| Material Information
||Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
||v. : ; 29 cm.
||International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
||IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
||Place of Publication:
||two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
||Sirenia -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals ( lcsh )
||periodical ( marcgt )
||Includes bibliographical references.
||Additional Physical Form:
||Also issued via the World Wide Web.
||Dates or Sequential Designation:
||No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
||Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
||Title from caption.
||Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
| Record Information
||University of Florida
||University of Florida
||All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
||oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439
NUMBER 32 OCTOBER 1999
IN THIS ISSUE:
BUSINESS INTERESTS SEEK DE-LISTING OF FLORIDA MANATEES
SEAGRASS SPECIES PUT ON ENDANGERED LIST
DUGONG IN CAPTIVITY IN SINGAPORE
EDITORIAL: 6,000,000,000 AND NO END IN SIGHT
It is likely that as I am writing this, or maybe as you read it, the six billionth person is being added to the
Earth's living human population. Officially, United Nations demographers have estimated that this will
occur on or about October 12, 1999. This also happens to be 507 years to the day since Christopher
Columbus first sighted the New World. Which of these events will go down in history as being of
Columbus' discovery was one of history's sharpest inflection points: in one precisely defined moment,
much was changed, and the human story shifted onto a very different track (though of course it took
many years more for this to become fully apparent). New vistas of opportunity were opened to
Europeans and, in the long run, to many others; it was truly a moment for optimism. Of course, the view
from the Native Americans' perspective was different. They faced dispossession, slavery, genocide, and
mass extinction. Theirs was the half of the glass that was empty. But no one and nothing was left
In contrast, it is hard to argue that the birth of person number six billion is more momentous than that of,
say, number six billion and one. We are arbitrarily fascinated by round numbers with lots of zeroes. The
mathematically interesting event, the inflection point in the exponential curve of population growth
(when the curve's slope changed from more nearly horizontal to more nearly vertical), actually occurred
nearly a hundred years ago. Since then the population has quadrupled. In 1960, the year I entered high
school, the world's population stood at three billion; it has doubled in less than 40 years. The curve will
not return to horizontal for several decades to come. Neither, presumably, will the curve tracking the
current mass extinction of other species.
But milestones do measure something; and in demography, absolute numbers do matter. As with 1492, it
can equally be said of this Year of Six Billion that no one and nothing will be left unaffected by it. Here,
however, the effects are not so mixed: there is no upside to this event. The glass everyone's glass is
rapidly being emptied of resources. The October 12 Washington Post and other news media are giving
this a positive spin by stressing that the rate of growth is slowing faster than expected, as though this
were consequently a day to celebrate. But there is no hiding the fact that growth meanwhile continues at
a frightening rate. There is no cause for optimism in the demographic data; the present slowing of the
growth rate means, at best, only that we may avoid the worst that was once anticipated. But reality will
be more than bad enough to vindicate the pessimists.
It will also, in all probability, be more than bad enough for Baby Number Six Billion. One concerned
organization, Population Communications International, estimates some of the odds against this baby as
there is a 40% chance that he/she was unplanned;
he/she has only a 50% chance of being immunized against preventable infectious diseases, like
polio and measles;
he/she has a 35% chance of not having access to clean water; and
there is an 80% chance that he/she will live in substandard housing.
Meanwhile, we in the USA, with some 5% of the world's population, consume nearly one-third of the
resources. Fair distribution of wealth is obviously needed, but will not solve the problem by itself,
contrary to the mantra of many overpopulation-deniers. Tautologically, if anyone takes even slightly
more than his fair share, someone else must make do with less than a fair share. If everyone were raised
to the same material standard of living that we Americans now enjoy, we would need half a dozen
additional planet Earths to supply them. Failing that, the "everyone" the present Earth could support at
that level would not amount to anywhere near six billion. And we are now on the way to seven billion,
and will probably pass eight billion before leveling off half a century from now. If equitable distribution
of resources is our goal, what level of misery are we all jointly willing to settle for in exchange for
squeezing as many people around the table as possible?
Clearly, sirenians and other species have no more cause to celebrate this October 12 than Native
Americans had to celebrate the arrival of Columbus. The implications are obvious, at least to us
biologists. But how many others among us six billion including many of those with the greatest power
and influence are still in a state of denial concerning this issue? As the following announcement shows,
some Americans are acting to address this problem, and in the part of the U.S. most critical to manatee
survival. Their poster slogan, "Overpopulation -- Talk About It", suggests a simple, cost-free, and
effective way for everyone in the world to start helping. How about you?
(A useful reference: L.R. Brown, G. Gardner, and B. Halweil. 1998. Beyond Malthus: sixteen
dimensions of the population problem. Worldwatch Paper 143: 1-89. Available for US$5.00 + postage
from the Worldwatch Institute, 1776 Massachusetts Ave., Washington, D.C. 20036-1904 USA; phone 1-
800-555-2028; fax 1-202-296-7365; e-mail ) DPD
FLORIDIANS FOR A SUSTAINABLE POPULATION
FLORIDA OVERPOPULATION AWARENESS WEEK
October 17 23, 1999
This fall, Floridians for a Sustainable Population will bring the message of too much and too rapid
population growth to Floridians across the state. Having passed the 15 million mark in February 1999,
with a 1.8% growth rate and a doubling time of 39 years, not enough alarm bells are being sounded in
the halls of the legislature, on our university campuses, or in our print and electronic media. In 39 years,
less than a full lifetime, we will have to double the miles of highways, the number of classrooms, the
number of libraries, hospital beds, jail cells, court rooms, police officers, fire fighters, and double the
pumpage of drinking water just to stay even.
What will it mean to the everyday lives of Floridians in terms of marginal and more expensive drinking
water, of school overcrowding, jammed highways, and overflowing waste dumps? In terms of lost
agricultural land and depleted marine life? Do Floridians realize what the future holds when Florida's
Department of Community Affairs under the Growth Management Act has already approved build-out
plans for 101 million people to reside in Florida?
In October, the Population Institute will observe its 15th annual World Population Awareness Week. In
that month the United Nations projects that the six billionth person will be added to those already on this
planet. That event means it took only 11 years to add one billion people to the earth's population. What
is the impact on Florida's growth when the U.S. Congress is allowing a million people a year to legally
immigrate to the U.S. and has yet to control illegal entries which add 300,000 to 500,000 persons to our
population each year? How many more amnesties by Congress will swell the current U.S. population of
273 million beyond the projected 335 million in 2025?
Florida Overpopulation Awareness Week has been designated for October 17-23. A statewide poll will
be conducted on the viewpoints of Floridians on the issues of population growth, immigration, campaign
platforms and tax policies that can encourage or discourage growth.
We invite and encourage all environmental, educational, political, and social issues organizations to
think about and join in efforts to move Floridians to confront a future that cannot be sustained under
current policies and leadership. The goal of Florida Overpopulation Awareness Week is to provide
impetus for Floridians to begin a statewide discourse on overpopulation. In the past we have avoided
discussion on population issues due to a preponderance of myth, and unjustified emotional reactions.
The motto of FSP's poster campaign is:
"Overpopulation -- Talk About It."
Bumper stickers with this motto [shown on last page of this issue] are available for US$.50 apiece.
To co-sponsor this "Awareness Campaign" or to obtain additional information on the materials and
resource people we have available, contact: Joyce Tarnow at or 954-942-
7278, David Caulkett at or 561-279-8845, or .
Floridians for a Sustainable Population (P. 0. Box 6212, Pompano Beach, Florida 33060 USA) is a
statewide, non-profit environmental organization whose purpose is to make all Floridians aware of the
disadvantages of unrestricted population growth and the advantages associated with a stable population.
We propose population stabilization and sustainable lifestyle practices to assure a reasonable quality of
life for this and future generations.
The Culture Corner
... Being an Occasional Sampling of the Inexorable Penetration of Popular Culture by Sirenia
For better or worse, the manatee has now entered the literary armamentarium of the American language,
as exemplified in the Washington Post of 27 July 1999 by staff writer Gene Weingarten's description of
the trials of aging such as "... when I stand up and my joints pop like a manatee thrashing on bubble
Sort of makes one wonder what Shakespeare or Byron could have done with sirenians.
Marine Interests Want Manatees Off the Endangered Species List. Claiming that the number of
manatees in Florida is growing, the state's largest marine business interests have quietly formed a group
to try to get the sea cows removed from the federal endangered species list. "Perhaps the time has come
to delist the manatee, much as the alligator and the eagle have been delisted," reads a Sept. 3 memo
penned by Wade Hopping, a top business lobbyist who represents the National Marine Manufacturers
"Last week, the marine manufacturers and dealers met in Orlando," the memo continues. "Manatees
were foremost on their mind. They believe that they have been on the defense far too long, and therefore
they are planning to create a proactive program on manatee issues. Their fear is that the thrust of all the
manatee protection activities are designed to limit the number of docks and marinas, and to limit the
number of boats that are on the water. Obviously, they have a tremendous interest in this issue."
Hopping's memo, written on the letterhead of his law firm, says that besides pushing to take manatees
off the endangered species list, marine interests have two other goals. One is to get the Legislature to
rewrite state law to exempt marinas from Florida's rigorous Development of Regional Impact review,
which can require studies of imperiled plants and animals. The other is to take money from the state's
Manatee Protection Trust Fund and use it to put more marine enforcement officers on the water to
enforce speed limits. The money in the trust fund comes from sales of the specialty manatee automobile
Hopping's memo says the new Manatee Task Force also wants to reach out to other groups, like the
Florida Home Builders Association. But the reception may be cool.
"None of us have heard anything about it," said Wellington Meffert, the home builders' lobbyist. "We
really don't consider it to be our issue."
Scientists working to protect manatees say the idea of stripping away protections is ridiculous. Manatee
populations may be stable or even growing a little in some locations, they say, but the number of boats is
growing too. This year, they predict, Florida will set a record for the number of manatees killed by
The formation of Hopping's business group, called the "Manatee Task Force", comes as 22
environmental groups are poised to sue the state and federal governments because, they say, manatee
protection laws have not been properly enforced. The creatures have been on the endangered species list
since 1967. The groups claim that even though Florida directed 13 counties to create special manatee
protection plans in 1989, it has never enforced the law. Although 10 years have passed, only three
counties have written their required manatee protection plans.
The Endangered Species Act allows Florida to impose a host of protections for manatees, from requiring
boaters to slow down in places where manatees congregate to limiting development near their habitat.
A gregarious and well-known fixture at the State Capitol, Hopping has long been the nemesis of Florida
environmentalists. He fought against the state's 1985 growth management law. He opposed a bill that
would have required propeller guards to protect manatees from passing boats. In 1997, he tacked an
amendment on a bill that would have allowed a boat manufacturer to do high-speed testing in a canal
that a state official called "the worst place in the state for manatee deaths." Opponents leaked the
amendment to the media, and the measure quickly died.
[NMMA's website, , says it is "recreational boating's largest trade
association," and includes a page titled "environmental and safety compliance" which claims NMMA is
"working to safeguard the environment." Their Florida lobbyist who is organizing the "Manatee Task
Force" to de-list manatees is Wade Hopping, of the law firm Hopping, Green, Sams & Smith. Other
clients of Hopping's firm (according to online lobbyist registration with the State of Florida) include: the
Florida Chamber of Commerce, the Florida Electric Power Coordinating Group, Mobil Oil Corp., the
Property Rights Coalition, and Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative of Florida.]
- (Sources: The St. Petersburg Times, Sept. 30, 1999; Audubon Internet discussion list for Florida.)
Manatee Has Spinal Surgery. Surgeons in Miami have performed what is believed to be the first
operation of its kind on a manatee. The animal was severely injured in a collision with a boat off the
coast of Florida.
Doctors from the University of Miami performed more than five hours of surgery on Nash, a manatee
being cared for at the Miami Seaquarium since a July 16 collision with a boat in the waters off Fort
Lauderdale. The boat's propeller sliced 25 pounds of skin away from Nash's backbone, which was also
fractured in the collision.
After Nash was stabilized with antibiotics and other care at the aquarium, a team of veterinarians and
neurosurgeons used the same rod and pin system used to repair human spinal cord injuries to repair the
12-foot, 1,000-pound sea mammal's spine.
Nash, about 9 years old, was in critical condition after the surgery. Doctors hope he will recover but
expect that he will remain partially paralyzed. There is little chance he will be returned to the sea. -
(Source: The Washington Post, Aug. 16, 1999.)
Seagrass Species Listed as Threatened. The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service has issued a final
rule (63 FR 49035) listing the seagrass Halophilajohnsonii as a threatened species under the
Endangered Species Act, with the conclusion that it is likely to become an endangered species within the
foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. It already has one of the smallest
geographic ranges of any seagrass, being found only in lagoons on the southeastern coast of Florida.
Halophilajohnsonii is not known to employ sexual reproduction; the plant extends only by branching
and by growth of the rhizomes. This limited reproductive capacity further threatens the ability of this
rare plant to survive human-induced or natural disturbances. Because it is most abundant amid the heavy
boating traffic of south Florida coastal inlets and channels, potential threats to this diminutive seagrass
include dredging, boat propeller and anchor damage, and storm events.
- (Source: Aquaphyte 19(1), Spring 1999; published by the Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants,
University of Florida, Gainesville.)
[EDITOR'S NOTE: The Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants maintains a literature collection and
information retrieval system on seagrasses. This searchable database, the Aquatic, Wetland and
Invasive Plant Information Retrieval System (APIRS), now contains nearly 5,000 references on
seagrasses, and hard copies of over 90% of these are available for the free use of researchers. In
exchange, those researchers are expected to contribute reprints of their published work to APIRS. To
access the database, go to and click on the Online APIRS Database link.
You must have a telnet application specified in your Internet browser. To request free searches of the
database, contact Karen Brown at or at the Center for Aquatic and Invasive
Plants, 7922 N.W. 71st St., Gainesville, Florida 32653-3071 USA. Bibliographies can be printed and
mailed, or sent via e-mail.]
Eocene Fossil Sirenian Site Now On Exhibit. The world's most spectacular deposit of fossil sirenian
remains is now accessible to public inspection. Scenically perched in a high ravine amid the Alps of
Haute-Provence in southeastern France, the fossil site of Taulanne contains thousands of bones of
extinct dugongids that died and were buried along a rocky seacoast during the Late Eocene epoch, some
35 to 40 million years ago.
First discovered in the 1930's, the site was studied in the late 1960's by Dutch paleontologists, who
collected several sirenian skulls and many other bones. Since 1994, a new series of excavations has been
undertaken by the Geological Reserve of Haute-Provence, a government agency responsible for the
protection, study, and interpretation of the numerous important geological and paleontological sites in
In addition to collecting additional specimens for scientific study, the personnel of the Geological
Reserve, under the energetic leadership of Dr. Myette Guiomar, have specially prepared one large
section of the site as a permanent outdoor exhibit, which opened to the public in summer 1998. Here, a
large portion of a dipslope exposing a single bedding plane has been enclosed under a heavy glass-and-
steel protective cover. On this slope can be seen skulls, jaws, and scores of other disarticulated bones,
still embedded in the hard calcareous sandstone. Other parts of the site, less favorable for public
viewing, are being reserved for future excavation. (Collecting of fossils by members of the public is
The Taulanne site lies at the end of a 1-km hiking trail, which begins at the pass of Col des Leques
(elevation 1148 m), located 10 km northwest of Castellane, the largest town in the region and a popular
tourist stop. Castellane, in turn, is about 80 km northwest of Cannes on the Mediterranean coast.
Explanatory signs are provided at the fossil site, but the main interpretive exhibit is located in
Castellane, in a new museum (also opened in summer 1998) called La Maison des Sirenes et des
Sir6niens (The House of Sirens and Sirenians). Installed in a renovated former jail next door to the city
hall, this attractive museum divides its display space between the themes of mermaids and their folklore,
and genuine sirenians. The biology, evolution, distribution, and conservation status of the latter are
concisely presented, and the geology and paleontology of the Taulanne site (the main focus of the
exhibit) are thoroughly treated. The object of the museum exhibit is to interest and invite visitors to
make the trip up the mountain to see the site itself and its exquisitely preserved fossils.
The bones found at Taulanne are exclusively sirenian, and represent a single species of either Eosiren or
Prototherium. Its morphology and taxonomy are being studied as a thesis project by doctoral student
Claire Sagne, working under the guidance of Drs. Pascal Tassy (Paris) and Daryl Domning
(Washington). The availability of this sizable population sample of a single species should help
considerably to clarify the presently confused systematics of Eocene dugongids. One notable discovery
that has already emerged from the rock is the oldest known articulated manus (hand skeleton) of a
sirenian. This will shed light on the relationships among seacows, elephants, and other mammals. DPD
Dugong Mortality. A message posted by Hugh Kirkman (Coordinator, UNEP East Asian Seas
Regional Coordinating Unit, Bangkok) on the Seagrass Research Discussion List, May 6, 1999, reports
that "in the past couple of months 5 dead dugongs have been found on the shores of southern peninsular
Malaysia. As far as I can determine they were examined and found to have no food inside them. The fact
they were found in a region where dugongs were not well known and that there were five dead in a short
time has raised public interest in seagrass meadows. Representatives of the Environment Agency in
Malaysia are looking into this [incident]. Hopefully it will also protect seagrasses."
Do any of our readers have more information on this?
Captive Dugong In Singapore. On 25 Sept. 1998, two dugongs were reported to be in trouble off the
shores of Pulau Ubin, an island northeast of mainland Singapore. Underwater World Singapore was
contacted and the staff responded by going out to assess the situation on site.
Judging by its size of about 140 cm, our marine mammal specialist and vet estimated that one of the
dugongs was a young calf approximately 10 months old. In the vicinity was a drowned 268 cm adult
female dugong that had washed up onshore. They presumed that it might be the calf s mother,
particularly when traces of milk were found in its mammary glands. They judged that chances for
survival of the young dugong would be slim if left in the wild. In consultation with the local governing
body (Primary Production Department), a decision was made to place the young dugong under human
care. Back at the aquarium, efforts were being made to get more information on hand-rearing dugongs.
Several aquariums have tried but not succeeded in maintaining dugongs for extended periods.
Through consultations made with Toba Aquarium, Sea World Enterprises Australia, and the University
of Miami, we were able to develop basic husbandry procedures for her. She was, and is still, being fed
an infant milk formula that has been enriched with coconut milk powder and multivitamins. The milk is
fed using a modified nipple attached to an extended tube. Initially, various varieties of seagrass were
offered to her, but these were left untouched. She started to eat one specific variety, which we have since
been feeding her. In an effort to maintain normal feeding patterns, seagrass is "planted" on rubber sheets
and placed on the bottom of her enclosure for her to graze on.
Presently, approximately a year from when she was found, she consumes an average of 1.4 liters of milk
and about 16 kilograms of seagrass daily. Monthly weighing sessions have showed a rather steady
increase in body weight. Upon arrival in September 1998, she weighed about 65 kilograms, but when
last weighed in September 1999, she was 115 kilograms.
Future plans for her remain uncertain and considerations are being made to either release her or relocate
her to another aquarium. The publicity generated by her has resulted in increased public awareness in the
region about dugongs. Ei Lin (Underwater World Singapore)
The fossil dugongs of Akab Island (Umm al-Qaiwain, United Arab Emirates): paleoenvironmental and
archeozoological implications (H61ene Jousse, Centre des Sciences de la Terre, Universit6 Claude
Bernard, Lyon 1, France). The Neolithic site of Akab Island (Umm al-Qaiwain, United Arab Emirates),
6000 years old, is the oldest site containing remains of the dugong (Dugong dugon [Miller, 1776]). The
fossils are very close to modern representatives of the species, and there is no criterion that allows
recognition of an endemic subspecies in the Arabo-Persian Gulf. The former environment of the lagoon
of Umm al-Qaiwain differs little from the modem one. This archeozoological study has yielded better
understanding of the function of this site: dugong hunting seems to have been seasonal, and focused on
young individuals; the bones show signs of butchering. The inhabitants of the site utilized dugong meat
and oil, but certainly the hide as well. The presence of other animal remains, notably those of small
ruminants and mollusks, indicates that the subsistence activities of the human populations were
diversified. [Translated from French. Abstract of a doctoral thesis supervised by Claude Gu6rin.]
An analysis of fluke structure and function in sirenians and cetaceans (Lauren E. C. Miles and Nick
Milne, Department of Anatomy and Human Biology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Perth
6907). The tail and flukes act as the primary locomotor organ in cetaceans and sirenians. The shape
and structure of the flukes is important in locomotor performance and there are interspecies differences
as well as developmental factors which affect the parameters of the tail flukes. This study examined a
small sample of sirenian (calf and sub-adult dugongs) and cetacean (calf and adult bottlenose dolphin,
calf pilot whale and sub-adult fin whale) flukes that became available from deaths and strandings on the
coast of Western Australia during 1998. The shape of the flukes was assessed by standard measures of
aspect ratio and sweep angle.1 The internal structure of each fluke core and cortex was examined
histologically. Tests to determine the material properties of the flukes were performed on samples taken
from the core and cortex of an adult bottlenose dolphin fluke. These data were used to produce computer
models of the flukes to examine the contributions of the fluke components to stiffness and flexibility of
the fluke as a whole.
In regard to species variation the sub-adult and adult cetacean specimens (fin whale, pilot whale and
bottlenose dolphin) studied had a higher aspect ratio and lower sweep angle than those of the sub-adult
dugong. The relative swimming performance of these species corresponds well with their fluke
parameters. Dolphins, in general, can achieve much higher average and maximum speeds (20+ knots)
than those of the dugong.2 Age differences in fluke shape were also evident in the sample of dolphin and
dugong specimens examined. Not only did calves have relatively smaller flukes for their body size, but
they also had lower aspect ratios and higher sweep angles than their sub-adult and adult counterparts.
Thus, the documented slower pace of calf cetaceans may not only be due to a impediment in fluke size
to body size ratio, but also to their fluke shape. The results confirm previous research that swimming
performance increases with age, and that faster species have high aspect ratios coupled with low sweep
Histological analysis revealed intra- and interspecific differences in internal fluke structure. The bulk of
the fluke in these species was comprised of core material that consisted of densely woven multi-
directional bundles of collagen fibers. The cortex of cetacean flukes consists of epidermis, dermis and a
dense 'ligamentous layer', consisting of highly organized bundles of collagen fibers.4 The internal fluke
structure of the dugong specimens differed from that of the cetaceans. The distinctive ligamentous layer
identified in the cetacean species was lacking in both dugongs. Instead, the analogous area was occupied
by a thicker dermis containing collagenous bands interspersed by fat cells and other collagen fibers. The
dugong specimens also differed from each other. In particular, the core of the sub-adult dugong had a
more organized collagen arrangement. Differences between the two dugongs may be accounted for by
the difference in age of these specimens, calf and sub-adult. This contrasts with the bottlenose specimens
in which the calf and adult had an extremely similar internal structure. This suggests that changes in
internal, as well as external, fluke structure may occur during growth in dugongs.
The mechanical tests on the components of the dolphin fluke revealed that structures of the fluke are
very poor in withstanding tensile and compressive forces, and that the cortex material was an order of
magnitude stiffer than the core. Computer modelling (Fast La Grangian Analysis of Continua) of
transverse and sagittal sections of the fluke under load revealed that the cortex acted to absorb tensile
stresses during bending. This supports Felts'4 view that this layer is important in absorbing tensile
forces, and thus acts to resist bending incurred during locomotion.
1. Bose, N., Lien, J. and Ahia, J. 1990. Measurements of the bodies and flukes of several cetacean
species. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London 242: 163-173.
2. Coffey, D. J. 1977. Dolphins, Whales and Porpoises. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc.
3. Curren, K., Bose, N. and Lien, J. 1993. Morphological variation in the harbour porpoise (Phocoena
phocoena). Canadian Journal of Zoology 71: 1067-1070.
4. Felts, W. J. L. 1966. Some functional and structural characteristics of cetacean flippers and flukes. In
Whales, Dolphins and Porpoises (ed. K. S. Norris), pp. 255-276. Berkeley, California: University of
The following abstracts are of posters presented at the annual meeting of the American Society of
Mammalogists, held at Seattle, Washington, 20-24 June 1999. NOTE: Available in the hard copy of
Anonymous. 1994. The Marine Observer's log. Manatees. Marine Observer 64(325): 109.
Abdullah, M.K. 1999. Dugongs in dire straits. Duniaku (Malaysia), Apr. 1999: 8.
Abellera, B.J. 1999. Manatees sojourn in Florida waters. Florida Wildlife 53(4): 32.
Adulyanukosol, K., S. Chantrapornsyl, and S. Poovachiranon. 1997. An aerial survey of dugong
(Dugong dugon) in Andaman coast, Thailand. Thai Fisheries Gazette 50(5): 359-374.
Almaga, C. 1998. Baleias, focas e peixes-bois: na hist6ria natural Portuguesa. Lisbon, Museu Bocage,
Museu Nacional de Hist6ria Natural: 1-105.
Amrine, H.M., and M.S. Springer. 1999. Maximum-likelihood analysis of the tethythere hypothesis
based on a multigene data set and a comparison of different models of sequence evolution. Jour. Mamm.
Evol. 6(2): 161-176.
Amsler, K. 1995. Lamantins. Le crepuscule des sirenes. Oceanorama 24: 21-24. June 1995.
Auil, N.E. 1999. Belize Manatee Recovery Plan. UNDP/GEF Coastal Management Project, BZE/92/
G31, Belize/UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica: 67 pp.
Bachteler, D., and G. Dehnhardt. 1999. Active touch performance in the Antillean manatee: evidence for
a functional differentiation of facial tactile hairs. Zoology, Analysis of Complex Systems 102(1): 61-69.
Beasley, I., and T.A. Jefferson. 1997. Marine mammals of Borneo: a preliminary checklist. Sarawak
Museum Jour. 51(72)(N.S.): 193-210.
Blaszkiewitz, B. 1997. [Florida and its manatees.] Bongo 27: 45-48.
Bossart, G.D. 1999. The Florida manatee: on the verge of extinction? Jour. Amer. Veter. Med. Assoc. 214
Buckingham, C.A., L.W. Lefebvre, J.M. Schaefer, and H.I. Kochman. 1999. Manatee response to
boating activity in a thermal refuge. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 27(2): 514-522.
Cohen, P. 1999. Deaf, not dumb: high-pitched horns might save manatees from motorboats. New
Scientist No. 2197, 31 July 1999: 20.
Corkeron, P.J., N.M. Morissette, L. Porter, and H. Marsh. 1997. Distribution and status of hump-backed
dolphins, Sousa chin, eni,, in Australian waters. Asian Marine Biology 14: 49-59.
De longh, H.H. 1996. Current status of dugongs in Aru, E. Indonesia. Nederl. Comm. Internal.
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SIRENIAN WEBSITE DIRECTORY
The Call of the Siren (Caryn Self Sullivan):
Caribbean Environment Programme, Regional Management Plan for the West Indian Manatee:
Caribbean Stranding Network:
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Bureau of Protected Species Management:
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, Florida Marine Research Institute (Florida
manatee mortality data):
Jacksonville University (Florida) Manatee Research Center Online:
News clippings on Florida manatees:
Philippines Dugong Research and Conservation Project:
Save the Manatee Club:
Sea World of Florida:
Sirenews (texts of current and recent issues):
Sirenia Project, U.S. Geological Survey: or
Smithsonian Institution sirenian bibliography:
htm> [This is a relatively short bibliography, compiled by Joy Gold, that provides a very good
introduction to both the technical and the popular literature.]
Steller's sea cow: ; also the website [in
Finnish] of Dr. Ari Lampinen, University of Jyvaskyla, Finland:
CHANGES OF ADDRESS
Maria Eifler, Dept. of Biology, Room 167 CNR, University of Wisconsin Stevens Point,
Stevens Point, Wisconsin 54481, USA
D. J. O'Donnell, P. 0. Box 2192, Chico, California 95927-2192, USA
Anthony R. Preen, 143 Scotts Plain Road, Rollands Plains, New South Wales 2441,
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