S. C. Biancalana2 1 Escola Nacional de Sade Pblica/FIOCRUZ & Grupo de Estudos de Mamferos Aquticos da Regio dos Lagos (GEMM-Lagos). Rua Leopoldo Bulhes, 1480 sala 611 6. andar, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-210 Brazil, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org 2 Museu Paraense Emlio Goeldi, Coordenao de Zoologia (MPEG), Setor de Mastozoologia, Grupo de Estudos de Mamferos Aquticos da Amaznia (GEM AM), Av. Perimetral, 1901, Terra Firme, Belm, Par, Brazil, 66077-530, E-mail: email@example.com 3 Laboratrio de Enterobactrias, Centro de Refer ncia Nacional de Clera e outras Enteroinfeces Bacterianas/IOC/FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ Brazil E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 4 Laboratrio de Microbiologia e Parasitologia. Un iversidade Federal do Par, Campus Maraj/Soure, Soure, PA, Brazil E-mail: email@example.com
Sirenews No. 61 5 April 2014 Figure 1. Omar, in his semi-captive environment in the village of Passagem Grande, Maraj Island, Brazil North Coast, is visited by Veterinarian Jair o Moura Oliveira, in Oct ober 2013. Photo courtesy: Rodrigo Baleia/GEMAM archives. HONDURAS Recent Manatee Research and Conservation Efforts in Honduras. The first Honduran national workshop for the biological monitoring of manatees wa s held in the city of La Ceiba on January 19-23, 2014. The primary objective of the workshop was to fo llow the recommendations set out in the National Protocol for Manatee Conservati on (NPMC) approved in 2011 and hi ghlighted by Gonzalez-Socoloske et al (2011), by providing training on monitoring tec hniques and centralizing data collection. This workshop consisted of the first of a series of steps towards the formation of a National Manatee Recovery and Conservation Plan. Participants from all protected areas with know n manatee presence were invited, as well as key members of the federal and local gov ernment, such as Jose Galdamez, the vice minister of Wildlife and Protected Areas of the National Institute of Fore stry Conservation (ICF). The primary organizing body was CREDIA (Honduran NGO) in collaboration w ith FUCSA (Honduran NGO), ICF, and Andrews University. Funding was provided by a grant from USAID ProParque. The first part of the workshop consisted of a series of presentations on the status of manatees in Honduras and the conservation efforts past and present. Forty people participated in this part of the workshop. Dr. Gonzalez-Socoloske delivered the keynot e address. During this part of the workshop, both local and national press were i nvited and a series of radio and te levision interviews were given to help raise awareness of manatee conser vation at the local and national level.
Sirenews No. 61 6 April 2014 The second part of the workshop consisted of conducting a pilot study in Cuero y Salado Wildlife Refuge to determine the best manatee m onitoring method. Dr. Gonzalez-Socoloske provided training to a small group on both visu al (Aragones et al. 2012) and s onar (Gonzalez-Socoloske et al. 2009) boat surveys. Data are currently being collected using these methods to determine which is more adequate for that particular site. In the third part of the workshop, a working gr oup of 20 individuals was formed with members from all areas with known manatee presence cove ring the whole Caribbean coast of Honduras. The objective of this group is to coordinate efforts and to centralize data. One of th e major results from the formation of this group was the establishment of a Honduran manatee-standing network, which has not existed before. The aim of the standing network is to collect baseline data on manatee mortalities and standing events to give us a better idea of the current threats and how they vary between sites. Dr. Gonzalez-Socoloske provided training on basic necrops ies and genetic sample collection for future genetic studies, of which none exist from Honduras Since the workshop, two ma natee mortalities have already been reported and data were colle cted, including tissue a nd bones samples. Daniel GonzalezSocoloske (Assistant Professor, Department of Biol ogy, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49103; firstname.lastname@example.org) and Iris Mariela Cruz (Coordinator of Protected Areas and Biodiversity, CREDIA, La Ce iba, Atlantida, Honduras) Honduras manatee monitoring workshop participants. Literature Cited Aragones, L.V., LaCommare, K.S., Kendall, S., Castelblanco-Martinez, N., and Gonzalez-Socoloske, D. 2012. Boatand Land--Based Surveys for Sirenians. In: Sirenian Conservation: I ssues and Stra tegies in
