Title: Sirenews
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00099157/00024
 Material Information
Title: Sirenews newsletter of the IUCNSSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Alternate Title: Siren news
Physical Description: v. : ; 29 cm.
Language: English
Creator: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources -- Sirenia Specialist Group
Publisher: IUCN/SSC Sirenia Specialist Group
Place of Publication: Washington D.C
Washington D.C
Publication Date: October 1995
Frequency: two no. a year[apr. 1984-]
Subject: Sirenia -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Marine mammals -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: periodical   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Additional Physical Form: Also issued via the World Wide Web.
Dates or Sequential Designation: No. 1 (Apr. 1984)-
Issuing Body: Supported 1984-Apr. 1992 by the Species Survival Commission of IUCN, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; Oct. 1992 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission & U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; Apr. 1993-Oct. 1994 by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission; <Oct. 1995>- by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission and Sea World, Inc.
General Note: Title from caption.
General Note: Latest issue consulted: No. 48 (Oct. 2007).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00099157
Volume ID: VID00024
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 35841617
lccn - 2009208704
issn - 1017-3439


This item has the following downloads:

00024OCT1995 ( PDF )

Full Text
Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year
in April and October and is edited by Daryl P. Domning,
Department of Anatomy, Howard University, Washington, D.C. 20059 USA
(fax: 1-202-265-7055). It is supported by the U.S. Marine Mammal Commission
and Sea World, Inc.



(p. 11)




EMIRATES (pp. 7, 11)






Tammy Dominguez and Amaury Villalba

Last January, Tammy Dominguez, her colleague, Amaury Villalba, and their pilot
were killed when their plane went down during a manatee survey off Barahona on the southern
coast of the Dominican Republic. A third colleague, Jose Ottenwalder, was injured but made a
miraculous escape, and is doing fine. We first started to correspond with Tammy shortly

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

before the 1994 First International Manatee and Dugong Research Conference, which she
attended. She was also an active participant in the Manatee and Dugong Research Workshop
which followed the conference. Tammy was very dedicated to the conservation of sea turtles
and marine mammals, especially manatees. She is greatly missed by all of her colleagues.
Lynn Lefebvre (Sirenia Project)


Manatee aerial surveys present special hazards to survey biologists because of the small
planes that are typically used (they can easily be overloaded), the relatively low flight level
(generally 500 feet), the tight turns that are frequently made to count manatees (possibility of
stalling), and flight paths over water. At times, the dedication of the surveyors may become a
hazard, if their determination to complete a mission interferes with their judgment concerning
weather conditions, the qualifications of their pilot, and the condition of the aircraft.
Listed below are some "common sense" rules for manatee aerial survey personnel. They are
not intended to be all-inclusive, but represent the highlights of regulations provided by the
Office of Aircraft Services (OAS), which all Department of Interior (DOI) employees in the U.
S. must follow when participating in work-related aviation.
Ms. Burma Campbell, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, is gratefully acknowledged for
providing information used to develop these rules, for reviewing them, and for her continued
interest and encouragement.

_ The Cessna 172 aircraft is underpowered for low-level flying (less than 500 feet). During
low-level missions, aircraft cannot operate lawfully at a higher certified load (aircraft,
passengers, fuel, cargo) than that recommended by the manufacturer. If more than two observers
are planned, then a Cessna 182, 185, or 206 is recommended.

_ Surveys should never be flown at an altitude lower than 500 feet. Many survey biologists
prefer an altitude of about 750 feet for circling and counting of manatees in groups. Under
DOI Aviation Policy, aircrew members may not fly below 500 feet without special training
and personal protective equipment.

_ Know your pilot's qualifications. How many hours of flight experience does he or she
have in the aircraft in which you will be a passenger? OAS regulations require 1000 hours of
flying time in order to certify a pilot.

_ Know your plane's service record. DOI Aviation Policy requires servicing and inspection
of a plane after every 100 hours of flying time.

_ Prepare a GO/NO GO checklist that you go through before every flight. While the pilot

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

has the final say in the decision to GO, remember YOU always have the final say in the decision
to cancel a flight. If you have any doubts about the weather, the pilot, or the plane, cancel the
flight. You are much more important than a missed survey! Also, all surveys should be
conducted under optimal weather conditions to ensure some comparability across survey dates;
questionable weather means questionable survey results. If changes occur in the weather or
pilot or observer mental or physical condition, the observer should call off the mission and
request the pilot to return to home base, or to land at the nearest suitable location, depending
upon the severity of the change in flight conditions.

_ Prepare a flight plan and give it to ground personnel at the airfield(s) where your flight
originates and ends. The persons) to whom you give it will be responsible for flight following
and will institute search and rescue procedures if your aircraft does not reach its destination
within one hour of its estimated time of arrival.

_ Only cargo and passengers which are essential to a mission should be on the aircraft. Not
only does this eliminate the possibility of an accident from something that should not have
been onboard, but it keeps the weight of the aircraft at a minimum, thereby using less fuel and
minimizing costs. Survey biologists should be careful to secure such routinely used objects
as: pencils and pens; camera lenses, lens covers, film canisters, small tape recorders, palm
counters, etc.

_ DOI Policy requires the pilot be present to supervise the type, quantity and quality of fuel
used in the aircraft when refueling. There have been misfueling mishaps in the U.S., in which jet
fuel has accidentally been put into reciprocating-engined aircraft.

If a single-engine aircraft is to be used beyond power-off gliding distance to shore, the
aircraft should be float-equipped and all persons onboard should have personal flotation devices.

_ Biologists who fly regular missions can benefit from a flight familiarization course
consisting of 4 hours of ground school and 4 hours of flight training (cost is approximately
$500). It is intended to give passengers limited knowledge of how to operate aircraft controls,
radios, etc., and land the plane in the event of a pilot-incapacitated emergency.

