IN THIS ISSUE: FLORIDA MANATEE PROTECTION WEAKENED (p. 7)
DUGONGS STILL (DYING) IN TANZANIA (p. 10)
EDITORIAL: MANATEES, GOVERNMENT, AND THE COMMON GOOD
By the time you read this, the outcome of the presidential election here in the
United States may be known. For better or worse, it will have more than usually serious
implications throughout the world not least for environmental issues. Much is at stake,
from survival of obscure species to the condition of the Earth's very atmosphere,
hydrosphere, and biosphere.
Issues of war and peace, social well-being, and economic security for all the
world's people understandably receive the most attention in what promises to be a very
close political race. The winner's actions in these areas will leave their visible mark on
the next generation or two, and maybe beyond. But as biologists, we know that the
impacts of current U.S. policies on our ecological life-support systems are apt to be much
longer-lasting: climate and sea-level change, irreversible loss of biodiversity, and (the
most taboo topic in American public discourse) human overpopulation. While other
governments and nations are also at fault, the disproportionate share of the world's
resources consumed by Americans, together with the economic and geopolitical power of
the U.S., gives us a similarly disproportionate share of the responsibility.
Sirenews No. 42
Sirenians are no less at risk than other wildlife. The manatee has long been a
political football in Florida, never more so than now a predictable (and predicted, in
these pages) result of ever-increasing human encroachment on its habitat. Regulatory
agencies attempting to protect manatees today face opposition not only from marine
industries, boaters, and developers, but also from environment-unfriendly federal and
state administrations and legislatures (see, for example, Pat Rose's article below). In this
climate, the scientific basis for management decisions is easily distorted or set aside in
deference to the political pressures.
The George W. Bush administration's frequent skewing of science to weaken
environmental regulations has (unlike overpopulation) been extensively discussed and
documented by American journalists in recent months. One noteworthy technique of this
"disregulation" is a semantic one: in effect, rewriting the dictionary to make existing
rules mean something different from what they say. For example (as reported in The
Washington Post, 17 August 2004), in the Appalachian region, where coal is strip-mined
by the removal of entire mountaintops, the coal industry now has broad permission to
dump the waste rock into the intervening valleys, destroying the mountain streams and
their biotas. Regulators accomplished this by simply renaming the waste as "fill", which
is subject to less stringent controls on where it can be put.
This technique may sound familiar to readers of Sirenews. As reported in our
issue Number 38 (October 2002), industry interests are pressing to have the Florida
manatee downlisted from "Endangered" to "Threatened" in state government parlance -
never mind that "Threatened" in this Neo-Floridian dialect is synonymous with
"Endangered" in the international English of the IUCN.
The Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission (FWCC) is in a crossfire
between industry and boating lobbyists who demand relaxation of manatee protection,
and manatee advocates who want stricter rules. In these unprecedentedly-heated
circumstances, where decisions should logically be guided by scientific evidence of what
protection manatees really need, one would think that FWCC would seek scientific
advice as never before for example, from its own long-standing Manatee Technical
Advisory Council (MTAC) (described in Sirenews No. 13, April 1990). However, after
more than 20 years of continuous functioning and persistence through several agency
reorganizations, MTAC was quietly and without explanation allowed to go out of
existence in 2002 -just when political pressure for manatee downlisting was on the rise.
FWCC has subsequently argued that the present availability of scientific advice
from other, independent sources, such as the interagency Manatee Population Status
Working Group (MPSWG), makes MTAC in its original form somewhat redundant.
Perhaps, but there is an added cogency to specific advice on a specific decision given to
an agency by its own in-house advisory body especially when it's on the public record,
as Florida law requires. Of course, when the gist of the advice can be anticipated in
advance (given the widely-disseminated conclusions of the MPSWG and other scientific
sources), and is politically unwelcome in certain quarters (as is also true in this case), this
added impact is not viewed by all parties as a plus.
Officially, FWCC is considering reconstitution of MTAC in some form, and
inclusion in management decisions of more diverse "stakeholders". These stakeholders
include opponents of manatee protection, who are already well represented on other state
advisory bodies. The stated goal is to reduce the stridency of the manatee debate -
Sirenews No. 42
indisputably a worthy aim. But non-scientists should not be at the table where specifically
scientific advice is formulated, and hopefully this is not FWCC's intent. Let the scientists
maintain their objectivity, and let the other stakeholders voice their political, economic,
and philosophical arguments, pro and con, in the political forum once the scientific data
FWCC's manatee biologists and rulemakers have an unenviable task, as Florida's
population explosion increasingly crowds them and their options into a political corner.
The politically-appointed Commissioners of the FWCC, who will make the final decision
on downlisting, must realize that the stridency of the debate will not diminish if they
appear to be following the Bush administration's pattern of redefining words,
marginalizing objective scientific advice, and disregulating the exploitation of natural
Florida's decision on downlisting manatees is presently on hold until after
So what might come of this election? For two centuries, a foundational principle of
the American republic enshrined in the preamble of our Constitution was the notion of
the "general Welfare" or common good: the conditions that allow all people, either as groups
or individuals, to reach their fulfillment more fully and easily. Over the past three-quarters
of a century, commitment to this goal grew more explicit in the consensus that the citizenry
as a whole should tax itself to ensure all its members some minimum of social well-being,
including food, shelter, health, education, and other necessities of life, plus many other
desirable services. Over the past half-century, this view of the common good expanded to
include responsibility for the well-being of the biosphere, our common life-support system.
The common good remains a key ingredient of the "American dream" that beckons to
would-be immigrants the world over.
But in the past quarter-century, this sense of civic duty has been eroded, not only
by a return toward laissez-faire capitalism, but by a still more insidious attitude that
taxation itself is an intolerable imposition of government. A republic that began with the
slogan "No taxation without representation" is now infected with the spirit of "No
taxation even with representation". Our representatives, who led us down this easy path,
now fear to reverse course, lest they be trampled by the stampede they started.
We see all around us the effects of leading a whole generation to expect that taxes
will always go down. Public services are privatized through "user fees"; public
institutions are forced to seek private sponsors; compassion for the needy fades; even an
army at war lacks for supplies. Though many of our patriots now favor the motto
"Freedom isn't free", they seem to think it demands only their blood, not their money.
Paying taxes will never be popular, but everyone has his or her favorite
government program, whether Social Security, "homeland security", parks, education, or
endangered species. In the U.S. today, every one of these, every function of government,
suffers for lack of adequate tax revenues. The common good, indeed the government
itself, has been sabotaged by irresponsible tax cuts more effectively than any terrorist
attack could accomplish. If overpopulation is our most taboo subject, then this is the
second: neither political party is willing to admit that Americans must pay more taxes if
the common good is to be preserved.
Sirenews No. 42
The United States' looming fiscal disaster will not serve the common good of the
other inhabitants of this planet. Averting it will take not just a narrowly-won election, but
an attitude adjustment for this whole society. DPD
SIRENEWS: THE FUTURE?
At the marine mammal conference in North Carolina last December, I raised the
dual issue of providing for sirenian information resources in the future: the continuation
of Sirenews, and compilation of and access to the bibliographic database. Progress has
since been made on both scores, but problems remain. The bibliography has been
converted to new software, but the task of making it Web-accessible has not been
tackled; indeed, there is a backlog of at least a year just in keeping it updated with current
As for Sirenews, the mailing list was switched to new software as of the last issue.
Other demands on my time, however, now cast serious doubt on how much longer I can
continue editing the newsletter in addition to compiling the bibliography.
In any case, after twenty-one years of the same editor, the wisest course would
surely be for the Sirenia Specialist Group to make concrete plans for its publication's
future. One or more capable volunteers are needed who will singly or jointly commit the
equivalent of two or three person-weeks per year (assuming continuation of the present
scope and format) to compile, edit, print, and distribute Sirenews on a regular, ongoing
basis. Transition to the new editorship should begin as soon as a willing successor can be
Sirenews No. 41, April 2004, incorrectly reported that the recent birth of twin
manatees in Saint-Aignan, France, was the first such captive birth in the world. The Centro
Mamiferos Aquaticos/IBAMA in Pernambuco, Brazil, has brought to our attention the fact
that the first captive conception and birth of twin manatees was actually registered at their
facility in April 1997. This was reported in Sirenews No. 28, October 1997; also at the
Captive Manatee Reintroduction/Release Workshop, St. Petersburg, Florida, 26-27 May
1998; at the 8th Reunion of Aquatic Mammal Specialists of South America; and the 2nd
Latin America Aquatic Mammal Specialists' Congress SOLAMAC, in 1998. Currently,
the seven-year-old female twins are still alive and well in Pernambuco.
CARIBBEAN REGION Areas and Wildlife (SPAW)" ended a
meeting in Jamaica on 5 October 2004,
Caribbean Countries Urged to with delegates urging support for efforts
Protect West Indian Manatee, Turtles. to protect critical species such as sea
Countries that are signatories to the turtles and the West Indian manatee.
protocol concerning "Specially Protected
Sirenews No. 42
A statement issued at the end of
the meeting, held in Montego Bay, said
that the delegates agreed on updated
criteria for listing species under the
"The criteria, originally developed
in 1990, needed to be revised in the
context of recent developments in the
field of biodiversity conservation. Experts
of government agencies and of NGOs had
prepared the modification. The criteria
for listing species are a central element in
the implementation of the protocol," the
It said that the meeting identified
"those species in the region which require
protection or regional cooperation in their
management, given that they are
endangered or threatened with
The statement said that the
meeting agreed to "promote best and
sustainable practices within the fisheries,
tourism and agro-industry sectors, to
protect the barrier reef in Central
It also agreed to "support country
and community efforts to protect critical
species such as sea turtles and the West
Indian manatee. Also, [to] support
regional cooperation for the protection of
marine mammals and develop
management plans for the sustainable
fisheries of queen conch and lobster."
The meeting was attended by
delegates from Barbados, Colombia,
Cuba, Dominican Republic, France,
Netherlands, Panama, St. Lucia, St.
Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and
Tobago, USA, and Venezuela.
Representatives from Belize, Guatemala,
Jamaica, Nicaragua and the United
Kingdom attended the meeting as
observers, the statement added. -
(Source: Caribbean Media Corporation
news agency, Bridgetown, via BBC)
Manatees in Cidnaga Paredes
(Santander, Colombia): Research and
Education for Species Conservation. -
Cienaga Paredes (Santander, Colombia)
is a marshy lake in the wetlands of the
Magdalena Basin with a wide diversity of
plant and animal communities. The site
harbors many key species, including the
vulnerable manatee Trichechus manatus.
In the dry season of 2002
(February), more than 18 manatees in
Cienaga Paredes were endangered by the
extremely low water level. The people of
the nearby communities of El Cerrito and
Campoduro reported the stranding and
death of a male adult manatee. The
situation became very serious in October
2002, due to oil spills of nearly 500
barrels in a stream leading into the
lagoon. A contingency plan was
developed, and almost 70 people helped
to clean up the oil, including fishermen,
biologists and conservationists.
These events showed the urgent
need for research and educational
activities. We launched a research/
conservation campaign for manatees
during 2002 and 2003. The objectives of
the project were identifying the critical
areas/times for manatee conservation,
describing current and potential threats to
the species population and its habitat, and
assessing the current status of this
manatee population. The project also had
strong social and community context: one
of the aims was to assess the traditional
significance of manatees, and to stimulate
environmental awareness and positive
behavior of local communities towards
A total of 75 in-depth interviews
were conducted with fishermen living in
the region and known to be familiar with
Sirenews No. 42
manatees. In addition to collecting data
on location, feeding and stranding, the
interviews attempted to cover
conservation and cultural aspects. We
conducted workshops with the
participation of local people, especially
fishermen (13 workshops) and children
(14 workshops). During these meetings
the importance of protecting the manatee
in Cienaga Paredes was highlighted; and
we saw that there was a special local
interest in the species: resident fishermen
take food to the manatees during the dry
season, and for 20 years there has been no
manatee hunting in the region. We should
build on this commitment to strengthen
protection for the species.
Occurrence data for manatees were
obtained from direct observations and
studies of feeding tracks in aquatic
vegetation. The sightings were made
from a small boat close to manatee
feeding areas. 213 hours of effort
resulted in 777 sightings of manatees
(3.64 sightings/hour). Both solitary and
associated manatees were observed, but
herds (10 to 18 individuals) were
registered only during the driest period.
Thirty-three manatee-feeding areas were
registered, with the animals feeding on
Paspalum repens, Paspalum fasciculatum
and Polygonum ferrugineum. In addition,
21 fecal samples of manatees were
collected. Data showed that manatee
movements are dependent on food
availability and water levels.
The exact number of manatees in
Cienaga Paredes is unknown. Manatees
are difficult to count because they inhabit
turbid waters, and their behavior makes
them difficult to see. However, local
residents estimated a population of 40-50
individuals. The fishermen claimed that
this population has been stable through
the years, because of low human-related
mortality and lack of hunting.
Unfortunately, this is tempered by the
fact that the manatee population in
Cienaga Paredes is threatened by habitat
alteration and contamination.
Accidents to oil pipelines have
already caused high pollution levels in
the ecosystem, threatening the lives of
local inhabitants. During the dry season
in particular, manatees have to occupy
small, restricted habitats, and this puts
them in a vulnerable position. Oil spills
within river systems and canals used by
manatees endanger the local population,
but this effect is difficult to quantify. In
addition, this marshy lake is suffering
from serious deforestation and erosion as
a result of expanding cultivation. African
palm farming and increase in grassland
for cattle are also contributing to habitat
To summarize, the conditions in
Cienaga Paredes are adequate for
manatee survival in terms of food
resources and lack of hunting activities,
but habitat loss is a dangerous threat to
both manatee and human populations. As
ecosystem destruction is human-related,
broad social and economic measures are
necessary. In addition, a program to
support and coordinate research and
environmental education in Cienaga
Paredes is needed. For this to succeed, it
is essential that government and non-
government organizations and local
people continue to cooperate.
Acknowledgements: This study
was made possible by a grant from
Sirenian International, Inc. The research
team also received help from the
Regional Autonomous Corporation of
Santander (CAS) and the Ministry of the
Environment of Colombia (MAVDT).
We are very grateful for the spontaneous
collaboration given by the fishing
communities of El Cerrito and
Campoduro, in particular we express our
Sirenews No. 42
gratitude to Jose Manuel Zapata
'Morita*. Finally, we would like to
thank Sarita Kendall for suggestions
and text revision. Castelblanco-
Martinez, D. N.1,2'3; V. E. Holguin';
B. Aguilar'; J. P. Giraldo-Vela'; D.
Caicedo', and F. Trujillo' (1Fundaci6n
Omacha, Carrera 7a # 27- 40, piso 4,
Bogota, Colombia; 2Lab. Mamiferos
Aquaticos, INPA, Manaus, Brazil;
3Universidad Nacional de Colombia)
(NOTE: For detailed coverage of
manatee matters in Florida, read Manatee
News Quarterly, published by the Florida
Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Hypocrisy Prevails as Florida
Legislature Erodes Manatee
Protection. At the end of April 2004,
the Anti-Manatee bills, SB 540 and HB
633, were passed by the Florida Senate
and House of Representatives. These
bills turned out a little better than the
original drafts, but remain harmful to
Using both deceptive and
malicious strong-arm tactics, the
leaders of the Florida Senate and House
forced numerous legislators to go
against their consciences and support
changes to the Florida Manatee
Sanctuary Act that both will make it
more difficult to recover manatees from
endangered status and will mean more
manatees will be injured or killed. In
fact, the proposed legislation would not
have even made it out of the Senate
Natural Resources Committee if the
Senate President had not held several
committee members' bills hostage to
force them to support this bad
legislation. We also know that House
members' bills were held hostage in a
similar way from pressure exerted by
the Speaker Pro Tempore, who was also
the House sponsor.
Hidden within this Trojan horse
of supposed studies to help manatees
are limitations on the state's authority
to adopt new speed zones to protect
manatees and language promoting
recreational boating. These new
limitations take effect even before
manatees are recovered from
endangered status. New language is
inserted into the Manatee Sanctuary Act
declaring that the "mission" of the
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation
Commission (FWCC) is to both
maximize manatee protection and
maximize recreational boating in
While the sponsors and marine
manufacturers may pass this off as a
mere statement of philosophy, it will be
used by disgruntled boaters to challenge
manatee protections anywhere they
exist on the basis that any manatee
protection at all means their
recreational boating opportunities are
not "increased to the highest possible" -
which is Webster's definition of
To add insult to injury, the
funding for the studies that were
supposed to help manatees was stricken
from the bill before its final passage -
leaving only more restrictions on the
FWCC's authority to protect manatees.
Despite numerous editorials
against this legislation from papers
across Florida, criticisms from many
long-time manatee and wildlife experts,
and objections from most
environmental and public interest
organizations, the Legislature approved
these changes to the Manatee Sanctuary
Act that were brought forward by
representatives of the marine
manufacturers and the go-fast boating
Sirenews No. 42
groups. This harmful legislation was
signed into law by Florida Governor
Jeb Bush (brother of the U.S. President)
on 23 June 2004. Patrick M.
Rose (Director of Government
Relations, Save the Manatee Club)
(Reprinted from The Manatee Zone,
Mixico Adds Manatee Habitats
to the Ramsar List. In February 2004,
the Alvarado Lagoon System (ALS) was
recognized as a Wetland of International
Importance and included in the list of
Ramsar Sites. ALS is a lagoon and
estuarine system that covers 280,000 ha
on the coast of the Southern Gulf of
Mexico. It is also considered an important
conservation site for many threatened
species due to its habitat complexity,
which includes more than 100 inner
lagoons, mangrove forest, and the
Papaloapan, Acula and Blanco rivers that
drain into the Alvarado lagoon, and
finally, into the Gulf of Mexico (GOM).
At the regional level, ALS is believed to
sustain the biggest population of
manatees (Trichechus manatus) in
Veracruz State. The manatee, an
endangered species in Mexico, is an
inhabitant of this ecosystem that is
affected by many environmental
problems such as land clearing for
agriculture and cattle-grazing, increasing
coastal development, gas and oil
exploration, water pollution, and illegal
Since 1998, seven manatees have
been rescued in ALS in a coordinated
effort between the University of Veracruz
(UV), the Veracruz Aquarium, State
authorities, local communities, and
fishermen. Manatees are mainly found
entangled in gillnets or long-lines, and
manatee calves are also found as orphans.
After a five-year education program
developed by the UV, former manatee
hunters and local fishermen have become
collaborators in a monitoring program. At
present, residents act as informants who
report any manatee entanglement or
stranding to the local authorities and
Along with ALS, other coastal
manatee habitats on the GOM were
recognized by Ramsar and the Ministry
of Environment in Mexico. This diversity
of marine and estuarine ecosystems
includes Laguna Madre in Tamaulipas
State, Laguna Sontecomapan in Veracruz
State, Pantanos de Centla in Tabasco
State, Laguna de Terminos in Campeche
State, Ria Lagartos in Yucatan State, and
Laguna Yum Balam in Quintana Roo
This designation adds new
conservation recognition and ecological
value to these important ecosystems
along the GOM. Some of them have
already been included in the National
System of Protected Areas, but others
such as ALS are yet to be included. This
means additional efforts must be placed
on improving law enforcement,
sustainable regional planning and
development, and fomenting participatory
projects to share with local communities
better options for natural resource use. -
Alejandro Ortega-Argueta (University
of Veracruz, Mexico & University of
Queensland, Australia; e-mail:
Rescue and Rehabilitation of a
Neonate Female Dugong (Dugong
dugon) in Guimaras/Iloilo City,
Philippines. On 24 April 2004, a
fisherman in Barangay Moroguan,
Jordan, Guimaras, Philippines found a
dugong trapped in his filter net (locally
Sirenews No. 42
known as "tangkop"). Knowing that the
animal is an endangered species, he
immediately informed the proper
authorities, and the dugong was finally
turned over to the Southeast Asian
Fisheries Development Center
(SEAFDEC) substation in Igang, Nueva
Valencia, Guimaras on 25 April.
Upon its arrival at the SEAFDEC
substation in Igang, it was learned that
the dugong was still a neonate, so the
SEAFDEC staff gave the calf diluted
milk powder in an infant feeding bottle.
The milk was later replaced with a soya-
based milk formula given three times a
day. Seagrass was also offered once in a
while. The dugong was placed in a
floating fish cage, with its body always
exposed to the sun.
Because of the remoteness of the
area, technical personnel (a biologist and
a veterinarian) from the Protected Areas
and Wildlife Bureau-Pawikan
Conservation Project (PAWB-PCP),
together with some volunteers, arrived on
1 May 2004. The soya-based milk was
replaced with a lactose-free milk and
administered through an infant feeding
bottle with an improvised teat. Further
inspection of the animal revealed that the
dugong was a female, about a month old,
and had several scars all over the body.
Foreseeing the difficulty in feeding the
dugong and controlling the water
temperature in the fish cage, the team
agreed to transfer the calf to the
SEAFDEC Aquaculture Department in
Tigbauan, Iloilo City, where conditions
could readily be controlled.
Even with rough waters, the
dugong was successfully transferred to
the SEAFDEC Tigbauan station by
means of a pump boat on 2 May 2004.
The calf was placed in a cement pool
measuring 3 meters wide x 4 meters in
length x 1 meter deep; filtered sea water
was maintained at about 60 cm deep. The
dugong was closely monitored thereafter.
Lactose-free milk was given at two-hour
intervals and pool water temperature was
maintained at 29-300C. Playful
swimming behavior, observed as loud
splashing of water while swimming with
the ventral side up and "rolling over,"
was noted. The calf was submitted to
daily exercises (chasing around the pool)
in a bigger pool measuring 3.5 meters
wide x 10 meters in length x 1.5 meters
deep. Tanks used for the dugong were
cleaned and scrubbed daily.
The dugong gained weight fairly
well. Starting from 18.5 kilograms on 3
May, the dugong weighed 19.6 kilograms
on 7 May. The calf would often pass out
air through the anus, sometimes expelling
soft, brown feces together with the air.
Laboratory examination of the feces did
not reveal anything significant. The calf
suddenly went off-feed on 8 May and
hardly moved its right flipper. After an
hour observing rapid, jerky swimming
movements and refusal to take milk, the
dugong was found dead at about 5 AM on
9 May 2004.
Through post-mortem examina-
tion, the dugong was tentatively
diagnosed to have suffered from acute
gastroenteritis. The right flipper joint was
suspected to be dislocated as well. Organ
samples were collected for histo-
pathological examination to further
determine the cause of death of the
In the Philippines, the dugong is
protected by law pursuant to Republic
Act No. 9147 or the "Wildlife Resources
Conservation and Protection Act of
2001." An imprisonment of 6 to 12 years
and a fine of Php 100,000.00 to 1 million
pesos shall be imposed on those who
have committed illegal acts such as
collecting, hunting, killing, and
Sirenews No. 42
slaughtering the species. In addition,
DENR Administrative Order No. 55,
dated 21 October 1991, mandated the
Pawikan Conservation Project (PCP) of
the Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau
(PAWB) of the Department of
Environment and Natural Resources
(DENR) to implement a national program
for the conservation and protection of the
endangered dugong. Rizza Araceli F.
Salinas, DVM (resident veterinarian,
Pawikan Conservation Project of the
Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau,
Philippine Department of Environment
and Natural Resources; Quezon Avenue,
Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines; tel.:
(0632)9258946 / (0632)9246031 local
Dugong Carcass Recovered in
Tanzania. A complete dugong carcass
was recovered in the northern Rufiji
Delta (Simba Uranga) in a gillnet during
Tuesday night [13 Jan. 2004].
Unfortunately the animal had already
drowned by the time the fishers pulled
their nets on Wednesday morning. But
thanks to recent awareness-raising efforts
by the Mafia Island Turtle & Dugong
Conservation Programme (which WWF
co-supports with the UK Born Free
Foundation), the fishermen delivered the
carcass to District authorities on Mafia
Island rather than selling the meat as they
would normally have done. The meat on
this animal is worth over 100,000 TSh.
This is the first dugong carcass that has
been delivered to any authority in
Tanzania in recent decades. It was frozen
overnight on Mafia and was to be handed
over to the Fisheries Division/ University
of Dar es Salaam/ Marine Parks &
Reserves Unit for analysis. Ultimately,
hopefully it can be preserved for display
at the National Museum, UDSM, or
perhaps even Mafia Island Marine Park.
We should bear in mind that until
the past year or so, respected marine
experts in Tanzania were speculating that
dugongs were extinct in Tanzanian
waters. Only recently, surveys by the
Mafia Island Turtle & Dugong
Conservation Programme and the
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) -
co-supported by WWF and UNEP -
confirmed that a small population exists
around the Rufiji/ Kilwa border. Aside
from anecdotal evidence and a few bones,
this specimen is the latest and most
substantive evidence. The pity is that
there is now one less animal in Tanzanian
waters, a reminder that we need to pull
our fingers out to protect the few that
remain. (This and the following item
communicated by Jack Frazier
Sea Turtle and Dugong
Conservation Programme, Tanzania. -
Initiated in January 2001, the Tanzania
Turtle & Dugong Conservation
Programme is a community-based
initiative committed to the protection of
turtles, dugongs and related habitats
through proactive community protection,
research, monitoring and education /
training. The aims of the programme are
Protect and monitor turtle nests
Determine dugong populations
Identify and quantify threats
Encourage local participation and
Promote education and awareness
Research on the status and distribution of
the threatened dugong has revealed new
evidence of two small populations in the
Rufiji-Mafia-Kilwa area and further north
near the border with Kenya.
Sirenews No. 42
In early 2004, two adult dugongs
(male and female), which
drowned in gillnets off the Ruiji
Delta, were returned to Mafia for
research purposes. This is the first
tangible evidence of their
existence in Tanzanian waters for
74 years. Previously they were
believed to be extinct in Tanzania
establishing "dugong sanctuaries",
adopting the dugong as a
Tanzanian flagship species,
capacity building, awareness and
education, and research.
Tanzania Turtle and Dugong
Conservation Programme (P. 0. Box
1344, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; tel: 022
266 7300; 022 745 834030; e-mail:
Conservation of the West African
Manatee along the West African
Seaboard. In the coming months a
conservation project will start in West
Africa focused on the West African
manatee. This project is part of the
Regional Programme for the Protection of
Coastal and Marine Resources (PRCM).
The PRCM is a joint programme from
IUCN, FIBA, WWF and Wetlands
International to address conservation
issues in West Africa (Mauritania to
Guinea including Cape Verde) in
cooperation with other international and
national NGOs, governments,
international and regional bodies,
research institutes and multi- and bilateral
donors. The project, part of the species
and habitat conservation component, will
be implemented by Wetlands
International West Africa Programme in
cooperation with the PRCM partners.
Some research has been
conducted on the West African manatee
and several conservation projects have
already been implemented or are being
implemented in the different countries in
the region. The present project aims to
build on these experiences and develop a
comprehensive regional conservation
plan. In the last year of the three-year
project, support will be given for the
implementation of the conservation
action plan. The objectives of the project
To carry out baseline surveys of
the West African manatee along
the West African seaboard,
complemented with a literature
To develop a regional network for
the conservation management of
the West African manatee;
To promote the manatee as a
flagship species for wetlands, by
virtue of the high level of interest
it generates, and for its
importance in local customs and
To develop an action plan for the
West African manatee along the
West African seaboard, using
results of surveys and a regional
To raise awareness of the West
African manatee and wetlands
along the West African seaboard
on national and international
To develop a proposal for a
second phase of the project.
The project will start in October 2004
and will end in December 2007. For more
information about the PRCM please
contact Pierre Campredon (pierre.
firstname.lastname@example.org). For more
information about the West African
manatee Conservation Project contact
Sirenews No. 42
Mame Dagou Diop (dagouwet@ 8206478; fax: +221 8206479; e-mail:
sentoo.sn or email@example.com). /
Mame Dagou DIOP (Project Officer, ntoo.sn>; )
Wetlands International West Africa, BP
8060 Dakar Yoff, Senegal; tel: +221
The following abstract is from the Proceedings of the National Conference on
Undergraduate Research (NCUR) 2003, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, 13-15
Manatee Directional Response to High Frequency Sounds: Preliminary Report
C.J. Grossman1, G. Baytos', S. Feist', A. Howard', K. Lambourne1, S. Rohrkasse 1, P. Walz1, S. Herbert', J.
Johnson', D. Bellman', D. Flaspohler1, E. Todd2 L. Hughes2, and J. Vogel2
(1. Xavier University, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA; Depts. of Biology, Physics, Math, Audiovisual, and WVUX
Radio; 2. Manatee Springs, Cincinnati Zoo, Cincinnati, OH)
Since 1974 more than 4000 dead manatees have been collected in Florida and about 30% of these
deaths have been attributed to manatee boat accidents. This is because manatees feed close to the surface of
the water and for reasons that are not fully apparent do not seem to be able to hear the sound of approaching
boats. It has been suggested that at the surface of the water sound transmission is blocked through surface
reflection and also by boat shadows. Others propose that ultra-high frequency sounds projected from
approaching boats might act as warning beacons, but it is not known how wild unconditioned populations
might respond to such sounds. Our group is studying two captive untrained manatees housed at Manatee
Springs at the Cincinnati Zoo. To determine if these manatees can sense and respond to sounds, equipment
was built by an audio engineer that would generate and record sound frequencies in the range of 3 kHz to 40
kHz. A pair of US Navy sound transducers were placed at either end of the manatee tank and sounds were
transmitted into the tank at 110 dB at different frequencies. Manatee response was observed and recorded by
pairs of observers and was also videotaped. Early results indicate that the manatees do respond by avoidance
to a combination of the frequencies under test (15 kHz, and 10 kHz alternating at 2 Hz) but they appear to
acclimate after about 15 minutes into a single run. Other effects appear to indicate a more active response
early in the study and more acclimation with less response, after three months under test. The group now
plans to test different combinations of frequencies for different durations in an attempt to elicit a more intense
avoidance response with less acclimation over time.
The following abstract is from the Proceedings of the National Conference on
Undergraduate Research (NCUR) 2004, Indiana University, Indianapolis, 15-17 April 2004
Manatee Directional Response to Sound: Avoidance and Behavioral Effects of Audible vs. Ultrahigh
A. Tenkman', C. Kluener', K Schneider', M. Van Buren', W. Thornton', T. Oppold', S. Nine', and M.
Palmer1 (Faculty Advisor and Principal Investigator: C. Grossman'; other faculty and staff: S. Herbert2, J.
Johnson2, D. Bellman2, D. Flaspohler2, E. Todd3, L. Hughes3, and J. Vogel3) ('Department of Biology, Xavier
University, 3200 Victory Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45207, USA; 2Depts. of Physics, Math, Audiovisual and
WVXU Radio, Xavier University, Cincinnati, OH; 3Manatee Springs, Cincinnati Zoo, Cincinnati, OH.)
Our group has been studying acoustical responses and associated behaviors in manatees for the last
three years to learn why they are killed in boat collisions in Florida. Previously we reported (U. Utah, 2003
NCUR) that manatees at the Cincinnati Zoo demonstrated significant positive avoidance responses
(Stoneman p=0.035, Douglas p=0.01) when exposed to audible mixed frequencies (10 kHz, 15 kHz, 2 Hz
repeat). We now report on the effects to ultrahigh mixed frequencies (25 kHz, 35 kHz, 2 Hz repeat) in these
same animals. Research runs were generally twice weekly and consisted of 15 repeated exposures to either
Sirenews No. 42
experimental (sound generating) or controls (no sound). Over the period of two years data were collected in
these two animals that amounted to 238 experimental runs and 62 control runs. Generated sounds at 110 dB
were projected into the manatee tank, which was divided into 13 quadrants, and behaviors were videotaped
and transcribed by observers, and vocalizations recorded. Data were transferred into Excel spreadsheets and
analyzed statistically. In studying quadrants traversed there were no significant differences between ultrasonic
runs (0.038 +/- 1.063 n= 238) and control runs (0.026 +/- 1.326, n=62), nor were there any differences in the
stress behavior we describe as huddling responses. However, we are still reviewing the data on positive
avoidance responses. As in our previous studies with audible frequencies, Stoneman demonstrated
significantly greater general motility than did Douglas (p =0.0000005). We are also in the process of
reviewing our behavioral videotapes to ascertain time/quadrant/location utilizing the JWatcher program.
The following abstract is of a poster presentation at the Ohio Fish and Wildlife
Service conference held at the Fawcett Center, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, 6
Manatee Acoustical Responses to Generated Frequencies in the Audible Range and Associated
Charles J. Grossman (Dept. of Biology, Xavier University, 3200 Victory Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45207,
Since 1974 more than 1200 Florida manatees have been killed in boat collisions. Why manatees
disregard the sound of approaching boat engines remains unclear. Therefore we have been studying the
acoustical sensitivity and behaviors of two manatees at Manatee Springs at the Cincinnati Zoo. Our
equipment can generate sound from 3 kHz to 40 kHz and can record sounds from 10 Hz to 80 kHz. To
determine if manatees can also directionally locate sound sources, a pair of US Navy sound transducers were
placed at either end of the tank and different sound frequencies were transmitted at 130 dB. Various
combinations of audible and ultrasonic sounds were projected from either the left or right transducer in
random order. Sound duration was 1 minute followed by 2-minute rest periods. During control runs no sound
was projected. Observers recorded manatee behaviors, and the runs were videotaped for later analysis.
Beginning and ending of runs were communicated to the observers with an indicator light system and the
manatee tank was subdivided into 13 quadrants using 2 cloth grids attached to the outside of the glass
viewing windows. Manatee squeaks and other sounds were recorded for computer analysis of frequency
components. Results of the manatee patterns of directional movement observed and recorded during a study,
as well as patterns of behavior, were then compiled and statistically analyzed. In 15 separate runs employing
15 kHz, 10 kHz repeated at 2 Hz, both manatees traveled 2.5 times farther during experimental runs vs.
controls. Stoneman was more active than Douglas (p=0.00007). Both manatees demonstrated avoidance
behaviors. (Stoneman moved away p=0.035, Douglas moved away p=0.01.) Preliminary results also suggest
that manatee squeaks are frequency-modulated. This is a collaboration between Xavier University and the
Cincinnati Zoo. The transducers were from the US Navy Undersea Warfare Center.
Aipanjiguly, S., S.K. Jacobson, and R. Flamm. 2003. Conserving manatees: knowledge, attitudes,
and intentions of boaters in Tampa Bay, Florida. Conserve. Biol. 17(4): 1098-1105.
Barrett, T., and B.K. Rima. 2002. Molecular biology of morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.
In: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and Cell Biology of Marine Mammals. Malabar, Kreiger
Publishing Company: 161-172.
Blaszkiewitz, B. 2003. Seekuh-Darstellungen in Tiergaerten. [Sea cow representations in zoos.]
Milu 11(1): 86-92.
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Bossart, G.D., D.G. Baden, R.Y. Ewing,and S.D. Wright. 2002. Manatees and brevetoxicosis. In:
C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and Cell Biology of Marine Mammals. Malabar, Kreiger
Publishing Company: 205-212.
Carruthers, T.J.B., W.C. Dennison, B.J. Longstaff, M. Waycott, E.G. Abal, L.J. McKenzie, and
W.J. Lee Long. 2002. Seagrass habitats of northeast Australia: models of key processes and
controls. Bull. Mar. Sci. 71(3): 1153-1169.
Clementz, M.T., D.P. Domning, L.G. Barnes, and B.L. Beatty. 2004. Eocene and Oligocene
evolution and structure of the aquatic herbivore adaptive zone in the West Atlantic and
Caribbean. (Abstr.) Jour. Vertebrate Paleontoloy 24 (supplement to no. 3): 47A.
Cox, J., R.T. Engstrom, A. Paul, E. Stolen, and E. Stoccardo. 2002. Florida's new method of
evaluating rare species: a report by the Conservation Committee of the Florida
Ornithological Society with emphasis on a proposed reclassification of the Red-cockaded
Woodpecker. Florida Field Naturalist 30(2): 44-59.
Craig, B.A., and J.E. Reynolds III. 2004. Determination of manatee population trends along the
Atlantic coast of Florida using a Bayesian approach with temperature-adjusted aerial survey
data. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 386-400.
Csorba G., Buzas B., and Farkas B. 2004. A previously undescribed skull of Steller's sea cow,
Hydrodamalis gigas (Mammalia, Sirenia) in the Hungarian Natural History Museum. Ann.
Hist.-Nat. Mus. Natl. Hungarici 96: 317-320.
Demere, T.A. 1993. Fossil mammals from the Imperial Formation (upper Miocene-lower Pliocene),
Coyote Mountains, Imperial County, California. In: R.E. Reynolds and J. Reynolds (eds.),
Ashes, Faults and Basins. San Bernardino County Museum Association Special
Publication. 93-1: 82-85.
Dybas, C.L. 2003. Harmful algal blooms: biosensors provide new ways of detecting and monitoring
growing threat in coastal waters. Bioscience 53(10): 918-923.
Easton, D.E., L.W. Lefebvre, and T.J. Doyle. 2003. Using strip-transect aerial surveys to estimate
manatee abundance and population trend in the Ten Thousand Islands region of Southwest
Florida. In: G.R. Best (chairperson), GEER program & abstracts; joint conference on The
Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and Florida Bay Ecosystem: From
Kissimmee to the Keys: 338-340.
Eldredge, L.G. 2003. The marine reptiles and mammals of Guam. Micronesica 35-36: 653-660.
Garcia-Rios, V., and G. Gold-Bouchot. 2003. Trace metals in sediments from Bahia de Chetumal,
Mexico. Bull. Environmental Contamination & Toxicology 70(6): 1228-1234.
Goodman, D. 2004. Methods for joint inference from multiple data sources for improved estimates
of population size and survival rates. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 401-423.
Gray, B.A., R.T. Zori, P.M. McGuire, and R.K. Bonde. 2002. A first generation cytogenetic
ideogram for the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) based on multiple
chromosome banding techniques. Hereditas (Lund) 137(3): 215-223.
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Green, E.P., and F.T. Short (eds.). 2003. World atlas of seagrasses. United Nations Environment
Programme and World Conservation Monitoring Centre. Berkeley, Univ. of California
Press: xii + 298.
Hatfield, J.R., D.A. Samuelson, P.A. Lewis, and M. Chisholm. 2003. Structure and presumptive
function of the iridocomeal angle of the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), short-
finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus), hippopotamus (Hippopotamus
amphibious and African elephant (Loxodonta Africana). Veterinary Ophthalmology 6: 35-
Henriques, D.D.R., S.A.K. de Azevedo, L.B. de Carvalho, A.B. de Carvalho, and V. Gallo. 2000.
Catalogo de fosseis-tipo da colegao de paleovertebrados do Museu Nacional Rio de
Janeiro. [Catalog of the type fossils in the paleovertebrate collection of the National
Museum of Rio de Janeiro.] Publicagoes Avulsas do Museu Nacional 8 1.
Hermandez, A.G., O.E.R. Bravo, R.K. Maiti, and B.R. Maiti. 2002. Manatees: an endangered giant
sea monster. Proc. Zool. Soc. Calcutta 55(2): 35-38.
Joger, U., G. Garrido, J. Hauf, A. Tikhonov, and S. Vartanyan. 2003. Genetic investigations on
mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Deinsea (Rotterdam) No. 9: 205-219.
Kan Yaw Chong. 2003. Distressed dugong saved but died. Tembadau (Newsletter of the Sabah
Wildlife Dept.) 3(7): 8. [Reprint of article from the Daily Express, 20 Sept. 2002, reporting
a wounded 1.1-meter dugong calf found in the Mengkabong River estuary.]
Kendall, W.L., C.A. Langtimm, C.A. Beck, and M.C. Runge. 2004. Capture-recapture analysis for
estimating manatee reproductive rates. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 424-437.
King,D.P., and J.L. Stott. 2002. The cytokines of marine mammals: biological properties and
molecular analysis. In: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and Cell Biology ofMarine Mammals.
Malabar, Kreiger Publishing Company: 289-299.
King, J.M., and J.T. Heinen. 2004. An assessment of the behaviors of overwintering manatees as
influenced by interactions with tourists at two sites in central Florida. Biol. Conserv.
Kubota, R., T. Kunito, and S. Tanabe. 2002. Chemical speciation of arsenic in the livers of higher
trophic marine animals. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 45(1-12): 218-223.
Kumar, K.S., M. Yamamuro, S. Pitaksintom, and S. Masunaga. Dioxins/Furans and polychlorinated
biphenyls (PCBs) in dugongs from the Thailand coast. Bull. Environmental Contamination
& Toxicology 70(2): 198-204.
Langtimm,C.A., and C.A. Beck. 2003. Lower survival probabilities for adult Florida manatees in
years with intense coastal storms. Ecological Applications 13(1): 257-268.
Langtimm, C.A., C.A. Beck, H.H. Edwards, K.J. Fick-Child, B.B. Ackerman, S.L. Barton, and
W.C. Hartley. 2004. Survival estimates for Florida manatees from the photo-identification
of individuals. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 438-463.
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Leistra, W.H.G., M.J. Hoyer, M. Kik, and J.D. Sinke. 2003. Recidiverende huidproblemen bij een
zeekoe: de diagnostische aanpak. [Recurrent skin problems in a manatee: the diagnostic
approach.] Tijdschrift voor Diergeneeskunde 128(5): 140-145.
MacFadden, B.J., P. Higgins, M.T. Clementz, and D.S. Jones. 2004. Diets, habitat preferences, and
niche differentiation of Cenozoic sirenians from Florida: evidence from stable isotopes.
Paleobiology 30(2): 297-324.
MacPhee, R.D.E., M.A. Iturralde-Vinent, and E.S. Gaffney. 2003. Domo de Zaza, an early Miocene
vertebrate locality in south-central Cuba, with notes on the tectonic evolution of Puerto
Rico and the Mona Passage. American Museum Novitates 3394.
Manire, C.A., C.J. Walsh, H.L. Rhinehart, D.E. Colbert, D.R. Noyes, and C.A. Luer. 2003.
Alterations in blood and urine parameters in two Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus
latirostris) from simulated conditions of release following rehabilitation. Zoo Biology
Marsh, H., and I. Lawler. 2002. Dugong distribution and abundance in the northern Great Barrier
Reef Marine Park, November 2000. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority Research
Publication 77: 1-62.
Mekayev, Yu.A. 2002. The faunogenesis and classification of mammals. Sankt-Petersbourg,
Petrov's Academy of Sciences and Arts: 1-895.
Morgan-Ryan, U.M., A. Fall, L.A. Ward, N. Hijjawi, I. Sulaiman, R. Fayer, R.C.A. Thompson, M.
Olson, A. Lal, and L. Xiao. 2002. Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa:
Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens. Jour. Eukaryotic Microbiology 49(6): 433-440.
Nakaoka, M., H. Mukai, and S. Chunhabundit. 2002. Impacts of dugong foraging on benthic animal
communities in a Thailand seagrass bed. Ecological-Research 17(6): 625-638.
Niezrecki, C., R. Phillips, M. Meyer, and D.O. Beusse. 2003. Acoustic detection of manatee
vocalizations. Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 114(3): 1640-1647.
Nikaido, M., H. Nishihara, Y. Fukumoto, and N. Okada. 2003. Ancient SINEs from African
endemic mammals. Molec. Biol. Evol. 20(4): 522-527.
Nowacek, D.P., B.M. Casper, R.S. Wells, S.M. Nowacek, and D.A. Mann. 2003. Intraspecific and
geographic variation of West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus spp.) vocalizations.
Jour. Acoustical Soc. Amer. 114(1): 66-69.
Nowacek, S.M., R.S. Wells, E.C.G. Owen, T.R. Speakman, R.O. Flamm, and D.P. Nowacek. 2004.
Florida manatees, Trichechus manatus latirostris, respond to approaching vessels. Biol.
Conserv. 119: 517-523.
Parr, L.A., and D.A. Duffield. 2002. Interspecific comparison of mitochondrial DNA variation
among extant species of sirenians. In: C.J. Pfeiffer (ed.), Molecular and Cell Biology of
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Sirenews No. 42
Reid, J., S.M. Butler, D.E. Easton, and B. Stith. 2003. Movements and habitat requirements of radio
tagged manatees in Southwest Florida; implications for restoration assessment. In: G.R.
Best (chairperson), GEER program & abstracts; joint conference on The Science and
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Reynolds, J.E., III, S.A. Rommel, and M.E. Pitchford. 2004. The likelihood of sperm competition
in manatees explaining an apparent paradox. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 464-476.
Rommel, S.A., and H. Caplan. 2003. Vascular adaptations for heat conservation in the tail of
Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Jour. Anat. 202(4): 343-353.
Rouja, P.M., E. Dewailly, C. Blanchet, and the Bardi Community. 2003. Fat, fishing patterns, and
health among the Bardi people of north Western Australia. Lipids 38(4): 399-405.
Runge, M.C., C.A. Langtimm, and W.L. Kendall. 2004. A stage-based model of manatee
population dynamics. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 20(3): 361-385.
Sato, T., H. Shibuya, S. Ohba, T. Nojiri, and W. Shirai. 2003. Mycobacteriosis in two captive
Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris). Jour. Zoo & Wildlife Medicine 34(2):
Schaffelke, B., J. Waterhouse, and C. Christie. 2002. A review of water quality issues influencing
the habitat quality in dugong protection areas. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority
Research Publication 66: v +73.
Senthil Kumar, K., M. Yamamuro, S. Pitaksintom, T. Takasuga, and S. Masunga. 2002.
Dioxins/furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls in dugongs from Thailand coast.
Organohalogen Compounds 57: 177-180.
Singh, H.S. 2003. Sea mammals in marine protected area in the Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat State,
India. Indian Jour. Mar. Scis. 32(3): 258-262.
Stith, B., J. Reid, D.E. Easton, and S. Butler. 2003. Modeling manatee response to restoration in the
Everglades and Ten Thousand Islands. In: G.R. Best (chairperson), GEER program &
abstracts; joint conference on The Science and Restoration of the Greater Everglades and
Florida Bay Ecosystem: From Kissimmee to the Keys: 521-523.
Sysoeva, O.V. 2001. Mirovaya sensaciya. Zapiski Grodekovskogo Museya 2: 221-229. [In
Russian. Concerns Hydrodamalis.]
Uno, H., and M. Kimura. 2004. Reinterpretation of some cranial structures of Desmostylus
hesperus (Mammalia: Desmostylia): a new specimen from the Middle Miocene
Tachikaraushinai Formation, Hokkaido, Japan. Paleontological Research 8(1): 1-10.
Wallace, R.L., and T.W. Clark. 2002. Solving problems in endangered species conservation: an
introduction to problem orientation. Endangered Species Update 19(4): 81-86.
Sirenews No. 42
Whiting, S. 2001. Preliminary observations of dugongs and sea turtles around Channel Island,
Darwin Harbour. Report to Power and Water Authority, Darwin, March 2001. Darwin
(Australia), Biomarine International: iii + 42.
SIRENIAN WEBSITE DIRECTORY
(NOTE: Not all of these sites have been visited recently by your Editor, and some may no
longer be active, or their addresses may have changed.)
Belize Coastal Zone Management Authority & Institute's Manatee Research Program:
The Call of the Siren (Caryn Self Sullivan):
Caribbean Environment Programme, Regional Management Plan for the West Indian
Caribbean Stranding Network:
Columbus (Ohio) Zoo manatee exhibit:
Dugongs: [NEW ADDRESS]
Dugong necropsy manual (available for downloading):
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Bureau of Protected Species
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute
(Florida manatee mortality data):
Friends of the Manatee Association, Manaus & Balbina, Brazil:
dopeixe-boi.org.br/english/Ing_index2.htm> [Includes a bibliography of INPA aquatic
mammal project publications and abstracts]
Fundaci6n Salvemos al Manati de Costa Rica:
Great Barrier Reef dugongs:
IBAMA manatee project, Brazil:
Jacksonville University (Florida) Manatee Research Center Online:
Sirenews No. 42
"Manatee Watchers" Internet discussion list:
News clippings on Florida manatees:
Philippines Dugong Research and Conservation Project:
Save the Manatee Club:
Sea World of Florida:
SEMARNAP, Secretaria de Medio Ambiente, Recursos Naturales y Pesca, Mexico:
Sirenews (texts of current and recent issues):
snews.htm>; (for archive of most older issues)
Sirenia Project, U.S. Geological Survey: or
Sirenian International, Inc.: [Includes a bibliography of
sirenian literature, and an archive of Sirenews issues.]
Smithsonian Institution sirenian bibliography:
nmnh/sirenia.htm> [This is a relatively short bibliography, compiled by Joy Gold, that
provides a very good introduction to both the technical and the popular literature.]
Steller's sea cow: < http://www.hans-rothauscher.de/steller/steller.htm> [NEW
ADDRESS]. This site also includes a searchable database of museum collections
worldwide that contain bones of Hydrodamalis gigas:
rothauscher.de/steller/museums.htm>. See also the website [in Finnish] of Dr. Ari
Lampinen, Univ. of Jyvaskyla, Finland:
West African manatee in Chad (Jonathan H. Salkind):
Sirenews No. 42
CHANGES OF ADDRESS
Dr. Chip Deutsch, Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife
Research Institute , Wildlife Research Laboratory,
4005 S. Main Street, Gainesville, Florida 32601 USA (phone: 1-352-955-2230 ext.
111; SunCom: 625-2230; fax: 1-352-376-5359; e-mail:
Paul Dutton (e-mail: )
Alejandro Ortega-Argueta, School of Natural and Rural Systems Management, University
of Queensland, Gatton Campus, Gatton, 4343, Queensland, Australia (phone: 61+
07 5460 1681; e-mail: )
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