Sirenews No. 61 7 April 2014 Developing Countries Hines, E.M., Reynolds III, J.E., Aragones, L.V., Mignucci-Giannoni, A.A., and Marmontel, M. (Eds.), pp.179-185. University Press of Florida, Gainesville, FL. Gonzalez-Socoloske, D., Olivera-Gomez, L.D., a nd Ford, R.E. 2009. Detection of free-ranging West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus using side-scan sonar Endangered Species Research 8:249-257. Gonzalez-Socoloske, D., Taylor, C.R., and Rendon, O. R. 2011. Distribution and conservation status of the Antillean manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus ) in Honduras Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 9:123-131. MEXICO Presence and persistence of the West Indian mana tee (Trichechus manatus manatus) after 15 years in the north of Quintana Roo, Mexico. The manatee is an endangered species and is protected by national and international laws thro ughout its range. In Mexico, manat ees are present in the Gulf coast and in the Caribbean Sea. The Mexican Caribbean ha s a high influx of tourism, which may affect the presence of manatees in the area. From June to December 2013, 227.27 hours of observati on were conducted to detect the presence of manatees in Xel Ha and Xpu Ha inlets, both located nort h of the state of Quin tana Roo, in the popular tourist corridor Cancun-Tulum. This ar ea is particularly important as it is the contact area between the two manatee populations in Mexico. F our different manatees were detected in the estuary of Xpu Ha, presenting a relative abundance inde x of 0.82 manatee/ hr. Manatees were present in 96.6% of the survey days and during 66.6 % of the time a cow-calf pair was observed. No mana tees were observed at Xel Ha. Our results differ from those obtained by a study conducted 15 years ago, in which eight manatees were observed in Xel Ha and two in Xpu Ha. It suggests that the change in presence and use of such water bodies by manatees is related to the nu mber of tourists using th e area. Xel Ha receives on average 2184 visitors per day, wh ile Xpu Ha only receives 22. However, manatees are using highly impacted tourism areas, such as the north of Playa del Carmen and Holbox, probably moving from protected ar eas. Management strategi es designed to protect manatees in such situ ations are needed. Mireya Daz Ortiz (Universidad Autonoma de Guadalajara), Nataly Castelblanco-Martnez ( Oceanic Society, US) and Coralie Nourisson (GEOMARE; CIBIO, Research Center in Biodi versity and Genetic Resour ces, University of Porto, Coralie.email@example.com) Manatee pedigrees in Mexico: help for conservation and management. Little is known about pedigrees, relationships and reproduc tion in manatees. Pedigree studies can shed light on the numbers of breeders in populations and the repr oductive success among individuals. Information from pedigrees can be further used to manage levels of inbreeding and genetic diversity in healthy captive populations. Maintaining fitness in captive individuals could al low them to better adapt to changing environments and ensure greater success of management decisions. A pedigree study was conducted in Mexico on ca ptive Antillean manatees and on 98 wild manatees using two sets of microsatellite markers. Se veral pairs, both captive and wild, were inferred to have high relatedness and order rela tionships (i.e., parent-offspring, fu ll sibling, and half sibling). Two captive manatees, which reproduced t ogether three times, had a 99.2% Baye sian posterior probability of being fraternal twins. The high number of inferred ha lf siblings from the population in Jonuta, Tabasco
Sirenews No. 61 8 April 2014 may indicate that one or more dominant males fathered calves with multiple females, thus illustrating that inbreeding in wild manatees does occur a nd should be monitored. In the wild pedigree study, several unexpected relationships were detected by th e analysis, including some that were implausible. The high number of linked relationshi ps is likely a byproduct of lo w marker polymorphism or latent coancestry. Additional marker s will be required to distinguish between these alternatives and to reconstruct more reliable pedigrees. Currently, successful manatee mating has occurre d in captive facilities in Mexico between biologically related individuals. Now that empirical relatedness data are available, it is recommended that breeding between closely related manatees be restricted and that selective breeding be employed to optimize the genetic health of progeny. Nourisson C,1,2, Morales-Vela B,3, Tringali M.4, PadillaSaldivar J.3, Clark A.5 and McGuire P.M.6 1GEOMARE, Av. Miguel Alemn 616-4B, Col. L zaro Crdenas, Mazatln, 82040 Sinaloa, Mexico 2CIBIO, Research Center in Bi odiversity and Genetic Resources, Univ ersity of Porto, Campus Agrrio de Vairo, Rua Padre Armando Qu intas, 4485-661 Vairo. Portugal 3El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Av. Ce ntenario km 5.5, Chetumal, Quintana Roo, Mexico 4Florida Fish and Wild life Research Institute, 100 Eighth Avenue S.E., St Petersburg, FL 33701,USA 5ASPCA UF Veterinary Forensic Program, W.R. Maples Center fo r Forensic Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, 4800 SW 35th Drive, Gainesville, FL 32608 6Department of Physiological Sc iences, College of Veterinary Me dicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA; Coralie.firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACTS Modeling habitat and bycatch risk for dugongs in Sabah, Malaysia. Dana K. Briscoe, Seth Hiatt, Rebecca Lewison, Ellen Hines. 2014. In press, Endangered Species Research. Bycatch of marine megafauna in fishing gear is a problem with global implications. Bycatch rates can be difficult to quantify, es pecially in countries where ther e are limited data on the abundance and distribution of coastal marine mammals, the distri bution and intensity of fi shing effort, coincident interactions, and limited bycatch mitigation strategies. The dugong ( Dugong dugon ) is an IUCN listed vulnerable species found from the easte rn coast of Africa to the western P acific. As foragers of seagrass, they are highly susceptible to bycatch in sma ll-scale fisheries. To address the knowledge gaps surrounding marine mammal bycatch, we used existing survey and fishing effo rt data to spatially characterize the risk of bycatch for this species. With Sabah, Malaysia as a case study, we used presence-only modeling techniques to identify habitat associations of dugongs using a maximum entropy distribution model (MaxEnt) based on pub lished sightings data and several geophysical parameters: coastal distance, depth, insolation, and topographic openness. Model outputs showed distance from the coast as the hi ghest-contributing variable to the probability of dugong presence. Results were combined with previously published fi shing effort maps of this area to develop a predictive bycatch risk surface. Our analyses iden tified several areas of high risk where dugong surveys were conducted, but also identified high-risk areas in previously unsurveyed locations. Such methods can be used to direct field activ ities and data collecti on efforts and provide a robust template for how existing sightings and fishing effort data can be used to facilitate conservation action in data limited regions.
Sirenews No. 61 9 April 2014 Variation in the hindgut microbial co mmunities of the Florida Manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida Merson, S.D., D. Ouwerkerk, L-M. Gulino, A. Klieve, R.K. Bonde, E.A. Burges and J.M. Lanyon. 2014. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 87(3):601-615. DOI: 10.111/1574-6941.12248. The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwinter ing sites where they under go dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial comm unities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex a nd body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress re sponse, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were iden tified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla ; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 11.1% of total se quences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 10. 6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in midwinter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analys ed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season. RECENT LITERATURE Adimey, N. M., C. A. Hudak, J. R. Powell, K. Basso s-Hull, A. Foley, N. A. Farmer, L. White and K. Minch. 2014. Fishery gear interac tions from stranded bottlenose dol phins, Florida manatees and sea turtles in Florida, U.S.A. Marine Pollution Bulletin 81(1):103-115. Amaral, R. S., F. C. W. Rosas, V. M. F. Da Silva, M. Nichi and C. A. Oliveira. 2013. Endocrine monitoring of the ovarian cycle in captive female Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis). Animal Reproduction Science 142(1-2):84-88. Carmo L. D., T. Laurie, R. S. Amaral, F. C. W. Rosas, J. A. D. Neto, L.Reisfeld and V. M. F. Da Silva. 2013. Changes in the blood parameters of the Amazonian manatee ( Trichechus inunguis ) after longdistance transportation. Acta Scientiarum, Biological Scie nces Maringa 35(4):591-594 Cray, C., M. Rodriquez, M. Dickey, L. B. Brewer and K. L. Arheart. 2013. Assessement of serum amyloid A levels in the rehabilitati on setting in the Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris ). Journal of Zoo and Wildlif e Medicine 44(4):911-917. Edwards, H. H. 2013. Potential impacts of clim ate change on warmwater megafauna: The Florida manatee example ( Trichechus manatus latirostris ). Climatic Change 121(4):727-738. Franzini, A. M., D. N. Castelblanco-Martinez, F. C. W. Rosas and V. M. F. Da Silva. 2013. What do local people know about Amazonian manatees? Trad itional ecological knowl edge of Trichechus inunguis in the Oil Province of Urucu, AM, Br azil. Natureza & Conservacao 11(1):75-80.
Sirenews No. 61 10 April 2014 Gonzalez-Socoloske, D., C.R. Taylor, and O.R. Rendon. 2011. Distribution and conservation status of the Antillean manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus ) in Honduras Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals 9:123-131. Hodgson, A., N. Kelly and D. Peel. 2013. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveying marine fauna: A dugong case study. PLOS ONE 8(11) e79556. 15pp. Kleen, J. M. and A. D. Breland. 2014 Increases in seasonal manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris ) abundance within Citrus County, Florida. Aquatic Mammals 40(1): 69-80. Luiselli, L., G. C. Akani, N. Ebere, F. M. Ange lici, G. Amori, and E. Politano. 2012. Macro-habitat preferences by the African manatee and crocodiles ecological and conservation implications. Web Ecol., 12: 3948. Mayaka, T.B., H. C. Awah and G. Ajonina 2013. Conservation status of manatee ( Trichechus senegalensis Link 1795) in Lower Sanaga Basin, Cameroon: An ethnobiological assessment. Tropical Conservation Science Vol. 6 (4):521-538. Ogogo, A., E. Eniang, A. Nchor and O. Nkamenyi no. 2013. Ecology and conservation status of the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis) in Eniong Creek, South Nigeri a. International Journal of Research in Applied, Natural and Social Sciences (IJRANSS), Vol. 1 (1): 19-24. Shin-je G., J. Joh, A.A. Mignucci-Giannoni, A.L. Rivera-Guzmn, L. FalcnMatos, M.M. AlsinaGuerrero, M. Rodrguez-Villanueva, A.B. Jenson, and G.D. Bossart. 2014. Genital papillomatosis associated with two novel mucosotropic pa pillomaviruses from a Florida manatee ( Trichechus manatus latirostris ). Aquatic Mammals 40(2). Sousa, M. E. M., B. M. L. Martins and M. E. B. Fernandes. 2013. Meeting the giants: The need for local ecological knowledge (LEK) as a tool for the participative management of manatees on Marajo Island, Brazilian Amazonian coast. Ocean & Coastal Management 86:53-60. Takoukam, A. K. 2012. Activity center, habitat use and conservation of the West African manatee ( Trichechus senegalensis Link, 1795) in the Douala-Edea and Lake Ossa wildlife reserves. A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of Sciences of the Unive rsity of Dschang In Partial Fulfillments of the Requirements for the Award of the Master of Science (M.Sc) Degree in Animal Biology. Velez-Juarbe, J. 2014. Ghost of seagrasses past: Using si renians as a proxy for hi storical distribution of seagrasses. Palaeogeography Palaeo climatology Palaeoecology 400:41-49. Worthy, G. A. and T. A. M. Worthy. 2014. Digestive effi ciencies of ex situ a nd in situ West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Phys iological and Biochemical Zoology 87(1):77-91.
Sirenews No. 61 11 April 2014 >>> COPY DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE: OCTOBER 1, 2014 <<< Material may be submitted (in Microsoft Word format, 500 word limit) to Cynthia Taylor at: email@example.com Sirenews is available at: http://sea2shore.org/ publications/sirenews/ and www.sirenian.org/sirenews.html