Your comments on these rules are welcome. If you would like to help by translating
them into Spanish or other languages, please contact me. If you would like examples of a
GO/NO GO checklist or a flight plan, or information on the flight familiarization course,
please contact: Dr. Lynn Lefebvre, Sirenia Project, National Biological Service, 412 NE 16th
Ave., Rm 250, Gainesville, FL 32601 USA; phone: 904-372-2572; Fax: 904-374-8080; Internet:
sirenia@nervm.nerdc.ufl.edu. Lynn Lefebvre

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year


Mauricio Prieto

A pioneer in field research and conservation of aquatic mammals in Colombia,
Mauricio Prieto died from cancer in Bogota on 1 April 1995, at age 39. He worked
extensively with cetaceans, and in 1987 he launched a study of the ecology of the manatee in
the Rio San Jorge area, where he perfected his singular competence in environmental education
at the community level. He later turned his attention to marine mammal-fisheries interactions
on the Pacific coast. With his death, the South American aquatic mammal community has lost a
spiritual leader and a genuine conservationist. (Excerpted from an obituary by Koen Van
Waerebeek and Daniel Palacios in the Marine Mammal Society Newsletter 3(3): 3, Sept.


An International Symposium on the Dugong will be held at the Toba Aquarium, Toba,
Japan, 15-17 November 1995. Oral presentations (both submitted and invited) will be given on
dugong biology, paleontology, conservation, rescue, and husbandry. Investigators, students,
and other interested people are encouraged to attend. A proceedings volume will be distributed at
the meeting. For further details, contact Mr. Hiroshi Maeda, Planning Office, Toba
Aquarium, Toba 3-3-6, Mie Prefecture, 517 Japan; phone: 81-599-25-2801; fax: 81-599-26-
3608; E-mail: LDN03052@niftyserve.or.jp; Compuserve: 100463,3176


The following people have agreed to serve as members of the IUCN Sirenia Specialist
Group for the 1994-1996 Triennium:

Prof. Helene MARSH (Co-Chair), Dept. of Tropical Environment Studies & Geography,
James Cook Univ., Townsville, Qld. 4811, AUSTRALIA (ph. +61-77-814325, fax +61-77-
815581, e-mail HELENE@CATHAR.JCU.EDU.AU)

Dr. Miriam MARMONTEL (Co-Chair), Wildlife Biologist, Sociedade Civil Mamiraua, C.P.

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

0001, 69470-000 Tef6 AM, BRAZIL (ph. & fax +55-92-7432736, e-mail

Dr. Vic COCKCROFT, Curator of Marine Mammals, Port Elizabeth Museum, P.O. Box
13147, Humewood 6013, SOUTH AFRICA (ph. +27-41-561051, fax +27-41-562175, e-

Mr. Hans DE IONGH, Ecologist/Director, International Cooperation, Centre for
Environmental Science, P.O. Box 603, 6700 AP Wageningen, THE NETHERLANDS (ph. +31-
71-275642, fax +31-71-277496)

Prof. Daryl DOMNING (Newsletter Editor), Dept. of Anatomy, Howard Univ.,
Washington, DC 20059, USA (ph. +1-202-806-6026, fax +1-202-265-7055)

Dr. William FREELAND, Principal Wildlife Research Officer, Wildlife Division,
Conservation Commission of the Northern Territory, P.O. Box 496, Palmerston, NT 0831,
AUSTRALIA (ph. +61-089-894400, fax +61-089-894524)

Dr. Toshio KASUYA, Director, Offshore Marine Resources, National Institute of Research on
Far Seas Fisheries, 5-7-1 Orido, Shimizu, Shizuoka, 424 JAPAN (ph. +81-543-340715, fax

Dr. Janet LANYON, Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. 4072,
AUSTRALIA (ph. +61-7-3654416, fax +61-7-3651655)

Dr. Lynn LEFEBVRE, Sirenia Project Leader, National Biological Service, 412 NE 16th
Ave., Room 250, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA (ph. +1-904-372-2571, fax +1-904-374-8080, e-

Ms. Nicole LEOTAUD, Biologist, WIldlife Section, Forestry Division, 15 Monteverde Th.,
Morne Coco Road, Petit Valley, Trinidad, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO (ph. +1-809-662-5114, fax

Dr. Antonio MIGNUCCI-GIANNONI, Scientific Coordinator, Red Caribefia de Varamientos, P.
0. Box 38030, San Juan, PUERTO RICO 00937-1030 (ph. +1-809-899-2048, fax +1-809-899-

Dr. Thomas O'SHEA, Assistant Director, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, National
Biological Service, 4512 McMurry Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80525-3400, USA (ph. +1-303-
226-9397, fax +1-303-226-9230)

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Dr. James POWELL, c/o Dr. David Vousden, UNDP/GEF Coastal Zone Management Unit,
Fisheries Dept., P.O. Box 148, Belize City, BELIZE (ph. 501-2-30719, fax 501-2-35738, e-

Dr. Anthony PREEN, Research Fellow, Dept. of Tropical Environment Studies & Geography,
James Cook Univ., Townsville, Qld. 4811, AUSTRALIA (ph. +61-77-815575, fax +61-77-
814020, e-mail ANTHONY.PREEN@JCU.EDU.AU)

Dr. Galen RATHBUN, Research Biologist, National Biological Service, P.O. Box 70, San
Simeon, CA 93452-0070, USA (ph. +1-805-927-3893, fax +1-805-927-3308)

Mr. Ismu Sutanto SUWELO, Senior Instructor, Centre for Education and Training of
Forestry Personnel, Jalan Gunung Batu, P.O. Box 141, Bogor 16001, INDONESIA (ph. 0251-
312841/0251-323565, fax 0251-240566)


The Save the Manatee Club (SMC) is issuing a request for proposals from researchers
interested in conducting aerial surveys to determine manatee abundance and distribution in
west Volusia and Brevard counties, Florida, over the next two years. Interested parties should
call or e-mail Patti Thompson at SMC for further information. Phone: 1-800-432-5646; e-
mail: manatee@america.com


Sirenews is pleased to acknowledge an unrestricted donation of $500 from Sea World,
Inc. to help defray printing and mailing expenses. We thank Sea World and Dan Odell for this
generous gesture of support.



Hardening Evidence for Dugong
Decline Along the More Developed

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Regions of the Coast of Queensland,
Australia. The Great Barrier Reef stretches
for some 2000 km along the eastern coast of
Queensland. The northern region along the
coast of Cape York Peninsula is a remote
area with a very low human population
density and little development. In contrast,
much of the area south of Cape York
Peninsula is undergoing very rapid coastal
development. This southern region was
surveyed for dugongs from the air in 1987
and 1992. The estimated number of dugongs
present in the region in 1992 was 1857 s.e.
292, much less than the 1987 estimate of
3479 s.e. 459 dugongs. When differences
in survey conditions are taken into
account in the analyses, the difference
approaches significance (a=0.06),
suggesting that dugong numbers have
declined in this region.

