Title: Sirenews
ALL VOLUMES CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00026
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: October 1996
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
semiannual
regular
 Subjects
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00026
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

00026OCT1996 ( PDF )


Full Text




Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year
in April and October and is edited by Daryl P. Domning,
Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059 USA
(fax: 1-202-265-7055). It is supported by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission
and Sea World, Inc.


NUMBER 26 OCTOBER 1996


IN THIS ISSUE: AFRICAN MANATEES CAPTURED FOR DISPLAY BY
JAPANESE AQUARIUM (p. 4)

DUGONG BITES MAN (p. 7)

SIRENIAN BIBLIOGRAPHY APPEARS AT LAST (p. 8)


GOING ... GOING ... DUGONG:
CAN AUSTRALIA MEET ITS INTERNATIONAL OBLIGATIONS
FOR CONSERVING DUGONGS IN THE GREAT BARRIER REEF REGION?

Since the first international dugong workshop held in Townsville in 1979, it has been
recognized that Australian initiatives are vital if dugongs are to be conserved. Australia has a
special responsibility for dugong conservation as it provides one of the last strongholds for
dugong populations. Elsewhere in the dugong's range, some local populations have been
extirpated, and where it still occurs in developing countries, remnant populations are under
increasing pressure. Australia is a developed country with a relatively small human population,
particularly in the north where dugongs occur. Our capacity to conserve dugongs should be
good in the Great Barrier Reef region. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park is the largest
multiple-use marine protected area in the world and a World Heritage Site. The importance
of this region as a dugong habitat was one of the reasons it was inscribed on the World Heritage
List in 1981. If we cannot manage to conserve dugongs in the Great Barrier Reef region, then it
is unlikely that they will survive anywhere else.

In the October 1995 issue of Sirenews, I reported that, although dugong numbers appear to
have been stable over the last decade in the remote parts of the Great Barrier Reef region, they





have declined over much of the urban coast by approximately 50% over the past eight years.
Over a large section of the region, this decline is over 80%.
This massive decline in dugong numbers means that the dugong qualifies for classification
as "critically endangered" over much of the urban east coast of Queensland. Anecdotal
evidence from scientists and traditional hunters suggests that this decline has been occurring
since the 1960s or even earlier.
Statistics collected by the Queensland Shark Protection Program reinforce this conclusion.
Since shark nets were introduced for bather protection in the 1960s, 541 dugongs have been
caught in the Great Barrier Reef region, most in the early years of the program. A total of 241
dugongs were caught near Townsville and 161 off Cairns, the area where there are now so few
dugongs that the population cannot be estimated.
The decline in dugong numbers along the east coast of Queensland is embarrassing for
Australia, which has responsibility for conserving dugongs under several international
conventions. Australia also has a national responsibility to conserve dugongs for future
generations of Australians, especially Indigenous Australians, for whom the dugong has special
cultural significance.
It is widely recognized that dugong meat and oil are among the most valuable traditional
foods of coastal Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in northern Australia. Most people
assume that traditional hunting is the most serious human impact on dugongs in Australia. But
the situation is clearly much more complicated than this in the Great Barrier Reef region.
Dugongs are vulnerable to two broad classes of impacts:
those that kill animals directly, for example netting, traditional hunting, or large-scale
losses of seagrass; and
those that decrease the calving rate by reducing feeding opportunities, for example smaller-
scale habitat loss or boat traffic.
Even though Tony Preen and Paul Anderson have discovered that dugongs supplement
their seagrass diet with invertebrate animals at the subtropical limits of their range, they are
essentially seagrass specialists. This dependence on seagrass means that dugongs have an
obligatory association with coastal habitats, which are vulnerable to the impacts of extreme
weather events and to human activities such as hunting, fishing, coastal development, and
unsustainable agricultural practices.
Since they became aware of the decline of the dugong in the southern Great Barrier Reef
region, most of the Indigenous Councils of Elders that control traditional hunting in this region
have voluntarily agreed not to harvest dugongs, and there is currently no permitted hunting on
the urban coast. One Aboriginal Corporation recently signed an historic agreement with the
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority stating that it would be inappropriate for Indigenous
hunting to occur within their local area.
It is now up to other stakeholder groups to respond to the challenge of reducing their
impacts on dugongs, and there has been major media pressure on the commercial fishing
industry to reduce their dugong bycatch. So far this year, Janet Slater of the Great Barrier Reef





Marine Park Authority has collated reports of 23 dugong carcasses, at least 10 and possibly 14
of which were suspected net kills. As a result, dugongs have been front-page news in many
regional newspapers in Queensland for several weeks, and serious concern is at last being
expressed about the problem. I was even flown to Sydney to brief the Australian Minister for the
Environment in person.
The Queensland Commercial Fishermen's Organisation has publicly acknowledged that the
incidental capture and drowning of dugongs in mesh nets is a problem. This organization has
supported the development of an education program to inform commercial fishers on aspects of
dugong conservation biology and management and on methods to minimize dugong take. It is
hoped that attendance at this program will become part of the Trainee Master Fisherman's
course and compulsory for Master Fishermen who wish to fish using mesh nets. This initiative is
important as many fishers do not appreciate the seriousness of the "Dugong Problem" or the way
it threatens the future of mesh netting as a commercial fishing method in the Great Barrier Reef
region. However, I consider that education alone will not be enough.
Given the large number of net fishers and vessels involved in the industry on a part-time
basis, an observer program to obtain statistics on the numbers of dugongs drowned in mesh
nets on the east coast of Queensland would be expensive and logistically difficult. Solution of
this problem requires a multifaceted joint approach by the relevant Queensland and national
agencies and the commercial fishing industry. I have assessed the comparative risk of dugongs
drowning in mesh nets in various sectors of the Queensland coast on the basis of dugong density,
mesh net density, and enforcement capability as a first stage in developing a strategy for
reducing the bycatch of dugongs. An urgent solution is required to avoid further polarization of
the stakeholders involved in the problem and to minimize the further impacts of mesh netting on
dugongs on the east coast of Queensland.
The Queensland Shark Protection Program is also being reviewed to address bycatch
issues. Baited lines, which do not catch marine mammals, have replaced nets at many beaches in
the Great Barrier Reef region in recent years, but nets remain at several locations. A decision to
replace all nets with baited lines would be controversial, as some scientists believe that nets as
well as lines are needed if inshore shark numbers are to be maintained at a level where the risk
of their attacking people is acceptably low. Other scientists consider that any bycatch of marine
mammals in shark nets is unacceptable in a World Heritage Area, given the extremely low risk
of a bather being attacked by a shark.
The greatest challenge will be the conservation of inshore seagrass beds in the region.
Experience has shown that it is hard to convince a prospective developer that a resort may
have adverse impacts on dugongs and their habitats. It will be even harder to convince a
farmer that erosion from his property may threaten the survival of sea cows grazing on
submarine pastures many kilometers downstream! Helene Marsh























(cartoons reprinted from The Daily Mercury, Sept. 1996)


NEW JOURNAL

A new periodical which can be expected to include sirenian items on a regular basis began
publication in June 1996. Entitled Manati: Zeitschrift des Vereins der Tiergartenfreunde
Niirnberg e. V. und des Tiergartens der Stadt Nfirnberg, it is the official publication of the
Nuremberg Zoological Garden, which has been so successful in breeding West Indian
manatees. According to a notice in Sdugetierkundliche Mitteilungen 38(1), the new journal's
first issue begins with a general account of the animal by Prof Dr. H. F. Moeller
(Heidelberg), and also includes a report on seacows by Dr. B. Blaszkiewitz (Berlin-
Friedrichsfelde) (see Recent Literature, below). Other articles cover a variety of other
animal species. Manati supersedes the earlier series entitled Tiergarten Aktuell (1985-1995),
and its first volume accordingly receives the number 11.


THANKS AGAIN, SEA WORLD!

Sea World, Inc. has once more assisted the publication of Sirenews with a contribution of
$1000. On behalf of the Sirenia Specialist Group and IUCN, we thank Sea World and Dan
Odell for their generous support.





LOCAL NEWS


FLORIDA

Manatee Die-off Attributed to Red Tide. The disastrous mass mortality of
manatees that occurred in southwest Florida between 5 March and 27 April 1996 has been
officially diagnosed as the result of a red tide, according to a 2 July press release by
the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).
The die-off involved the deaths of some 158 Florida manatees whose carcasses were
recovered between Englewood in the north and Marco Island in the south.
The announcement came as the conclusion to four months of intensive research by
state, federal, and international agencies, which ruled out other possible causes such as
infectious diseases, parasites, and man-made toxins. The dead manatees' nutritional
condition was good and there was no visible trauma, meaning that cold stress and
boat strikes were not to blame.
Evidently the animals died as a result of inhaling and/or ingesting high levels of red
tide toxin (brevetoxin) while feeding on seagrasses and associated organisms which
may have concentrated the poison. FDEP red tide specialist Dr. Karen Steidinger, writing
in the Save the Manatee Club Newsletter (Sept. 1996), suggested that four unusual
circumstances coincided to precipitate the unusual mortality. First, early 1996 brought
some of the coldest temperatures in recent history to the area, causing large numbers of
manatees to congregate in warm-water refugia up the Caloosahatchee River. Second,
there was a warming period when the manatees dispersed into Pine Island Sound and
Matlacha Pass. Third, there were high salinities at the mouth of the Caloosahatchee and
throughout Pine Island Sound, which favored the survival of the dinoflagellates that cause
red tide. Fourth, from the beginning of March to the end of April, the red tide
concentrations in the area were high enough to kill fish and the highest they had been in
the area at that time of year since 1982, when the other circumstances also co-occurred and
a similar manatee die-off took place. Steidinger speculates that when the manatees
dispersed down the Caloosahatchee, they encountered the hot zone of red tide,
triggering the mass mortality.
Prior to this die-off, the most recent population estimates indicated a Florida
manatee population of over 2600. As of 16 October, 369 manatees have died in the state
this year, including the 158 attributed to this event. This far exceeds the previous record
set in 1990, when a total of 206 Florida manatees died in the entire year.


GUINEA BISSAU

African Manatees Captured for Display. Reports have reached us that two West





African manatees were captured in Guinea Bissau this past summer by a team from
the Toba Aquarium in Japan, where the animals are destined for public display. These
would be the first specimens of Trichechus senegalensis displayed in a public aquarium
in many years, and they would join the pair of dugongs already in captivity at Toba.
However, no further details were obtainable from the Toba Aquarium or other sources as
of press time. We hope to provide a full report in our next issue.



INDIA

The Vanishing Mermaids of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In the recent past, the urgent
need to study the seagrass habitat and its associated animal life in Andaman and Nicobar was felt
by several workers. Thus, a study was initiated by Salim Ali Centre for Ornithology and
Natural History with financial support from the Ministry of Environment and Forests,
Government of India, in order to evaluate the habitat status, resource potential, and
conservation value of this unique ecosystem.
Seagrasses being its staple food, the dugong is intimately associated with the
seagrass habitat. Once widely distributed, the dugong has disappeared from many parts of its
realm and is under serious threat in most of the remaining area. In India, the dugong occurs in
the Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Mannar, Palk Bay, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The latter
islands have large areas of seagrass, rich in diversity, flourishing in clear, relatively low-
nutrient coastal waters.
The primary objective of the study was to identify the potential seagrass habitats for
conservation, but information regarding dugongs was also collected. Surveys by motor
boat and rowboat in Ritchies Archipelago, North Reef, Marine National Park Wandoor, and
off Diglipur during 1994, and Little Andaman, Camorta, Pilomilow, Little Nicobar and Great
Nicobar islands during January and March 1995 failed to locate dugongs. These surveys
were undertaken without any particular pattern and with the help of the local hunters and
fishermen from morning to evening. The main source of information was interviews with
the local tribes and settlers. As dugong poaching is illegal, the local fishermen were
reluctant to share information. Therefore the interviews were done informally. On two
occasions, bones could be examined.
Dugongs were common in the 1950s, but the population has dropped drastically in the
recent past, as evidenced by sporadic sightings and rare records of poaching. Most of the
tribes, namely Andamanese, Onges and Nicobares, traditionally hunt dugongs with iron
harpoons tied to the boat (dunghi). Shompens have no knowledge about dugong hunting,
and hostile tribes (Sentinalese and Jarawas) were not interviewed. Settlers, although they
have no knowledge about hunting, at times get the animals in fishing nets close to
seagrass beds. None of the tribes, except Andamanese of Strait Island, go on regular hunts





because of the time and effort it takes to catch a dugong. The settlers from mainland India
are mostly Hindus (Bengali- and Hindi-speaking) and do not like dugong meat as it looks and
tastes like beef; so the killing is always unintentional. To avoid legal problems they hand
over the animals to the tribes who are exempted from the Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972.
The fishermen had sighted five dugongs on separate occasions between 1990 and 1994
along the northwestern side of Camorta Island, five near Dugong Creek and Hutby, and
four each in Little Nicobar and Great Nicobar islands. Besides those in the southern
Andaman Islands, dugongs were seen by fishermen and local residents around Ritchies
Archipelago on at least five separate occasions during 1990-1994. Most sightings took place
in seagrass beds during high tides in the early evening.
The primary reason for the decrease in the dugong population in this island group is habitat
loss, which has resulted from increasingly heavy boat traffic and faulty land use practices
such as conversion of forests to banana, areca nut and coconut plantations. Natural
calamities like cyclones and high-energy tidal storms may also be partly responsible. In
fact, a wounded and dead dugong was noticed by Andaman Public Works Department
workers near Pilo Kunji on Great Nicobar Island after a cyclone in July 1989.
The study concludes that dugongs are less abundant than in the recent past. Although
dugong numbers are greatly reduced and large populations are no longer seen, dugongs still
exist at least around Ritchies Archipelago, North Reef, Little Andamans, Camorta (Allimpong
and Pilpilow), Little Nicobar and parts of Great Nicobar islands. The best way to protect
dugongs in these island groups is by: (1) initiating education programs, (2) identification
and conservation of potential habitats, (3) enforcing strict legislation to protect dugongs,
and (4) regular monitoring by government and non-government agencies. The study also
advocates an aerial survey of dugong populations to determine their exact status and long-
term monitoring thereafter. H. S. Das (Scientist, Wetland Ecology Division, Salim Ali
Centre for Ornithology and Natural History, Kalampalayam, Coimbatore 641 010, India)

KENYA

Dugong Festival Week Raises Awareness. The Sea Turtle/Dugong Conservation
Committee, comprising representatives from the Kenya Wildlife Service (KWS), Fisheries
Department, Coast Development Authority (CDA), National Museums of Kenya (NMK),
Wildlife Clubs of Kenya (WCK), hoteliers and individual conservationists, in collaboration
with the Dugong Inter-Agency Advisory Committee comprising KWS, World Wide Fund for
Nature (WWF), Japanese International Cooperation Agency (JICA), WCK, East Africa
Wildlife Society (EAWS), Fisheries Department, United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP), World Conservation Union (IUCN), Africa Wildlife Foundation (AWF), Eden
Wildlife Trust (EWT), and CDA, organized a Dugong Awareness Festival Week, 22-27 April
1996.
The aims of the festival were to:





(1) raise public awareness concerning the plight of dugongs among fishermen and local
communities;
(2) obtain information from the fishermen and local people on the occurrence of dugongs;
(3) involve the coastal people in dugong conservation by introducing them to measures they
can implement to curb dugong mortality; and
(4) seek the views of fishermen on appropriate ways to enhance dugong conservation.
During the festival week, a series of meetings was held in the key fishing villages along
the Kenya coast. Seminars and workshops, together with audio-visual presentations, were the
main modes of communication during the one-week awareness program, which saw the
conservationists move from Vanga Ngomeni, Kipini, Lamu, Takwa, Pate, Kizingitini,
Kinyaole (Robinson Island), and other fishing villages. The coordination team was led by
the chairman of the Kenya Sea Turtle/Dugong Conservation Project, Mr. George Wamukoya,
with Eden Wildlife Trust (EWT) supporting the ground logistics by providing transport. The
awareness team comprised Kakuko Nagatani (WCK), George Wamukoya (KWS), Jane
Mbendo (Fisheries Dept.), Said Mwaguni (CDA), Hassan Mohammed (Fort Jesus
Museum), Fakih Mbwana (KWS), Sirya Karisa (KWS), and Joseph Eriya (volunteer).
Dugong posters created a lot of enthusiasm among the local people, as many of them had not
seen a dugong before.
In most of the fishing villages, the local communities pledged to form conservation
subcommittees, which will serve to monitor dugong movements and their conservation
needs and those of other endangered species such as sea turtles. This will make it easier to
control poaching of these animals. Model subcommittees are operating in Kipini and
Lamu, whereas in Ngomeni and Kizingitini, the conservation subcommittee modalities are
being worked out. The interaction between the awareness team and the fishermen yielded
useful information on dugong sightings in areas such as Vanga, Watamu, and Ngomeni,
which had been presumed to have depleted their local stocks. Appropriate surveillance
mechanisms have been put in place in these areas for monitoring of dugong movements by
the local people.
The climax of the festival week was held in Lamu town on 27 April 1996. Before the public
rally, a series of entertainment activities was organized by the Lamu organizing committee.
First, a peaceful demonstration was organized along Lamu streets, with participants
carrying posters of "Save the Dugong" and singing in praise of dugongs and the need to
conserve them. Other events which marked the highly successful day included a
swimming competition, dhow race, donkey race, and poetry recitals. The latter was directly
relevant to the plight of the "mermaids", whose numbers have dropped drastically from about
five hundred in the last decade to only six at last count in February 1996. The most
characteristic event, and a crowd puller, was the donkey race, which was won by a standard
six pupil from Manda Primary School, "Jockey" Kassim Athman, who shrugged off stiff
competition and marshaled the donkey to a first finish after being flagged off by Dr.
Monica Borobia (UNEP OCA/PAC). Cash prizes were given as rewards for the winners, and





this served as a great incentive to the participants.
The guest of honor was the KWS Deputy Director, Biodiversity, Mr. Wilbur Ottichilo,
together with a high-powered delegation from KWS headquarters including the Assistant
Director in charge of Community Programmes Mrs. Agnes Masika. In attendance also were
the DC, Lamu and representatives of UNEP, WCK, JICA, NMK, CDA, Fisheries Department,
WWF, and the local community leaders. Mr. Ottichilo underscored the need to integrate the
local communities in conservation activities and applauded the coastal people for their
support and the pivotal role they continue to play in dugong and sea turtle conservation. He
pledged the continued support of KWS in community-based projects which will enhance the
sustainable use of the marine resources, with a view to raising the living standards of the coastal
communities.
From the festival week, it is crystal clear that the English/Swahili dugong posters and audio-
visual presentations and the mammoth crowd that attended the Lamu function created
significant awareness about dugongs and their conservation obligations among the coastal
communities. The community suggested that the Dugong Festival be held annually as a
way of sensitizing the local people, particularly fishermen, on their roles and support in
dugong conservation. This will enhance exchange of information on the few remaining
"mermaids" and their movements. They also suggested that participants be invited from
Somalia and Tanzania in order to strengthen regional efforts to conserve dugongs and
turtles. The Dugong Festival will now become an annual event, with the hope of becoming
a regional and international event. George M. Wamukoya (Kenya Wildlife Service, P.
0. Box 82144, Mombasa, Kenya)

VANUATU

Dugong Loses Patience with Divers. The July 1996 issue of Backbone
(Newsletter of the Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural
History, Smithsonian Institution, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 8-9) carried a report by ichthyologist
Jeff Williams of an unusual encounter with a dugong that he and other members
of a Smithsonian collecting expedition had in May-June 1996. It is reprinted here
with permission.
"A village at the southeast end of Tanna advertises a dugong as a tourist
attraction. We anchored in the harbor, just off the village, to seek shelter from the
constant ocean swells and were told by Captain Hendry [Taiford] that a male
dugong comes up to the beach in front of our anchorage. While swimming out from the
boat to find a good place to collect fish, Mark [Westneat] met the dugong and Jeff
[Williams] joined them near the front of the boat. The dugong was very calm and gentle,
probably curious to see people staying underwater and blowing air bubbles out of funny
looking mouthpieces. He soon left us and we continued on to collect some fish. But that
was not the last time Jeff would see this dugong. That afternoon at a collecting station





near the mouth of the harbor, Jeff was attacked by the dugong. He was evidently not
pleased that divers were swimming around in his territory! At first Jeff thought the
dugong was gently hitting him on the back with his flipper, but it was soon clear after a
couple of full body slams that Jeff was not welcome! After taking cover in coral crevices
a couple of times, Jeff finally managed to slip away from the big guy. Although we
could hear the dugong[']s high pitched call (warning?), he left us alone for a while, but
Jeff was constantly looking over his shoulder to see if he was going to be attacked again.
Sure enough, just before dark, the dugong swooped in and gave Jeff another slap on the
back.
"Jeff hid in a coral cave and when the dugong crossed over the reef, Jeff decided to
call it quits and headed up to the boat. During that dive, the dugong attacked Jeff,
Mark and Di [Bray], but Dave [Smith] never even saw it."
In a conversation, Williams added that the dugong had put Mark Westneat's
shoulder in his mouth and jerked him backward, leaving the shoulder sore for a
couple of days.
As more and more people start diving in waters inhabited by dugongs, more such
incidents can be anticipated. So far no one is known to have been seriously injured by a
dugong, but divers should be aware that (to quote Paul Anderson) the dugong is not a
manatee, and the placid, gentle image associated with the Florida manatee may not
apply to a territorial male dugong armed with sharp tusks. Though not replicated by
recent scientific observations, accounts do exist of bull dugongs disembowelling a shark
with the tusks (J. Promus, 1937, Walkabout 3(5): 40-41) and nearly killing a crocodile by
repeatedly jumping out of the water and landing on top of it (G. H. Sunter, 1937,
Adventures of a Trepang Fisher, London, Hurst & Blackett, p. 60). Believe these stories or
not, but treat dugongs (and all large marine animals) with respect!
Williams' testimony that the same animal on the same day behaved differently in
different locations certainly suggests some form of territoriality. What resource might it
have been defending? Is it possible that dugongs in Vanuatu, as at Shark Bay, form
leks? DPD

WASHINGTON, D.C.

Sirenian Bibliography Published. Domning's Bibliography and Index of the
Sirenia and Desmostylia has finally (!) been published as Number 80 in the series
Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology. It is an exhaustive, annotated and indexed
compilation of 500 years of scientific and popular literature on the biology,
paleobiology, and ethnobiology of sirenians and desmostylians. It also includes appendices
on serial publications devoted to Sirenia, additional sources on the history of sirenian
studies and conservation, coins and postage stamps depicting sirenians, and the
classification, complete synonymy, and scientific nomenclature of sirenians and





desmostylians.
Since the Smithsonian does not retail its series publications to the general public,
the Save the Manatee Club (SMC) has obtained a limited supply of copies for sale to
individuals. The retail price is only US$25.00 per copy for this 611-page
volume. To order, please contact the Save the Manatee Club, 500 N. Maitland Ave.,
Maitland, Florida 32751, USA (phone: 1-800-432-5646).
Some of you placed your orders long ago and have experienced a long delay in
having them filled. Please don't blame SMC: it was the Smithsonian that fumbled the ball
and delayed filling SMC's order for two and a half months after publication! However, the
books have now been shipped to Florida, and orders should be filled promptly from here on
out.
Since many active workers on sirenians are located in countries whence purchases in
U.S. dollars are difficult or impossible, I have also made alternative arrangements so that
this important research tool can be available to those who may have the greatest need for
it. If you are unable to remit in U.S. dollars, please write to the Remington Kellogg
Library of Marine Mammalogy, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC
20560, USA, and request a copy of the bibliography. If you can pay in U.S. dollars, please
order from SMC and help support manatee research! DPD

Manatee Postage Stamp. The first U.S. postage stamp depicting a sirenian is now
available. The 32-cent blue and green stamp, part of a sheet of 15 designs portraying 15
different endangered species, was issued in San Diego on 2 October as part of National
Stamp Collecting Month.
Of historical interest is the fact that the design of the Florida manatee stamp was
changed in response to public criticism. The original design was taken from a photograph
by wildlife photographer James Balog and showed a ventral view of the head and chest
of a manatee calf at Sea World in Orlando, propped up in a sitting position. The resulting
portrait, dominated by rolls of blubber, was deemed unaesthetic by many manatee fans,
so the Postal Service sent Balog back to Florida for more pictures. Finally chosen was a
more conventional view of two manatees in a tank at Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa.
When interviewed by the newspaper Florida Today, which was highly critical of
the original design, Balog explained that he had initially sought to capture the animal on
film in an unusual way. He commented that Americans always prefer their art to be in an
unchallenging form. "Here, we'd rather consume the very familiar, very comfortable,
very familiar things and not have to think very hard," he said. (Source: The
Washington Post, 3 May 1996.)

ABSTRACTS

The following abstracts are of papers and posters presented at the XXI Reuni6n





International para el Estudio de los Mamiferos Marinos, Chetumal, Mexico, 8-12 April
1996.

MANATEE POPULATION BIOLOGY VOLUME

In our last issue we announced the publication of the workshop volume on
manatee population biology edited by O'Shea, Ackerman, and Percival (1995). By request,
we present here the complete list of papers included in that volume with their full
citations, and call the reader's special attention to the two chapters dealing with dugongs.
Reprints of individual articles may be requested from their respective authors. A
supply of the complete volumes is also available; copies may be requested from the
addresses below.

Dr. Thomas O'Shea, Assistant Director, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center,
National Biological Service, 4512 McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400, USA (ph.
+1-303-226-9397, fax +1-303-226-9230, e-mail Tom_O'Shea@nbs.gov)

Dr. Bruce Ackerman, Florida Dept. of Environmental Protection, 100 Eighth Ave. SE, St.
Petersburg, FL 33701, USA (ph. +1-813-893-2904, e-mail
ackerman_B@harpo. dep. state. fl. us)

Sirenia Project, National Biological Service, 412 NE 16th Ave., Room 250,
Gainesville, FL 32601, USA (ph. +1-904-372-2571, fax +1-904-374-8080, e-mail
Sirenia@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu)


O'Shea, T. J., B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival. 1995. Introduction. Pages 1-5 in
T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of
the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology
Report 1.

Reynolds, J. E. III. 1995. Florida manatee population biology: research
progress, infrastructure, and applications for conservation and management. Pages
6-12 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population
biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and
Technology Report 1.

Ackerman, B. B. 1995. Aerial surveys of manatees: a summary and progress
report. Pages 13-33 in T.J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds.
Population biology of the Florida manatee. Natl. Biol. Serv., Inform. and Technol.





Report 1.


Garrott, R. A., B. B. Ackerman, J. R. Cary, D. M. Heisey, J. E. Reynolds, III, and
J. R. Wilcox. 1995. Assessment in trends in sizes of manatee populations at several
Florida aggregation sites. Pages 34-55 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F.
Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological
Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Marsh, H. 1995. Fixed-width aerial transects for determining dugong population
sizes and distribution patterns. Pages 56-62 in T.J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman,
and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National
Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Lefebvre, L. W., B. B. Ackerman, K. M. Portier, and K. H. Pollock. 1995. Aerial
survey as a technique for estimating trends in manatee population size--
problems and prospects. Pages 63-74 in T.J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F.
Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological
Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Marsh, H. 1995. The life history, pattern of breeding, and population
dynamics of the dugong. Pages 75-83 in T.J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological
Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Hernandez, P., J. E. Reynolds, III, H. Marsh, and M. Marmontel. 1995. Age
and seasonality in spermatogenesis of Florida manatees. Pages 84-97 in T.J. O'Shea,
B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida
manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Marmontel, M. 1995. Age and reproduction in female Florida manatees. Pages 98-
119 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology
of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology
Report 1.

Beck, C. A., and J. P. Reid. 1995. An automated photo-identification catalog for
studies of the life history of the Florida manatee. Pages 120-134 in T. J.
O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the
Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Rathbun, G. B., J. P. Reid, R. K. Bonde, and J. A. Powell. 1995. Reproduction in





free-ranging Florida manatees. Pages 135-156 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and
H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida manatee (Trichechus
manatus latirostris). National Biological Service, Information and Technology
Report 1.

O'Shea, T. J. and W. C. Hartley. 1995. Reproduction and early-age survival of
manatees at Blue Spring, upper St. Johns River, Florida. Pages 157- 170 in T. J.
O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the
Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Reid, J. P., R. K. Bonde, and T. J. O'Shea. 1995. Reproduction and mortality of
radio-tagged and recognizable manatees on the Atlantic coast of Florida. Pages 171-
191 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of
the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology
Report 1.

Odell, D. K., G. D. Bossart, M. T. Lowe, and T. D. Hopkins. 1995. Reproduction
of the West Indian manatee in captivity. (Abstract only). Pages 192-194 in T. J.
O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida
manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

O'Shea, T. J., and C. A. Langtimm. 1995. Estimation of survival of adult Florida
manatees in the Crystal River, at Blue Spring, and on the Atlantic coast. Pages 194-
222 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population
biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and
Technology Report 1.

Ackerman, B. B., S. D. Wright, R. K. Bonde, D. K. Odell, and D. J. Banowetz.
1995. Trends and patterns in mortality of manatees in Florida, 1974- 1992. Pages
223-258 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology
of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology
Report 1.

Wright, S. D., B. B. Ackerman, R. K. Bonde, C. A. Beck, and D. J. Banowetz.
1995. Analysis of watercraft-related mortality of manatees in Florida, 1979-1991.
Pages 259-268 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, eds. Population
biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Inform. and Technol.
Report 1.

Eberhardt, L. L. and T. J. O'Shea. 1995. Integration of manatee life-history





data and population modeling. Pages 269-279 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman,
and H. F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National
Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.
O'Shea, T. J., and B. B. Ackerman. 1995. Population biology of the Florida
manatee: an overview. Pages 280-287 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, eds. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National
Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.


RECENT LITERATURE

Anonymous. 1996. Manatees off. Sea Frontiers 42(1): 11. [Update on Florida
manatee mortality in 1995.1

Ames, A.L., and E.S. Van Vleet. 1996. Organochlorine residues in the Florida
manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 32(4): 374-377.

Ames, A.L., E.S. Van Vleet, and W.M. Sackett. 1996. The use of stable carbon
isotope analysis for determining the dietary habits of the Florida manatee, Trichechus
manatus latirostris. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 12(4): 555-563.

Anderson, I. 1996. Aborigines spare the dugong. New Scientist 151(2042): 5.

Behler, D.A. 1996. Manatee update. Wildlife Conservation 99(4): 16. [Report on
"Chessie"'s travels and Spring 1996 manatee die-off.]

Blaszkiewitz, B. 1995. Die Seekuhanlage im Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Zool.
Garten (N.F.) 65: 175-181.

Blaszkiewitz, B. 1996. Berliner Seekuh-Chronik. Manati 11(1): [pp. ?]

Blaszkiewitz, B., and R. Reinhard. 1996. Sdugetierkundliche Notizen aus
indonesischen Zoos. Milu (Berlin) 8: 875-884. [Includes photos of a dugong in the
Surabaya Zoo.]

Depierre, D., and J. Vivien. 1992. Mammiferes sauvages du Cameroun.
Fontainebleau, Ministere de la Cooperation et du D6veloppement: 1-250.

Domning, D.P. 1996. Bibliography and index of the Sirenia and Desmostylia.
Smithson. Contrib. Paleobiol. No. 80: iii + 611. [See ordering information in this





issue.


Fournier, R.C. 1994. Siren of the sea. Asian Diver Mag. 3(1): 59-63. [Dugongs
in the Philippines.]

Furusawa, H. 1996. New material of sirenian fossil from the upper Miocene of
Numata-cho, Hokkaido, Japan. Fossils No. 60: 1-11. [In Japanese; Engl. summ.]

Giffin, E.B., and M. Gillett. 1996. Neurological and osteological definitions of
cervical vertebrae in mammals. Brain Behav. Evol. 47(4): 214-218.

Graham, M., and P.D. Round. 1994. Thailand's vanishing flora and fauna. Bangkok,
Finance One Public Company Ltd.

Grigione, M.M. 1996. Observations on the status and distribution of the West
African manatee in Cameroon. Afr. Jour. Ecol. 34(2): 189-195.

Kataoka, T. 1994. Do dugongs look like mermaids? The thorough comparison
of the legendary creature and its model animal. Newton Graphic Science Mag. 14(6).

Krogh, M., and D. Reid. 1996. Bycatch in the protective shark meshing programme
off south-eastern New South Wales, Australia. Biol. Conserv. 77(2-3): 219-226.

Leatherwood, S.M., L.L. Dolar, C.J. Wood, L.V. Aragones, and C. Hill. 1992.
Marine mammal species confirmed from Philippine waters. Silliman Journal 36(1):
65-86.

Moeller, H.F. 1996. Seekiihe aquatische Weidegiinger. Manati 11(1): [pp. ?]

Pain, S. 1996. Where manatees may safely swim. New Scientist No. 2039: 22.
[Describes modifications of flood-control dams in Florida.]

Pavlinov, I. Ya., and S. V. Kruskop. 1995. [Mammals of Eurasia. III. Cetacea,
Sirenia: systematic-geographic guide.] Archives of Zool. Museum, Moscow State
University 33(Supplement): 1-32. [In Russian.]

Pervesler, P., R. Roetzel, and F.F. Steininger. 1995. Taphonomie der Sirenen in den
marine Flachwasserablagerungen (Burgschleinitz-Formation, Eggenburgium,
Untermiozain) der Gemeindesandgrube Kuihnring (NiederOsterreich). Jahrb. Geol.
Bundesanst. (Vienna) 138(1): 89-121.






Pervesler, P., R. Roetzel, and F.F. Steininger. 1996. Taphonomy of the sirenians
in the shallow marine sediments (Burgschleinitz-Formation, Eggenburgian, Lower
Miocene) of Kiihnring (Lower Austria). Comunicaci6n de la II Reuni6n de
Tafonomia y Fosilizaci6n, 1996: 319-326. [Summary of Pervesler et al., 1995.]

Reynolds, J.E., III, and S.A. Rommel. 1996. Structure and function of the
gastrointestinal tract of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris. Anat.
Rec. 245: 539-558.

Russel, M. 1996. The story of Hou-Manatee. Endangered Species Bull. (U.S. Fish &
Wildl. Serv.) 21(3): 18-19. [Describes a manatee rescue near Houston, Texas.]

Smith, B.D., TA. Jefferson, D. T. Ho, S. Leatherwood, C. V. Thuoc, M. Andersen, and
E. Chaimn 1995. Marine mammals of Vietnam: a preliminary checklist. Collection
of Marine Research Works 6: 147-176.

Thorlacius, 0. 1996. Filar. Ndtthtrufreedingurinn 65(3-4): 165-177. [In Icelandic.
Discusses proboscideans and their relatives.]

Tikel, D., D. Blair, and H.D. Marsh. 1996. Marine mammal faeces as a source of
DNA. Molec. Ecol. 5(3): 456-457.

Turner, R.O. 1996. Die-off decimates Florida manatee. Endangered Species Bull. (U.
S. Fish & Wildl. Serv.) 21(3): 27.


CHANGE OF ADDRESS

Jerol Gardner, P. 0. Box 320645, Cocoa Beach, Florida 32932-0645, USA


>>> COPY DEADLINE FOR NEXT ISSUE: APRIL 1, 1997 <<<

The Sirenewsfax number is 1-202-265-7055 (USA).


Printed on recycled paper with soy ink







Read Sirenews on the Internet! Also Florida manatee mortality statistics and other manatee
information. Access the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's web site at www.dep.
state.fl. us and choose "Protected Species Management."


CONTENTS (ALPHABETICAL)

Ackerman, B. B. 1995. Aerial surveys of manatees: a summary and
progress report. Pages 13-33 in T.J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F.
Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee.
National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Ackerman, B. B., S. D. Wright, R. K. Bonde, D. K. Odell, and D. J.
Banowetz. 1995. Trends and patterns in mortality of manatees in Florida,
1974- 1992. Pages 223-258 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee.
National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Beck, C. A., and J. P. Reid. 1995. An automated photo-identification
catalog for studies of the life history of the Florida manatee. Pages 120-
134 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors.
Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service,
Information and Technology Report 1.

Eberhardt, L. L. and T. J. O'Shea. 1995. Integration of manatee life-
history data and population modeling. Pages 269-279 in T. J. O'Shea, B.
B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the
Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology
Report 1.

Garrott, R. A., B. B. Ackerman, J. R. Cary, D. M. Heisey, J. E. Reynolds,
III, and J. R. Wilcox. 1995. Assessment in trends in sizes of
manatee populations at several Florida aggregation sites. Pages 34-55 in T.
J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors. Population
biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information
and Technology Report 1.


Hernandez, P., J. E. Reynolds, III, H. Marsh, and M. Marmontel. 1995.





Age and seasonality in spermatogenesis of Florida manatees. Pages 84-97 in
T.J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors.
Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological
Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Lefebvre, L. W., B. B. Ackerman, K. M. Portier, and K. H. Pollock.
1995. Aerial survey as a technique for estimating trends in manatee
population size--problems and prospects. Pages 63-74 in T.J. O'Shea, B.
B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the
Florida manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology
Report 1.

Marmontel, M. 1995. Age and reproduction in female Florida manatees.
Pages 98-119 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival,
editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological
Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Marsh, H. 1995. Fixed-width aerial transects for determining dugong
population sizes and distribution patterns. Pages 56-62 in T.J. O'Shea, B. B.
Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida
manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Marsh, H. 1995. The life history, pattern of breeding, and population
dynamics of the dugong. Pages 75-83 in T.J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee. National
Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.


Odell, D. K., G. D. Bossart, M. T. Lowe, and T. D. Hopkins. 1995.
Reproduction of the West Indian manatee in captivity. (Abstract only).
192-194 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, ed
Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological
Information and Technology Report 1.


Pages
itors.
Service,


O'Shea, T. J., and B. B. Ackerman. 1995. Population biology of the
Florida manatee: an overview. Pages 280-287 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B.
Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida
manatee. National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

O'Shea, T. J. and W. C. Hartley. 1995. Reproduction and early-age
survival of manatees at Blue Spring, upper St. Johns River, Florida. Pages





157-
editors.
Service,


170 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival,
Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological
Information and Technology Report 1.


O'Shea, T. J., and C. A. Langtimm. 1995. Estimation of survival of
adult Florida manatees in the Crystal River, at Blue Spring, and on
the Atlantic coast. Pages 194-222 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee.
National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

O'Shea, T. J., B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival. 1995. Introduction.
Pages 1-5 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors.
Population biology of the Florida manatee. National Biological Service,
Information and Technology Report 1.

Rathbun, G. B., J. P. Reid, R. K. Bonde, and J. A. Powell. 1995.
Reproduction in free-ranging Florida manatees. Pages 135-156 in T. J. O'Shea,
B. B. Ackerman, and H. F. Percival, editors. Population biology
of the Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris). National
Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Reid, J. P., R. K. Bonde, and T. J. O'Shea. 1995. Reproduction and
mortality of radio-tagged and recognizable manatees on the Atlantic coast
of Florida. Pages 171-191 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee.
National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Reynolds, J. E. III. 1995. Florida manatee population biology:
research progress, infrastructure, and applications for conservation
and management. Pages 6-12 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee.
National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.

Wright, S. D., B. B. Ackerman, R. K. Bonde, C. A. Beck, and D. J.
Banowetz. 1995. Analysis of watercraft-related mortality of manatees in
Florida, 1979-1991. Pages 259-268 in T. J. O'Shea, B. B. Ackerman, and H.
F. Percival, editors. Population biology of the Florida manatee.
National Biological Service, Information and Technology Report 1.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs