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UNION INTERNATIONALE POUR LA CONSERVATION DE LA NATURE ET DE SES RESSOURCES INTERNATIONAL UNION FOR CONSERVATION OF NATURE AND NATURAL RESOURCES Commission de la sauvegarde des especes Species Survival Commission Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) is published in April and October and is edited by Cynthia R. Taylor and James A. Powell Sea to Shore Alliance, 200 Second Ave. S., #315, St. Petersburg, FL 33701 USA Sirenews is available online at www.sirenian.org/sirenew s.html and http://public.sea2shore.org/newsletters April 2007 IN THIS ISSUE RE-ORGANIZATION OF THE SIRENI A SPECIALIST GROUP (pg. 1) TRIBUTE TO DR. EDWARD KEITH (pg. 3) SIRENIA SPECIALIST GROUP UPDATE Thanks to all of you who responded to the article published in the April Sirenews calling for applications for membership to the Sirenia Speci alist Group for the 2012-16 quadrennial cycle. We received some 40 replies; these have been acknowle dged. Contact details have been passed on to the appropriate Regional Co-chairs who have been asked to issue the invitations to join their group. Not all whom we hoped would apply actually did so. If you would like to contribu te please contact the appropriate Regional Co-Chair and o ffer your services to the Group. As advised in the April Issue of Sirenew s, we decided that it would be appropriate to modify the structure of the Sirenia Specialist Group along the lines used successfully by the Marine Turtle Specialist Group. The model has evolved somewhat since the April Sirenews to better reflect the applications received and changes in the availability of some members. The revised structure of the group follows: 1. Specialist Group Co-Chairs (one each for dugong and manatee; preferably resident in a dugong/manatee range state): Benjamin Morales is prep ared to serve as the Manatee Co-Chair for a second term which will provide continuity. Donna Kwan initially agreed to become the Dugong CoChair but as a result of her othe r commitments was not able to comm it to undertaking th e task of Cochair at this time. Consequently, after email correspondence with Simon Stuart from IUCN, I agreed to continue in the role with a view to mentoring someone else to take ove r preferably mid-session. Sire news Newsletter of the IUCN Sirenia Specialist Group October 2012 Funded by th e U.S. Marine Mammal Commission Number 5 8
Sirenews No. 58 2 October 2012 2. Regional Co-Chairs for the following ge ographic regions: (1) Indian Ocean (East Africa, Arabian Regi on and Asia: Himansu Sekhar Das, Tint Tun (2) Pacific Ocean (Australia and Pacifi c Islands): Amanda Hodgson, Donna Kwan. (3) United States: Chris Marshall, TBD (4) Meso-America: Nicole Auil Gomez, Haydee Dominguez (5) South America: Nataly Ca stelblanco, Miriam Marmontel. (6) West Africa: Edem Eniang, Lucy Keith Diagne. 3. A Listing Authority : Ivan Lawler has agreed to assume this role which overlaps with his day job, which is good. 4. Sirenews Co-Editors: Cyndi Taylor and Buddy Powell have ag reed to continue in this role. 5. Biennial Workshop Conveners : Bob Bonde and Nicole Adimey have agreed to continue in this role. 6. Invited Experts: The Group Co Chairs decided to i nvite two additional members to the Executive Committee who have a long-term, bigpicture perspective and a track re cord for making things happen: Ellen Hines and John Reynolds. 7. Members of Regional Groups : The Regional Co-Chairs will be responsible for inviting and maintaining the membership of their group. A list of the people who have expr essed interest in being members of the Sirenia Specialist Group has been forw arded to them along with a list of their email addresses. The membership of regional groups is not limited to these people. There are some notable omissions, especially for the dugong. If they choose, Regional Co-Chairs may also appoint 1-2 people who are members of the Sirenia Specialist Group, but who have not worked on the species in that particular region to ensure new perspectiv es. An individual may be a member of more than one regional group. The Group Co-Chairs are not eligible to be Re gional Co-chairs but would be expected to be a member of the appropriate regional group. 8. The Executive Committee of the Specialist Group will be made up of the Group Co-Chairs, Regional Co-Chairs, the Listing Authority, the Editors of Sirenews the Workshop Conveners and the Invited Experts. Roles of the Regional Groups The Co-Chairs will work with the other members of their group to: define the objectives of the group; identify issues of concern; work with the Listing Authority to revise the st atus of the various species and sub-species of Sirenia; provide an annual re gional report to Sirenews ; work with the Executive Committee to develop strategies (includi ng funding) for dealing with critical issues or needs.
Sirenews No. 58 3 October 2012 The West African manatee sub-group is the exemplar and they have already identified their objectives as: (1) To further determine the stat us of the West African Manatee; (2) To be an expert resource pane l for the IUCN and other stakeholders; (3) To lead and advise others in the growing fi eld of manatee research and management in West Africa; (4) To promote and facil itate communication a nd collaboration among African manatee researchers. We greatly look forward to working in the new struct ure which we trust will more effectively represent the diversity of Sirenian cons ervation problems and solutions. Many thanks to Cyndi Taylor for her sterling work as the Listing Authority over many years. She leaves big shoes to fill. -Helene Marsh and Benjamin Morales TRIBUTE TO DR. EDW ARD "ED" KEITH: A simple, caring, and humble marine mammalogist at Nova Southeastern University Dr. Ed, as his friends called him, had a big heart for friends and wildlife, particul arly marine mammals, and especially the West Indian manatee. Dr. Keith spent more than 40 years studying marine and terrestrial wildlife, focusing the majority of his time on marine mammals. Dr. Keith was born on October 16, 1951, and graduated from Davis Senior High School in 1970. He received a BS in Wildlife Biology from Colorado State University (CSU) in 1975 and an MS from CSU in 1978. In 1984 he received a Ph.D. in Biology from the University of California Santa Cruz. In 1986, he started wo rking at Nova Southeastern University (NSU). Dr. Keiths initial exposure to wildlife was through his father, who worked on the impacts of DDT in birds in Berkley, California, in the 1970s. The last 20 years of his life were spent mainly on studying and guiding students studying manatees, dolphins, and whales. He supervised both undergraduate and graduate students who studied manatees in the Everglades area and Mexico. Dr. Keith also s upervised students who studied cetaceans in Florida, California, and the Philippines. Dr. Keith touche d so many hundreds of lives of NSU students at the Farquhar College of Arts and Sciences, especi ally those who took hi s undergraduate Marine Mammalogy course. Dr. Ed also ta ught classes on human nutrition, cl inical chemistry and biology at NSU. Dr. Ed Keith will be remembered as a simple, caring, and humble teacher and mentor, colleague, and friend. His commitment and passion for teaching is reflected in the nu merous students he has mentored and assisted through the years. He also took pride in taking under his wing new colleagues in the area. As a result, many of his students and co lleagues who moved to other places have remained good friends with him throughout the y ears. In the southeast Florida ar ea, Dr. Keith has been the main
Sirenews No. 58 4 October 2012 marine mammal expert sought out by the media during marine mammal strandings and other marineoriented newsworthy situations. He was the chair of the 15th Biennial Marine Ma mmal Conference in Greensboro, North Carolina in 2005. Dr. Keith authored many scientif ic papers, reports, book chapters and books. Given all of this, Dr. Ed Keith remained a simple and humble man. Dr. Keith died on September 14, 2012 at the age of 60. He is survived by his wife Kathy, his mother Burnice Keith, and two sisters. On a personal note, I approached Dr. Keith at the 14th Biennial Conf erence in Vancouver in 2001. I was told by Helene Marsh, my PhD adviser, to introduce myself to Ed a nd ask for his assistance on who may need my expertise in the South Florida area. Ed whol eheartedly took me under his wing. Ed connected me with Linda Farmer at the University of Miami, where I was ab le to teach Introduction to Marine Mammals from 2002 to 2006. Ed and I th en received funding to conduct research and conservation on cetaceans in the southern Taon Strait area in the Philippines from 2004 to 2007. I will always be grateful to Ed for his support, concern and genuine friends hip when I was in Miami and even when I returned to the Philippines towards the end of 2006. I will always remember him as a gentle, considerate and humble person, and one who found joy in helping ot hers. And finally for being a genuine friend. -Lemnuel Aragones (Associate Professor, University of the Philippines, firstname.lastname@example.org) BOOK ANNOUNCEMENT Sirenian Conservation: Issues and St rategies in Developing Countries Edited by Ellen M. Hines, John E. Reynolds III, Lemnuel V. Aragones, Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni, and Miriam Marmontel SAVING MANATEES WORLDWIDE This important scientific volume comprehensively explores the biology and ecological status of manatees and dugongs from the Caribbean to Easter n Africa, from Arabia to the Amazon, and from Japan through the South Pacific to Australia. Ma ny of these dwindling populat ions are situated in developing countries locales that have previously received little attention in the scientific literature. In these areas, people occupying rivers or coastlines still capture sireni ans for food and ot her uses (oil, bones for carving, leather). In addition, disruption, erosi on, or complete loss of si renian habitat occurs because of dredge and fill, coastal run-off, ch emical pollution, and damage from boat propellers. Sirenian Conservation features contributions from an international group of sc ientists who share stories of programs that rescue, rehabilitate, release, and monitor these animals; describes reports on prac tical, replicable, and co st-effective management techniques; and summarizes cu rrent research strategies. Ellen M. Hines is professor of geography and human environmental studies at San Francisco State University. John E. Reynolds III senior scientist at the Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, Florida, and chairman of the United States governments Marine Mammal Commission, is author of The Bottlenose Dolphin: Biology and Conservation and Mysterious Manatees Lemnuel V. Aragones is associate professor at the Institute of Environmental Science and Meteorology at the University of the Philippines. Biological oceanographer Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni is research professor at the Interamerican University of Puer to Rico. An expert on the ecology of
Sirenews No. 58 5 October 2012 Amazonian manatees, Miriam Marmontel is a conservation biologist at the Sociedade Civil Mamirau in Brazil. A practical state of the science review of the conservation of manatees and dugongs in developing countries. The editors have done an excellent job of selecting an international team of more than 80 authors, including researchers and managers who have the res ponsibility of working with stakeholders to ensure conservation of both the cultural and biological diversity of si renians. An excellent primer that provides both strategies and tools for continued research progress. Annalisa Berta, San Diego State University Pubdate: 12-May-12 348 pp. | 8.5 x 11 57 b/w illus ISBN 978-0-8130-3761-5 | Cloth $100.00s Available from better booksellers or direct: Univ ersity Press of Florid a, 800-226-3822, www.upf.com For more information, contact: Teal Amthor-S haffer, Marketing Manager, 352-392-1351 ext. 209, TAS@upf.com NEWS FROM THE SECRETARIAT TO THE UNEP/CMS DUGONG MOU Global Environment Facility (GEF) project aims to contribute to th e conservation of dugongs and their seagrass habitats across seven Dugong MOU range states In line with its mission to facilitate and coor dinate the protection of dugongs across its range states, the Secretariat to th e UNEP/CMS Dugong MOU has initiate d an innovative and vast GEF project, which is the first significant investment of its kind and scale in te rms of funding contribution and geographic scope. The Dugong and Seagrass C onservation Projects objective is to enhance the conservation effectiveness of protected and nonprotected areas hosting si gnificant populations of dugongs across the Indian and Pacific Ocean basins. The Secretariat will be supporting seven country partners: Indonesia, Madagascar Malaysia, Mozambique, Sri Lanka, Timor-Leste, and Vanuatu. The first step has been initiated with national meetings which have commenced in the partner countries. Participants at the National Meeting in Colom bo, Sri Lanka, to discuss the GEF project, 9th -10th of October, 2012.
Sirenews No. 58 6 October 2012 The project aims to contribute to the adoption of sustainable fisheries practices and enhanced community stewardship of seagrass-dependent biodive rsity. The project will also collate the available information and improve access to as well as to f ill information gaps necessary for management and conservation of dugongs and their seagrass habitats. Furt hermore, the project will also help to ensure that governments prioritize the conservation of dugongs and their critical seagrass habitats in their relevant national legal, planning, poli cy and sectoral framework operations. Project on addressing net fishery and incidental by-c atch in the Northwest Indian Ocean planned for 2013 In collaboration with the Envir onment Agency Abu Dhabi, the Emirates Wildlife Society, the Environment Society of Oman, the League of Ar ab States, the UNEP/ROWA office, the Regional Organisation for the Protection of the Marine Environment, and pa rticipating state governments, the UNEP/CMS Office Abu Dhabi has initiated the Northwest Indian Ocean Re gional Marine Megafauna By-Catch Project to contribute efforts to reduc ing the risk of incidental by-catch on marine megafauna and as well as reduction of degradation of habita t associated with net fisheries including shrimp trawling. Incidental by-catch is one of the greatest threats to the dugong population in the Gulf region. Gill nets have been identified as being a particular ly destructive as they are cheap, accessible and have long soaking times that increase the chances of drowning voluntary air-breat hing marine animals. The project is now at a stage of raising funds to start initia l data scoping to gain a better understanding of the issues at hand. Project outline and concept note are being developed together with promotional materials, and the project is envisioned to start in 2013. The Second Signatory State meeting of th e Dugong MOU in Manila, Philippines On 4-5 December 2012 the Department of Enviro nment and Natural Resour ces -Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau, Philippines, in cooperation with D ugong MOU Secretariat will be organizing and hosting the Second Signatory State Meeting of the Dugong MOU (SS2) in Manila, Philippines. The meeting will review the Signatories implementati on of the MOU Conservation and Management Plan; provide an overview of ongoing ope rations, initiatives and progres sion of dugong conservation pilot projects. It will also provide further guidance relative to future policies and di rections with a view to promote effective and sust ainable dugong conservation. Signatories and range states of the Dugong MOU who have not ye t pre-registered should do so as soon as possible by using the online form at h ttp://www.unep-cms.com/. International agencies or NGOs qualified in protection, cons ervation and management of dugongs and their seagrass habitats who are interested to attend the SS2 may also wish to pre-register. Additional information on the Dugong MOU SS2 is available at http://www.cm s.int/species/dugong/meeting_of_sigs2.htm. For additional news on activities of the D ugong MOU Secretariat, follow our noticeboard: http://www.cms.int/species /dugong/dugong_noticeboard.htm ENGLISH LANGUAGE WR ITING ASSISTANCE Id like to coordinate a group of sirenian scientists and students who are fluent in reading and writing research papers in English to assist non-Eng lish speaking scientists in editing potential journal articles for submission. My idea is to edit already written drafts using a back and forth process with authors in developing countries. Pl ease let me know if youd like to join this group and how much time you have to devote. Also let me know any other t houghts and ideas. My grad students and I have been
Sirenews No. 58 7 October 2012 working with a few authors already, and it's been quite useful all around. Ellen Hines (email@example.com) THIRD INTERNATIONAL CONFEREN CE ON MARINE MAMMALS OF SOUTH EAST ASIA (SEAMAM III) The Third International Confer ence on Marine Mammals of Sout h East Asia (SEAMAM III) will take place March 4-10, 2013, on Langkawi Island, Malaysia Please note: We have quite limited funds for delegates. Please email firstname.lastname@example.org if interest ed in attending, especially if you can contribute to status reports on dugongs in SE Asia. SEAMAM III will be a forum for consideration of issues related to the conservation and biology of coastal/inshore, estuarine and ri verine marine mammals in Southeast Asia. We plan to bring together marine mammal researchers who are working in Sout heast Asian countries to report on their results and plans, exchange information on research methods, a nd assist colleagues who ar e new to the field. Our goal is to ensure that the resear ch being conducted is grounded in r obust methods and designs and that the results lead to improved conservation of marine mammals in the region. The conference will consist of a symposium where updated status reports on marine mammals in each country/region will be presented, followed by a series of workshops and discussion/training sessions. The workshops will be interdisciplinary, for example: economics and conser vation issues in small-sc ale fishing communities, acute environmental hazards and pollutants, creation of marine protect ed areas, educational activities in local communities, marine mammal bycatch. Our wo rkshop leaders are local scientists or other individuals with extensive experien ce working in Southeast Asia. SEAMAM III, like its predecessor conferences in the Philippines in 1995 and 2002 (see below), will be an important platform for capacity building a nd information exchange. It will inevitably allow us to identify information gaps and knowledge deficien cies. We anticipate that it will also generate momentum for future SEAMAMs, which were originally intended to be held ev ery five years (or more often) to facilitate regional res earch and conservation efforts. As pr eviously, a report of the proceedings will be compiled and published for SEAMAM III, providing a benchmark to identify research and conservation needs and to address issues faced by local scientists in different countries in the region. Below please find the reports that were produced in the past SEAMAMs: 1. Report of the workshop on the biology and cons ervation of small cetaceans and dugongs of Southeast Asia. United Nations Environmental Programme (1995) www.cms.int/reports/small_cetaceans/Perrin.htm 2. Report of the Second Workshop on the Biology and Conservation of Small Cetaceans and Dugongs of South-East Asia (2005) http://swfsc.noaa.gov/uploadedFiles/Divisions/PRD/Publications/Perrinetal.05%2889%29.pdf Organizing Committee of SEAMAMS III: Louella Dolar (Philippin es); Ellen Hines, Co-chair (USA/Canada); Samuel Hung (Hong K ong); Fairul Jamal (Malaysia); L ouisa Ponnampalam, Co-chair (Malaysia); Randy Reeves (Canada); John Wang (Canada) LOCAL NEWS AUSTRALIA The future of marine mammals and marine turtles in the Great Barrier Reef. The Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area supports a dive rse fauna of approximately thirty species of marine mammals and
Sirenews No. 58 8 October 2012 six of the seven species of sea tu rtles. The importance of the re gion as a feeding ground for the dugong and as a nesting ground for green an d loggerhead turtles were explic it reasons for the regions World Heritage Listing. All species of marine mammals and marine turtles are long-lived a nd slow breeding, thus mortality and particularly adult mo rtality is the life history paramete r that has the greatest influence on population change. Mortality tends to be more important than habitat loss in conserving these species. Nonetheless, and particularly for coastal species, habitat loss along th e urban coast of the Great Barrier Reef is a significant influen ce on their long term prospects. Many species of marine mammals and sea turtles migrate across oceans, thus the future of these species in the World Heritage Area will not only depend on actions within the Area, but also on anthropogenic pressures outside the Area. In additi on, climate change is expected to have a very significant adverse impact on many species in ways that are as yet poorly unde rstood. Although most of the major nesting grounds of sea turtles in the Grea t Barrier Reef World Heri tage Area are highly protected (most of the reef islands are national parks), nesting success is likely to be adversely affected by climate change. Impacts include the flooding of nesting habitat, the destruction of nesting habitat by extreme weather events, and feminisation and/or incr eased egg mortality result ing from increased sand temperatures. The impact of these f actors will be spatially variable. Of great concern is the declin e in nesting success at Raine Island, the most significant green turtle rookery in the world, due to a reduction of th e depth of sand on the island and resultant flooding of nests with sea water. Raine Island is very highly protected and is an example of the inadequacy of habitat protection per se against some forms of natural habita t loss. Nonetheless, the sea turtle populations in the Great Barrier Re ef region are generally considered to be relatively robust on a global scale, and species extinctions ar e unlikely. The greatest impact on adult green turtles is Indigenous harvest of green turtles but this tends to be locali sed and there are many areas of very significant feeding habitat that are not hunted. In cont rast, the inshore populations of sea turtles along the urban coast of the Great Barrier Reef south of Cooktown are vulnerabl e to habitat loss from extreme weather events, deteriorating water quality and urban de velopment, particularly ports. Other species of marine wildlife that are vulne rable to impacts outside the region include the great whales. The humpback whales that migrate up th e eastern coast of Australia are from the Area 5 stock. The population has recovered remarkably since the cessation of whaling a nd is now increasing at near the theoretical maximum rate of 10-11% per y ear. The future of this stock will depend on the effects of climate change on the Antarctic ecosystem. The same is likely to be true of the dwarf minke whale, a likely new sub-species of whale that winter s in the northern Great Ba rrier Reef where it is the target of a well-managed tourism industry. The pressures on the dugong parallel those on the green turtle. The north ern Great Barrier Reef supports globally significant populations for which th e major impact is Indigenous hunting. Like the green turtle, however, hunting is localized and many significant dugong habitats in the northern Great Barrier Reef are highly protected and in good conditi on. The situation on the urban coast is completely different. The temporal changes in the catch per unit effort of the Queensland shark Protection Program suggest that the dugong population dec lined precipitously from the 1960s This decline was largely halted by the 1990s presumably thro ugh marine park zoning and the establishment of dugong protection areas and the removal of shark nets for bather prot ection from key locations. However, along the urban coast, the inshore seagrasses on wh ich the dugongs depend have been ba dly damaged by a series of wet seasons and this has had adverse effects on dugong mortality and fecund ity. These impacts have been exacerbated by coastal development, especially ports, and deteriorating water quality from terrestrial
Sirenews No. 58 9 October 2012 land use. Water quality is improving but the impacts of extreme weather events through climate change are likely to increase and the prospects for the dugongs along the east coast are poor. The species of marine megafauna that face the most uncertain future are the coastal dolphins, especially the Australian endemic snubfin dolphin and the likely ende mic Australian humpback dolphin. Both species occur in small, geographically isolat ed populations where the anthropogenic mortality of just one animal every few years can cause the population to decline. The populati ons are threatened by low levels of incidental bycatch in commercial fishing industries and shark netting for bather protection. Although the species have been pr otected by the zoning arrangements initiated to protect dugong, their long-term future is not bri ght, particularly as port developments threaten several important habitats. In summary, the future of marine mammals and sea turtles in the Great Barrier Reef is likely variable. The populations off the coast of Cape York Peninsula are likely to remain healthy. The prospects for the populations along the inshore urban coast are poor despite the extensive protection via zoning. The greatest impact of climate change, alt hough uncertain, is likely to be the increase in extreme weather events and the lo ss of sea turtle habitat. The impacts on many populations of marine megafuana from areas outside the Great Barri er Reef are also of great concern. -Helene Marsh (email@example.com) BRAZIL Amazonian manatee release in Brazil. On August 18 2012, five Amazonian manatees were successfully returned to the wild in the Aman Sustainable Development Reserve, in western Brazilian Amazon. The Mamiraua Institute for Sustainable Development (MISD), with support by Petrobras through its Programa Petrobras Ambiental and the Ge orgia Aquarium, established in 2007 a communitybased manatee rehabilitation center in the Amana reserve, authorized by IBAMA, the Brazilian environmental agency. The center consists of three plastic pools and a large floating pen located in a natural environment, in the Amana lake, where ma natees occur throughout the year and large numbers congregate during the dry season. Males Piti, Alagoilton, Nego, Jovenal and female Benguela, now between 2.5 and 5 years of age, were received by the MISDs Amazonian Aquatic Mammal Research Group between 1997 and 2010 as young orphan calves, either harpooned (in an attempt to keep the mother nearby for easier capture), or entangled in fishing nets. Manatees were either confiscated by environmental police or turned in by local dwelle rs of Mamiraua and Amana sustainable development reserves and surroundings. Those injured underwent veterinary treatment and all of them were fed individually customized milk formulas, offered with an underwater bottle to mimi c more closely natural be havior with the mother. The animals were raised in close proximity to lo cal communities and with strong involvement by local dwellers in different as pects of the process. Native aquatic plants available in the lake were offered at an early age, and weaning started several months before release in a slow process. Prior to release clinical exams were performed to ensure animals were healthy and a ll animals but one (due to his slen der body shape) were adapted with belt-mounted VHF transmitters for m onitoring. All four belted manat ees have been monitored daily since release and at this point (dry season) remain r oughly at the same area of release, in the headwaters of Aman Lake. The Mamirau Institute was a pi oneer in returning the first Amazonian manatee to the wild ever (Mixirinha in 2000) in the Mamiraua Sustainable Development Reserve, adjacent to Aman reserve -Miriam Marmontel (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Sirenews No. 58 10 October 2012 First capture of wild Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus ) in Brazil. In 1980 the Federal Government of Brazil, through the Brazilian Institute of Forest Deve lopment (IBDF) created the Manatee Project (Projeto Peixe-Boi) in order to obtain knowledge a bout the species on the Brazilian coast. During the first decade of the project interviews were conducted on the occurrence and distribution of the species, where it was found to be ex tinct from the State of Esp rito Santo (ES) and the State of Bahia (BA). Conservation priority areas were defined. At the beginning of the second decade, investigations were intensified a nd the entire north and northeast of Brazil was traveled in search of more information. Some problems were identified, including a determination that the species was extinct along the coast of the State of Sergipe (SE). The distribu tion area was discontinuous and newborn individuals were being separated from their mothers and stranding on the beaches of the northeast coast. Since then, the project actions began to focus on the rescue and rehabilitation of calves that cannot survive without their mothers. Research increased on captive animals, and knowledge ab out native populations grew. In 2010, an Action Plan for Conservation of Brazilian Si renians was developed, identifying the need to increase knowledge about ecological, ethological and biolog ical species in the wild, as the information obtained so far was mainly arising fr om captive and released manatees. In parallel, IBAMA, through CGPEG-issued environmental conditions, created the Sirenia Monitoring Program (PMS). ICMBio coordinates PMS with support from Aquasis and UERN, and cooperation with the USGS Sirenia Project/USA, through a contract si gned between Petrobras, FUNBIO and ICMBio. The program is generating the opportunity to conduct original res earch in Brazil, using techniques and methodologies applied in the USA, and adapted to the field conditions in Brazil for the capture of wild animals. PMS Field activities were conducted in Icapu-CE for 15 days with a team made up of researchers from all institutions. Five ma natees were captured, including a cow-calf, all of whom were tagged and are being monitored daily by obs ervers at fixed sites a nd via information sent by satellite. Information about travel patterns, use of area, cow-calf relations, interand intraspecific interactions are unique a nd extremely important to support the c onservation of the species in Brazil. Although the capture method has been utilized in the United States, the methodology required adaptations for use in Brazilian waters due to diffe rent environmental conditions. In Florida, manatee captures are mainly performed in calm waters whic h the animals frequent dur ing winter months. In Brazil, captures were performed in open water with st rong waves, winds and currents. As such, the boat, the nets and other equipment were modified to safegua rd staff, animals and to ensure the success of the expedition. The information collected will help with future studies of the species, as well as the determination of actions to be perf ormed in the areas of occurrence fo r the conservation of manatees in Brazil. Acknowledgements: We would like to say tha nks to the researchers from the USA that participated in the first capture of Antillean mana tees in Brazil, including Robert Bonde, James Reid, Coralie Nourisson, Susan Butler, Martine de Wit, Andy Garrett, Kane Rigney, Michael Husk, and Margaret Hunter. Fabia de Oliveira Luna (CMA/ICMBioUFPE), Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer Attademo (CMA/ICMBio-UFRPE), Iran Normande (CMA/ICMBio), Cristi ne Negro (Aquasis), Flavio Jos de Lima Silva (PCCB/UERN), Bern adete Lima Fragoso (PCCB/UERN), and Carla Carneiro Marques (CMA/ICMBio) CMA/ICMBio will release more Amazonian manatees (Trichechus inunguis ) for the conservation of the species. In the Amazon manatees are still hunted for su bsistence and small-scale selling by riverside communities which in many cases capture the calves to attract the mother. The majority of people interviewed during nine expeditions conducted by th e Aquatic Mammals Center/ Chico Mendes Institute
Sirenews No. 58 11 October 2012 for Conservation of the Biodivers ity (CMA / ICMBio) said that manatees taste very good. The expeditions occurred in the major rivers and la kes of the Amazon basin between 2000 and 2005. A large number of people advised that the calf does not have enough meat, and th erefore they are not being used for consumption. Since 2002 CMA/ICMBio, with partners, has be en rescuing orphaned calves of Amazonian manatees in the State of Par/Brazil. The animals are rehabilitated for a minimum of 2.5 years where they receive daily artificial nutriti on and clinical care. Gradually they are being prepared for release back into their natural habitat. In September 2007, CMA/ ICMBio, with the support of Mamirau Institute, released the first two juvenile manatees rehabilitated in Par state. The animal s, called Hargos and Kika, were released successfully in a lake inside a Fede rally Protected area (RESEX Tapajs/Arapiuns). The lake, named Anuma, was chosen through a detailed survey of the hydrography of the Tapajs River region where the animals were originally captured. Th at lake remains isolated from the river for six months during the dry season, forming a natural prot ected area which is used for adaptation of the animals. The lake has a depth of 8m, presence of abundant food, and the water temperature was adequate for the survival of the species. After the dry season, with the flooding of the rivers, the lake opens and allows the manatees to access an open area along all Amazon basins. To protect the animals from hunting, educational campaigns were carried out for two years with the local communities. The animals were monitored intensively during the first few months. Despite access to the river, the animals remained in the lake during the flood which allowe d for their monitoring to continue until 2010 when it was concluded that the individuals were fully capable of survivi ng in the wild. The project and educational campaigns were considered a success, and in the release area the communities showed affection towards the animals despite tradit ional hunting of the sp ecies in the region. From 2008 to 2012 CMA/ICMBio, with CEPENOR and support of IBAMA/Par, rehabilitated eight Amazonian manatees which are suitable for re lease. With the successful example of the first reintroduction, the CMA/ICMBio, IBAMA/Par, CE PENOR, GEMARS, and Mamirau Institute will release more individuals in order to promote the cons ervation of the species in Brazil. Four individuals were from the Tapajs River region and will be re introduced in the same lake used in 2007. The other four are from the region of Maraj Island, inside another Federally Protected Area. Educational campaigns are underway and by the middle of 2013 the an imals will be released into the wild, allowing them to fill their ecological role which would not be possible without the rescue and rehabilitation programs of the particip ating institutions. -Fbia de Oliveira Luna (email@example.com), Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer Attademo, Miriam Marmontel, and Carla Carneiro Marques Captive born Antillean manatees ( Trichechus manatus manatus ) in Brazil and increase of wild population. Since 1990, the CMA/ICMBio (National Aqua tic Mammals Center/I nstitute of Chico Mendes for Biodiversity Conservation ), has developed a rehabilitati on program for Antillean manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus ) stranded calves on the northeastern co ast of Brazil. This work has been conducted in partnership with ins titutions from the aquatic mammal stranding network (REMANE). The objective is to contribute to the recovery and increase the population of the specie s, which is considered critically endangered in the c ountry (MMA, 2008). From the late 1980s to date, CMA/ICMBio has managed 72 stranded animals which would not have been possible without the REMANE partnership. Most of the animals would have died without rescue due to thei r young age (average age less than 15 days) and inability to survive in the wild on their own. REMANE has been very effective to the conser vation of the Antillean manatee in Brazil. The fast work of the institutions allows the animals to r eceive clinical treatments ve ry quickly (at the location where the manatee stranded), which has been ad opted as a standard methodology in Brazil. After
Sirenews No. 58 12 October 2012 emergency care, some animals go through a period of stabilization in the ins titution responsible for the rescue and afterward are tr ansferred to the Rehabilitation Center of Wild Animals (CRAS), located at CMA/ICMBio, Itamarac/PE. Once there the animals unde rgo a rehabilitation process until they are able to be transferred to a sea pen for adaptation to the wild. They remain for a minimum of six months in adaptation, when they are releas ed and monitored by CMA/ICMBio and Aquatic Mammals Institute (IMA). At CMA/ICMBio in Itamarac, the captive anim als consist partly of st randed calves and partly of individuals rescued from illegal or inadequate captivity as adults. Th is group of animals has not been released and has established an ex-situ population, with three males and four females that have reproduced in this environm ent over the past 16 years. The period which each animal spends in the di fferent phases prior to release varies from individual to individual, however usually the minimum period of re habilitation in aquariums is 6 months to 2 years. All steps are followe d by veterinarians and biologists w ho report clinical and behavioral information before the release of th e individuals. A team of trained an imal care staff are responsible for providing food and clean ing the facilities. In 1996 we documented the first calf born in capti vity in Brazil. In 1997 there was a birth of twins (two females named Carla and Sheila), which was the first record of manatee twins in Brazil. To date, eleven living calves have been born in captivity. In August 2010 CMA/ICMBio and IMA promoted the transfer of three animals, all juvenile males, from Itamarac to the Protect Area Costa dos Corais, in Porto de Pedras, Alagoas. Two of these an imals have already been released, and the other will likely be released by the end of 2012. The Project continues to monitor the animals after release. Others calves that were born in captivity at CMA/ ICMBio will be released and thus it is intended with this initiative to increase the number of indivi duals in the wild, as well as contribute to the reestablishment of an extinct population. -Fernanda Loffler Niemeyer Attademo, Carla Carneiro Marques, Ernesto Frederico da Costa Foppe l, Ines, Fbia de Oliveira Luna (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) CUBA First manatee captures and health assessment in Cuba. In 2012 two expeditions took place in Siguanea Gulf, Isle of Youth (Isla de la Juventud), the first in February and the second in July. The main goals were: 1) Satellite tag two ma natees to study movement pattern s; 2) PIT-tag the manatees to identify recaptures; 3) Collect blood, skin, tears, feces, and urine sample s, and 4) Evaluate the clinical status of the animals and record morphometric valu es. The trips were funded by Sea to Shore Alliance, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundati on, and the United Nations Development ProgrammeGlobal Development Facility (UNDP-GEF), and the E pply Foundation in collaboration with the Center for Marine Research from the University of Hava na, the National Center fo r Protected Areas, and the National Enterprise for Flora and Fauna. During the first trip the Cuban crew was traine d on main capture techniqu es. We were able to find the proper place to set the net, based on re sults from boat surveys si nce 2007. Specialists from different U.S. institutions (USGS, University of Fl orida, and the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission) participated in this training. We were not successful in capturing any animals and had only a few manatee sightings during the f our-day expedition, probably due to the lack of fresh water in the area during that month. During the second expedition we set the net for 10 days, usually between 1030 to 1500 hours. Eleven manatees were captured in seven days, but five of them escaped. We captured and did health assessments on six animals: three adult females, one juvenile female, and two calves (both males). We
Sirenews No. 58 13 October 2012 used two different nets: a 40-meter-long net with a 5-cm mesh (designed with a sack in the middle section to facilitate manatee capt ure and manipulation) and a 30-mete r-long net with a 24-cm mesh to block access to the main fresh water source in Siguanea Gulf (San Pedro Bay in the west part of Lanier Swamp) and confine the manatees inside this area. Once the manatees were on the boat we collected morphometric measurements; assessed body condition; conducted temperature, respiratory and heart rate monitoring; implanted PIT-tags (intradermal microchip); and collected blood, fecal and urine samples. All of these measurements and evaluations were completed within an hour. Average straight length was 311 cm on the adults, 219 cm on the juve nile, and 123 cm on the calves. Two manatees were released with radio-satellite tags and they are being monitored by Cuban researchers from the Center for Marine Research, University of Havana. After releas e, we were able to relocate the two tagged animals and evaluate their behavior and habitat use for nine days. To date, these animals have continued using tw o lagoon systems on the west coast of the Isle of Youth, southwest coast of Cuba. More tags will be acquired in the next year. This study will help us better understand manatee habitat use and m ovement in the Cuban archipelago. -Anmari Alvarez Alemn, Jorge Angulo Valds, James Powell IRAN Dugong carcass recovered in Iran. On April 26, 2012 a marine mammal carcass was located by a marine expert during a rapid survey and monitoring in the Chabahar coastal area of Iran (exact location: Kachou village, 25 11 40.22 N, 61 4 40.05 E). Upon furthe r investigation is was determined to be the carcass of a dugong ( Dugong dugon ). Examination results showed the dugong to be a male 3.1m long weighing more than 450 kg, with deep injuries on the underside of the right pectoral area. While in previous years this area was known to be habitat for many marine species such as dugongs, recent data has indicated no presence of dugongs in this re gion in at least ten years. -Nasir Soltanpour (Chabahar Dept. of Environment) and Hamed Moshiri (Plan for the Land Society, email@example.com)
Sirenews No. 58 14 October 2012 SURINAME River seismic survey in manatee habitat in Suriname. Issue : A river seismic study is being conducted in Suriname in areas known to be in habited by the West Indian Manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus ). No proper baseline study was done prior to the river seismic study. As the project was classified as category B according to environmental guidelines used by the local environmental protection agency NIMOS, the required scope of the Environmental a nd Social Impact Assessment (ESIA) was a desktop study which did not include field ve rification. As a result, ongoing a ssessment of impacts will not be made and, more critically, no adjust ments to mitigation or monitoring pr ocedures can be made over the course of the seismic survey. In addition, because Su riname does not have any environmental legislation covering this, all ESIAs are volun tary on the companies, and NIMOS only has an advisory opinion. Legislation specifically addressing ma rine mammals is also non-existent. Background: Suriname is located on the northeastern coast of South America bordering on Brazil in the South, French Guiana in the East and Guyana in the West. The northern border of Suriname is a 380 km coastline characterized by alternating mu dflats and sandy beaches. From east to west, four major rivers flow into the Atlantic ocean, resp ectively the Maro wijne, Suriname, Coppename and Corantijn Rivers. The estuaries of these rivers a ll consist of a confluence of at least one minor contributing river at close proximity to the outflow of these major rivers into the ocean. The contributing rivers are always located on the easte rn bank and are from east to west respectively the Mana (located in French Guiana), Commewijne, Saramacca and Nickerie Rivers. These four estuaries with contributing rivers are prime habitat for West Indian Manatees. Manatees have not been recorded on the coastline of Suriname, perhaps because of a lack of appropriate habitat, e.g. the shallow mudflats and sandy beaches and lack of edible vegetation types, but may simply have been missed because of insufficient research in these habitats. All rivers occupied by manatees are typically shallow, narrow, meande ring rivers of which the secchi depth (measured using a turbidity tube) ranges between 2-20 cm. In other words, marine mammal sightings are extremely difficult, es pecially if there was no baseline to determine where the manatees may likely occur. Based on maps 2225 and 2014 of th e Maritime Authority Suriname, Table 1 provides an idea of width and depth of the Saramacca River. Although the data are old, major changes in depth or width are to be expected si nce the last measurement.
Sirenews No. 58 15 October 2012 Table 1. Width and depth data for the Saramacca River. Width Depth Location 3750 m 1.2 m Boromofo kreek Coppename punt 1125 m 1.6 m Blakamamma kreek 825 m 2.4 m Hildesheim 675 m 3 m Carl Franois 500 m 3.5 m Mokkum 500 m 3.6 m Londonderry 500 m 5.2 m Bombay 250 m 5.5 m Tijgerkreek 250 m 7.5 m La Prevoyance 225 m 8.4 m Sara Maria 125 m 10 m Wayamboweg 225 m 8.8 m Groningen The Green Heritage Fund Suriname (GHFS), an environmental volunteer organization, is currently monitoring the Guiana dolphin ( Sotalia guianensis ) population in the Suriname River using an ecosystem-based approach that also tracks other speci es encountered during the weekly monitoring trips, including the manatee, a species en countered from time to time in th e Guiana dolphin habitat. After participating in the Second International Conference on Marine Mammal Protecte d Areas in Martinique in November 2011, the GHFS initiated a distributi on survey of the West Indian Manatee ( Trichechus manatus manatus ) in all Surinamese rivers in late 2012. In 2009 the Suriname State Oil company (Staatsolie N.V.) informed a group of stakeholders of its intention to perform a river seismic study and i nvited them to the first scoping meeting. The GHFS attended that and all subsequent stakeholder meetings, providing input at all stag es of this ESIA process in the form of written submissions to the oil comp any and the local environmental protection agency (NIMOS). In addition, GHFS input in cluded material solicited from international experts. Although the GHFS repeatedly asked that the seismic survey be postponed until additional data could be obtained and a baseline of manatee (and Guiana dolphin) distribu tions and habitat use established, the oil company continued planning without making adjustments. Furt her, the Environmental Management Plan (EMP) was not made available to the GHFS on the pretext of it still being a draft. The EMP was only made available to the GHFS by NIMOS after a meeting held on the 6th of September 2012 at the offices of NIMOS. Although NIMOS indicated during this meeti ng that they still had not given approval, the GHFS was informed by a dolphin tour operator on the 7th of September that th e seismic survey would start on the 23rd of September in the Suriname River. It appears that the Associati on of Tour Operators in Surina me (VESTOR) had already been requested by letter to provide it s collaboration and make an experi enced boatmen available to function as Marine Mammal Observer by way of additional mitigation measure. NIMOS requested a meeting with Staatsolie and the GHFS on the 11th of September to arrive at a solution. During this meeting the company was asked to respond to one particular le tter from the GHFS and on i ssues raised during the
Sirenews No. 58 16 October 2012 meeting. NIMOS would then give a pproval to start the seismic surve y, however, not in the Suriname River for which a monitoring plan had to be put in place, and the government entity asked the company to start its activities in the West of the country. The GHFS men tioned during the meeting that in its opinion the Saramacca River would also require a monito ring plan, as the river is known to be inhabited by West Indian Manatees. The oil company responded in writing to the issues raised during the meeting on the 16th of September, but still did not respond to the specific letter submitted by the GHFS addressing issues of the bioacoustic profiling of the rivers. The comp any then announced it would start its seismic survey in the Saramacca River, after which the GHFS decided to raise the matter in the media on the 21st of September. In addition, Dr Randall Reeves, Chairman of the IUCN Cetacean Specialist Group, wrote a letter requesting proper preparation for the seismic survey, and expressed his concern with regard to the possible impacts on the manatee population in the Saramacca Ri ver. This letter, as well as a monitoring plan drawn up by the GHFS, were submitted to the oil company and the NIMOS and other regulati ng bodies on the 24th of September. A media encount er occurred in which the oil company and the GHFS were given an opportunity to express their viewpoin ts. After that media encounter, there was no communication other than a le tter announcing the start of the seismic survey on the 3rd of October and in which the cooperation of th e GHFS was requested. The GHFS responded that it would provide its cooperation and as ked to be allowed an observer on the vessel, to which request no response was received. Saramacca River Habitat Current Status: The river seismic survey started on the 3rd of October in the Saramacca River. As a result the Nature Conserva tion Division of the Mini stry of Spatial Planning, Land and Forest Management (RGB), which is in charge of protec ted species and nature reserves, is facilitating a preliminary survey of all the rivers by the GH FS involving bioacoustic re cordings, water quality measurements, and surveys of manatee presence. Thes e activities are conducted within the framework of the Suriname Coastal Protected Areas Management Project (SCPAM) that falls under the Ministry of RGB and which is co-funded by the Global Envi ronment Fund (GEF) through the United Nations
Sirenews No. 58 17 October 2012 Development Program (UNDP). Prior to the initiat ion of the seismic surv eys on 3 October in the Saramacca River no measurements were taken. However, the GHFS visited the Coppename River prior to the seismic survey being conducted there, made bioacoustic recordings, took water measurements (salinity, turbidity) along the projected seismic su rvey line, and recorded anecdotal and physical evidence of manatee presence. The GHFS was acco mpanied on 6 October by a Game Warden and Permitting Official of the Nature Conservation Division. Then on th e 8 October trip the same was repeated prior to the seismic survey in the Corantijn River. The Saramacca River will be sampled after the seismic survey in the week of the 15th of October, and for the Suriname and Commewijne River, funding needs to be found as it falls outside of the scope of th e SCPAM project. Key Considerations: The GHFS Monitoring Plan submitted to the oil company was specifically written with a view to monitori ng the seismic activities on the Suri name and Commewijne Rivers. The monitoring plan includes pre-surv ey monitoring, monitoring duri ng the survey and post-survey monitoring. Considering that, as st ated by Linda Weilgart (Weilgart, 2005) of Dalhousie University in Canada, the burden of proof regarding adverse impact s should be placed on a ppropriate users, rather than requiring the regulatory ag encies (and hence the taxpayers) to cover all costs. Successful implementation of a precautionary approach requires that the burden of proof should reside with the noise producers. Thus, one would expect the oil comp any to cover the costs of the monitoring plan for these two rivers. Because Suriname does not have a ny specific environmental protection legislation, and NIMOS operates under draft e nvironmental legislati on, the government body only has an advisory opinion. This lack of legislation leaves NIMOS toothless, and the oil company can do as it likes, as entities that may cause environmental damage are not legally required to abid e by the requirements of the draft legislation. In case of displacement of the dolphin popul ation, the burgeoni ng dolphin-watching industry benefiting especially local communities along the Suriname and Commewijne Rivers could suffer considerable adverse impact, leaving these communities without any legal recourse towards the oil company for compensation. -Monique Pool, Chairman of th e Green Heritage Fund Suriname (firstname.lastname@example.org) UNITED STATES Update on Dauphin Island Sea Lab Manatee Program. The Dauphin Island Sea Labs (DISL) manatee research program, in collaboration with Sea to Shore Alliance and SeaWorld Orlando, successfully captured five manatees in the Mobile Bay, Alabama area during late August this year. Captured animals included two male s previously identified from Cr ystal River and Homosassa Springs, Florida, and originally captured in the Mobile Bay area during August 2010. Th e DISL researchers and their collaborators were assisted by veterinarians fr om the University of Fl orida and manatee experts from the United States Geological Survey Sirenia Pr oject in Florida, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) biologists and veterina rians from an area practice. Captured manatees were given health assessmen ts and were fitted with GPS tracking tags to locate and record their movements while in Alabam a waters and throughout their migrations. During the capture event, aggregations of 10 or more manatees were seen in both the Dog River and the MobileTensaw delta areas. Researchers from DISL first captured and tagge d Alabama manatees in 2009. Data from tags deployed in 2009 and 2010 helped prove that manatees ar e regular seasonal visitors to Alabama waters and that some of these animals return to Alabama dur ing warm weather year after year. From these data, researchers have also gained a be tter understanding of manatees' habita t use and foraging patterns within local waters.
Sirenews No. 58 18 October 2012 DISL also operates the only formal manatee sigh ting network in the U.S., dedicated to receiving and cataloguing manatee sighting re ports from western Florida thr ough Mississippi. Manatee sighting data obtained from the public is vi tal to understand the distribution of these cryptic marine mammals and is a valuable complement to the capture and tagg ing portion of our researc h. Since inception in 2007, DISLs Manatee Sighting Network has processed more than 1,200 opportunistic manatee sightings primarily in Alabama, but also reported from Loui siana, Mississippi, Florid a, Georgia, and North Carolina. All sightings are reported to the USFWS and entered into a permanent database for which FGDC compliant metadata are also published. "Without the commitment and quality efforts fr om DISL's team lead by Dr. Carmichael, most that is known about the federally endangered manatee in Alabama would be little more than stories. She is documenting and verifying the animals' use pa tterns, health, and population that were unknown until now," said Dianne Ingram, USFW S endangered species biologist. This research is funded by the Alabama Divi sion of Wildlife & Fres hwater Fisheries under traditional Section 6 of the USFWS. If you are inte rested in making a contribution to support this important research, or would like more informati on, a boat decal or dock si gn with manatee reporting information, please contact DISL's Manatee Si ghting Network on our Facebook page or visit manatee.disl.org and report sightings by calling 1866-493-5803 or by email to email@example.com. -Allen Aven, Ruth H. Carmichael, and Lisa Yo ung (Dauphin Island Sea Lab, Alabama, USA) RECENT LITERATURE Anzolin, D. G., J. E. S. Sarkis, E. Diaz, D. G. Soares, I. L. Serrano, J. C. G. Borges, A. S. Souto, S. Taniguchi, R. C. Montone, A. C. D. Bainy and P. S. M. Carvalho. 2012. Contaminant concentrations, biochemical and hematological biomarkers in blood of West Indian manatees Trichechus manatus from Brazil. Marine Pollution Bulletin 64(7):1402-1408. Beatty, B. L., T. Vitkovski, O. Lambert and T. E. M acrini. 2012. Osteological associations with unique tooth development in manatees (T richechidae, Sirenia): A detailed look at modern Trichechus and a review of the fossil record. Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, 295(9):1504-1512. Bonde, R.K., P.M. McGuire, and M.E. Hunter. 2012. A review of the key genetic tools to assist imperiled species conservation: analyzing West Indi an manatee populations. J. Marine Animals & Their Ecology 5(1): 8-19. Burgess, E. A., J. M. Lanyon, J. L. Brown, D. Blyde and T. Keeley. 2012. Diagnosing pregnancy in free-ranging dugongs using fecal progesterone meta bolite concentrations and body morphometrics: A population application. General and Comparative Endocrinology 177(1):82-92. Burgess, E. A., J. M. Lanyon, and T. Keeley. 2012. Testosterone and tusks: Maturation and seasonal reproductive patterns of live, free-ranging male dugongs ( Dugong dugon ) in a subtropical population. Reproduction (Cambridge) 143(5):683-697. Castelblanco-Martnez D., C. Nourisson, E. Quinta na-Rizzo, J. Padilla-Saldivar, J. Schmitter-Soto. 2012. Potential effects of human pressure and hab itat fragmentation on popul ation viability of the Antillean manatee Trichechus manatus manatus : a predictive model. Enda nger Spec Res. 18:129-145.
Sirenews No. 58 19 October 2012 Daniel-Rentera, I. C., A. Serrano, G. Snchez-Ro jas. 2012. Distribution of the Antillean manatee ( Trichecus manatus manatus ) in the Alvarado Lagoon System (Veracruz, Mexico). Ciencias Marinas 38(2): 459465. D. P. Domning. 2012. Historical Perspectives: The early years of the Amazonian manatee project at INPA, Manaus, Brazil. Aquatic Mammals 2012, 38 (2), 204-222. Gaspard, III, J. C., G. B. Bauer, R. L. Reep, K. Dziuk, A. Cardwell, L. Read and D. A. Mann. 2012. Audiogram and auditory critical ratios of two Florida manatees ( Trichechus manatus latirostris ). Journal of Experimental Biology 215(9):1442-1447. Guido, A., A. C. Marra, A. Mastandrea, F. Tosti and F. Russo. 2012. Micromorphological, geochemical, and diagenetic char acterization of sirenian ribs preserved in the Late Miocene paleontological site of Cessa niti (southern Calabria, Ital y). Facies 58(2):179-190. Guterres-Pazin, M. G., F. C. W. Rosas, & M. Marmont el. 2012. Ingestion of Invertebrates, Seeds, and Plastic by the Amazonian Manatee ( Trichechus inunguis ) (Mammalia, Sirenia). Aquatic Mammals 38(2):322-324. Hamylton, S. M., A. B. Hagan and N. Doak. 2012. Observations of dugongs at Aldabra Atoll, western Indian Ocean: Lagoon habitat mapping and spatial analysis of sighting records. International Journal of Geographical Information Sciences 26(5):839-853. Hautier L., R. Sarr, R. Tabuce, F. Lihoreau, S. A dnet, D. P. Domning, M. Samb and P. M. Hameh. 2012. First prorastomid sirenian from Senegal (Western Africa) and the Old World origin of sea cows. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (32)5:1218-1222. Kikuchi, M., V. M. F. da Silva, F. C. W. Rosas, D. Souza and N. Miyazaki. 2012. The implications of turning behaviour performed by Amazonian manatees after release into the w ild. Journal of Ethology 30(1):187-190. Lacommare, K. S., S. Brault, C. Self-Sullivan and E. M. Hines. 2012. Trend detection in a boat-based method for monitoring sirenians: Antillean manat ee case study. Biologica l Conservation 152:169-177. Lanyon, J.M., H. L. Sneath and T. Long. 2012. Evalua tion of exertion and capture stress in serum of wild dugongs ( Dugong dugon ). Journal of Zoo and Wild life Medicine 43(1):20-32. Luna, F. O., R. K. Bonde, F. L. N. Attademo, J. W. Saunders, G. Meigs-Friend, J. Z. O. Passavante, and M. E. Hunter. 2012. Phylogeographic implications fo r release of critically endangered manatee calves rescued in Northeast Brazil. A quatic Conservation: Marine and Fr eshwater Ecosystems 22(5):665-672. Martin, J., H. H. Edwards, M. A. Burgess, H. F. Perc ival, D. E. Fagan, B. E. Gardner, J. G. Ortega-Ortiz, P. G. Ifju, B. S. Evers and T. J. Rambo. 2012. Es timating distribution of hidden objects with drones: From tennis balls to manatees. PLOS ONE 7(6) e38882. 8pp. Mathews, P.D., V. M. F. da Silva, F. C. W. Rosas, J. A. D. Neto, S. M. Lazzarini, D. C. Ribeiro, J. P. Dubey, S. A. Vasconcellos, and S. M., Gennari. 2012. Occurrence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii
Sirenews No. 58 20 October 2012 and Lepstospira spp. In manatees ( Trichechus inunguis ) of the Brazilian Amazon. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 43(1):85-88. Rivas Rodriguez, B. A., A. F. Perez and G. Col onnello. 2012. Distribution, habitat use, and population status of the manatee ( Trichechus manatus ) in the middle region of the lowe r Orinoco River, Venezuela. Memoria de la Fundacion La Salle de Ciencas Naturales 173-174:155-172. Sadchatheeswaran, S., M. Belanger and C. Wittn ich. 2012. A comparison of published brevetoxin tissue levels in West Indian manatee, bottlenose dolphin and double crested cormorants in southwest Florida. Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 5(1):20-27. Sorbi, S., D. P. Domning, S. C. Vaiani, and G. Bianucci. 2012. Metaxytherium subapenninum (Bruno, 1839) (Mammalia, Dugongidae), the latest sirenian of the Mediterranean Basin. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 32:3, 686-707. Stith, B. M., D. H. Slone, M. de Witt, H. H. Edwards, C. A. Langtimm, E. D. Swain, L. E. Soderqvist, and J. P. Reid. 2012. Passi ve thermal refugia provided warm water for Florida manatees during the severe winter of 2009-2010. Marine Ecology Progress Series 462:287-301.
Sirenews No. 58 21 October 2012 >>> COPY DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE: APRIL 1, 2013 <<< Material may be submitted in Microsoft Word format to Cynthia Taylor at: firstname.lastname@example.org Sirenews is available at: www.sirenian.org/sirenews.html and http://public.sea2shore.org/newsletters