The aerial survey was repeated in
November 1994 with the aim of evaluating
whether this observed decline was a real
trend or an artifact of sighting conditions,
which were slightly worse in 1992 than in
The population estimate resulting
from the 1994 survey was 1750 257
dugongs, supporting the findings of the 1992
survey. Parallel declines were not recorded in
the estimates of turtles or cetaceans which
were recorded in the same surveys.
The reasons for this decline in dugong
numbers are probably complex and may
include habitat loss, traditional hunting, and
incidental drowning of dugongs in
commercial gillnets. Parallel declines have
not been recorded in repeat surveys of more
remote regions in the dugong's range in

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Australia where traditional hunting and
incidental drowning in gillnets are the major
anthropogenic impacts. Helene Marsh

Dugong Adopts Offshore Oil
Platform as Focal Point for Activity. -
During March-April 1995, workers on the
production platform Vicksburg (21007' S, 115
06' E) on the South Pepper oilfield (North
West Shelf of Western Australia), noticed
the presence of a dugong which appeared to
have adopted the platform as its home base.
Unfortunately, nobody recorded the
exact date when this dugong arrived at the
platform, but its continued presence warranted
entry of a report in the operations log of the
Vicksburg on 14 April 1995. No further log
entries were made over the next four
weeks, until platform worker Martin
Rawlings was prompted to report the
dugong's apparent extended stay to the
Western Australian Museum. Dr. Ric How
referred the report to R. I. T. Prince.
Daily log reports of further sightings of
this dugong were entered from 12 through 26
May 1995. Photographic recording of the
dugong was requested on 25 May, as none of
the platform personnel were known to have
previously attempted this. The prints
subsequently obtained included portions of
the platform supports, and numbers of
large long-toms (needlefish, Family
Belonidae), as well as the resident dugong.
The dugong apparently deserted the
rig between 26 and 27 May. The last three
relevant log entries, for 27 and 28 May and 1
June, record the absence of further sightings
of the animal.
One dugong only was seen around the
Vicksburg at all times from arrival until just

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

before desertion. The observers believe that
they saw the same animal each time. Noting
the uncertain time of arrival, this dugong
centered its activities around the Vicksburg
structure for a minimum of 8-10 weeks, and
possibly more than 12 weeks.
Circumstances of arrival and fixation
of this dugong on the platform are not
known, but several probably significant
events preceded its disappearance. Another
two or three dugongs appeared around the
Vicksburg about this time, and a drop in
ambient water temperature of ca. 2-30C is
also reported to have occurred between 26
and 27 May. It is possible that an associated
change in water circulation over the Barrow
Islands Shoals to the north of the Vicksburg
mobilized other dugongs in that area, and
that the former platform resident
subsequently followed its new-found
associates as they moved on.
The photographs of the Vicksburg
dugong suggest that it was a juvenile. The
larger species of long-toms of the North West
Shelf waters can grow to lengths of 1.3-
1.5m, but most seen would average around
1m (Barry Hutchins, Western Australian
Museum, pers. commun.). Scaling from the
photographs, using this knowledge and that
of the visible platform support dimensions,
suggests that this dugong was most probably
<_1.5m in length. It certainly was not more
than 2m. Sex could not be determined,
because all observations were made from the
platform deck (18m above water).
Apart from the photography
mentioned above, some other more
detailed observations of behavior
patterns were planned for the dugong's
later period of residence around the

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Vicksburg. Unfortunately, the animal's
disappearance prevented this. However, it was
noted to spend a lot of time suspended
inactive below the surface in the upper water
column. At other times it was seen rolling
about; the observers considered this may have
been "playing".
On other occasions it disappeared
from the observers' view, during some of
which times it could have drifted under the
platform out of sight. It might also have been
diving to feed, although the 17m water depth
around the Vicksburg is at the deeper extreme
of known dugong feeding range. Still, the
observers did not think the dugong had lost
body condition during its time at the
One other lone Western Australian
dugong is known to have associated for about
7 days in mid-January 1989 with a large
(29.8m, 372-tonne) moored tugboat, the
Pilbara Sun, in Dampier Harbour (20039' S,
116042' E). Water temperatures in Dampier
Harbour during this period were reported to
have varied between 26 and 31 0C.
The Pilbara Sun dugong was certainly a
young, unweaned calf (photo estimate, ca.
1.1m in length). Its mother, which had
apparently been feeding on a seagrass bed
directly behind the boat pen, had been killed
beforehand by the same tug when reversing
from its mooring for work. The carcass was
unsalvageable, being mutilated beyond
recognition by the propeller impact.
Unfortunately, formal reporting of
this fatal collision, and the subsequent orphan
calf/tug association, was not made until a
week after the event. The movements that
had been observed meanwhile of the orphan
back and forth alongside the tug suggested it

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

was seeking milk. Nothing further was
learned from this association because the calf
disappeared overnight almost immediately
after the report was made. Starvation or
shark attack may have caused its
disappearance. Robert I. T. Prince
(Wildlife Research Centre, Dept. of
Conservation and Land Management, P. 0.
Box 51, Wanneroo 6065), Martin
Rawlings (c/o Atwood Oceanics Australia
Pty. Ltd., 35 Peel Road, O'Connor 6163),
and Roberta Selleck (Western Mining
Corporation Ltd., P. 0. Box 7660, Perth
6850, Western Australia).


Manatee Butchering Sites in Port
Honduras. In the tranquil waters of
southern Belize, there lies a serious threat to
the existence of the manatee. Fishermen in
Port Honduras are killing manatees at an
alarming rate. This activity was recently
made public through reports generated by
the Belize Center for Environmental Studies.
Last year four manatee skeletons were
discovered in the area of Deep Creek, in the
Toledo District of Belize. At that time it was
suspected that some opportunistic butchering
was taking
place; however, the magnitude of the recent
killing was not apparent until now.
With funding graciously provided by
the Smithsonian Institution Biodiversity
Program, we went to Belize in late August
and early September 1995 to conduct dolphin
and manatee research. While there, we were
able to fly several aerial surveys and counted
109 manatees at selected survey sites. The
total number of manatees in Belize is not

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

known, but is assumed to be around 200
animals. During an aerial survey of Port
Honduras we counted 4 manatees. There is
excellent habitat for a local population in the
protected cays, adjacent Deep Creek and Rio
Hondo rivers, and Icacos Lagoon. A large
number of manatees were observed to the
north in nearby Placencia Lagoon where 37
individuals were counted. The presence of
this large group of manatees in the north
could be responsible for migratory animals
occasionally moving south into Port
Honduras. These animals could easily
become victims of the illicit poaching
During boat surveys of Port Honduras
with local fishermen, we discovered 11
separate butchering sites, which contained a
minimum of 35 manatee carcasses. Twenty-
four skeletons were classified as adults, and
the remaining 11 were either juveniles or
calves. Detailed studies of the skeletal
material collected from each site will be
conducted. Evidence of recent
butchering was apparent, and we were
watched by hungry John Crows (vultures)
as they sat in the nearby trees. Some of the
decaying flesh was still attached to the
bones. One site was known to be two to
three years old, while at least two of the
sites were active and had been used within
the last month.
Many of the skulls examined had
large, deep cut marks in the cranial bones. It
was apparent that the manatees were either
shot, harpooned, or chased until exhausted,
then brought close to the boat and dispatched
with heavy machete blows to the head and
nose. Carcasses would then be taken to the
nearest dry land site, and under the cover of

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

heavy vegetation or nightfall, the meat would
be removed. It would then be taken to
market and illegally sold.
No manatee meat was observed in
markets in Belize; however, there are several
rumors that the meat can occasionally be
purchased in Guatemala. It is likely that
fishermen from Guatemala are coming into
Belize, killing the manatees, and taking the
meat back to Guatemala to sell. Manatees
are protected in both Belize and Guatemala,
but there is little or no enforcement of
existing laws. The direct impact that this
poaching is having on the local population in
south Belize is not known, but the magnitude
of this activity clearly puts excessive
pressure on this population. Immediate
measures need to be taken to enforce
existing laws protecting manatees, and
ensure that all poaching activities are stopped
as soon as possible.
Additional information regarding this
investigation can be obtained by contacting
either the Fisheries or Forestry Departments,
Belize City, Belize, or the Sirenia Project,
Gainesville, Florida, USA. Robert K.
Bonde (Sirenia Project) and Charley Potter
(Smithsonian Institution)


Stranded Manatee Calf Rescued. In
late March 1995, a manatee calf was
stranded alive at Barahona, Dominican
Republic, after fishermen killed its mother.
The dehydrated and anemic 70-pound calf
was discovered by Tropescar Sur, a nonprofit
animal-welfare organization, and rescued by
a team from the Acuario Nacional in Santo

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Domingo, led by Enrique Pugibet and Mo'nica
Vega. Antonio Mignucci from the Caribbean
Stranding Network in Puerto Rico was called
in for expert advice, and the baby manatee is
now doing well on a diet of goat's milk and
soy milk.
The calf was christened Tamaury in
memory of Tammy Dominguez and Amaury
Villalba, who were recently killed in a plane
crash during a manatee survey (see notice in
this issue).
The fishermen who killed the mother
were caught and fined, but the applicable law
dates from 1960 and the amount of the fine
was inconsequential. (source: Alerta
Neptuno [Caribbean Stranding Network] 2
(2), June 1995.)


Aerial Survey in Kenya Finds Few
Dugongs. From 17-24 November, the

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Kenya Wildlife Service, in collaboration with
UNEP OCA/PAC, IUCN's Regional Office
for Eastern Africa, and Eden Wildlife Trust
carried out an intensive aerial survey of 500
km of Kenya's shoreline to determine the
distribution of sea turtles, dugongs, whales,
dolphins, and whale sharks. Five aircraft
were used over a period of seven days. A
total of 254 hours were spent in the air,
doing 1 km-wide transects out to the 30 m
depth contour.
Sea turtles, dolphins, and whale
sharks were found to be evenly distributed
along the coast within a depth of 20 m.
Dugongs were found only in Ungwana Bay
and Manda Bay in Lamu, however, and only
16 animals were sighted, indicating a very
small population. Survey participant Vic
Cockcroft estimates a population of about 50
dugongs for the whole of Kenya; and based
mainly on anecdotal data from interviews, he
doubts that there are more than 2000 dugongs
in the western Indian Ocean, excluding the
Arabian Gulf.
"Our results demonstrated that sea
turtles and dugongs are the most vulnerable
of the animals covered," reports George
Wamukoya, a marine botanist with the Kenya
Wildlife Service. "This is probably the result
of habitat destruction and human activities
such as poaching and disposal of plastic
wastes. If we are to conserve these species,
we need to protect key turtle nesting areas in
Ras Tenewi and Shella, and the known
dugong habitats in Ungwana and Manda
On related topics, Vic Cockcroft
reports that he has just obtained funding from
WWF International for a coastal zone
assessment for Madagascar, including a

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

comprehensive assessment of dugong status
there. He is now seeking money for a
comprehensive dugong research program
in Mozambique. This has been accepted
by WWF as a priority project, but funds
to finance it are not presently available. He and
his colleagues have also recently made two
TV documentaries on dugongs in
Mozambique, including one about an
attempt to capture and satellite-tag a
dugong. A third production for South
African television is being planned, and
Vic is seeking local musicians to record a
dugong "pop-song" to generate further public
interest. (sources: The Pilot [Newsletter of
the UNEP Marine Mammal Action Plan]
No. 11, June 1995, and Vic Cockcroft)

Survey of Red Sea Dugongs. -
Frederic Speyser reported in early summer
that he was planning to begin in July and
August 1995 a program of aerial surveys and
other studies of dugongs along the East
African coast from Suez to Djibouti. We look
forward to hearing the results. He would
welcome contacts with other sirenologists,
and can be contacted at 21, rue du Chateau
Rouge, 74100 Annemasse, France; phone:; fax:


Chessie's Most Excellent
Adventure: The 1995 East Coast Tour. -
As you may have heard, Chessie the manatee
became a media celebrity during the summer
of 1995 by breaking scientific records for his
species. He initially gained notoriety in
October of 1994 when he was rescued from
the cool waters of the Chesapeake Bay and

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

returned to Florida (see Sirenews No. 22). As
if he was competing for a personal best, this
year he swam from Florida to Rhode Island.
He was radiotagged and tracked by the
National Biological Service's Sirenia
Project, and details of this move were
documented by satellite-determined locations
and field observations. We believe this
trek of nearly 2,000 miles includes the most
northern locations in North America and
the longest seasonal migration ever
documented for these
tropical marine mammals.
Late in the summer of 1994 and early in
the fall, Chessie was repeatedly sighted in the
upper Chesapeake Bay, normally considered
to be outside the range of Florida
manatees. The most northern documented
manatee sighting prior to this was in the
Potomac River near Washington, DC, during
August 1980. In some years, sightings of
manatees north of Georgia are followed by
the recovery of a carcass during cold
weather. Many of these are smaller
individuals in poor health that are presumed
to be younger and less experienced with
migrating south prior to cold weather or with
locating warm water sources. After
Chessie's capture, however, he was found to
be an adult male in good health, 10 feet
(315 cm) long and weighing 1250 lb (568
kg), and possibly experienced with making
annual long-distance migrations. We tagged
him with the now-standardized Service
Argos-monitored radio tag to track his
movements, anticipating that he might give a
repeat performance by swimming north
during the coming summer.
Two weeks after his release in Florida
at the Merritt Island National Wildlife

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Refuge, he broke free of the floating
transmitter. Luckily, he was sighted and
retagged by Sirenia Project biologists on
12 January 1995, much further south, in the
warm discharge waters of the Port
Everglades power plant near Fort Lauderdale.
He moved north to the upper Banana River
by mid-February and to Cumberland Sound in
Georgia by late April, both areas commonly
used by other manatees. Thus, we knew he
was familiar with seasonal migratory patterns
and typical manatee-use areas along the east
On 13 June, he began his long, almost
uninterrupted trip north from the St. Johns
River mouth in Florida. Details of his move,
documented through Service Argos's satellite-
based location processing, revealed a rapid
and directed move north. He covered over
500 miles from Florida to Virginia in less
than 19 days. Most days included significant
moves of 25 to 30 miles, with only one
stopover, about two days in the vicinity of
Charleston, South Carolina.
After he arrived in Virginia on 3 July,
we received locations in the Chesapeake Bay
as far north as the Rappahannock River, but
south of last year's capture location in the
Chester River, Maryland. Surprisingly,
Chessie left the bay by swimming south and
around the southern tip of the Eastern Shore
of Virginia. On 17 July 1995, while Chessie
rested in a salt marsh creek along the seaside
of the Eastern Shore, we replaced his radio
transmitter, used since January to track his
movements from Fort Lauderdale, with a
new transmitter that improved the
performance of the satellite-based location
service. With his new tag, and its fresh
battery pack, Chessie kept going and going.

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Monitored by satellite-determined
locations and direct field observations, his
progress north along the coast included stops
in Assateague Bay and Ocean City,
Maryland; Delaware Bay; the salt marshes
near Atlantic City, New Jersey; and near
New York City's Statue of Liberty before
entering Long Island Sound. Most travel
routes followed the Intracoastal Waterway or
were within shallow lagoons inshore of the
barrier island beaches. Several portions of
his trip, however, were between inlets
along the ocean side of the beach. Water
temperatures, also monitored by Chessie's
transmitter, remained within the known
tolerance range of manatees.
By the time he passed through New
York City, Chessie's journey had become the
subject of numerous newspaper articles and
interviews on radio and television news
shows. Sirenia Project staff coordinated with
the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's
Endangered Species Offices and the
Chesapeake Bay Field Office to provide the
media with accurate information on his
activities and on the biology of manatees in
general. Numerous myths about manatees
and erroneous information related to this
"crazy" manatee were dispelled by detailing
how his use of salt marsh habitats, food
plants, and activity patterns were as
expected for manatees migrating along the
temperate coast. We also delayed the release
of his most recent locations in order to
prevent him from being harassed by an
adoring public.
After New York, Chessie traveled
east along the north shore of Long Island
Sound, periodically stopping to feed and rest
along the Connecticut and Rhode Island

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

coasts. He arrived at Point Judith, Rhode
Island, on 16 August 1995. Here he reversed
his northern pattern of movement and began
swimming back towards Florida. Water
temperatures of 66 to 69 Fahrenheit along
the Rhode Island coast were the coolest
waters he had yet experienced in the
northeast, which probably caused him to
turn around. From Point Judith, biologists
plotted his movement west as he returned
to the warmer waters of Long Island Sound
and the protected salt marsh habitats that
he had frequented in Connecticut.
On 22 August, the tethered floating
transmitter broke free of the manatee and was
recovered in New Haven, Connecticut. The
tether's weak link, designed to ensure the
safety of the tagged manatee, functioned
properly, releasing the manatee unharmed.
Transmitter detachments are anticipated
during long-term trackings of manatees. We
are fortunate to have monitored him
continuously for 222 days since he was
retagged in Fort Lauderdale in January, and
to document his 70-day trip along the
coasts of eleven states.
Public sighting reports documented
much of his return towards Florida. Manatee
sightings were reported to local marine
mammal stranding networks along the coast
and relayed to the Sirenia Project. Verified
reports of Chessie were received near Echo
Bay and Staten Island, New York, and Sea
Bright, New Jersey. A surfer off Long
Branch, NJ, was startled when Chessie,
traveling south along the beach, surfaced next
to him. After a sighting near Cape May, NJ,
Chessie was seen on 21 September bottom-
resting near the Norfolk Naval Station in
southern Virginia and passing through the

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Intracoastal Waterway's Great Bridge locks
on the morning of 23 September. Given his
normal rate of travel, he could reach Florida
by late October.
The successful monitoring of
Chessie's travels has provided a better
understanding of manatee migratory
behavior. Chessie set records for Florida
manatees in both sustained rate of movement
during his three-month journey and overall
distance travelled (nearly 2,000 miles from
his southernmost location near Fort
Lauderdale, Florida). However, his rate of
travel and behavior en route were typical for
manatees that migrate north during warm
weather. Also, his persistent pattern of
traveling north was reversed when he
encountered cooler water temperatures. This
appropriate behavioral response and his
familiarity with over-wintering sites in
southern Florida suggested that, given the
opportunity, he would travel south to warmer
waters with the approach of cold weather.
As expected, he continued to behave as an
adult experienced with migrating along the
coast, although it is possible that he was
exploring the coastal waters north of Virginia
for the first time.
Chessie's move to Rhode Island was
farther than any yet documented for a Florida
manatee. Reports from previous centuries of
manatees as far north as Greenland and
Scotland are not substantiated by specimens.
With the increased public attention to
Chessie's northern adventure, some recent
and historical accounts of manatees along
the temperate coast as far north as New
England have been reported and are worthy of
further investigation. Having seen what an
individual of this species can achieve, we

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

now have reason to believe that moves such
as Chessie's have been made by other
manatees in the past, and may be made again
in the future.
Although Chessie's movements far
exceed the normal range of the Florida
manatee, recent habitat and environmental
conditions in the northeast have been suitable
for manatee use. This summer's extremely
warm weather in the northeast increased
water temperatures, perhaps allowing Chessie
to comfortably travel into northern waters.
Chessie used salt marsh and other estuarine
habitats that are similar to those used by
manatees in Florida and Georgia.
Interviews with people reporting
manatee sightings, and ground surveys in
selected areas, may continue to provide
additional location information on
Chessie's travels. Also, the Sirenia Project
maintains a manatee identification catalog,
based on photographs of more than 1000
uniquely scarred manatees, enabling
resighting histories to be compiled on their
movements and life histories. Sighting
reports and photographs of scarred manatees
along the Atlantic Coast and at aggregation
sites in Florida will be scrutinized in an
attempt to resight and thus monitor the long-
term fate of this most excellent individual.
- Jim Reid (Sirenia Project)


Sirenia Project Facing Budget Cuts
and Possible Elimination. Because of
recent efforts in Congress to reduce deficit
spending, federal budget proposals for the
coming fiscal year target many government
agencies for elimination or dramatic budget

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

cuts. The National Biological Service
(NBS), a nonregulatory research agency
within the Department of the Interior, is
slated to lose 15% of its budget. NBS was
formed in 1993 by combining the research
functions of several existing agencies,
including the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service, which previously administered the
Sirenia Project. The pending budget cuts
have resulted in proposed actions by NBS
administrators in Washington to reduce or
completely eliminate the Sirenia Project.
The Sirenia Project has conducted
research on manatee life history, population
dynamics, movements, and habitat use since
1978. This research is mandated by the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, as part of the
Florida manatee recovery effort. The Sirenia
Project works closely with its federal and
state partners to achieve the recovery of this
endangered species, and with its colleagues in
other countries to encourage research and
conservation of sirenians throughout their
Please write to the Secretary of the
Interior and the Director of the National
Biological Service at the addresses below to
let them know that manatees and dugongs are
key species in understanding and protecting
aquatic ecosystems. Given the increased
human population in coastal regions, and its
impact on water supply and quality, the
Sirenia Project's research is needed now
more than ever.

Secretary Bruce Babbitt
U.S. Department of the Interior
1849 C St., NW
Washington, D.C. 20240

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Dr. Ron Pulliam, Director
National Biological Service
U.S. Department of the Interior
1849 C St., NW
Mail Stop Arlington Square 725
Washington, D.C. 20240


Is the world's second-largest
population of dugongs safe? In 1986, a
survey conducted by the Saudi Arabian
Meteorological and Environmental
Protection Administration (MEPA)
established an estimated population of
dugongs in the Arabian Gulf of 7,307 SE
1,302 (Preen, 1989). Larger populations are
known only from Australia (Preen, 1989).
The MEPA report concluded that the Arabian
Gulf must be viewed as the most important
dugong habitat in the western half of the
dugong's range. The occurrence of accidental
net capture and direct hunting of dugongs was
noted during the survey and the issue was
included in management recommendations
for the conservation of dugongs in the
area. However, no attempt was made at
estimating the impact of fisheries on
dugongs. During this survey, which included
a large portion of the coast of the United
Arab Emirates (UAE), a total of 24 dugong
carcasses was recorded.
Formerly, dugongs of the Arabian
Gulf were hunted for their meat, considered a
delicacy in many parts of the region, but this
practice has been outlawed in the UAE in
recent years. No evidence of continuation of
this practice was found. However, it is
unlikely that any dugongs found alive in nets

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

are released, as dugong meat is still prized
and eaten or sold. The number of animals
caught by direct hunting methods has never
been documented, but it is likely that
incidental net captures equal or exceed
this number. Increasing gillnet fisheries and
the market for shark fins may be leading
causes of dugong mortality.
On 11 and 12 March 1995, the islands of
Murawah and Fiyyah, off the coast of the
UAE, approximately 150 km west of Abu
Dhabi, were surveyed by boat, four-wheel-
drive vehicles and on foot. The larger of the
two islands, Murawah, is approximately 10
km in length by 2 km wide. Fiyyah is less
than one quarter this size. Selected beaches
and fishing villages were searched for
dugong remains, in the latter instance,
contained in the accumulated remains of
fishermen's catches.
In two days of searching, the remains of
a total of 28 dugongs were found in, or in
close proximity to, four fishing villages.
Five of the 28 dugongs found were judged to
have died more than two years previously
and were excluded from mortality estimates
(see below). Estimates of the age of the
remains were based upon the amount of
weathering of bone and skin; for example,
not one of the bones included in the
calculations showed signs of degradation and
many still had tissue attached. Older bones,
judged to be more than two years of age,
showed clearly the weathering effects of the
intense sun and heat. The number of
dugongs was estimated based on the number
of pairs of lower jaws discovered and can be
considered a conservative estimate.
The remains included several
complete skeletons, bones and fragments of

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

bone, skin and drying meat. Relatively few
large tusks were found and many adult
skulls retained small tusks, indicating that
females constituted the majority of dead
animals. Interviews with local fishermen
also suggested that females were caught
most often. Fishermen apparently value the
tusks of the males. One almost complete
skull of a male, estimated to have died no
more than two weeks previously, retained the
left tusk, though the right had clearly been
removed. At least five other skulls had
both tusks removed. Though most remains
were of adults, skeletal remains of three very
young animals were also found.
Measurements of the complete skeletons of
two of these suggested that the animals
were approximately one meter in length,
while the third animal was probably less than
one meter.
There was no indication of the exact
cause of death in any instance, other than the
fact that most animals were found in fish
dumps along with a catch of numerous
sharks, batoids and other fishes, turtles and
cetaceans. Interviews with local fishermen
suggested that all dugongs were accidentally
caught in fishing nets, most often 14-18 cm
gillnets, sometimes 60 m or more in length,
set for "kingfish" and sharks. In the majority
of cases, the dugong remains were charred;
the burning was clearly limited to the
remains of dugongs and turtles, and may have
been an attempt to hide the evidence. Drying
meat, no more than two weeks old, and
barrels of what appeared to be dugong oil,
were found at two sites. The meat was
suspended and drying in strips, alongside
shark fins. Anecdotal evidence obtained
from a fishermen on Murawah Island

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

suggested that dry dugong meat can be sold
to neighboring villages, or in fish markets, for
the equivalent of US$7.50 per kilogram. An
entire, freshly caught dugong apparently
sells for US$210. This is comparable to
figures quoted by MEPA that vary between US
$0.30 and US$2.70 per kilogram (Preen,
Little is known of the population
dynamics of unexploited dugong populations,
though the reproductive biology of the
species indicates that, as for other long-lived
and slow-reproducing large mammals, adult
female and calf mortalities need to be low
for population maintenance (Marsh,
Heinsohn & Marsh, 1984). However, if
the reproductive rates of dugongs are similar
to those of cetaceans of similar life history,
then even annual mortality rates of as little as
2% may not be sustainable (Anon., 1994).
Yet, the estimated annual dugong
mortality in only four fishing villages of the
UAE approximates 0.16% (11.5 of 7000)
of the total estimated Arabian Gulf
population (Preen, 1989). Assuming that catch
levels of dugongs at other fishing villages
in the Gulf are similar to those surveyed,
then the catches by fishermen at as few as 50
villages would be unsustainable. Though the
number of fishing villages in the Arabian Gulf
is unknown, the extent of the catch in the
UAE alone is cause for concern, especially
since: the estimated number of dugongs
harvested annually is conservative;
fishermen obviously attempt to hide evidence
of dugong catches; and female dugongs
appear to account for the majority of those
harvested. However, the islands surveyed
are located within an area of high dugong
density (Preen, 1989) and, as a result,

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

catches of dugongs in this area may be higher
than in others.
Nevertheless, studies on the
distribution and status of dugongs in the
waters of the Arabian Gulf, especially those
in previously identified "high-density"
areas, are needed. These should include
mapping and assessment of dugong habitat
and the study of dugong movements and
behavior. Particular attention should be given
to the impact of fisheries activities on dugongs
and the formulation of coastal zone
management recommendations with reference
to dugongs.
An awareness campaign highlighting
the conservation requirements of dugongs in
the region has already begun in the hope of
attracting the attention of both local and
international support for essential research
and management-oriented action. Skin and
muscle samples for genetic analyses have
been collected for comparison with animals
in Australia and, pending results, from
samples taken in southern and East Africa.
Hopefully, comparative analyses may
provide insight into the world-wide
taxonomic status of dugongs.


Anonymous. 1994. Report of the workshop
on mortality of cetaceans in passive fishing
nets and traps. In: W.F. Perrin, G.P.
Donovan, and J. Barlow (eds.), Gillnets and
Cetaceans. Sci. Rept. Intl. Whaling Comm.
Special Issue 15. 629 pp.

Marsh, H., G.E. Heinsohn, and L.M.
Marsh. 1984. Breeding cycle, life history
and population dynamics of the dugong

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

Dugong dugon (Sirenia: Dugongidae). Aust.
Jour. Zool. 32: 767-788.

Preen, A. 1989. Dugongs. Volume 1. The
status and conservation of dugongs in the
Arabian Region. MEPA Coastal and
Marine Management Series, Report No.
10. Meteorological and Environmental
Protection Administration, Jeddah, Saudi
Arabia, 200 pp.

- R. Baldwin (P.O. Box 3865, Abu
Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) and V.G.
Cockcroft (Centre for Dolphin Studies, Port
Elizabeth Museum, P.O. Box 13147,
Humewood, South Africa)


Publication of Sirenian Bibliography
Imminent. Following an unanticipated
delay over the summer due to personnel
shortage at the Smithsonian Press, page
proofs of my Bibliography and Index of the
Sirenia and Desmostylia were finally
delivered to me in early September and have
now been corrected and returned. I am now
assured that the work will be available
sometime in spring 1996 (yeah, I know,
promises, promises, but this time it looks
This work will appear as Number 80 in
the series Smithsonian Contributions to
Paleobiology, and will consist of a single
sewn, paperbound volume (about 8" x 10"
format) of over 610 pages. It is an
exhaustive, annotated and indexed
compilation of 500 years of scientific and
popular literature on the biology,
paleobiology, and ethnobiology of sirenians

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

and desmostylians. Since, for arcane
bureaucratic reasons, the Smithsonian does
not retail its series publications to the general
public, arrangements have been made for
the Save the Manatee Club to obtain a
limited supply of copies for sale to
individuals. The retail price has been
tentatively set at around US$25.00 per copy
- a rare bargain as book prices now go. If
you wish to acquire a copy for personal
use, please contact the Save the Manatee
Club, 500 N. Maitland Ave., Maitland,
Florida 32751, USA (phone: 1-800-432-
5646), as soon as possible to reserve a copy
and obtain up-to-date information on price
and handling costs (if there is a large enough
number of early orders it may be possible to
increase the press run). To repeat, copies are
not available for shipment at this time, but
will be ready sometime in the spring. DPD


Morphological aspects of the stomach of the Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis
(Mammalia: Sirenia) (Francisco Antonio Pinto Colares). Stomachs from seven specimens of
T inunguis were studied in order to describe their irrigation and macro- and microscopical
aspects, emphasizing the gastric mucosa. The abdominal portion of the esophagus and the first
portion of the duodenum were also studied to improve the knowledge of the stomach. The
abdominal esophagus in the Amazonian manatee is narrow and muscular (striated) with a well-
developed cardiac sphincter where it enters the stomach. The stomach is relatively small,
situated to the right of the median plane and sharply curved, which keeps the cardia and
pylorus close together. On the left dorsal stomach wall was found the cardiac gland, a feature
apparently found only in sirenians. The spleen, consisting of from one to four separate
portions, was situated caudal to the base of the cardiac gland. The duodenum can be
subdivided into one ampulla and two diverticula. Unlike the stomach irrigation of most
mammals studied, no celiac artery was found, and the course of the splenic artery depends on the
number of spleens. The gastric artery arises directly from the abdominal aorta, while the hepatic
artery emerges from the hepatomesenteric trunk. The abdominal esophagus is lined with a
keratinous stratified epithelium, having no glands in the wall. The surface and pit epithelium of
the stomach are composed of columnar cells with a mucous aspect. No chief or parietal cells

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

were found in the stomach mucosa. Tubular coiled gastric glands, with mucous aspect,
were identified in communication with the gastric pits. The cardiac gland is composed of a set
of ramified ducts that empty into a central collecting cavity, which opens into the lumen of the
stomach. In the walls of these ducts were found gastric pits and gastric glands lined by
columnar, mucous neck, chief and parietal cells. [Abstract of a thesis for the degree of Mestre
em Zootecnia in Animal Nutrition, submitted to the Veterinary School of the Federal
University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, in 1994.]


Anderson, P.K. 1995. Competition, predation, and the evolution and extinction of Steller's
sea cow, Hydrodamalis gigas. Mar. Mamm. Sci. 11(3): 391-394.

Debelius, H. 1993. Sirenia: Kuhe mit Flossen. Abenteuer Natur 2: 86-97.

De Iongh, H.H., B.J. Wenno, and E. Meelis. 1995. Seagrass distribution and
seasonal biomass changes in relation to dugong grazing in the Moluccas, East Indonesia.
Aquatic Botany 50(1): 1-19.

Epstein, R. 1993. Cruising with the manatees on Florida's Crystal River. Trailer Boats 22:

Frey, R. 1994. [The connection bewteen type of locomotion, mating position, and penis
length in mammals: II. Testiphaena (mammals with extraabdominal testicular position).]
Zs. Zool. Syst. Evol.-forsch. 32(3): 163-179. [In German.]

Furusawa, H. 1995. Steller's sea-cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) in the Bering Island,
Kamschatka. Fossils (Palaeont. Soc. Japan) No. 58: 1-9. [In Japanese; Engl. summ.
Reports new specimens collected on Bering Is.]

Furusawa, H., and M. Kimura. 1995. Sirenian fossils (Hydrodamalis) from Early Pliocene
of Hombetsu and Early Pleistocene of Kuromatsunai, Hokkaido. Earth Science (Chikyu
Kagaku) 49(4): 298-301. [In Japanese.]

Gorzelany, J.F., and J.K. Koelsch. 1995. Characterization of manatee habitat in the
vicinity of Sarasota Bay, Florida [abstr.]. Florida Scientist 58, Suppl. 1: 8-9.

Hoyt, E. 1995. One last song for the sirenian: the brief "return" of the Steller's sea

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

cow. Nature Canada 24(1): 60-61.

Koelsch, J.K. 1995. The seasonal (re)use of the Sarasota Bay area by manatees
[abstr.]. Florida Scientist 58, Suppl. 1: 9.

Lanyon, J.M., and H. Marsh. 1995. Digesta passage times in the dugong. Austral. Jour.
Zool. 43(2): 119-127.

Marsh, H., P.J. Corkeron, C.J. Limpus, P.D. Shaughnessy, and T.M. Ward. 1993.
Conserving marine mammals and reptiles in Australia and Oceania. In: C. Moritz & J.
Kikkawa (eds.), Conservation biology in Australia and Oceania. Chipping Norton,
Surrey Beatty & Sons: 225-244.

Marsh, H., and L.W. Lefebvre. 1994. Sirenian status and conservation efforts.
Aquatic Mammals 20(3): 155-170.

Marsh, H., G.B. Rathbun, T.J. O'Shea, and A.R. Preen. 1995. Can dugongs survive
in Palau? Biol. Conserv. 72(1): 85-89.

O'Shea, T.J. 1995. Waterborne recreation and the Florida manatee. In: R.L. Knight & K.
J. Gutzwiller (eds.), Wildlife and recreationists: coexistence through management and
research. Washington, D.C. & Covelo, Calif., Island Press: 297-311.

Rattner, R. 1995. Make way for manatees. Wildl. Conserv. 98(5): 22-29.

Taylor, M.A. 1994. Stone, bone or blubber? Buoyancy control strategies in aquatic
tetrapods. In: L. Maddock, Q. Bone, & J.M.V. Rayner (eds.), Mechanics and
physiology of animal swimming. Cambridge, Cambridge Univ. Press: 151-161.

Vargo, T. 1995. Dentition morphology and feeding in the dugong, Dugong dugon
[abstr.]. Jour. Minnesota Acad. Sci. 53(3): 20-21.

Wille, C. 1995. Saving the sea cow, Caribbean style. Nature Conservancy 45(5): 16-23.


Adele Conover, 3417 Quebec St. NW, Washington, DC 20016

Mario Antonio de Mello Dias, Secretario Municipal do Meio Ambiente SEMAP, C.P.

Sirenews (ISSN 1017-3439) appears twice a year

494 Centro, Maceio CEP 57020 970, Alagoas, BRASIL

Dr. Jose A. Ottenwalder, P.O. Box 1424, Santo Domingo, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
(fax: 809-530-5094)

Dr. James A. Powell, c/o Dr. David Vousden, UNDP/GEF Coastal Zone Management
Unit, Fisheries Dept., P.O. Box 148, Belize City, BELIZE

Blga. Mariuxi Prieto, P.O. Box 09-01-6637, Guayaquil, ECUADOR (fax: 593-4-323029)

D. R. Rioux, 1335 Hemlock St. #4, Chico, CA 95928-6170 USA

Dr. Michel V61y, Tropical Ocean Mammals Services, B.P. 591, Toamasina,


The Sirenews fax number is 1-202-265-7055 (USA).

Printed on recycled paper with soy ink

Read Sirenews on the Internet! Also Florida manatee mortality statistics and other manatee
information. Access the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's web site at www.dep.
state.fl.us and choose "Protected Species Management."

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs